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Hierarchical Network Model

1. Definition  Hierarchical network design involves dividing the network into discrete layers. Each layer provides specific functions that define its role within the overall network.  The typical hierarchical design model is broken up in to three layers : core, distribution, and access. 2. Core Layer  The core layer of is considered the backbone of the network and includes the highend switches and high-speed cables such as fiber cables. This layer of the network does not route traffic at the LAN.  Characteristics : Fast transport and large amount of data, redundancy, high reliability and availability, fault tolerance  Devices : High end routers and switches 3. Distribution Layer  The distribution layer is the isolation point between the network’s access layer and core layers. Distribution layer is used for policy base services, normally having layer-2 switching devices. This layer ensures that packets are properly routed between subnets and VLANs  Characteristics : High forwarding rate, high availability, routing between VLANs, security policies/access control  Devices : Medium size routers and switches 4. Access Layer  The access layer interfaces with end devices, such as PCs, printers, and IP phones, to provide access to the rest of the network. The main purpose of the access layer is to provide a means of connecting devices to the network and controlling which devices are allowed to communicate on the network.  Characteristics : Port security, layer 2 switching, QoS, link aggregation  Devices : Low end routers and switches and end devices (PCs, printers and IP phones)

 Security : Security is improved and easier to manage.  Start at the Access Layer : When you start the equipment selection at the access layer. you can ensure that you accommodate all network devices needing access to the network. .  Bandwidth Aggregation : is the practice of considering the specific bandwidth requirements of each part of the hierarchy. Benefits of Hierarchical Network  Scalability : The modularity of the design of hierarchical networks allows you to replicate design elements as the network grows. 6.  Performance : Link aggregation between levels and high-performance core and distribution level switches allows for near wire speed throughout the network. they are easy to maintain. Redundancy can be provided in a number of ways. Because each instance of the module is consistent.5.  Redundancy : Redundancy at the core and distribution layers ensures path availability in case of any hardware failure in any of the devices on these layers.  Redundancy : is one part of creating a highly available network. Access layer switches can be configured with various port security options  Maintainability : Because hierarchical networks are modular in nature and scale very easily. Properly designed hierarchical networks can achieve near wire speed between all devices. Keeping the network diameter low ensures low and predictable latency between devices. Principles of Hierarchical Network Design  Network Diameter : is the number of devices that a packet has to cross before it reaches its destination. expansion is easy to plan and implement.