IS : 6313 ( Part 4 ) 4991

Indian Standard

( Reaffirmed 2000 1995 1 ( Reaffirmed )

CODE OF PRACTICE FOR ANTI-TERMITE MEASURES IN BUILDINGS
PAR-i
I

CONSTRUCTIONAL

MEASURES

( First Revision )
Fifth Reprint FEBRUARY 199s

UDC

699’878’3 : 595.73 : 69*001’3

0

Copyright 1NDlAN

1982
STANDARDS
SHAH 119002 ZAPAR MAR0

BUREAU
HANAK

OF
BHAVAN. 9 NEW

BAHADUR DELHI

Gr 7

March 1982

IS : 6313 ( Part I ) - 1981

Indian Standard
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR ANTI-TERMITE MEASURES IN BUILDINGS
PART I CONSTRUCTIONAL MEASURES ’

( First Revisiop )
Building Construction Practices Sectional Committee, BDC 13

Chairman
C-4/38, Members &RI SURAJ S. J. BAHA~JR SHXI C. P. MALIK Safdarjung Development Arca New Delhi Repesenting Housing & Urban Development Corporation Limited, New Delhi Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay Indian Institute of Architects, New Delhi Public Works Departmtnt, Government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow

&RI D. R. BATLIVALA SHRI J. R. BHAUA SRRI M. G. BHARQAVA

SHRI R. K. MATHUR ( Alternate ) Public Works Department, Government of Punjab CHIEF EXGINEER ( NORTH ) Public Works Department, Government of Tamil C~rxx ENGINEER ( BL~QS ), PWD, MADRAS Nadu, Madras SUPERINTENDING) ENGINEER ( SPECIAL BUILDING CIRCLE ), PWD, MADURAS ( Alternate ) C~IIEF ENGINEER-CUM-ADDITIONAL Public Works Departmr,nt, Government of SECRETARYTOTHE GOVERNMENT Rajasthan, Jaipur (B&R) EXECUTIVE ENGINEER ( DESIGN & SPECIFICATIO~J ) ( Alternate ) Central Public Works Department, New Delhi CHIEF ENGINEER ( TRAINING ) SUPERINTENDINGSURVEYOR 0F WORKS ( TRAINING ) ( Alternate ) DIRECTOR ( ARCHITECTURE), Railway- Board ( Ministry of Railways ) RDSO, LUCKNOW JOINT DIRECTOR ( ARCHITECTURE ), RDSO, LWCKNOW (_Alternatc )

( Continued on page 2 ) Q Copvright 1982 OF INDIAN STANDARDS

BUREAU

This publication is protected under the Indian Cofiyright Act (XIV of 1957) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permissionnf the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

G. Bombay State Bank of India. Army New Delhi Headquarters. Members SHRI R. DVGQAL (Alternate) Swr1R. D’SA SHRI N.IS : 6313 ( Ifart I ) 4981 ( Continued from page 1 ) Members SHRI H. L. KIJRIEN SHRI G. New Delhi SERI K. New Delhi CentrDaJlhy Research Institute ( CSIR ). N. S. Dehra Dun Life Insurance Corporation of India. Government of Maharashtra. A. VIRMDI ( Alternate ) Sztnr R. S. P. BAJAJ Engineering Subcommittee. MATANQ~ (Alternate ) National Buildings Organization. Z.G. IS1 SHRI S. RANAN. PANDARE DEPUTY CHIEF E N Q I N E E R ( NORTH ) ( Ahnatc ) of Public Enterprises (Ministry of Bureau SIXRI T. PASRICHA (Alternate ) CentgJoruilding Research Institute SHRI R. S. DU~AL BRIM HARISH CEANDRA ( Alternat SHRI T. Bajaj ) ( Continued on page 26 ) 2 . K. New Delhi SHRI H. SHRI M. New Delhi ) Concrete Association of India. K. New Delhi SHRI S. T. S. N. GUPTA ( Alternate to SBRI A. New Delhi SRRI K. S SRINIVASAN DEPUTY DIREOTOR I Alternate ) SHRI STJSHILKVMAR ’ ’ National Buildings Construction Corporation Ltd. SHRI M. Director General. Bombay SHRI M. D.r-&cio Member ) Director ( Civ Engg ) Secretary SHRI S. Bombay SHRI S. C. SEN~UPTA iZssistant Director ( Civ Engg ). TAMBE Timber Convener SHRI A. BDC 13 : 4 Dehra Dun Forest Research Institute & Colleges. KAIMAL ( Alternate ) Gammon India Ltd. KHARB ( Alternate ) Tata Consulting Engineers. SIVASWAMY SRRI H. Bombay SHRI P. SHRI G. SWAMIN~~HAN Public Works & Housing Department. IS1 ( E. Calcutta SHRI B. Kvxaa Institution of Surveyors. R. S. G. New PROF C. K. VENKATESULU New Delhi SRRI PRAFULLA KUXAR ( Alternate ) SHRI G. E. MANUAL ( CSIR ). MAJVYDAR Hindustan Prefab Ltd. Bombay Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch. KOHLI Representing Builders’ Association of India. UNWALLA Ministry of Shipping & Transport ( Roads Wing ). GOXHALE SHRI J. Bombay Institution of Engineers ( India ). SARAN Finance ). JAI SIN~H ( Alternate 1 OFFICER-IN-CHARGIE ‘Forest Research Institute & Colleges.C. R. K.

Wood is one of the cellulosic materials which termites damage. or over 3 . They also damage materials of organic origin with a cellulosic base. leather. stationery. they mainly responsible for the damage caused in buildings. contain a population running into millions.1981 Indian Standard CODE OF PRACTICE FOR ANTI-TERMITE MEASURES IN BUILDINGS PART I CONSTRUCTIONAL MEASURES ( First Revision ) 0. These colonies may persist for many years and.2 Termite control in buildings is very important as the damage likely to be caused by the termites is huge. The wide spread damage by termites. namely. The subterranean termites are most destructive and are Typically. All attacks by subterranean termites originate from the nest but timber either lying on or buried in the ground may be reached by underground foraging galleries from which the attack may spread well above ground level. plastic. form nests or colonies underground in the soil. 0. either inside the wood or by way of mud-walled shelter tubes on the outside. as they mature.suitable piece of timber.IS : 6313 ( Part I ) . neoprene as well as lead coating used for covering of underground cables are damaged by termites. high cost of buildings and increased cost involved in repairs and replacements of portions damaged by termites have necessitated evolving suitable measures for preventing access of termites to buildings.3 On the basis of their habitat. termites are divided into two types. furnishing.1 This Indian Indian Standards by the Building approved by the FOREWORD Standard ( Part I ) ( First Revision ) was adopted by the Institution on 30November 1981. cellulose forming their basic nutrient. 0. Termites are also known to damage non-cellulosic substance in their search for food. household articles like furniture. clothings. after the draft finalized Construction Practices Sectional Committee had been Civil Engineering Division Council. 0. Rubber. etc. near ground level in a stump or other. (a) Subterranean or ground nesting termites and (b) NonSubterranean or wood nesting termites having no contact with so#l (see Appendix A). Timber resting on the materials which termites do not attack may be reached by means of shelter tubes constructed within. and some species may construct a conical or dome-shaped mound.

SCOPE 1. This revision also take into account Amendment NO. 2. the final value. for example. In view of number of comments received and further knowledge that has become available.1 Presence it is proposed of Termites to construct .6 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with. free standing 0. II and III of the standard should be carried out independently in order to provide Part II of the standard lays down complete protection to -a building. in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.1981 or else by the erection of an independent. “Rules for rounding off numerical 4 . The number of significant places retained accordance with IS : 2-1960*. (b) internal preventive methods. shall be rounded off in expressing the result of a test or analysis. observed or calculated. 0. I) . preconstructional chemical treatment measures and Part III treatment for exsisting buildings.IS : 6313 ( Part such materials structure.1 This standard ( Part I ) covers anti-termite constructional for the control of subterranean termites in buildings.wd). 0.The presence of termites in an area where buildings may be recognised by either carrying values ( rcoi. such as providing solid type floor. mechanical in nature. In this standard the details of internal and external antitermite constructional methods have been updated and the sketches supporting the various stages of anti-termite construction have been modified. 1. PRELIMINARY measures CONSTRUC’i’IONAL OPERATIONS 2. the Committee responsible for formulation of this standard decided to revise the same.4 Prevention of possible invasion by the subterranean termites from the ground to the building through external entry or internal attack from under floors should be undertaken by: (a) external preventive-cumdetection methods. and it is recommended that all measures as specified in this part shall be provided together to be most effective. 1 issued to the earlier version of the standard. The constructional measures recommended in this part of the standard for the control of termites are the result of actual scientific investigations but might need modifications The measurers are essentially depending on the local conditions.5 This standard was first published in 1971. It is also recommended that measures specified in Parts I. masonry groove or termite shield or string course and cement concrete apron floor. More information about the behaviour of termites has been added which may help in more careful detection of termites in buildings.

When concrete has not fully hardened all laitance shall be removed by scrubbing the wet surface with wire or bristle brushes. stumps and other organic matters are not accumulated or buried near the foundation or under the floor of the building. the stakes may be taken out and the infestation of termites observed.3 Foundation and Sub-Base of Ground Floor .1. ). 2. 2.Seasoned timber which is naturally durable in heartwood and which is treated to withstand the attack of-subterranean termites. The site shall then begraded so that the drainage is maintained all round the building. If the site is covered by soil rich in decaying matter. The first layer of concrete to be placed on this surface shall not exceed 150 mm in thickness and shall be well rammed against old work. spaced at 1 m centre to centre at the proposed construction site.A number of stakes 50~ 50 mm of timber species which are susceptible to termites. *Code ofpractice for preservation of timber (second r&ion . laid immediately before placing of concrete. 5 . care being taken to avoid dislodgement of particles of aggregates.Every effort shall be made in the construction of foundation SO as to avoid voids.mango.1981 out stake test ( see 2. such as construction of concrete apron around the building. The earth and sand filling around the foundations and in the sub-base should be fully rammed so as to prevent any subsidence in the soil.Drainage around the building site shall be ensured so that water does not stagnate in the vicinity of the building. the top layer of soil ( about 50 to 100 mm ) shall be removed. thoroughly wetted and covered with a 15 mm layer of mortar composed of cement and sand in the same ratio This layer of mortar shall be freshly mixed and as in the concrete mix. should be used in the building structure ( see IS : 401-1967* and IS : 1141-1973t ). etc.2 Measures for Elimination of Moisture .4 Selection of Timber . kail. Care shall be taken to see that all wooden debris. Access of water to the underside of the ground floor shall be prevented through proper constructional measures.1) at the site or by depending upon the experience of the inhabitants of that area. If concreting of sub-base has to be resumed on a surface which has hardened. After a period of 3-4 months. The surface shall be thoroughly wetted and all free water removed and then coated with neat cement grout. such surfaces shall be roughened. 2. should be buried at least 150 mm in the ground. roots. leaves.1 Stake Test . precautions may be taken to prevent crack formation and the joints are sealed.tCode of practice for seasoning of timber (jirsl rwirion). swept clean. 2. particular attention being paid to corners and close spots. Where jointless sub-base is not possible.1. such as chir. The presence -of termites in the area will damage the stakes.IS : 6313 ( Part I) .

garrage pits. etc. *Specification for coal tar pitch (revised ).1.2 Anti-termite constructional measures will only be effective if both external and internal protection are adequately provided. extended under the walls so that the entire plinth area is fully covered without any break.8 should be adopted for protection against subterranean termites originating both internally from within the plinth and externally from the area surrounding the building. the probability of attack by external entry of termites ~from plinth and foundation walls is very little. The details of construction for protection against termites are covered in 4 and 5. Dry brick shall be inserted at least 50 mm in brick masonry for providing apron floor alround the periphery ( see Fig. dead leaves.1 The construction measures specified in 4. the shape of the metal shield shall be properly For internal protection the concrete sub-base shall be maintained. 1). INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ANTI-TERMITE CONSTRUCTIONAL METHODS 4. these joints may be filled with heavy grade coal tar pitch conforming to IS : 216-1961* to minimize the tendency of termites to infiltrate through these joints. the sub-base should be continuous.3 Termites generally do not penetrate masonry or concrete in which there are no voids. To act efficiently as a termite barrier. For external protection. Furthermore. The external protection refers to prevention of termite access on the surrounding area of the building and internal protection refers to access from the soil under the floor area. 4. 4. 6 .1 Earth free from roots. In case of depressed floors like lift wells.1981 CONSIDERATION 3. bathrooms. or other organic matter shall be placed and compacted in successive horizontal layers of loose material not more than 200 mm thick. DESIGN I ) .IS : 6313 ( Part 3.1 to 4. Masonry with lime mortar of mix~leaner than 1 : 3 shall not be used to be in contact with soils where the concrete floor has not been laid. provision of metal shields or masonary grooves around the periphery of the building and cement concrete apron around the building are recommended.1. whereas the probability of internal attack of termites through floors and plinth filling is great.1 In a conventional building not protected by anti-termite measures.1. If the floor construction gives rise to vertical joints between the floor and the plinth masonry. 3. the concrete flooring shall be laid over a layer of coarse sand ( of size larger than 3 mm ) as the sand layer checks the soil moisture rising up. ~3.

Dry brick shall be placed on the inner getting anticipated offset space for coarse sand and installing anti-termite masonry groove. 5 ). 7 . Necessary finish may be provided to the cement concrete sub-floor carpet ( see Fig. 4 ). CONSTRUCTION - STAGE. In case of internal partition walls. 4.3 The dry brick for the anti-termite groove shall be taken out and dense cement concrete 1 : 3 : 6 ( 1 cement : 3 sand : 6 coarse aggregate.1.1. 3 ).1981 FOR APRON FLOOR All dimensions FIG. on edge masonry for ). 1 shall be laid on the side of plinth wall for on the other side for of intermediate walls. 2 4.-IS : 6313 ( Part 1) . 4.1. 6 ). 1 ANTI-TERMITE in millimetrts. In the case dry bricks are placed on either side of the brick getting offset space for coarse sand layer ( see Fig.1.4 Superstructure masonry shall be raised over the dense cement concrete sub-floor carpet and over-head jobs completed ( see Fig. by volume ) sub-floor carpet shall be laid casting the anti-termite groove in position.2 Brick on edge masonry in cement mortar plinth wall.1. the cement concrete suhfloor shall be laid on either side over the dry bricks to sufficient extent for getting staggered vertical joints over the joint of plinth wall and earth filling ( see Fig. 4. 4.5 The dry brick for coarse sand layer shall be removed and graded sand ( of size 3 to 5 mm ) layer at least 100 mm thick shall be compacted over the earth filling and underneath the partially laid dense cement concrete sub-floor carpet ( see Fig.6 Dense cement concrete ( 1 : 3 76 mix ) sub-floor at least 75 mm thick shall be laid over the sand filling.

1981 BRICK CEMENT ON EDGE MORTAR FOR IN DRY BRICK ANTI-TERMITE GROOVE ..2 ANTI-TERMITECONSTRUCTION -STAGE 2 F . 100mm OFFSET ON THE INNER OUTER WALL SAND LAYER PROVIDED SIDE OF /’ / FOR d .' All dimensions in millimetres.IS : 6313 ( Part I ) .: ..-. Fro. .

A7 A FIG.e. 100 : -.’ DE1 AIL All dimensions in millimetrrs.*::.STAGE 3 .‘...MENT 12 mm THICK PLAST ER . 3 ANTI-TERMITE CONSTRUCTION .l-CE.r y.odY BRICK / DENSE CEMENT CONCRETE (1:3:6) CASTING t-US1 I IUN SUBFLOOR ANT-TERMITE CARPET LAID GROOVE IN .:. 68 . .

FIG. 4 ANTI-TERMITE CONSTRUCTION-STAGE 4 IO .ISr6313(Part1)-1981 SUPERSTRUCTURE yJJp WALL All dimensions in millimetra.

STAGE 5 11 . . -_ _-_ . . . :. 5 ANTI-TERMITE CONSTRUCTION .IS : 6313 ( Part I) .1981 DRY BRICKS TAKEN OUT AND 100 mm THICK SAND LAYER LAID AND COMPACTED 7 . - *_ _.~ : VA Fro.

. FIG. .STAGE6 12 .. .. .. 6 ANTI-TERMITE CONSTRUCTION .~ ....1981 COMPLETED 75 mm THICK DENSE CEMENT C ONCREZE SUBFLOOR ..: .. J . .. .IS : 6313 ( Part I) ..

STAGE 7 4. Over concrete 1 : 3 : 6 ( 1 lime: 3 sand : be laid ( see Fig.1) shall be taken out in 1 : 30 slope shall be made.1. 7 ANTI-TERMITECONSTRUCTION .1 to 4. 7 ). 4.3 Figure 10 shows the anti-termite in the case of stone masonry.2 The given in final recommendations incorporating 4. 9.8 Over the 75 mm thick lime concrete bed at least 25 mm thick cement concrete topping 1 : 2 : 4 ( 1 cement : 2 sand : 4 fine aggregate.8 are shown in Fig.1.1.7 Dry brick provided for apron and 600 mm wide formation of earth the formation.1.IS : 6313 ( Part I ) . 75 mm thick lime G-coarse aggregate.1981 4. 8 ). by volume ) shall floor ( see 4. the constructional details 4. constructional details recommended 13 .1. FIG.DRY LIME LAID BRICK TAKEN OUT AND CONCRETE BED (1:3:6) FOR APRON FLOOR All dimensions in millimetres. . by volume ) shall be laid and 12 mm thick cement plaster shall be applied on foundation and plinth (see Pig.

IS : 6313 ( Part I ) ..: 25 mm THICK CONCRETE It: CEMENT 2: 4 1 TOPPtNG _. .‘.. 8 ANTX-TERMITE CONSTRUCTION-STAGE 8 14 .‘_. : _: : _.a. .1981 12mm THICK CEMENT .. E'IG. . . .

FINALRECOMMENDATIONS 15 . FIG.1981 SUPERSTRUCTURE FLOOR 75 mm THICK CEMENT CONCRETE ICK SUBFLOOR ON EDGE 12 mm THICK CEMENT PLASTER LIME CEMENT CONCRETE CONCRETE APRON TOPPING All dimensions in millimctres. 9 ANTI-TERMITE CONSTRUCTION.IS : 6313 ( Part I ) .

10 ANTI-TERMITECONSTRUCTIONIN STONE MASONRY WALL . STONE SUPERSTRUCTURE FLOOR SAND FINISH CEMENT CONCRETE LAYER SUBFLOOR ANTI-TERMITE GROOVE STONE PLINTH WALL EARTH FILLING LIME CONCRETE 10B FIG.1981 BRICK SUPERSTRUCTURE 15mv FLOOR SAND FINISH THICK CEMENT SUBFLOOR CONCRETE LAYER ANTI-TERMITE GROOVE 12 mm THICK CEMENT PLASTER STONE PLINTH WALL !_!ME CONCRETE APRON IOA All dimthons in rnillimetres.lS : 6313 ( Part I ) .

5.om the lower end portion of one of the pieces before soldering the two ends so that the thickness of the free edge remains constant throllghout as specified.Joints in termite shields shall be made by lapping ends at least A piece of 20 x 10 mm shall be 20 mm length\sise and soldering them. frequent maintenance. Frames and Masonry Grooves -The function of termite shields.1 Termite shields may be installed round the periphery of a building where infestation of termite is high. 12 ). 13 ). CAPS AND 5. INSTALLATION FRAMES OF TERMITE SHIELDS.2 Termite Shields 5. effectively.3 At least 50 mm width of termite shield shall be properly embedded in the cement concrete sub-floor with 50 mm horizontal projection on the external side of the wall and further prdjection of 50 mm bent downwards at an angle of 45”.2. *Specification for galvanized steel sheets ( plain or corrugated ) ( third revision ). conveniently us?d for grain storage godowns. 5. 5. etc. frames and masonry grooves is to cause termites to build their entry tunnels in positions where they can be detected during regular or other inspections and so facilitate It is stressed that to give appropriate control measures being taken. are some of the disadvantages for The metal termite shields may be adopting metal shields in residential buildings. 5. caps. Caps.2 Termite shield shall be made out of galvanised steel sheets thickness not more than 0. warehouses. NOTE . Necessary construction arrangements shall be ‘made at the_jvnction of termite shield and groove to ensure that entry of termite 1s prevented ( sc’e Fig.1 Function of Termit? Wields.4 At entrances and doorways. Provision of metal shields For the metal shield to function takes care of external protection only. 17 .2. where installation of termite shield is not practicable anti-termite masonry gr’oove is installed ( see Fig. complete protection.2. of 5.2. It is necessary that the free edge is maintained thin ai termites are capable of negotiating around blunt edges. 11 ). regular and periodical inspections of the barriers are always necessary.The initial high cost of installation. The time interval between inspections should be determined by the local hazards. The 50 mm embedment of terlnite ahield in concrete sub-floor facilitates its easy replacement whenever required (see Fig.2.5 .1981 5.63 mm and conforming to IS: 277-1969*.IS : 6313 ( Part I ) . occasional replacement after installation and also sharp edge of the metal shield projecting out causing injuries to the childrrn playing near by. it is essential that it is installed correctly and the shape of the shield shall be maintained properly which requires periodical inspection after installation. cut off fr.

Frc. . 13 CONSTRUCTION ARRANGEMENT AT THE JUNCTION OF TERMITE SHIELD AND GROOVE 20 .IS : 6313 ( Part I) . .1981 J -i ANTI-TERMITE I I <-ANTI-TERMITE I I ANTI-TERMITE ANTI-TERMITE . M l All dimensions in millimetres.

‘A I I . The projection and turn-over shall be the same as specified for termite shields in general.IS : 6313 ( Part I ) .Termite caps shall be used in the case of basement with support where timber sections occur over them in The termite caps shall be kept at plinth level the case of columns.1981 3. The bottom portion of down-water-pipe should be at least 200 mm away from wall (~ec Fig.--- DOWN WATER PIPE k TERMITE FIG. pipes the termite cap shall be fitted on the pipe in the form of a ring. 14 DETAILS SHOWING TERMITE COLLAR AND TERMITE CAP 21 . 14 and 15 ).3 Installation of Termite Caps . covering the whole of the section in the plinth below providing the necessary projection of 50 mm beyond the outer edge of the column on In case of down-waterall sides and also the turnover of 50 mm width.

IS : 6313 ( Part I ) .LX TERMITE SOLDERED TERMITE / DETAILS \ OF TERMITE CAP WITH ASBESTOS CEMENT DOWN-WATER-PIPE FIG. 15. DETAILS SHOWING TERMITE COLLAR AND TSRMITE CAP 22 .1981 TERMITE COLLAR SOLDERED WITH DOWN-WATER-PIPE GI TERMITE SOLDERED TERMITE CAP WITH COLLAR TERMITE COLLAR \ TERMITE SOLDERED TERMITE CAP WITH COLLAR DETAILS OF TERMITE CAP WITH GI DOWN+ATER-PIPE TERMITE COLLAR CAP ASBESTOS WATER-PIPE C TERMITE IRON CLIP TO COLLAR TERMITE TERMITE COLLAR IRON CLIP CAD WITH CC1.

they are not related to ants.4.Termite frames are shaped out of metal sheet and are used to cover all the sides of an opening. Termite frames shall have its edges projecting and bent as in the case of termite shields. both pairs are equal. to serve as an external barrier against termite entry. These covered tunnels provide humidity conditions thus preventing desiccation and protection against predators. the joint shall be shall be joint to 5. termites A-l. they are commonly called white ants.1 Termites a) Subterranean or ground nesting soil and live in them. A-l.1981 of Termite Frames . under the foundation. termites can be divided into two well A-l. CLASSIFICATION NOTE A ON TERMITES constitute a separate order of insects called ‘Iseptora’ ( ises is ‘equal’ and pteron means ‘wing’ in Greek). working their way 23 .3 ) A SMORT A-l.4 Installation APPENDIX ( Clause 0. There are over 2 300 species of termites of which about 220 are found in India. Although. The subterranean termites enter a building from ground level.3 Subterranean termites require moisture to sustain their life.IS : 6313 ( Part I ) . 5. They shall project 50 mm beyond all sides of the ventilator and shall also have the turn-over of 50 mm. They build tunnels between their nest and source of food through covered runways. Similarly termite caps fitted to pipes tight fit on the pipe and coal tar pitch shall be applied at the close any gaps between the pipe and the cap.2 According defined groups: to their habits. The front pair of wings of the ants’ are longer than their hind pair whereas in termites. and termites which build nests in the which live in wood b) Non-subterranean or wood nesting with no contact with soil. They normally need access to ground at all times.1 Where holding down bolts pass through termite shields between the bolt and shield shall be sung fit and coal tar pitch used to seal the joint. Termite frames shall be provided in the case of honey-combed wall openings or other ventilators in walls of basements. All these species are not considered to be serious pests. darkness necessary for their movement and for maintaiuing contact with earth.

.

.

they start spreading slowly from a central nest through underground and overground galleries in the case of subterranean termites. One of the habits of the termites which is of interest is the trophallaxis by means of which ~food and other material remain in circulation among different members of the colony. the colony will not be destroyed. the so-called king and queen and a large number of sterile workers. Drywood termites which~predominate are able to live even in fairly drywood and with no contact with soil. the flying adults. the queen is lost or destroyed. A-l. have brown or black bodies and are provided with two pairs of long wings of almost equal size in contrast to the repioductives of ants which have two pairs of wings of unequal size. the workers feed the reproductives.6 The food of the termite is cellulosic {materials like timber. thus by removing the queen. pests. instead the frontal part of the head is prolonged to form a long nasus. these termite operations that sometimes the structural is found to be merely a shell with the inside completely away. stumps of dead trees. A-l. her place is taken by a number of supplementary reproductives in some group of termites. However. if not speedily exterminated. other types of soldiers whose mandibles are small. The soldiers are generally darker than the workers and have a large head and longer mandibles. Workers are also in the habit of licking the secretions of exudating glands of the physogastric queen. In their search for food they by pass any obstacle like concrete or resistant timber to get a suitable food many metres away. door and window frames. droppings of herbivorous animals. grass. destroying all before them. There are. If however.7 In subterranean termite colony. winged adults and young nymphs. The reproductives. Once termites have found a suitable foot hold in or near a building. and nymphs. So little is seen of member attacked riddled and eaten A-l. degenerated and functionless.4 The wood nesting species comprise drywood and dampwood termites. Guarding the colony is the work of the soldiers. they are not as prevalent and common as subterranean termites. All the work of the colony is carried out by the workers. The adult workers and soldiers are wingless.5 A termite colony consists of a pair of reproductives. 24 . and galleries within the structural member. etc. soldiers. The workers are generally greyish white in colour.1981 upwards through floors. which they destroy. however. These frequently construct nests within large dimensional timbers. etc. and are generally confined to coastal regions and interior of eastern India. soldiers. A-l. such as rafters.IS : 6313 ( Part I ) . they dispel the enemy by squirting out of white poisonous fluid through the nasus. once they get direct access to them in the case of drywood termites. paper. that is.

1 Swarms of winged reproductives flying from the soil or wood are Often the actual the first indication of termite infestation in a building. DEVELOPMENT A-2.1981 A-2. may take place any time during the monsoon or post-monsoon period. Although a colony may increase in size comparatively rapidly. since they do not reduce wood to a powdery mass or push particles like some of the wood borers or drywood termites. very little damage may occur in a period less than 8 to 10 years.2 Drywood termites on the contrary may be recognised by their pellets of excreta. These may be found in tunnels or on the floor underneath These termites may further be the member which they have attacked. increases rapidly after 2 to 3 years. The flight is short and The surviving most of the adults perish due to one reason or the other. The first batch of the brood comprises only of workers. noticed by blisters on wood surfaces due to their forming chambers close to the surface by eating away the wood and leaving only a thin film of wood on the surface. termites soon find their mates. RECOGNIZING INFESTATION THE PRESENCE IN BUILDINGS OF TERMI-I’E A-3. The female of the pair or queen produces a few eggs in the first year. Any serious damage that may occur in a short time is perhaps due to heavy infestation in the initial stages due to large population of termites existing in the soil before the building is constructed. A-3. The rate of reproduction. occurs. Also the hollow sound on tapping structural timber will indicate their destructive activity inside. emergence of winged adults on co!onising flights. A-3. 25 . These termites are also recognised by the presence of earth-like shelter tubes which afford them the runways between soil and their food.1 At certain OF TERMITE COLONY periods of the year. flight may not be observed but the presence of wings discarded by them will be a positive indication of a well established termite colony nearby. Termite damage is not always evident from the exterior in the case of subterranean termites. particularly after a few warm days followed by rain. This swarming. however. also called the nuptial flight. Non-subterranean termites excrete pellets of partly digested wood.IS : 6313 ( Part 1) . shed their wings and establish a coIony if circumstances are favourable.

RAO ( Alterrrate ) SIJPRILINTENDINQ SURVEYOR OF wonr.n. Kwv Delhi Institution Pest Control of Surveyors. (Architecof Central Public Works Department tural Wing ). Luc KNOW ( Dn H. Ktt4xzn ( Altrrnate ) Smtr M. PASI:I’ 11. Gaul Srrnr K. Board ( Ministry of Railways ) Research Institute. R.IS : 6313 ( Part I ) . of ( C&S ). S.1981 Represmtiy Central Building Roorkee Dsp~lr D11tXXoll Drl:r:~~~ro~ ST. Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi (Ministry ( India ) Pvt Ltd. New Delhi ) Hindustan National Buildings Organization.~: Sam H. S. S.o ( . K.s ( cz ) SURVEYOR OF Wol~xa (CZ) of Standardization Directorate Defence ). K.x>lEhSH DH C.+.R. New Delhi Engineer-in-Chief’s New Delhi Army Headquarters. New Delhi Public Works Department. Ma~r:r.~NI>AI< I)S Railway Research Institute ( CSIR ). Branch. Bombay Prefab Ltd. S... IIDSO. Lar. PANSSE ( :Ilterti& j 1'. R~JIISIXG~I~XI MAJ V. s. Kor~ttii\t: SJIRI T.-ll/crnak) SI~RI P.Iller/tczte) Sfinr G.r illt~rnale ) lndian Plywood Bangalore Industries SJIRI SHI~I R. A. R. D.4 ( /lItrr!inte Dn R. ( .r. N. Bhopal E No I NE I R SUPERINTENDING ( PLaNNINo ) PWD-( B&R ) (Alternate) Government . RATRA Snxr A. N. Dw~vl::. Jh3.

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