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Rev Date01-04-2011


BSNL, India

For internal circulation only

Page : 1

Very Inverse relays c. With the plug in the first position (0. 75%. Extremely Inverse relays BSNL. the relay automatically defaults to the 2. only a quarter of the coil is utilised and hence four times more current is required to operate the relay. The effect of plug setting The plug setting (p. The effect of Time Multiplier (TM) setting The TM (time multiplier) setting of the relay adjusts the "backstop" of the rotating disc.150%. Relay Characteristics a. the backstop is as far back as it can go (180).125%.e. The IDMT relay works on the induction principle. India For internal circulation only Page : 2 .i.5). and 2. where a aluminium or copper disc rotates between the poles of an electromagnet and a damping magnet. Should the plug be removed altogether.75. If the time multiplier is set to zero then the backstop is positioned so that the contacts are permanently closed. and the disc has to move through its maximum travel in order to operate the contacts. In the seventh position (2. the whole of the coil is utilised.0 (or 50%. 3. 1.25. 1. Normal Inverse i. the greater the plug setting. 100%. 1. which are brought to the front panel and the required tap is selected by a push-in plug. The seven plug positions are marked 0. The disc rotates to a point where it operates a pair of contacts that break the circuit and remove the fault condition. The winding of the coil is provided with seven taps. The time of operation is proportional to the distance through which the disc must rotate in order to operate the contacts. 1.0).5. 1. The effect of altering the plug setting is that for a given current. the longer the time of operation .175%. the longer the time of operation. 0.0 ii. 3.i.E1-E2/Electrical Rev Date01-04-2011 Relay Testing Inverse definite minimum type relay (IDMT):IDMT operation.3 sec. The effect of altering the time multiplier setting is that for a given current.e. With the time multiplier set to one. the greater the time multiplier setting.5.) of the relay changes the number of turns in the exciting coil.0 sec relays . at 10 times pickup b.200%). 1.s.0 sec. and the relay is most sensitive. The fluxes induce eddy currents in the disc which interact and produce rotational torque.75.3 sec relays .0 or 200% setting. at ten times pickup with TMS of 1.

It is basically simple and inexpensive 2.0. O/C relay Pickup setting = I max. the load current is not a factor in the selection of pickup settings and is normally set at 20% of rated current. Pick-up Setting For coordination of the inverse time O/C relays.3 to 0. Gradations between successive relays are obtained by ‘Selective time interval’ which is usually set between 0. Time dial settings are to be chosen by having proper coordination and gradation in the system. For the E/F relay. India For internal circulation only Page : 3 . Also can be obtained by the formulae: - BSNL. The operating time of various types of IDMT relays are in the sketches. 3. It is possible to use a set of two O/C relays for protection against inter-phase faults and a separate O/C relay for ground faults. Time Settings The actual operating time of the O/C & E/F relays can be varied by proper selection of the ‘Time Dial Setting’ which is selectable from 0.1 to 1. Very often the relays do not need to be directional and hence no PT supply is required.E1-E2/Electrical Rev Date01-04-2011 O/C relaying is very well suited to distribution system protection for the following reasons:1. load E/F Relay Pickup setting = 20% of rated current. the pickup current and time dial setting are to be choosen. keeping in view of maximum full load current. The pickup of the relays must be choosen such that it will operate for all short circuits in its own line and provide backup for adjoining lines.4 Sec.

India For internal circulation only Page : 4 .E1-E2/Electrical Rev Date01-04-2011 BSNL.

The protective devices installed vary from circuit to circuit depending on the protection needs and philosphy but typical relays/devices include overload. differential protection.E1-E2/Electrical Rev Date01-04-2011 Relay Testing Primary and secondary current injection tests are normally conducted to check the operation of breaker and their protective relays/devices. reverse power. etc. over current. Primary Injection Test Primary injection testing normally involves injecting the actual current required to operate a protective device power through the circuit breaker. Primary injection testing normally requires specialist injection sets/test rigs and measurement BSNL. earth fault. India For internal circulation only Page : 5 .

If this test is carried out after C. primary injection testing is only conducted by specialists .T. The magnitude of current injected is generally not considered important so long as it is above the minimum operating current determined by the protection relay settings. The testing equipment consists of a loading (injection) transformer.Ts but also the correctness of the entire C. The current is passed through the breaker or busbar section as appropriate. In many cases. Ratio Test (b) Primary Injection Test BSNL. This test is also carried out to ensure the C.T secondary wiring comprising protection and metering portions.T ratio of current transformers.E1-E2/Electrical Rev Date01-04-2011 equipment (particularly for high power and MV and above) and can be extremely arduous where the circuit breaker interrupts large currents. shortening its life or requiring repair after. India For internal circulation only Page : 6 . The PI test is usually performed by injecting a current at low volatage (say 5 -10 V) from a purpose built transformer with high current capable secondary winding.Testing and research of this form is certainly carried out by circuit breaker manufacturers.T secondary wiring is completed it ensures not only the correct ratio of C. controlled by a variable transformer to get the required current on the primary side of the C.T under test. (a) C.

E1-E2/Electrical Rev Date01-04-2011 For carrying out the ratio test on C. Secondary Injection Test Secondary injection testing is normally different to primary injection testing because it is normally conducted when the circuit breaker is closed but is not carrying any current throught its main poles. Secondary injection tests are performed by injecting currents into the relay terminals to determine that the relay is operating correctly and in accordance with its settings. The purpose of PI test can be summarized as : 1) to ensure wiring connection of protection system is correct 2) to check CT ratios and polarities 3) to check Overcurrent relays and Earth Fault relays are set to correct setting 4) to check Direct Acting Tripping element of the main MCCB.T and C. Hence it is often the last test perfomed in the commissioning process. The ratio of the C.T can be determined by comparing the currents in ammeters A1 and A2. The test is performed after secondary injection tests and CT ratio tests and when all the secondary test links are closed and ready for service. These tests include injecting currents of various magnitudes from minimum operating current all the way up to 10 BSNL. India For internal circulation only Page : 7 .T under test.Ts. Thus Primary injection is carried out as a test to determine the integrity of the whole secondary protection circuit including CTs. In other words it proves that the CB trips in response to an over current. CT leads and control cubicle wiring. Current is passed through the primary windings of the standard C.

A low voltage battery is used to energise the primary windings through a single pole push button. In other words. The figure shows the test unit for this. It is recommended that the secondaries of all current transformers be kept short-circuited at all times when not installed in a circuit such as being held in stock or being transported. Extreme care should be taken to avoid breaking the secondary circuit while primary current is flowing. disconnecting of CT can also lead to potential danger. A perceived disadvantage of secondary injection testing is that the actual operation of the 'whole' system is not tested but this may be compensated by the fact that the circuit breaker has operated without having to interrupt a large current and the circuit breaker type has tested and rated by its manufacturer. the ammeter should give a positive flick. This generally involves disconnection of the protective device from it's normal CT and connection to a specialist test set that can inject and measure/record the required operating signal directly into the protective device relay to cause it to operate the circuit breaker. If the secondary is open-circuited the primary current raises core flux density to saturation and induces a high voltage in the secondary which can endanger human life. However. secondary injection testing is also often conducted by specialists.E1-E2/Electrical Rev Date01-04-2011 or 20 times minimum operating current and measuring the relay operating time. including significant knowledge of the actual protection scheme and philosophy. with above C. India For internal circulation only Page : 8 .T Warning ! : Open-Secondary Circuits Secondary circuits of CT's must not be open while primary current flows. permanent magnet centre zero type instrument. BSNL. specialist equipment and knowledge is still required. C. the secondary terminals must be short-circuited while the change is being made. indicating correct polarity of the C. The advantage of secondary injection testing is that the circuit breaker does not have to interrupt large current and only low voltage signals are injected to operate the device. moving coil.T ammeter markings.T Polarity Test Each current transformer should be individually tested to verify that the polarity markings on the primary and secondary windings are correct. Furthermore. If it is necessary to change secondary conditions while primary current is flowing. For this reason. and can damage connected apparatus and leads. The ammemeter ‘A’ is a robust. On closing the push-button. it is not something that is jumped into without significant experience and knowledge.