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izdkf’kr
l-~¬n ¬(lr·(| ¤¬·-|
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:¤r=-: ¬t = +¤r =rr¬r +¤r ¤r¤r°
·ia ¬·(º ¬-i¬
(¬·(”irº +
ishvani@yahoo.in
vandeishwaram.blogspot .com
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l-~¬n ¬(lr·(| ¤¬·-|
-ir~¬i ¬in ª·¬|
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blogs: islaminhindi.blogspot.com antimawtar.blogspot.com
Published
2
Hkwfedk
s==r= +r zr=ar = +t ¤r z ·rars +r zr=ar s 1 ¤s
zr=ar t=+ s-st +r ==t+ sr ar s ¬r ·r¤ ¤r z :’r =
(Philosophy) ¤ ¤-az ¬r== +t + tz z=ra s 1 ·r¤
s ’«z zrzr t=·rr tza sr ar s ¬r ¤¸ aa· = +·rt +:aar s ¤r z
= st +·rt +:ar ¬r =+ar s ¤a+·ar s== se= «rar
¤¤= t«=r’r +r -¤r ar : + ear s ¤r z ¬+ ¤s se=r
·¤t+aoa = sr +z =r¤¸ ts+ sr ar t+z t«=r’r +t ·¤r¤+ar
·rt +e ¬rat s 1
:’r = s==r=t t:¤ro +t s¤¬ sr a s 1 =¤¤ +
=r·r ¤ +=a ¤r z +:aa zsa s 1 ·r¤ =·¤ sr ar s ¬+t+
:’r = s==r= +t +-¤=r ¤z ¤r·rrtza sr a s 1 ¬ = =·¤ +r
t«+-¤ +-¤=r =st sr ar s 1 º = st ·r¤ +t ¬os :’r = +·rt
=st a =+ar1 ·r¤ +t ¬os :’r = +r : =r ·r¤ = =r¤¸ ts+
=¤ = se=r s t¬=+r ¤tzªrr¤ +·rt ‘r ·r =st sr =+ar1
·rrza º+ ·r¤ ¤ ·rr= : ’r s 1 =¤¤ + =r·r =¤
:’r = ¤=¤ ¤r z +s a = t«+rz ·rt ¬-¤ 1 = ·rrz+r = s-s = ·
rrz= +r ¤ ¤r= ·rt t+¤r1 ar=rr o =¤r + s¬ rzr =ra +
¤ ¤r= + +r«¬ ¸ : ·rrza +t ¤s ·r¸ t¤ ¤r¬ a+ ¬ ¤ ¤r¤ ¤r z
¤-¤r¤ = ¤t«> = sr =+t1 +rzªr ¤ ·¤ + = ·rrz+ =
t¤ca :’r = +t ¬os ¤¤= :’r = +r ¤ tat”ea +z= +r
¤ ¤r= t+¤r ·r¤ +r =st 1 =«r¤t :¤r=-: ¬t ·rt º = st º+
= ·rrz+ ·r 1
t¬= ·r¸ t¤ + ¤-=-¬a = s¤rzt ¤z«tz’r
s s ¤r z t¬= =¤r¬ = s¤¤z s¤+rz t+¤r s=+r tsa
¤rs=r s¤rzr ¤sar +a ·¤ s 1 ¤r=«ar +r ¤srt«=r’r =
+¤r= + s: : ’¤ = st ¤s ¤ =a+ ta=rt os s 1 ¬os-¬os
t¤a= «ra :¤r=-:t + ·r ¤r + +ar « = ·rt s= ¤ =a+ +t
¬ =za +r ¤s=r= t:ar¤r ¤r z =«¤ =«r¤t ¬t +r ¤ro s
·rt ·rr-
s= +r : =r t:=rar + ¤ z n¤ +r =+a +z 1
¤r z s=t ¤ +rz ¤tr¤ra = +z+ =·¤r·r +r ¤ +r’r +z+
¤ m «r =+ ¤sr’r¤r +r ¤ =¤ +·a ·¤ +r¤ s 1``
(·r¸ t¤+r =·¤r·r ¤ +r’r ¤‘“e-s) (·r¸ t¤+r =·¤r·r ¤ +r’r ¤‘“e-s) (·r¸ t¤+r =·¤r·r ¤ +r’r ¤‘“e-s) (·r¸ t¤+r =·¤r·r ¤ +r’r ¤‘“e-s) (·r¸ t¤+r =·¤r·r ¤ +r’r ¤‘“e-s)
=r ¤ = ¤¤=r +·a ·¤ ¤¸ zr t+¤r1 ¤+ t¬ -¤ :rzt
¤r¤ +t s 1 ¤r¤+r + =ar +s a ¤s¤ s 1 ¤¤=r ‘r ·r-¤’r ·r
¤+ =«¤ ¤r¤+ sr·r s 1
t«=ta
sr e ¤=«z ¬¤ra
+a-:’rsz
ishvani@yahoo.in
vandeishwaram.blogspot .com
t:=r+ - t:=r+ - t:=r+ - t:=r+ - t:=r + - + z«rz zs ¬ ars zees
nr«ªr ¤”e¤t tzat¤r = e zecc
7 8
i qL r d e sa ; g i `” B 3 g S]
3
¤ +r = s ¸ ° ¤r z ¤ m +¤r +z=r ¤rts¤ °
º+ s-r=r= ¬+ sr ’r = ·rraar s ar +s a = ¤ ’= s=+
¤= +r + ¤ = +za s 1 ¬+ «s s= = t”e ¤z =¬ z sraar s ¤r z
¤ s -¤r ·rr ¬t«-¬-a ¤r + =ar ¤r z ¤r =¤r +r ·rzat +t
= :zar ¤r z ¤ atztr +t t«’rraar +r =¸ ¤ = a +z ¤z¤rªr
a+ +r s=+t = z¤=r = a a= ¤r z s¤¤r toar +r : =rar s
ar =s¬ st + c ¤ ’= ¤ :r sr a s t+ ¤s =+ + c =r : = s ¤r
s=+r +r s +=r= «rar ¤r z ¤ar= «rar s ° ¤oz ¤s =+ + c
=r : = st s ar sa=r = a a= ¤r z t=¤¤+zar sa=t ·¤«=·rr
¤r z s¤¤r toar s= + tz ¤r z ¤ a=r = = rrat t=¬t « ¤:r·rr ¤
¤rs + = ° ¤r z ¤oz + = ·rt s·a + r+ = ¤r os ar t+z
t=z-az +=t s s + = s ° ¤r z ¤oz º =r =st s +t-+ t+=t
nr=«r= s=at` = s= = t”e +t z¤=r +t s ar s== º =r t+=
s: : ’¤ = t+¤r s ° s== ¤= ”¤ +r +¤r ¤ :r t+¤r° ¤r z «s
s== +¤r ¤rsar s ° «s +r = =r ¤ro s t¬=+ zrzr ¤= ”¤
¤¤=t ¤ :rs’r + s: : ’¤ +r ¤r= ¤ =+a sr =+ar s ° ¤rt:
¤rt:1
s= =«rar +r ¬«r+ + «a nr= zrzr +t = ·r« s 1 ¤r z
nr= + taº nr=t +t º+ o = +t ¬ =za s 1 nr= : = «rar
º+ o = «r=a« ¤ ¬ ¤t= ¤r z ¤r=¤r= + =rz =r¬ r=r = ·rt
+e +z s +¤r t+ + «a s=t + zrzr ¤ =”¤ ¤¤= ¬t«= +r
«r=at«+ at¤` ¤r z s= ¤r= +r ¤ro ` ¬r= =+ar s ¤r z
¤¤= at¤ +r ¤r+z ¤¤=r ¬-¤ =+a +=r =+ar s 1 s= azs
º+ =·¤ ¤r z nr=t o = +t aar’r sz + ¤= ”¤ +t + t=¤r:t
¤r z =+= +s t ¬ =za s 1 a t+= ¬ =r t+ s= : t=¤r +r
+ r¤:r s t+ sz ¤=at ¤t¬ +t =+ a ·rt ¤sr ¤r ¬¸ : s s=taº
¬+ +r s ¤= ”¤ o = +t =rr ¬ ¤ t=+aar s ar s= º = +s a
= =+ at o = t¤aa s t¬-s =r at ¤r =rr = =¬ z ¤r= «rat
¤t¬ r +t ·rt =st ¬r=+rzt =st sr at a t+= s ’«z ¤r z ¤r·¤r
¬ =t s+ t+ ar + +rz ¤ ¤¤= ¤= ¤r= +r nr= +ar+z ar or
+r ·re+r : a s 1
º = st ¤ ’=r + ¬«r+ ¤r= + taº +ra+ ¤¸ a’r +z =
¤¤=r ·rz cr s r ¤r z º+ º = =·¤ ¤r ot o = +t =rr ¬ ‘r = +t
¬r s= =·¤ t’r«` + :’r = +zr =+ 1 s=t =rr ¬ ¤ «s
’r z¤ a-¤` ¤r z t+z :¤r=-:` += o¤ a t+= s-s º =r +r s
¤r ot o = =st t¤a ¤r¤r ¬r s-s =·¤ t’r«` + :’r = +zr : ar1
a+ s-sr = =«r¤t t+z¬r=-: ¬t = ·rr s =¤¤ « :r +r ¬r== -=¤m=
+r ¤ ¤r= t+¤r1 s= :r zr= s-sr = ts-:¸ =¤r¬ ¤ ¤ ·¤ + =az
¤z ·¤r-a ¤r=rªs ·r ”er¤rz ¤r z ¤=r¤rz +r =r : ¤¤=t ¤r =rr
= : =rr 1 a+ s-sr = ¤¤=t =r¤·¤ ·rz s=+ = ·rrz +r +ts r
ser= +r t=’¤¤ t+¤r1 :¤r=-: ¬t «r=a« ¤ ¤¤= t=’¤¤ +
¤++ ¤r z +s ¬t«e + =«r¤t ·r 1 s-sr = ¤¤= ¤·¤¤= +
¤ art++ ¤¤=r º+ : t”e+r ªr +=r¤r ¤r z t+z s=t : t”e+r ªr +
¤ art++ ar or +r s¤: ’r t:¤r ¤r z +s a =r =rts·¤ z¤r1 ¤s
=rts·¤ ¤r¬ ·rt s¤rz taº s¤a-·r s 1
+¤r :¤r=-: ¬t +r ¤r¤zªr s=+ :’r= + ¤=+¸a +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t +r ¤r¤zªr s=+ :’r= + ¤=+¸a +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t +r ¤r¤zªr s=+ :’r= + ¤=+¸a +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t +r ¤r¤zªr s=+ :’r= + ¤=+¸a +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t +r ¤r¤zªr s=+ :’r= + ¤=+¸a
·rr° ·rr° ·rr° ·rr° ·rr°
=«r¤t ¬t +t ¤r-¤arº =st s ¤r oaa° ¤r z «s
= =rz +r ¤ t+a` t:ar= + ¤¤= s: : ’¤ ¤ =+a zs ¤r
¤=+a° ¤r z ¤s t+ +¤r «r=a« ¤ s-s =·¤ +r +r ·r ¤ r-a
·rr° ¤rt: +ra ¬r== + taº =«¤ s=+ ¤rr«r= ¤z s=+
=rts·¤ +r ¤·¤¤= +z=r ¬ =zt s 1 =·¤rs ¬r== + taº
s=+ ¬t«= +r =«¤ s=+t st ¤r-¤ar¤r +t +=r et ¤z ¤z=r
a =r +r+ t s +¤r t+ =·¤r nr=t «st sr ar s ¬r = + «a :¸ =zr
+r s¤: ’r : +t-+ =«¤ ·rt s= ¤z ¤¤a +z 1
:¤r=-: ¬t ¤r=a ·r t+ ¤¤zr·rt +r tr¤r +z=r ¤¤zr·
r +r +e r«r : =r s -+¤r s ’«z ¤¤= ·r+ar + ¤r¤ tr¤r +zar
s °` s=+ s·az ¤ « +sa s -
=st 1 +¤r t+ ¬r ¤r¤ tr¤r +z ar s=+r -¤r¤ =”e sr
¬r¤ ¤r z =+ ¤= ”¤ ¤sr¤r¤t sr ¬r¤ 1 +¤r t+ tr¤r +t +ra = =
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4
st + s=+r ¤r¤ +z= ¤ t=·r ¤ar ¤r z s·=rs sr ¬r¤ 1 ¬ =
zr¬r ¤¤zrt·r¤r + ¤¤zr·r tr¤r +z : ar « s·=rs¤¸ « + ¤t·
r+-¤t·r+ +s -+s ¤r¤ +z 1 +¤r t+ zr¬r ¤¤=r ¤¤zr·r tr¤r
+z : or ¤r z s=+r ·rt ·rzr =r sr ¬rº t+ zr¬r = s¤ sr·r
¬r s = ¤rt: ¤ ”er +z ¤¤= ¤¤zr·r c s r a o ¤r z ¬r ¤¤zr·
r =st +za « ·rt ¤¤zr·r +z= = = sz +z ¤r¤ +z= ¤ ¤ « ·a
sr ¬r¤ o 1 s=taº =+ +¤r +r +a ¤·rr«a : =r st s ’«z +r
+r¤ s tr¤r +z=r =st 1
( =· ¤r · r ¤ +r ’r
=-a¤e ¤”e )z.)
-¤r¤ ¤r z :¤r +r =r¤ ¤r> st ·r : s +¤r t+ ¬r
-¤r¤ = ¤ ¤r ¬= t=z sr ar s «st :¤r = ...... +¤r t+ t¬==
¬ =r t¬a=r + zr +¤ t+¤r sr s=+r sa=r « =r st :ªs : =r
¤rts¤ s=t +r =r¤ -¤r¤ s 1 ¤r z ¬r ¤¤zr·rt +r :ªs =
t:¤r ¬rº ar :¤r +r =r’r sr ¬rº +¤r t+ º+ ¤¤zr·rt sr+¸
+r cr s : = = =s=>r ·r¤r ·¤r ¤ =”rr +r : =r : =r s 1 ¬+ º+
+ cr s = ¤ =s=>r ¤ =”¤r +r : =r ¤ r-a sr ar s «s :¤r t+=
¤ +rz +r =+at s ° (=·¤r·r ¤ +r’r
=-a¤e ¤”e ))a)
¤+ :¤r=-:¬t + s¤zr +a :’r = + ¤r·rrz ¤z =«¤
s=+ ¤r¤zªr +r ¤z=r +z : t=r¤ t+ :¤r ¤r z -¤r¤ +r ¬r
t=zr-a s-sr = s ’«z zr¬r ¤r z ·rrt¤ + ¬=r + taº ¤ =a a
t+¤r s =«¤ s= ¤z t+a=r ¤aa ·r °
=«r¤t ¬t +r ¤ar ao o¤r t+ ¬o-=r·r = ¤s +r¤
t+¤r s 1 s-sr = s== +sr - º¬o-=r·r a ¤= ¤ m t«”r : +z
¤·cr =st t+¤r1 ¤ zr « :·rr”¤ +r¤ ¤·r¸ zr zs o¤r1 = =rz +
tsa +r a ¤= ·rrzt srt= ¤s ¤rs s 1 sr =+ar s t«·rrar + t«·
rr= ¤ ¤st sr 1 ¤ =¤º z=r ar 1 a -srz +r¤ ¤rº o 1 ¤sr =
= ¤ra ¤a ¬r¤r +¤r t+ ¤sr a ¤ ¤+s ¬r¤r o 1 ¤ z ·r+a a -s
cr s o =st ¯1 (¤o¤«a+e ¤”e
)s))
:¤r=-: ¬t zrzr ¤¤= ¤¤zr·rt +r tr¤r +z : = +t
¤s ¤sat ·re=r =st s +t-+ ¤=to=a ¤r +r ¤z s-sr = ¤¤=
=ar= «rar ¤r z s·¤r +r ¤ ¤r= +z= «rar +r tr¤r t+¤r s 1
+= = rr+r: ¤ ¤r¤ =¤r¬ + º+ =·rr=: +t + c : ”er
= t¤ers +z :t1 ar or = =+r e ¤sr :¤ = s= :ªs t:ar¤r 1
¤z =«r¤t¬t +r =t¤+z = aor1 s-sr = =+r e ¤sr :¤ a·rr
=·rr=:r = +sr - º¤r e ¤s ¤r= «ra +r s= azs :tªsa
+z=r ¤r¤+t ¤¤r :r + t=rar+ s 1 ¤sr·¤r t+=t +r ¤ts r =st
: a ¤t¤a :¸ =zr +t ¤ts r sza s 1¯
(¤ o¤ «a +e ¤ ”e
)ae)
=-«a )sz= ¤ ·rt =«r¤t¬t +r º+ + r¬ªr = ¤r= ¤
¬sz t=rar t:¤r ·rr1 +a ·¤t=”e as=ta:rz =ª¤: ¤ s-¤: =
¤¤zr·rt +r toz¤arz +z+ =«r¤t ¬t + ¤ro ar =rs r t+¤r
ar « +r a -
ºas=ta:rz =rs+ ¤ ¤r¤+ +a ·¤t=”er = ¤·¤-a
¤ ·rrt«a s ¸ 1 a t+= ¤r¤ s= cr s : 1 +rzªr ¤ = =rz +r + :
+zr= =st ¤t¤a ¤ +a +zr= ¤r¤r s¸ 1 ¤t: : ”e ¤¤=t : ”ear
=st cr s ar ar s¤ =-¤r=t ¤¤=t s:rzar + = cr s =+a s 1¯
(¤ o¤ «a + ¤st”r :¤r=-: ¤ ”e
=s)
()) s= ¤ +rz ¤¤zrt·r¤r +r tr¤r +z=r ¤r z :ªs = c s «r=r
+¤r =«¤ ¤¤=t :r’r t=+ ¤r-¤ar +r =rªs= +z=r =st s °
(z) +¤r =+r e ¤sr :¤ « as=ta:rz ¤rt: : ”er +r :ªs : =
«rar = : ”er +r cr s = +t t=+rtz’r +z=r s=+r zr¬·r¤ +
¤ra= +z= = zr +=r =st s 1 t¬=+t «¬s = : ”er +r s·=rs
+e r sr or ¤r z « ¤t·r+ ¤r¤ +z= ¤ ¤ « ·a s º sr o °
(a) +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t = -¤r¤ ¤r z :¤r +r =”e =st +z t:¤r°
(=) +¤r s= ¤r¤ +¤ +t « tz +r +r m :¤r=-: ¬t ¤z =st
¬rºor °
(s) +¤r s= +ra +t = ·rr«=r =st s t+ s=t ¤ +rz + ¤r¤zªr
11 12
5
+r : =r+z ¬o-=r·r ¤r¤+ = =r ¤r sr or t+ ¤·«a ar ¤ ¤+s r
=st ¬r= or ¤r z ¤t: ¤+s r ·rt o¤r ar +r = =r =«r¤t ¬t :ªs
t:ara s ºsr·r ¬r s = ¤rt: ¤ ”er¯ +z+ +¤ ¬r= or ¤r z
=«r¤t ¬t +t tr¤r +z= +t s=t ¤r:a = s= s·¤rz +r s·=rs
+e r¤r sr °
(c) :¤r=-: ¬t = ¤¤=t :r’r t=+ ¤r-¤ar + t«¤zta ¬r+z
¤¤= s·¤rz +r +¤r tr¤r +z t:¤r°
(.) +¤r ¤¤= ¤r¤zªr = s-sr = ¤¤= t«¤rzr +r t=z·r + ¤r z
¤s·«st= t=z =st +z t:¤r°
(a) = =rz + tsa +r ·rrzt srt= ¤s ¤r= «ra ` : ”e s·¤rz +r
tr¤r +z= +r ¤t·r+rz ar =«¤ = =rz +r ·rt =st s +t-+
¤s ¤t·r+rz ar :¤r=-: ¬t s ’«z + taº ·rt =«t+rz =st
+za 1 t+z =«¤ t+= ¤t·r+rz = º+ : ”e s·¤rz +r tr¤r
+z+ =¤¤ : +z s= ·rro ¬r= +r ¤’rt«zr t:¤r °
(s) +¤r º+ : ”e s·¤rz +r =¤r¬ ¤ =r ar cr s +z s-sr = º+
¤¤zr·rt + s·=rs +r =st +e r¤r ¤r z ¤¸ z =¤r¬ +r =raz ¤
=st srar °
s=+ s= ¤ +rz + =«+·r= t«=z ¤r¤zªr = s=+t
¤-¤ :r’r t=+ ¤r-¤arº ·rt =t-:··r sr ¬rat s 1
=r¤=¤zªr s= ¤ +rz +z=r ¤rtsº-¬ = -¤r¤+rzt`
s ’«z +r º+ =r¤ s 1 s= =r¤ = ¬r s=+r ¤·r s t+ ¬ =
¤tr¤ra ztsa sr +z ¤z¤r·¤r =++r ¤·rr«a -¤r¤ +zar s « =
s=+r o sªr +z -¤r¤¤ +a ·¤«srz =« :r +z=r ¤-¤r¤ +·rt
= +z=r1 s= ¤ +rz º+ =r¤ = ·rt ¤= ”¤ +r +-¤rªr sr =+ar
s 1` (=·¤r·r¤+r’r º+r:’re ¤”e
z)e)
s== +a ¤s s t+ ¬ = ¤z¤ ’«z + o ªr s « = ¤¤=
o ªr +¤ =«·rr« ¤¤= ·rt +z=r s 1 ¬ = «s -¤r¤+rzt s ar
¤r¤ ·rt -¤r¤+rzt sr « 1 ¤r z ¬r + «a ·rr s + =¤r= ¤z¤ ’«z
+ o ªr+ta = +zar ¬rar ¤r z ¤¤= ¤tz> =st = ·rrzar s=+r
=a ta +z=r ·¤·r s 1` (=·¤r·r¤+r’r =-a¤e ¤”e )ze)
()e) ¬+ -¤r¤+rzt s ’«z : ”er +r tr¤r = +z+ :ªs : ar s ar
:¤r=-:¬t = s ’«z +r o ªr -¤r¤+rzt` =«¤ +¤r o sªr =st
t+¤r °
())) ¤oz s ’«z + o ªr +¤ =«·rr« + t«¤zta ¤aa s º s=+t
=a ta ¤rt: +z=r :¤r=-: ¬t +t : t”e ¤ ·rr s + =¤r= ·¤·r
¤ ”er s ar +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t +t =a ta « s¤r==r ¤rt: ·rt ·¤·r
¤r z t=”+a st ·rt°
()z) ¤t: :¤r=-:¬t ¤z¤ ’«z + o ªr +¤ =«·rr« ¬ = ¤¤=
o ªr +¤ =«·rr« =st +=r ¤r¤ ·r ar +¤r «s ¤z¤ ’«z +r ¤ r-a
sr ¤rº sr o ¬+t+ s=+ ¤r= =te t` ·rt =st ·rt°
=tet e¸et sr ar ¤z¤’«z =st t¤aar =tet e¸et sr ar ¤z¤’«z =st t¤aar =tet e¸et sr ar ¤z¤’«z =st t¤aar =tet e¸et sr ar ¤z¤’«z =st t¤aar =tet e¸et sr ar ¤z¤’«z =st t¤aar
¤rar t¤ar ¤r¤r¤ ¤tat·r ¤r z ¤ =”r + taº ¤·=t
+t ¤st¤¤a +ara s º =«r¤t ¬t +sa s - ¤ ¤r ¤ ¤¸ ta ¤r= : «
t¬=+ = o = ¤= ”¤: s +t s·¤t··r ¤ra= =·¤t’rtrr t«¤r
¤r z =·¤r ¤: ’r +r ¤ rt-a sr at s 1 ¤ st ¤z¤ ’«z +r ¤ r-a sr =
+t =tte ¤r s 1` (=·¤r·r¤+r’r º+r:’r=¤-ar= ¤”e z)c)
¤rar-t¤ar +r cr s +z ar «r = r : st ·rro ·r 1 t««rs
s-sr = t+¤r =st s=taº ¤·=t ·rt =st ·rt1 «r =r : :¸ =zr ¤z
¤rtna ·r ¤r z = st +·rt s-sr = + c +¤r¤r ar ¤tat·r = «r +r
¤r +r ·rt s-sr = =rr t:¤r1 =te t + ¤rz ¤rº:r= ar s-sr = =r :
¤¤= sr·rr = st ar s sra 1 ¤r¤r¤ +t = «r s-sr = ¬ =z +t
a t+= +·rt-+·rt º =r + c +z ¬ra ·r t+ ¤r ar ¤r¤r¤
¤re’rrar = s=+r =r¤ st +re : ar ·rr ¤r t¬a=r - ¤r:r ¬ r z
= sr =+ar ·rr s=+ sªsr ¬¤r : ar ·rr t¬=+ t=’rr= s=+
‘rztz ¤z s¤ ’rr + taº c¤ ¬ra ·r 1 s=t e¸ et =te t + +rzªr
s-s ¤z¤ ’«z ar t¤ar st =st +r s ¤·cr t’r”¤ ·rt =st t¤a
¤r¤r1 « =«¤ +sr +za ·r -
-r ¤·ct azs =¤m o¤r s ¸ t+ ¤ m s= ¬-¤ ¤ = ¤r ·¤
t’r”¤ =st t¤a or1 s=+r ¤ +a +rzªr ¤s ·rt s t+ ¤ at«
« zr·¤«’r +r-¤+ra ¤ ¤rar t¤ar +r cr s +z =-¤r=t += o¤r
·rr`1 (¤o¤«a+ ¤st”r :¤r=-: =z=«at ¤e )z))
13 14
6
·rrza +r t«’«o = + ¤sr= ¤: = tozr= ¤ º =
t¬nr= ¤z-a ¤nr=t ar or +r +s a +s r sr·r s 1 ¬r ¤sa ar
¤¤=t =te t ar s + e ¤r z t+z ¬t«= ·rz =r : ·rt ·re+a zs
¤r z :¸ =zr +r ·rt ·re+ra zs 1 =«r¤t ¬t ¬ = ar or + ¬t«=
= t’rtrr a +z ar or +r ¤¤=t =te t +t ztrr +z=t ¤rtsº ¤r z
¤¤=t =te t ar s ¤ + ar or +r ¤¤=r o = ·rt =st +=r=r
¤rtsº1
+¤r :¤r=-: ¬t +t ¤t«¤r =¤t ore +e os +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t +t ¤t«¤r =¤t ore +e os +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t +t ¤t«¤r =¤t ore +e os +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t +t ¤t«¤r =¤t ore +e os +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t +t ¤t«¤r =¤t ore +e os
·rt° ·rt° ·rt° ·rt° ·rt°
t·r¤a s:¤o t-·rtzc¤-a =« = ’r¤r· 1 t·r¤a s:¤o t-·rtzc¤-a =« = ’r¤r· 1 t·r¤a s:¤o t-·rtzc¤-a =« = ’r¤r· 1 t·r¤a s:¤o t-·rtzc¤-a =« = ’r¤r· 1 t·r¤a s:¤o t-·rtzc¤-a =« = ’r¤r· 1
trt¤-a ¤r=¤ +¤r tªr at=¤=: t”e ¤zrs«z trt¤-a ¤r=¤ +¤r tªr at=¤=: t”e ¤zrs«z trt¤-a ¤r=¤ +¤r tªr at=¤=: t”e ¤zrs«z trt¤-a ¤r=¤ +¤r tªr at=¤=: t”e ¤zrs«z trt¤-a ¤r=¤ +¤r tªr at=¤=: t”e ¤zrs«z
11)11¤ ªs+11 11)11¤ ªs+11 11)11¤ ªs+11 11)11¤ ªs+11 11)11¤ ªs+11
¬+ s= ¬t« + s:¤ +t ¤t«¤r =¤t or e +e ¬rat
=+ = ’r¤ tc-= sr a ¤r z : ”e +¤ tr¤ +r ¤ r-a sr a s 1 a·rt
s= ¤z¤r·¤r ¬r t+ ¤¤= ¤r·¤r + ·rtaz ¤r z +rsz ·¤r¤ zsr
s s=¤ t=«r= +zar s 1
(=·¤r·r ¤+r’r =«¤e ¤”e
).))
s ’«z +r =r¤t-¤ ¤r= + taº ¤sr at= +rar ¤z +a
t:¤r o¤r s -
()) ¬t« + s:¤ +t ¤t«¤r =¤t or e +e ¬rat s 1
(z) =+ = ’r¤ tc-= sr a s 1
(a) =+ : ”e +¤ tr¤ +r ¤ r-a sr a s 1
()a) +¤r s¤ +s =+a s t+ :¤r=-:¬t = : ”er +r tr¤r +z+
¤r z s-s as=ta:rz ¤rt: ¤t·r+rtz¤r + :ªs = c s «r+z
: ”er +r s·=rs «·r = t+¤r° ¤t: ¤s =st s ar :¤r=-:¬t ¤
s¤zr +a at=z t+-: «rat t«’r ”rar : t”e or ¤z =st sr at 1
()=) = st s=+ =+ = ’r¤ tc-= sr =+ ·r +¤r t+ «s =«¤
st ar º+ t=zr-a t=t’¤a +za s ¤r z ¬+ ¤r¤ =·rr=:
s=+r ¤ra= +za s ar =«¤ st s-s : ”er +r :ªs = : = +t
+ra +sa s 1 ¤s s=+ = ’r¤o =a sr = +r =¤”e s:rszªr s ¤r
=st°
()s) +¤r ¤s ¤t«¤r +t +ra = +st ¬rºot t+ =rz ¬oa +r
º+ ¤r:¤t s= +ra +r s¤: ’r +z t¬= ¤z = ar =«¤ s= +r
t«’«r= sr ¤r z = st s= ¤z ¤r¤zªr +z ¬ = t+ s¤zr +a : ”er
+r tr¤r = +z= +r s¤: ’r +z=r ¤r z =«¤ aorarz tr¤r +za
zs=r°
+¤r :¤r=-: ¬t «:r +r «r=at«+ ¤·r ¬r=a ·r° +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t «:r +r «r=at«+ ¤·r ¬r=a ·r° +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t «:r +r «r=at«+ ¤·r ¬r=a ·r° +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t «:r +r «r=at«+ ¤·r ¬r=a ·r° +¤r :¤r=-: ¬t «:r +r «r=at«+ ¤·r ¬r=a ·r°
()c) ¤t: :¤r=-: ¬t +t ¤t«¤r =¤t or e st =st +e ¤r¤t ·rt
¤r z «s ¤z¤ ’«z + =r¤t-¤ = « t¤a st zs+z ¤a += ·r ar
«s ¤z¤ ’«z +t «rªrt « :` +r ·rt =st e o = = =¤m ¤r¤
sr o ° s:rszªrr·r :¤r=-:¬t º+ « :¤-> +r ¤·r =¤mra s º
+sa s -
s=ttaº s ’«z = =tr>ar +r + =¤t¤ ¤-: ¤r +r
=·rrt¤a t+¤r1` (=·«:rt:e ¤”e
)e.)
().) ¤z¤ ’«z = ¤-: ¤r +r ¤ ·«t + ¤r= ¤r z =tr>ar +r =
+s a :¸ z =·rrt¤a t+¤r s ¤s +ra ¤z¤ ’«z ·rt ¬r=ar s ¤r z
¤r·r t=+ ¤= ”¤ ·rt1 t+z ¤z¤ ’«z « : ¤ º =t =·¤t«=z +ra
+¤r +s or°
s== ¤s t=z sr ar s t+ ¤r ar « : s ’«zt¤ «¤=
=st s ¤r t+z s= « :¤-> +r ¤·r + c ¤r z zsr sr or ¤r z
=«r¤t¬t = ¤¤=t +-¤=r + ¤= =rz s=+r ¤s ¤·r t=+ra
ta¤r 1 s=+t ¤ t”e º+ :¸ =z ¤ ¤rªr = ·rt sr at s ¬sr
:¤r=-:¬t = ¤s a+ +-¤=r +z srat t+ =¸ ¤ ¤-: ¤r z
=tr>rt: =+ ¤z ¤= ”¤rt: o ¬ z +=z +z zs s ¤r z «sr ·rt « :r
+r ¤e=-¤re= ¤r z ¤n s«= =+ + c t+¤r ¬r zsr s ¤r z
¤¤=t +-¤=r +t ¤ t”e ¤ =·« : (¤ e )e =¸ e )se) +r ¤ ¤rªr
·rt t:¤r s -
¬+ ¤ t·r«t + =¤r= =¸ ¤ ¤-: ¤r z =tr> «= s
15 16
7
¤’¤ra s=¤ s=t ¤ +rz ¤ ¬r + sr = ¤ +¤r =-: s° ¤r z ¬ =
¤z¤ ’«z +r ¤s cr er =r ar + ¤= ”¤rt: = t”e = ·rzr s ¤r s ar
+¤r ¤ =+ ar + ‘r¸ -¤ sr o °`
(=·¤r·re ¤”e¤e ¤e
)sc)
()a) +¤r ¤s ¤r==r =st s t+ s ’«zr +a « : « =+ t«¤r¤r +r
¤·rr«a ¬r== «ra =t”r zrzr zt¤a =rts·¤ + ¤= =rz =¸ ¤ «
¤-: ¤r ¤rt: ¤z ¤= ”¤ ¤r+r: s ¤r z «r ·rz-: +r= ¤r z =r a
=rtasr= ¤ ¤¤= -¤¤= +r¤ ·r ·r ¤ ¬r¤ : zs s °
+¤r ¤z¤’«z ·rt +·rt ¤=+a sr =+ar s° +¤r ¤z¤’«z ·rt +·rt ¤=+a sr =+ar s° +¤r ¤z¤’«z ·rt +·rt ¤=+a sr =+ar s° +¤r ¤z¤’«z ·rt +·rt ¤=+a sr =+ar s° +¤r ¤z¤’«z ·rt +·rt ¤=+a sr =+ar s°
¤z¤ ’«z +r +r s ·rt +r¤ t=”¤ ¤r ¬= =st sr ar ar
+¤r sa= ¤= =¤ ar +r ¤ ¤= ”¤rt: = t”e = sr ar =+a +·rt
sr =+ar s ° (=·¤r·r e ¤”e¤e
¤ e )sc)
()s) =«r¤t ¬t = ¤z¤ ’«z +t =+aar +r =¸ ¤ ¤-: ¤r ¤r z
=tr>r ¤z ¤ =”¤rt: + t=«r= ¤z t=·r z =¤mr s 1 s= ar +r ¤
¤·rt a+ ar t+=t ¤= ”¤rt: ¤ ¬r +r ¤ar =st ¤ar ar +¤r
¤z¤ ’«z +r ¤=+a ¤r z t=”¤ ¤r ¬= +r¤ +z= «rar =¤m
ta¤r ¬r¤ ° ¤r ¤s ¤r=r ¬rº t+ =«r¤t ¬t s= =+ ar +r +t
s·¤t·a = ¤z¤ ’«z + «r=at«+ ¤ ¤r ¬= +r =st =¤m ¤rº°
¤a· nra s ¤r t+ =«r¤t ¬t s ’«z ¬t« ¤r z ¤ + ta
+ +rz ¤ =st ¬r=+rzt =st z=ra ·r 1 º+ ‘rr ·r+:rr +r ¤s
‘rr ·rr =st : ar t+ «s « :r + «r=at«+ ¤-a·¤ +r ¬r==
=¤m= + +¬rº s=+ ·rr«r·r + =r¤ ¤z ¤¤=t +-¤=rº oe +z
ar or +r o ¤zrs +z 1
=«r¤t ¬t +t +-¤=r ¤rz =rz ¤ªsa =«r¤t ¬t +t +-¤=r ¤rz =rz ¤ªsa =«r¤t ¬t +t +-¤=r ¤rz =rz ¤ªsa =«r¤t ¬t +t +-¤=r ¤rz =rz ¤ªsa =«r¤t ¬t +t +-¤=r ¤rz =rz ¤ªsa
... s=taº º+ ·r¸ t¤ + ¤r= º+ ¤-: ¤r z ¤= + ¤-:
¤= + ·r¸ t¤¤r + ¤·¤ ¤ º+ =¸ ¤ zsar s 1`
(=·¤r·r¤+r’r ¤”e )sc)
¤s +ra ·rt ¤¸ zt azs o aa s 1 =«r¤t ¬t = =r ¤ ta¤r
t+ ¬ = ¤ ·«t +r + «a º+ s¤o s ¤-: ¤r` s 1 s=t azs ¤-¤
o sr +r s¤o s ·rt º+-º+ st sr or1 The Wordswort h
Encylopedia, 1995 + ¤= =rz st ¤ oa + z = -·¤¸ = + a
+ s=¤ta + )c « ‘rt= + ze s¤o s =rr ¬ ¬r ¤ + ·r 1 ¤r·r t=+
=rr ¬r = s=+t = =¤r ¤ ¤r z ·rt s¬ r+r sr o¤r 1
== zee= ¤ ¤-atztr¤r= «r¤ ¬z = t:=rr¤r t+ ‘rt=
+ s¤o s a) = - ¤r:r s 1 (: ers-= ¤r + stªs¤r ¤ +
z-e.-e= ¤ =r¤ ”e) s=+ +r: +t =rr ¬ = s=+t = =¤r ¤
¤r z ·rt +e r azt s s s 1 ¤ atztr ¤= = ·rr=+:rr ¤r = º = arzr
+r ¤ar aor¤r s t¬=+r +r s o s ¤r s¤o s =st s 1
‘PSR 1913+ 16 =r¤+ ¤ ªrrat ¤ º+ :¸ =z +t ¤tz+¤r
+za s º :r -¤¸ e r = arz s 1` (=¤¤ +r = ttr-a stasr= ¤ ”e
sc a e =et+ = sr t+ o = =+zªr zee= ¤ +r’r+· zr¬+¤a
¤ +r’r= ¤ re tae =s t:-at-z)
=ror at«:r = º =t +s ¤ ªrrta¤r +r ¤ar aor¤r s t¬=¤ :r
arz º+ :¸ =z +t ¤tz+¤r +za s 1 ¬ = CYGNUS X-1 t=·==
º+=-)`
(¤=a+ s¤zr+a ¤”e
)ee)
(ze) « :r ¤ t«nr= t=z +z= + taº =«r¤t ¬t = ¬r =tta
¤¤=rs s s== « :r + ¤ ta = : s ¤r z ¤t«’«r= st s·¤-=
sr ar s 1 +¤r s== =r : =«r¤t ¬t +r t«’«r= ·rt =r ·¤ =st sr
¬rar s °
¤r+r’r ¤ =:t-o¤t srat s =:t = ¤z¤rªr ¬¤ ¤r+r’r ¤ =:t-o¤t srat s =:t = ¤z¤rªr ¬¤ ¤r+r’r ¤ =:t-o¤t srat s =:t = ¤z¤rªr ¬¤ ¤r+r’r ¤ =:t-o¤t srat s =:t = ¤z¤rªr ¬¤ ¤r+r’r ¤ =:t-o¤t srat s =:t = ¤z¤rªr ¬¤
¬ra s ·rr¤ = t¤a+z t+zªr +a«rat srat s 1 ¬ra s ·rr¤ = t¤a+z t+zªr +a«rat srat s 1 ¬ra s ·rr¤ = t¤a+z t+zªr +a«rat srat s 1 ¬ra s ·rr¤ = t¤a+z t+zªr +a«rat srat s 1 ¬ra s ·rr¤ = t¤a+z t+zªr +a«rat srat s 1
........ +¤r t+ ¤r+r’r + t¬= : ’r ¤ =¸ ¤ + ¤ +r’r
+r ¤ ·«t +t cr¤r zr +ats s= : ’r ¤ ‘rta ·rt ¤t·r+ sr at s 1
...... t+z o¤t + +¤ sr = ¤r z ‘rtaaar + ¤t·r+ sr = = =+
¤¸ ta ¤r= ¤:r·rr + ¤z¤rªr ¬¤ ¬ra s 1 s=+r ¬¤= = ¤ t”e
sr at s ¤r z ¬+ s=+ +t¤ ¤ =¸ ¤ +t a ¬r =¤ t+zªr ¤s at s
ar s=¤ = ·rr¤ seat s 1 s=+ ¤r o = t+zªr ·rt +a«rat sr at
s 1` (=·« :rt:·rr”¤·r¸ t¤+r ¤ ”e
17 18
8
)=s « )=c)
(z)) =:t -o¤t ·rzat ¤z sr at s ¤r+r’r ¤ =st ¤r z «s ·rt
¤ ·«t zrzr =¸ ¤ + ¤ +r’r +r zr += +t «¬s = =st +t-+ =¸ ¤
+t ¤tz+¤r +za s º ¤ ·«t ¬+ =¸ ¤ = :¸ z sr at s ar =:t sr at
s ¤r z ¬+ ¤¤ trr+ a t=+e sr at s ar o¤t sr at s 1
(zz) ¤r z = st =:t = ¤z¤rªr ¬¤a s 1 ¬+ =«¤ ++ + st
¤z¤rªr ¬¤ s º =st sr a ar ¤-¤ ¤:r·rr + +¤r ¬¤ o ° ¤ar =st
¤z¤rªr + =-+-·r ¤ =«r¤t ¬t +t +-¤=r +¤r s °
(za) ·rr¤ = t¤a+z ¤ +r’r +r ·rar +¤r +a t¤a or° ¤s « :r
+r +·r= s ¤r =«¤ =«r¤t ¬t +t +-¤=r°
=t”e =z¤=r +r «t:+ t=zr-a =t”e =z¤=r +r «t:+ t=zr-a =t”e =z¤=r +r «t:+ t=zr-a =t”e =z¤=r +r «t:+ t=zr-a =t”e =z¤=r +r «t:+ t=zr-a
... =+= =¸ t¤ e +s r ¤·rr a ¬r +rer =st ¬rar s=+r
=r¤ ¤z¤rªr =re ¤z¤rªr ¤r = t¤a s º +r =r¤ ¤ªr :r ¤ªr
+r º+ z¤ªr + ¬r =·r¸ a «r¤ s at= z¤ªr + +r ¤t·= ¤rz
z¤ªr + +r ¬a ¤r ¤ z¤ªr + +t ¤ t·r«t ¤·rr a at= z¤ªr + +r
>=z ªr ¤r z s=+r :¸ =r sr = = ¤ ·«t ¤rt: : ’¤ ¤:r·r sr a s 1
s=t ¤ +rz +¤ = t¤ar+z ·r¸ or art: ¤z¤r·¤r = +=r¤ s 1
(=·¤r·r ¤ +r’r ¤”e¤e
¤ e)sz)
¤sa ¤r=r ¬rar ·rr t+ ¤z¤rªr ¤t«·rr-¤ s ¤z-a ¤+
¤z¤rªr +r ar s =r = ·r« s 1 =«¤ ·rrza +t st ·rzat ¤z +s
¤z¤rªr tzº+ez` s=t t=zr-a + ¤= =rz =¬r s·¤r:= +za
s 1 ¤a· ¤s = t”e t=¤¤ + ¤ ta+¸ a +-¤=r ¤r> s 1 :z¤= a
¤s +r s « t:+ t=zr-a =st s +t-+ º+ :r’r t=+ ¤a s 1
¤ro ¤r=t s«r ¤r z ¤ ·«t +t = z¤=r +r «ªr = ·rt
t«nr= t«=z s 1 s:rszªrr·r ¤rz z¤ªr + t¤a= = =st +t-+
srss r ¬= + :r ¤r z ¤r +=t¬= +r º+ ¤ªr + a a ¤ªr ¤r +
t¤a= = ¬a +=ar s 1 s=t azs ¤ ·«t ·rt ¤r ¤ z¤ªr + = =st
+=t s +t-+ + t-’¤¤ +r+ = ¤ ·=t¬ ¤rt: +s a = a·«r = +=t
s ¤r z sz + a·« +t ¤rtª«+ = z¤=r ¤ao-¤ao s 1 ¤st sra
«r¤ ¤r z ¤t·= +r ·rt s 1 ¤t: =«r¤t ¬t + ¤a +r ¤r= ta¤r
¬rar ar : ’r +t =rzt s-=ta e-¤ sr ¬rat1 s=+ t«¤rz ¤r¬
¤ r= to+ =st zs o¤ s 1 =¤¤ = s-s z: : +z t:¤r s 1 t¬=
ar or +r -a ·c +s+z s ¤ =¤mr o¤r : ’r + « nrt=+r =
s--rta +z= + taº s-st +r ¤= +zªr t+¤r1 ¤t: ¤ + ta +
t«”r¤ ¤ ¤·rrzat¤r +r nr= =·¤ ¤r z n ”e sr =+ar s ar
t+z s ’«z ¤r z ¬t« + t«”r¤ ¤ +¤r =st sr =+ar° =·¤ +t
¤ rt-a + taº ‘re« t·a ·r :·rr« ¤r z ¤s +rz +r ·¤ro ¬ =zt s 1
« = ·rt =+ ¤= +t =-ar= s - ¬= ¤= ¬ra ` (=·« : )·=s·)) ¬= ¤= ¬ra ` (=·« : )·=s·)) ¬= ¤= ¬ra ` (=·« : )·=s·)) ¬= ¤= ¬ra ` (=·« : )·=s·)) ¬= ¤= ¬ra ` (=·« : )·=s·))
«=·r« +e-++¤` «=·r« +e-++¤` «=·r« +e-++¤` «=·r« +e-++¤` «=·r« +e-++¤` ¤·rr a ·rzat + =+ ¤= ”¤ º+
¤tz«rz s 1
¤r ·r rar ·r rarz tztr-¤r =«=rz¤ a =«=r 1 ¤r ·r rar ·r rarz tztr-¤r =«=rz¤ a =«=r 1 ¤r ·r rar ·r rarz tztr-¤r =«=rz¤ a =«=r 1 ¤r ·r rar ·r rarz tztr-¤r =«=rz¤ a =«=r 1 ¤r ·r rar ·r rarz tztr-¤r =«=rz¤ a =«=r 1
=-¤·¤· =« ar ·r¸ ·«r «r¤ «:a ·r: ¤r 11 =-¤·¤· =« ar ·r¸ ·«r «r¤ «:a ·r: ¤r 11 =-¤·¤· =« ar ·r¸ ·«r «r¤ «:a ·r: ¤r 11 =-¤·¤· =« ar ·r¸ ·«r «r¤ «:a ·r: ¤r 11 =-¤·¤· =« ar ·r¸ ·«r «r¤ «:a ·r: ¤r 11
·rrs ·rrs = ¤r z +s= +s= = z ”r = +z 1 º+ ¤=
¤r z ota «ra sr +z ¤ oa¤¤ +ra +z 1`
(¤·r« « :
a·ae·a)
« ¤==¤ ¤r z =+za + ar=r cr s +z =: ·rr«=r ¤ ¤
‘rr ta º+ar nr= ¤r z s-=ta +r ¤rsr a +=r=r ¤rtsº1 ¤-¤
: ’r«r=t ·rrs +s=r + ¤r= ·rt s ’«zt¤ nr= sr =+ar s 1 s==
nr= ¤ r-a +z= ¤ = +r ¤ =st +z=r ¤rtsº1 ¤st =« tsa+rzt
¤r z ¤ oa¤¤ +ra s 1
=¸¤ t+=t ar+ ¤r +-: + ¤rzr ¤rz =st ·r¸¤ar =¸¤ t+=t ar+ ¤r +-: + ¤rzr ¤rz =st ·r¸¤ar =¸¤ t+=t ar+ ¤r +-: + ¤rzr ¤rz =st ·r¸¤ar =¸¤ t+=t ar+ ¤r +-: + ¤rzr ¤rz =st ·r¸¤ar =¸¤ t+=t ar+ ¤r +-: + ¤rzr ¤rz =st ·r¸¤ar
¬r =t«ar ¤·rr a =¸ ª¤ ... ¤¤=t ¤tzt·r ¤ ·r¸ ¤ar
zsar s t+-a t+=t ar + + ¤rzr ¤r z =st ·r¸ ¤ar1
(¤¬ « : ¤eaa·¤ e =a/=·¤r·r e ¤”e¤e ¤ e )ss)
(z=) ¤s +ra ·rt = t”e t=¤¤ + t«=z s 1 º+ +··rr ·rt ¤r¬
¤s ¬r=ar s t+ =¸ ¤ = + «a ¤¤=t ·r zt ¤z +t-+ t+=t + -:
+ ¤rzr ¤r z ·rt ¤¸ z =r z ¤ªsa =tsa ¤++z aor zsr s 1 a+
= t”e+ar ¤z¤ ’«z ¤¤=t «rªrt « : ¤ ¤=·¤ +ra +¤r +s or°
: t=r¤ - =¸ ¤ ¤¤=t ·r zt ¤z z. t:= ¤ º+ ¤++z ¤¸ zr +zar
s 1`
19 20
9
(s¤rzr ·r¸ ¤ªsa +trr c ·rro ) ¤ ”e s + t=+ t’rtrr
¤tz”r: s:rz ¤ : ’r a =r+· ¤ ¬ or a¤ ¤rt:)
a -s ¤s ¬r=+z +s r ¤r’¤¤ sr or t+ s¤rzr =¸ ¤ +s t
a ¬ t = ¤++z aora s º ao·ro zs +zr s «”r ¤ ¤¤=t
¤r+r’ro or +t º+ ¤tz+¤r ¤¸ zt +zar s 1`
(¤=a+ s¤zr+a ¤”e c)
(zs) =«r¤t ¬t = =r¤ªr s·«e ¤r z ¤st·rz ¤rt: t«zr=r +r
¤’rr ·r=t¤ ‘r-: +s ¤r z s=+ « :·rr”¤ +r ·r ”e +ar¤r ¤r z
+ «a ¤¤= zrzr zt¤a « :r·r +r st et+ +ar¤r s 1 =«r¤t ¬t
« : +r s ’«zr +a ¤r=a ·r = t+ =t”r¤r +t z¤=r1 s ’«z+ a
o -·r + =r sr ar s ° s= =-+-·r ¤ =«r¤t¬t = + c ¤s¤r= +ars
s 1 +¤r =«r¤t ¬t zrzr +ar¤ oº atrªr « : ¤ ¤rº ¬ra s °
s’«zt¤ o-·r ¤ m¸e =st srar s’«zt¤ o-·r ¤ m¸e =st srar s’«zt¤ o-·r ¤ m¸e =st srar s’«zt¤ o-·r ¤ m¸e =st srar s’«zt¤ o-·r ¤ m¸e =st srar
¬ =r s ’«z ¤t«> =« t«¤rt«a ‘r zo ªr+¤ =«·rr«
-¤r¤+rzt :¤ra ¤rt: o ªr «rar s « = t¬= ¤ =a+ ¤ s ’«z
+ o ªr +¤ =«·rr« + ¤= +¸ a +·r= sr «s s ’«z+ a ¤-¤
=st 1 ¤r z t¬=¤ = t”e+¤ ¤ ·¤trrt: ¤ ¤rªr ¤r-ar + ¤r z
¤t«>r·¤r + ·¤«srz = t«=z +·r= = sr «s s ’«zr +a1 ¬ =r
s ’«z +r t=·r ¤ nr= « =r t¬= ¤ =a+ ¤ ·r rt-aztsa nr= +r
¤ ta¤r:= sr «s s ’«zr +a 1 ( =· ¤r · r ¤ +r ’ r
=-a¤=¤-ar= ¤ ”e )as)
(zc) +¤r «r+s « :r ¤ = t”e+¤ ¤ ·¤trrt: ¤ ¤rªr + ¤= +¸ a
t=·r ¤ nr= s ° ¬r +=r et =r : =«r¤t¬t = t=t’¤a +t s +¤r
« : s= ¤z ¤¸ z saza s °
¤s-¤r·rr ¤rz =t-¬¤r ¤ ¬t« =st srar° ¤s-¤r·rr ¤rz =t-¬¤r ¤ ¬t« =st srar° ¤s-¤r·rr ¤rz =t-¬¤r ¤ ¬t« =st srar° ¤s-¤r·rr ¤rz =t-¬¤r ¤ ¬t« =st srar° ¤s-¤r·rr ¤rz =t-¬¤r ¤ ¬t« =st srar°
....stza ‘rr+ + =rr= ¤ ¬t« +r ¤rz=r s=+r ¤ts r
¤s ¤=t +¤r +z ¤r=a sr ° ·rar ¬+ a ¤+r ¤ts r ¤ r-a sr at
¤ ·¤tr =st t:=rat ¤r z ¬r t:=rat ar s¤+r t:=rar¤r 1`
(=·¤r·r ¤ +r’r :’r-r=¤ -ar= ¤ ”e a)a)
(z.) ¤r¬ ¤sat +ar= +r +·¤r ·rt ¬r=ar s t+ ¤ s -¤r ·rr ¤z
¤=to=a =¸ t¤ ¬t«rªr «r= +za s ¤r z =r : ¤ s -¤r ·r ·rt
Living t hings (¬tt«a «=a ¤r ) ¤ ¤ra s 1 º =t t«nr= t«=z
¤r-¤a¤r +r nr= +sr ¬r¤ or ¤·r«r ¤nr=°
+¤r t=¤ro` +t ·¤«=·rr s’«z = :t s° +¤r t=¤ro` +t ·¤«=·rr s’«z = :t s° +¤r t=¤ro` +t ·¤«=·rr s’«z = :t s° +¤r t=¤ro` +t ·¤«=·rr s’«z = :t s° +¤r t=¤ro` +t ·¤«=·rr s’«z = :t s°
srar t+ s-sr = ar or +r : o ªrr = :¸ z zs= +t ==tsa
+z+ =¤r¬ +r + c ·rar t+¤r s a t+= t«·r«r ¤r za ¤r z t«·
r z ¤: +r ¤¤= ¬t«= =r·rt +t ¤r a + +r: ¤ =t« «rs +z= =
« :r + ¤r·rrz ¤z zr + t:¤r s ¤r z t+=r :r +rzr t««rs t+¤ st
:r =r +r t=¤r o` zrzr =-ar= s·¤-= +z= +t ·¤«=·rr :t s 1
s= =-+ ·r ¤ =·¤r·r ¤ +r’r + ¤a ·r =¤ -ar= ¤ ¤ ”e = =¤r .a
= a) a+ ¤¸ z s ¤ ”er ¤ « :¤->r =tsa ¤¸ ªr t««zªr t:¤r o¤r
s 1 =«r¤t¬t + ¤= =rz º+ t«·r«r =>t +·¤ ¤ :r +z= + taº
« :r= =rz := ¤ =”rr + =r·r t=¤r o` +z =+at s ¤r z º =
st º+ t«·r z ¤: ·rt := t=>¤r + =r·r t=¤r o` +z =+ar s 1
+t-+ ¤t: ¤ta +·¤r ¤ :r +z= + ar¤+ = sr ar ¤t·= ¤¤=
¤ta +t s¬r¬ a = s=+ ¬ta ¬t ·rt ¤-¤ ¤ =”r = t=¤r o`
+z =+at s 1 =«r¤t ¬t +r s=¤ +r s ¤r¤ =¬ z =st ¤rar1
(za) +¤r «r+ s s ’«z º =t ·¤«=·rr : or t¬= ¤r== + taº =r :
« : ¤ ¤rz+ st a ¤rz =st s °
º =r aoar s t+ ¤r ar « :r ¤ tr ¤+ sr o¤r s ¤r
t+z t=¤r o` +t « t:+ ·¤«=·rr t+=t t«’r ”r +ra + taº ·rt
=:r + taº =st ·rt 1 s ’«z +t ¤r z = =:r + taº t+=t ¤-¤
·¤«=·rr +r ·r ¬r ¬r=r ¤·rt”e ·rr1 +r = =t ·¤«=·rr° ¤ =t« «rs
+t ·¤«=·rr1
¬t sr + «a ¤ =t« «rs + zrzr st t«·r«r ¤r z t«·r z
:r =r +t =¤=¤r +r =-¤r=¬=+ sa = ·r« s 1 s ’«z = + z¤r=
¤ ¤st ·¤«=·rr :t s 1
+¤r +rs ¤¸=r ·¤t+a ¤az ¤rz t=¤ªr sr =+ar +¤r +rs ¤¸=r ·¤t+a ¤az ¤rz t=¤ªr sr =+ar +¤r +rs ¤¸=r ·¤t+a ¤az ¤rz t=¤ªr sr =+ar +¤r +rs ¤¸=r ·¤t+a ¤az ¤rz t=¤ªr sr =+ar +¤r +rs ¤¸=r ·¤t+a ¤az ¤rz t=¤ªr sr =+ar
s ° s ° s ° s ° s °
(zs) s=t ¤ +rz srar t+ =«r¤t ¬t = ‘r¸ : r +r ·rt ·rr s t +s a
21 22
10
zrsa ¤s ¤rs s a t+= t+z ·rt s-s ¤-¤ «ªrr = =t¤ st ¤r=r
s 1 :¤r=-: ¬t =r : ·rt ’r¸ : ` ¤r z s=+ +r¤ +r a +z ·r t¤a
s 1 s:rszªrr·r - =·¤r·r ¤ +r’r ¤ ”e se ¤z t=+ tz ¤r z ¤¸ =r
+r =r¤ ‘r¸ : ` +ara s ¤r z ¤ ”e .a ¤z ’r¸ : +r =+ = «r¤r ¤
¤a z ¤r+ t«¤r ¤ t=¤ ªr` ·rt +ara s 1 +¤r +r s ¤¸ =r ·¤t+a
¤a z ¤r z t=¤ ªr sr =+ar s ° +¤r + tz ¤r z +ar +r ’ra =
¤ +a sr a st s=+r «ªr ` =st +:a ¬r¤ or°
(ae) +¤r = ¤=t¤ +r ¤r=a s º ·r :·rr« ztsa ¤ ¤¤¸ ªr =¤z=
¤r z s-=ta + =¤r= ¤«=z : = «rar =¤r¬ +=r ¤r=r = ·r«

+··rr +r t’rtrr := ¤ ·r:·rr« =st +z=r ¤rtsº +··rr +r t’rtrr := ¤ ·r:·rr« =st +z=r ¤rtsº +··rr +r t’rtrr := ¤ ·r:·rr« =st +z=r ¤rtsº +··rr +r t’rtrr := ¤ ·r:·rr« =st +z=r ¤rtsº +··rr +r t’rtrr := ¤ ·r:·rr« =st +z=r ¤rtsº
+ r¬ªr at=r «ªr + r¬ªr trt>¤ ¤r z « ’¤ trt>¤
trt>¤ ¤r z « ’¤ a·rr « ’¤ º+ « ’¤ «ªr +r ¤nr ¤«ta +zr+
¤e r =+ar s ¤r z ¬r + at= ‘r ·r atrªr ¤ +a ‘r¸ : sr ar s=+r
¤->= tsar cr s + =+ ‘rr=> ¤e r« ‘r¸ : ¤e ¤z-a s=+r s¤=¤=
= +z 1 (=·¤r·r¤+r’r aat¤e ¤”e a))
(a)) ¤oz +¤¤= ¤ st = ¤=t¤ +t :t«rz =rs t +z :t ¬r¤ ot
ar +s sr +z ar ¤ :t«rz ¤r z ·rt - ¤r:r = ¤t sr ¬r¤ ot t+z
=¤r¬ s-=ta + = +z or°
¤= + =r¤ ¤z ·r :·rr« ¤a + ar¤r ¤= + =r¤ ¤z ·r :·rr« ¤a + ar¤r ¤= + =r¤ ¤z ·r :·rr« ¤a + ar¤r ¤= + =r¤ ¤z ·r :·rr« ¤a + ar¤r ¤= + =r¤ ¤z ·r :·rr« ¤a + ar¤r
t=>¤r +t =rtrt =>t t z¬r + tz¬ ‘r¸ : r + ‘r¸ : ¤r z
¤-·¤¬r + ¤-·¤¬ =rtrt sr 11z11 t¬a= +ar·+rz +r¤ ¤r zt
·¤rt·r¤rz +er z «¤= :ªst=¤ra= =¤ ¤¤zr·r s s=¤ =rtrt +t
¤zttrr = +z ¤r z ¤r«’¤+ ·rt =¤m +¤r t+ ¤ +r¤ =+ o -a
sr a s 11 a11 (=·¤r·r
¤ +r’r “r”e¤ ))e)
o«rs +t =·¤rs +r ¤z=r t+=r st ¤rzr ¤t ·¤t+a +r
¤ ·¤ :ªs ¤rt: +er z =¬ r : =r =zr=z ¤-¤r¤ s +t-+ s=
azs ar ¤r¤¸ at =¬ r : =r ·rt st¤a =st s 1 -¤r¤+rzt ·¤t+a
+ taº ¤s st¤a =st s t+ «s ta ·r-·r : ¤r «ªr -·r : = +r¤
a 1 sz + +r ¤r¬ r:t sr =t ¤rtsº t+ «s ¤¤=t =·¤rs +r
o«rs t¬= «o = ar=r ¤rs a ¤r¤ 1
s= azs +t +ra ¬+ « : ¤r z ¤st”r ¤= + =r¤ ¤z
+ ar¤t ¬rat s ar =¤r¬ ¤ ¤=-ar “r ¤r z ¤r+r ’r ¤ :r sr ar
s ¤r z ar o s=+t t=-:r +z+ ·r¤ = :¸ z sr ¬ra s 1 ¤st”r ¤=
ar ¤r=« ¬rta + t¤ar s 1 +¤r +r s t¤ar ¤¤= +·¤r ¤
= ¤=t¤ +t +ra ¤ :r +z+ s=+r ¤tsa +zar s ° +t-+ +r¤
+t == s: t”e ¤¤= +·¤r ¤ =+= - ¤r:r s= ¤z sr at s ¬r
=+= - ¤r:r +¤¬ r z sr ar s 1
¤t«> + z¤r= ·rt s= ¤z a·r= «ra s= ¤rzr ¤ +r
=rªs= +zar s 1 + z¤r= ¤ ¬a-ar«= «ra ¤= +r «ªr =
=¸ s` + =r¤ = t¤aar s 1 + z¤r= +arar s t+ ¤r:zªrt¤ =¸ s
(s= ¤z ’rr ta sr ) ¤z n zr z=r= «ra st « ar ·r ·r t¬-s
a·+rat= =¤r¬ ¤ =t¤ ¤r z a ·c =¤mr ¬rar ·rr1 =¤r¬ +
a·rr+t·ra s ¤ ar ·rr = ¤r:zªrt¤ =¸ s (s= ¤z ’rr ta sr ) ¤z
s=t +ra +r a +z º azr¬ ·rt t+¤r a t+= s-sr = =¤r¬ +
:taar - « t¤ar +r =r : = :¸ z =st t+¤r1 : t=r¤ -
s= ¤z s=+t +r¤ + =z:rz t¬-sr= s=+rz s= ¤z s=+t +r¤ + =z:rz t¬-sr= s=+rz s= ¤z s=+t +r¤ + =z:rz t¬-sr= s=+rz s= ¤z s=+t +r¤ + =z:rz t¬-sr= s=+rz s= ¤z s=+t +r¤ + =z:rz t¬-sr= s=+rz
t+¤r ·rr +s= a·r s¤rzt :t”e ¤ ar a¤ s¤rz st ¬= t+¤r ·rr +s= a·r s¤rzt :t”e ¤ ar a¤ s¤rz st ¬= t+¤r ·rr +s= a·r s¤rzt :t”e ¤ ar a¤ s¤rz st ¬= t+¤r ·rr +s= a·r s¤rzt :t”e ¤ ar a¤ s¤rz st ¬= t+¤r ·rr +s= a·r s¤rzt :t”e ¤ ar a¤ s¤rz st ¬=
¤r:¤t sr ¤rz s¤ :=ra s t+ += +c ar·r st a-srz ¤r:¤t sr ¤rz s¤ :=ra s t+ += +c ar·r st a-srz ¤r:¤t sr ¤rz s¤ :=ra s t+ += +c ar·r st a-srz ¤r:¤t sr ¤rz s¤ :=ra s t+ += +c ar·r st a-srz ¤r:¤t sr ¤rz s¤ :=ra s t+ += +c ar·r st a-srz
¤=¤r¤t s ¬r ¤sat :t”e ¤ st s¤rz ¤sr + =t¤ s1 ¤=¤r¤t s ¬r ¤sat :t”e ¤ st s¤rz ¤sr + =t¤ s1 ¤=¤r¤t s ¬r ¤sat :t”e ¤ st s¤rz ¤sr + =t¤ s1 ¤=¤r¤t s ¬r ¤sat :t”e ¤ st s¤rz ¤sr + =t¤ s1 ¤=¤r¤t s ¬r ¤sat :t”e ¤ st s¤rz ¤sr + =t¤ s1
s¤ ¤¤= ¤ + r+a ¤ a -r ¤ +r s +s rs =st : =ra s s¤ ¤¤= ¤ + r+a ¤ a -r ¤ +r s +s rs =st : =ra s s¤ ¤¤= ¤ + r+a ¤ a -r ¤ +r s +s rs =st : =ra s s¤ ¤¤= ¤ + r+a ¤ a -r ¤ +r s +s rs =st : =ra s s¤ ¤¤= ¤ + r+a ¤ a -r ¤ +r s +s rs =st : =ra s
+t-+ s¤ ar a-s m¸er =¤ma s1` +t-+ s¤ ar a-s m¸er =¤ma s1` +t-+ s¤ ar a-s m¸er =¤ma s1` +t-+ s¤ ar a-s m¸er =¤ma s1` +t-+ s¤ ar a-s m¸er =¤ma s1` (=¸ zr-º-s¸ :
z.)
: t=rº ¤t«> + z¤r= +r ¤¤·+rz! ¤¸ zt ·rzat ¤z «s
¤+ at t+ar+ s ¬r +sat s t+ ¤= = ¬rta«r: =st + ar¤r
¬+t+ ¤s +ra s=+r +r s ·rt ¤= ¤r¤t =st +sar1 +r s =st
+sar t+ ¤= = =++r +zr+zt +r :¬r t:¤r1 t¬=+r a·+rat=
=¤r¬ = =t¤ =¤mr =·¤ +r ¤¤=r +z «st n ”e += s ’«z
+ :ªs = +¤ ¤r z +r: ¤ ¤r=« ¬rta + ¬=+ ·rt ¤= + =r·r
¤st ar o s º1 t¬= +ra +r +r s =st +sar +r s =st ¬r=ar
s=+t ¤¤r + z¤r= ¤ + = s ° ¤r z «s ·rt ¤r¬ = ao·ro
)=ae «”r ¤sa 1
23 24
11
+¤r ¤s =r ¤= +r t«”r¤ =st s t+ ¤t«> + z¤r= +t
t+=t ·rt =¸ za +r =r¤ ¤sr¤=r ¤ s-¤: (=e) + ¤r - +r¤
tz’a :rzr ¤r z =rt·r¤r ¤ = t+=t + ·rt =r¤ ¤z =st s ¬+t+
º+ =¸ za +r =r¤ =¸ s` =¸ s` =¸ s` =¸ s` =¸s` s°
¤ z + z¤r= +t s¬rzr ¤r¤ar ¤ ¤sr¤=r ¤ s--r: (=e)
+r =r¤ t=+ =-s +rz ¤r¤r s ¬+t+ ¤= +r =r¤ =¸ s`
ao·ro =s +rz ¤r¤r s 1 = ar ¤++r ¤ =¸ s + ¤= ¤r¤t ·r t+
s=+r =r¤ a +z s=+ ¤r== «rar = ¤:: ¤r=r «r tca sr ¤r z
= st ¤z+ + ar o +t-+ =«¤ ¤sr¤=r ¤ s-¤: (=e) st + z¤r=
+ ¤«azªr = ¤sa ¤s =+ ¬r=a ·r 1 s ’«z +sar s -
¤ ¤zrtr +t =r+z s t¬=+t s¤ a-srzt ¤rz ¤ ¤zrtr +t =r+z s t¬=+t s¤ a-srzt ¤rz ¤ ¤zrtr +t =r+z s t¬=+t s¤ a-srzt ¤rz ¤ ¤zrtr +t =r+z s t¬=+t s¤ a-srzt ¤rz ¤ ¤zrtr +t =r+z s t¬=+t s¤ a-srzt ¤rz
¤+r’r=r +z zs s1 s== ¤sa = ar a-s s=+t =r+z ¤+r’r=r +z zs s1 s== ¤sa = ar a-s s=+t =r+z ¤+r’r=r +z zs s1 s== ¤sa = ar a-s s=+t =r+z ¤+r’r=r +z zs s1 s== ¤sa = ar a-s s=+t =r+z ¤+r’r=r +z zs s1 s== ¤sa = ar a-s s=+t =r+z
·rt ¤rz = st a-srzt +r¤ +r1` ·rt ¤rz = st a-srzt +r¤ +r1` ·rt ¤rz = st a-srzt +r¤ +r1` ·rt ¤rz = st a-srzt +r¤ +r1` ·rt ¤rz = st a-srzt +r¤ +r1`
(=¸ zr-º-s¸ :=s)
¤st”r ¤= +r t«·rr= ar or +t =¤ ta ¤ ·rr t¬= s=+
+r: = +t-ra t+¤r o¤r1 = +a=+ar = s=¤ ·r o ¤rt: :¸ =zr
+ t«¤rz ·rt ‘rrt¤a +z t:¤ 1 s= azs ¤= =¤ ta` ¤ t¤ar«e
sr +z s=+t t’rtrrº t+os os 1 ¤r¬ +r s =st ¬r=ar t+ s=¤
t+= +ra ¤ t+=-t+= = t+=+ =r¤ = +¤r +e r t:¤r
¤·r«r +¤r + c ·rer t:¤r° :¸ =zr + +¤ +r t¬--r :rz ¤= +r
eszr=r ¤¤= t¤ar ¤= + =r·r ¬ -¤ +z=r s 1
¤r¬ ¬ ¤t= ¤z t¬a= ar o t+=t s ’«zt¤ o -·r ¤
t«’«r= +r :r«r +za s «r =·rt ar o ¤¤= =t+¤r ¤r z
=t”r¤r ¤z ¤r=·rr + +r«¬¸ : s= ¤z m¸ e ar c= aora s
¤r:¤ = a +z s =rr a+ sz º+ s ’r:¸ a ¤z1 s =r ¤¸ =r a¸ a
¤r z ¤= =++t t’rtrrº t+ors +z z=r :t 1 + z¤r= +arar s t+
¤ =·rt s ’«z + :¸ a ·r sz + + zrs = ¤r+ ¤r z ¤r=¸ ¤ ·r ¤r z
=+= ¤r=« ¬rta +r º+ st ·r¤ +t t’rtrr :t1
s= (s ’«z) = a -srz taº «st ·r¤ t=·rr tza s= (s ’«z) = a -srz taº «st ·r¤ t=·rr tza s= (s ’«z) = a -srz taº «st ·r¤ t=·rr tza s= (s ’«z) = a -srz taº «st ·r¤ t=·rr tza s= (s ’«z) = a -srz taº «st ·r¤ t=·rr tza
t+¤r t¬=+r ¤r: ’r s== =¸ s +r t:¤r ·rr1` t+¤r t¬=+r ¤r: ’r s== =¸ s +r t:¤r ·rr1` t+¤r t¬=+r ¤r: ’r s== =¸ s +r t:¤r ·rr1` t+¤r t¬=+r ¤r: ’r s== =¸ s +r t:¤r ·rr1` t+¤r t¬=+r ¤r: ’r s== =¸ s +r t:¤r ·rr1`
(¤t«> +z¤r= ¤’r’r¸zr )a)
¤t: «r=a« ¤ +r s ¤= +r ·r¤ ¬r==r ¤rsar s ar
«s ¤t«> + z¤r= ¤ s=+r « ar-a ¤e a ¤r z ¤t: « : + o¸ e
¤·rr +r =¤m=r ¤rsar s ar s-s ¤t«> + z¤r= +t =¤”e
t’rtrr¤r + ¤r·rrz ¤z =¤m= +r ¤ ¤r= +z 1 ¬r ar o ¤¤=
¤s +rz + +rzªr ¤t«> + z¤r= +t =·¤ar +r =st ¤r=a
«r=a« ¤ «r «r=at«+ « :r·r a+ ¤s ¤= + º+¤r> ¤ r¤rtªr+
=r·r= = =«¤ +r « t¤a +za s 1
+tzst= aro o-·r :=ra sº =st :=ra ¤rz ==a sº +tzst= aro o-·r :=ra sº =st :=ra ¤rz ==a sº +tzst= aro o-·r :=ra sº =st :=ra ¤rz ==a sº +tzst= aro o-·r :=ra sº =st :=ra ¤rz ==a sº +tzst= aro o-·r :=ra sº =st :=ra ¤rz ==a sº
=st = =a 1 =st = =a 1 =st = =a 1 =st = =a 1 =st = =a 1` (=·«:
)e·.)·=)
¤rz s=+ ¤r= ¤r=r s « s== :=ra =st ¤rz s=+ ¤rz s=+ ¤r= ¤r=r s « s== :=ra =st ¤rz s=+ ¤rz s=+ ¤r= ¤r=r s « s== :=ra =st ¤rz s=+ ¤rz s=+ ¤r= ¤r=r s « s== :=ra =st ¤rz s=+ ¤rz s=+ ¤r= ¤r=r s « s== :=ra =st ¤rz s=+
¤r= +r= s « s== ==a =st « ¤’r¤r +t azs s1` ¤r= +r= s « s== ==a =st « ¤’r¤r +t azs s1` ¤r= +r= s « s== ==a =st « ¤’r¤r +t azs s1` ¤r= +r= s « s== ==a =st « ¤’r¤r +t azs s1` ¤r= +r= s « s== ==a =st « ¤’r¤r +t azs s1`
( ¤t «> + z¤r =
.·).s)
·rzat +r º+¤r> ¤¬z ¤¤z ¤rz ¤tr¤ o-·r ·rzat +r º+¤r> ¤¬z ¤¤z ¤rz ¤tr¤ o-·r ·rzat +r º+¤r> ¤¬z ¤¤z ¤rz ¤tr¤ o-·r ·rzat +r º+¤r> ¤¬z ¤¤z ¤rz ¤tr¤ o-·r ·rzat +r º+¤r> ¤¬z ¤¤z ¤rz ¤tr¤ o-·r
)
¤t«> + z¤r= ¤¤=t =·¤rs +r =+¸ a =r : st s 1
s¬ rzr =ra ¤ ·rzat + ¤= ”¤r = +zr s r t+ar+ ta=rt s 1
¬r =¤¤ o ¬ z= + +r: ¤r ar ¤¸ zt azs t¤e os ¤r s=¤ + c
·rer-+e r t:¤r o¤r s 1 ¤r¬ ·rt ¬+ +r s a =r+ t+=t t«”r¤
¤z +r s t+ar+ ta=rar s ar s=+ tzat¤ ==+zªr tzat¤ ==+zªr tzat¤ ==+zªr tzat¤ ==+zªr tzat¤ ==+zªr ¤ =«¤
st + z+:a +z= ¤z ¤¬+¸ z sr ¬rar s 1
=rzt ·rzat ¤z ¤r ¬¸ : +zr s r t+ar+r + +t¤ ¤ ¤t«>
+ z¤r= st º+¤r> º =t ¤tr¤ ¤r z ¤¬z ¤¤z t+ar+ s ¬r
¤r¬ ·rt s=t =¤ ¤ s ¬ =t t+ «s t+-+ a ‘r = ¤ ·rt s=+r
:¸ =zr ºst’r= =st s 1 )=ee «”r = ·rt - ¤r:r =¤¤ +ta= +
+r«¬¸ : ·rt «s ¤¤= ¤¸ a ¤r z ‘r z =¤ ¤ =++r s¤a-·r s 1
s=¤ = ar + c +e r¤r ¬r =+ar s ¤r z = st ·rer¤r ¬r
=+ar s 1 +zr s r ar o s= zr ¬ r=r ¤e a s ¤r z ar=rr ar or
= s= +ªe=·r +z z=rr s 1 º =t ¤¬z ¤¤z t+ar+ º+
¤¬z ¤¤z s ’«z +t ¤r z = st = ·r« s 1
s=+t ¤r¤ar ¤ ¤= ”¤ + ¤= ¤ se= «ra =·rt ¤ ’=r
25 26
12
¤r z s= ¤ ’r ¤r= «rat =·rt =¤=¤r¤r +r sa a+ ¤r z nr=
+ ¤r·rrz ¤z =za =¤ ¤ ¤ ’r t+¤r o¤r s 1 ·¤t+a ¤r z
=¤r¬ +r ·¤t+aoa ¤r z =r¤¸ ts+ =¤ ¤ = ta+ar ¤·
¤r·¤ zr¬=tta ¤·r ·¤«=·rr ¤=r t«nr= ¤r z ¤ ·¤ + tr > ¤
=r+ ¤r z =t·r t=: ’r t:º oº s t¬-s =¬ z¤-:r¬ +z+
s-=ta ¤r z +-¤rªr = ·r« st =st s 1 ·rzat ¤r =¤ ¤r z ¤= ”¤
+ ¬-¤ + =-+-·r ¤ t¬a=t +ra +ars os s ¤r¬ ¤r·r t=+
t«nr= = s=+t =·¤ar +r =«t+rz t+¤r s 1 ¤·r ·¤«=·rr ¤z
¤t«> + z¤r= + t=¤¤ ¤r¬ : t=¤r +r ¤ro t:=rr zs s 1
: t=¤r + ¤·r ’rr=>t ¤r= zs s t+ t«’« +t ¤·r ·¤«=·rr +r
¤-:t = s+rz= + taº º+¤r> s¤r¤ + z¤r= +t -¤r¬ ztsa
¤·r ·¤«=·rr +r ¤¤=r=r s
¤s ¤= =¤zªr (+ z¤r=) t=’¤¤ st s¤= ¤s ¤= =¤zªr (+ z¤r=) t=’¤¤ st s¤= ¤s ¤= =¤zªr (+ z¤r=) t=’¤¤ st s¤= ¤s ¤= =¤zªr (+ z¤r=) t=’¤¤ st s¤= ¤s ¤= =¤zªr (+ z¤r=) t=’¤¤ st s¤=
¤«atza t+¤r s ¤r z s¤ =«¤ s=+ ztr+ s 1` ¤«atza t+¤r s ¤r z s¤ =«¤ s=+ ztr+ s 1` ¤«atza t+¤r s ¤r z s¤ =«¤ s=+ ztr+ s 1` ¤«atza t+¤r s ¤r z s¤ =«¤ s=+ ztr+ s 1` ¤«atza t+¤r s ¤r z s¤ =«¤ s=+ ztr+ s 1`
( = ¸ z r
¤a-ts¬ s)
+ z¤r= :¤ra ¤ra=srz +t ¤r z = º+ Reminder
s ¬r ¤¤= = ¤¸ « ¤«atza nr=` +t ¤ t”e +zar s 1 t¬=+r
ztr+ s ’«z s 1 + z¤r= ¤ ¤ r¤t= =t”r¤r -=t+¤r +r ¤tz>
¤r z s=+r ·r¤ = zttra s 1 s= ¤ +rz s ’«z = ¤r=«ar + taº
¤¤= ·r¤ +t ¤ ==·rr ¤=r ·rt +t s ¤r z ¤¤= ·r¤ ¤ ¤rz+
=t”r¤r ¤z ao= «ra m¸ e ¤rzr ¤r +r t=zr+zªr ·rt +z t:¤r
s 1 s=t + =r·r s== ¤¤=t :¤r = ·r¤ nr= ·r ar ¤ + zr”e r
+r t+z = º+ ¤r + r t:¤r s t¬=+ ¬ tz¤ «r ¤¤= -¤¤=
=t”r¤r + t=zr-a ¤r z ·¤«srz +r ¬r= =+a s ¤r z s-s
¤¤=r+z ¤¤= ¬-¤ +r s: : ’¤ ¤¸ zr +z =+a s 1 º =r ¤sr=
¤r z = zttra nr= ¤t«> + z¤r= ¬+ ¤= +r t=:r ”r t=”¤r¤
¤r z =¤r¬ ¤ +zr+zt : = «rar +arar s ar + z¤r= + +·r=
+r =«t+rz= ¤ ts¤t+¤rse +¤r °
¤r«ro¤= += =·r« s° ¤r«ro¤= += =·r« s° ¤r«ro¤= += =·r« s° ¤r«ro¤= += =·r« s° ¤r«ro¤= += =·r« s°
s-=r= + taº ¤s ¬r==r + s: ¬ =zt s t+ ¤z= +
+r: ¬t«r·¤r + =r·r +¤r sr ar s ° ¤st +ra s-=r= +r + z
+r¤r = +¤+z = + +r¤ +z= +t ¤ zªrr : at s 1 ¤ ·¤ + +r
¤¤= ‘r ·r-¤’r ·r +¤r +r +a ·rr o=r s a t+= t+= :’rr ¤ °
« t:+ ·r¤ ¤ =«o -=z+ +t ¤r-¤ar ¤rs ¬rat s 1 t¬=+r
=rªs= +z+ +r: ¤ ¤r«o¤= +t +-¤=r ¤ ¤taa +t os 1
=«r¤t ¬t = =«o -=z+ +r ¤a +rz +ar¤r ¤r z ¤r«o¤= +t
+-¤=r +r ¤ ¤rz t+¤r1 s-sr = +ar¤r t+ ¤r tr ¤ r-a ¤r·¤r ·rt
º+ t=t’¤a ¤«t·r a+ ¤ t+a-= =r ·rr o= + +r: ¬-¤ a at s
¤r z ¤r¤t ¤= ”¤r +t ¤r·¤rº ·rt +¤r = =rz ¤ao-¤ao ¤r t=¤r
¤ ¬-¤ a at s 1
¤r«ro¤= +t +-¤=r t=+ s= ¤e+a ¤z =rs t s t+
=+ +·¤ +¤¤= ¤ º+ ¬ = =st sr a 1 +r s zr¬=t ‘rr= =
¤aar s ¤r z +r s ozt+t ·r¸ =r ¤r z +t¤rzt +r t’r+rz sr ¬rar
s 1 º =r +¤r sr ar s ° +¤r s ’«z ¤-¤r¤t s ¬r t+=r +rzªr
st t+=t +r ¤rzr¤ ¤r z t+=t +r +”e : ar s ° +¤r t+ s ’«z
-¤r¤+rzt s s=taº s=+ srara ¤ ¤-az +r +rzªr ·rt s=+
st +¤r +r sr =r ¤rtsº ¤r z +¤r t+ s=+ «a ¤r= ¬-¤ ¤ º =
+¤ t:=rrs =st : a ar ¬=z s= ¬-¤ = ¤sa +r s ¬-¤ zsr
sr or1 ¤s t=+ º+ ¤e+a s s+t+a =st 1 º+ ¤= ”¤ ¬+
+r s ¤r¤ ¤r ¤ ª¤ +r +¤ +zar s ar s=+ sz + +¤ +r ¤ ·rr«
¤ao-¤ao ¤s ar s ¤r z s=+ +¤ = ¤ ·rrt«a sr +z :¸ =z
+s a = ar o ·rt ¤r¤ ¤ ª¤ +za s ¤r z t+z s=+r ¤ ·rr« ·rt
:¸ =zr ¤z ¤r z ·rt«”¤ +t ==ar ¤z ¤s ar s 1 ¤s t=at=ar
¤ a¤ a+ ¬rzt zs or1 s=ta¤ ¤ a¤ = ¤sa t+=t ¤= ”¤ +
+¤ + ¤¸ z ¤ ·rr« +r ¤r+a= = ·r« =st s 1 s=taº t+=t +r
¤ a¤ = ¤sa st s=+ +¤r +r +:ar : =r =-·r« =st s ¤r z
¤t: t+=t +r +:ar t:¤r ¬rar s ar ¤s ¤-¤r¤ +sar¤ or1
t+z ·rt ¤oz ¤r= ta¤r ¬rº t+ º+ ¤r¤t ¤= ”¤ +r s=+
¤r¤r +t =¬ r ·r oa= + taº ¤’r -¤trt ¤rt: +=r t:¤r ¬rar
s ar ¬+ s=+t =¬ r ¤¸ zt sr ¬r¤ ot ar s= t+= ¤r t= ¤ ¬-¤
t:¤r ¬rºor° +¤r t+ ¤= ”¤ ¤r t= ar +s ¤ ª¤ + +a=«=¤
27 28
13
t¤aat s 1 s=taº ¤= ”¤ ¤r t= ¤ ar ¬-¤ = ·r« =st s ¤r z
¤’r -¤trt ¤rt: +t ¤r t=¤r ¤ s= ·r ¬=r ·rt -¤r¤r t¤a =st s
+¤r t+ ¤¤= ¤r¤+¤r +t ¤¸ zt =¬ r «s ·r oa ¤ +r s 1
(az) ¤r tr ¤ r-a ¤r·¤r + ¬-¤ + t«”r¤ ¤ ·rt ¤st ¤ ’= sear
s 1 º+ t=t’¤a ¤«t·r a+ ¤t +a = =r ·rr o= + +r: ¤r tr ¤ r-a
¤r·¤r ¬-¤ a at s a t+= ¤ ’= ¤s s t+ t+= ¤r t= ¤ a at

(aa) ¤r¤ ar s== t+¤r st =st ·rr ¤r z ¤ ª¤ +r +a ·rt s=+
¤r= ¤+ ‘r ”r =st ·rr1 t=¤¤r= =rz s ’«z s= = ar ¤’r -¤trt
+=r =+ar s ¤r z = st ¤= ”¤1 +¤r -¤r¤+rzt ¤z¤ ’«z ¬t«
+r t+=r t+=t +¤ + ¤’r -¤trt ¤r ¤= ”¤ +t ¤r t= ¤ ¬-¤ :
=+ar s °
(a=) ¤t: ¤s ¤r= ·rt ta¤r ¬r¤ t+ :r =r +r =s ‘r =¤ra
¤= ”¤ ¤r t= = +zrs ¬rºot ar t+z +¤¤= ¤ ¬+ «r ·r¸ =r
-¤r= ¤r z ¤ r=¤ ¤rt: + =«r·rrt«+ +”e m a o ar s= +”er
+ ¤tc +¤r +rzªr ¤r=r ¬rºor° +¤r t+ ¤r¤ ar :r =r + st
‘r¸ -¤ s 1
s= azs ¤r«ro¤= +t +-¤=r = t¬= =-r=¤r +r
=¤r·rr= t=+ra= +t +r t’r’r +t os 1 «s =-r=¤r ar -¤r +t
·¤r zst ¤r z ¤z= + +r: «r=a« ¤ ¬r sr ar s s== ¤=¬r=
zs= + +rzªr ¬t« +r +s a =r +”e ser=r ¤s ar s 1
¤r«ro¤= · ¤nr=t +t ¤¸a ¤s¤r= ¤r«ro¤= · ¤nr=t +t ¤¸a ¤s¤r= ¤r«ro¤= · ¤nr=t +t ¤¸a ¤s¤r= ¤r«ro¤= · ¤nr=t +t ¤¸a ¤s¤r= ¤r«ro¤= · ¤nr=t +t ¤¸a ¤s¤r=
¤zar + ¤ =«o =z+ s 1` ¤s =·¤ s t¬= ·rrt¤ +
¬= =:r = ¤r=a ¤r¤ s 1 ¤r«ro¤= º+ t¤·¤r +-¤=r s t¬=
s¤t=”r: +ra ¤ :r’r t=+r = ¤¤= ¤= = oe r ·rr1 ¤ =¬ -¤`
+r ¤·r s :¸ =zt +rz ¬-¤ sr =r` ¬r t+ ¤zar + = =-+t-·ra s
¤r z =·¤ s 1 ¬+t+ ¤r«ro¤= s=t : t=¤r ¤ +rz-+rz ¬-¤ a =
+t « :t«=z ¤r z m¸ et ¤r-¤ar +r =r¤ s 1 s=+ =¤·r = ¤ « :r
¤ +r s =¸ +a ¤·r«r ¤·¤r¤ =st ¤r¤r ¬rar1 ·rrt¤ + ¤r z
:r’r t=+ :r =r ·¤t+a¤r + +t¤ =¤ ¤r z m¸ e +r ¤-az =¤”e
+z= «rar ¤s ¤ ¤ =r atrªr s 1
t+=t ·¤t+a +r s=+r ¬ ¤ +arº +o z ¤r z s=
¤¤=t =+rs +r ¤r + r t:º +o z =¬ r : =r ¤ r+ta+ -¤r¤ +
t=zr-a` + t=rar+ s 1 º =r +z=r ¬ -¤ s ¤r z s ’«z ¬ rta¤
=st s 1 ¬r ar o º =r ¤r=a s «r ar o ¤nr= + +rzªr s ’«z
¤z ¤rzr ¤ aora s 1
¤s « :r + =r·r =zr=z ¤-¤r¤ s t+ =r¤ ar « :r +r
ta¤r ¬rar s a t+= ¤ ’r :’r = +r t+¤r ¬rar s 1 s= ¤r¤a
¤ ¤z a«r:t ==ra=t ¤r z > a«r:t ¤r¤ :r =r =¤r= s 1 :’r =
+t o ata¤r =r a= = ar or +r t«’«r= ·r¤ = ·rt se ¬rar
s 1 ¤a· ¤s ztta st¤a =st s 1
+¤r ¤t+a =·r« s ° +¤r ¤t+a =·r« s ° +¤r ¤t+a =·r« s ° +¤r ¤t+a =·r« s ° +¤r ¤t+a =·r« s °
¤t: ¤ t+a + taº ¤¸ z ¬t«= ¤ ¤r¤ = +z=r ¤t=«r¤
t=¤¤ s ar t+z t+=t ¤= ”¤ +r ¤ t+a t¤a=r = ·r« =st s 1
t+=t ¤r z +r ar ¤ t+a +¤r t¤a ot ¬+t+ s= t=¤¤ +t
+-¤=r +z= «ra =r : =«r¤t ¬t +r st ¤ t+a t¤a=r = ·r« =st
s sra rt+ s=+r :r«r ·rr t+ ¤ = =rz +r + : +zr= =st + :
= c s r= ¤r¤r s ¸ a t+= ¬r =r : st ¤ t+a = ¤r =+ar sr «s
:¸ =z +r + = ¤ t+a t:ar =+ar s ° s== ¤ar ¤aar s t+
s=+ :r«r ¤ +r s =·¤rs =st ·rt1
(as) ¬+ ¤st”r + =az + ¤r:¤t +r st ¤t +a = t¤a ¤r¤ ar
+¤r + ¤rz =r·rrzªr ¬t« r +r ¤ t+a +t s-¤t: +z=r ·¤·r
=st s °
ar or +r tr¤r ¤r z ¤ t+a = t=zr’r +z= +r ¤tzªrr¤
¤s s ¤r t+ ar or +t t:a¤=¤t :¤r=-:t :’r = ¤ +¤ sr os
¤r z ¤r¤ =¤r¬ ¤t-:z zt««rz +r ·rt =¸ = = zs= ao 1 ar o
s·rz-s·rz s-¤t: +t t+zªr e ¸ e= ao 1 ¤sr a+ t+ =r : ¤r¤
=¤r¬ + =·rr=: r +t ¤t·=¤r ¤r z +·¤ ·rt ¤¸ ta -¤¸ ¬+
« :r-at ¤r z ¤-¤ ¤a «ra sr oº1
¤-¤ ·r¤o-·rr +t =¤ttrr +t t=z·r+ ¤”er ¤-¤ ·r¤o-·rr +t =¤ttrr +t t=z·r+ ¤”er ¤-¤ ·r¤o-·rr +t =¤ttrr +t t=z·r+ ¤”er ¤-¤ ·r¤o-·rr +t =¤ttrr +t t=z·r+ ¤”er ¤-¤ ·r¤o-·rr +t =¤ttrr +t t=z·r+ ¤”er
(ac) t¬= nr= +r « t:+ =rts·¤ +r s-sr = ¬t«= ·rz ¤e=
¤re= ¤ z=rr ¤r z =«¤ +r s=+r t«’r ”rn ·rr t”ra +z t:¤r
29 30
14
¬+ «r s=t +r =st =¤m ¤rº ar ¤-¤ ·r¤r + t¬= o -·rr +t
¤¸ a ·rr”rr +r nr= ·rt s-s =st ·rr ¤r z ¬sr asr = ¬ = -a =
¤= «r: : =r+z ¬-:+r¬ t ¤ s=+t =¤ttrr +z srat ar +¤r «s
=rzt =¤ttrrº =«¤ st ·¤·r sr +z t=z=a =st sr ¬rat °
¬r +ra s-sr = ¬ t=¤r ¤rt: + =rts·¤ + t«”r¤ ¤ +st
s «s =«¤ s= ¤z ·rt =et+ + eat s 1
s=ta¤ ¬ = º+ sªs ¤ ¤ s a ¤r«ar ¤ = º+ ¤r«a
+t ¤zttrr +z= = +·¤ « ¤++ s =+ ¤r«a t«t:a sr ¬ra s 1
º = st s= ·rr s = a =r = =-¬= ar o +s a =t +ra =¤m a o 1
+ tz¤r=r + =r¤= +s a ta=r=r ¤r«’¤+ =st 1`
(=·¤r·r ¤ +r’r zr:’re ¤ ”e a)s)
t¬=+r t«¤r =st sr at « ¤’r + =¤r= ¤·rr a·rr
+s r ¤r +za s 1 ¬ = =t-=¤ra -«z¤ +a ¤= ”¤ ¤ªs +ªs
++ar s « = st ¤t«zr=r + +s «r a =r +r ·¤·r =¤m=r
¤rts¤1 (=·¤r·r ¤ +r’r =-a¤e ¤ ”e
)a=)
¬r ¤t«’«r=t ¤¤t«>r·¤r ¤·r¤t ¤= ”¤r +r a =r
sr ar s s= ¤z t«’«r= +z=r +-¤rªr +t s·cr +z= «ra
¤= ”¤ +r +r¤ =st 1`
(=·¤r·r¤+r’r >¤r:’r=¤-ar= ¤”e a=s)
=t”r +r= srar s° =t”r +r= srar s° =t”r +r= srar s° =t”r +r= srar s° =t”r +r= srar s°
¤·r -=t”r + = sr a s ° ¬r ·r¤ +r =rtrra +z= «ra ¤r-a
¤ =”r sr a s ¬r =+ t«¤r¤r +r ¤·rr«a ¬r=a s 1`
(=·«:rt:·rr”¤·r¸t¤+r ¤”e )e)
nr= t+= +sa s° nr= t+= +sa s° nr= t+= +sa s° nr= t+= +sa s° nr= t+= +sa s°
¤·rr·r :’r = nr=t¤ta` ¤·rr·r :’r = nr=t¤ta` ¤·rr·r :’r = nr=t¤ta` ¤·rr·r :’r = nr=t¤ta` ¤·rr·r :’r = nr=t¤ta` t¬=+r ¬ =r o ªr +¤ =«·rr«
sr s= ¤:r·r +r « =r st ¬r=+z ¤r==r st nr= ¤r z t«nr=
+sarar s ¤r z s== s-er ¤nr=1
(=·¤r·r ¤+r’r =-a¤e ¤”e )zs)
(a.) +¤r s ’«z ¬t« ¤ + ta ¤z¤rªr + ¬rªs t+zªr ¤r =¤
« : ¤= =¤ ta ‘r¸ : t=¤r o -¤r¤ t’rtrr ¤r«ro¤= ¤r z
=¸ ¤r t: ¤z ¤ =”¤r + += sr = +t +-¤=r¤r +r =r¤= z=ra
s º ¤s +sr ¬r =+ar s t+ =«r¤t¬t +r =+ t«¤r¤r +r
¤·rr«a nr= ·rr °
(aa) ¤t: s-s =+ t«¤r¤r +r ¤·rr«a nr= =st ·rr ar +¤r s-s
=t”r +t-+ ¤st”r +s=r st¤a s °
º =r =st s t+ :¤r=-:¬t ¤¤=t «r=at«+ t=·rta =
¤«oa =st ·r 1 º+ +rz º+ ¤r:¤t = ¬+ s-s =t”r +sr ar
s-sr = s= ¤s +sr ·rr - º«·= ¤t: ¤ ¤st”r +ªrr: ¬ t¤=t
31 32
15
3 4
+ =¤¤ ¤ sr ar ar ¤ ¤ tsa st +sarar1 =t”r¤r + ¤·rr«
¤ ¤ m ar o ¤st”r +sa s 1¯ (¤o¤«a+ ¤st”re ¤”e )za)
=·¤ +r =«t+rz=r +s =rs= +r +r¤ s =·¤ +r =«t+rz=r +s =rs= +r +r¤ s =·¤ +r =«t+rz=r +s =rs= +r +r¤ s =·¤ +r =«t+rz=r +s =rs= +r +r¤ s =·¤ +r =«t+rz=r +s =rs= +r +r¤ s
¤= ”¤ +r ¤r·¤r =·¤r=·¤ +r ¬r== «rar s ¤¤=
¤ ¤r ¬= +t t=tz se : zro s ¤r z ¤t«¤rt: :r ”rr = =·¤ +r
cr s ¤=·¤ ¤ m + ¬rar s 1`
(=·¤r·r¤+r’r ·r¸t¤+r
¤”e z)
+ ¤¤r ¤¤=t ¤-azr·¤r +t ¤r«r¬ = = ¤¤=t ¤r·¤r
+r s== = +z ¤-¤·rr s ’«z +t ¤r z = :ªs=«=¤ +er z
¤ra=r ·rr o=t ¤s ot 1 « : ¤rnr =¤”e s - =«¤ ¤¬=« =«¤ ¤¬=« =«¤ ¤¬=« =«¤ ¤¬=« =«¤ ¤¬=«
=«¤ ¬”r=«` =«¤ ¬”r=«` =«¤ ¬”r=«` =«¤ ¬”r=«` =«¤ ¬ ”r=«` a¸ st +¤ +z ¤r z a¸ st s=+r +a ·rr o1
(¤¬ « :
a·)s)
¬r ¤=”¤ ¬ta sº ¤¤=t ¤r·¤r +r s== +za s « ¬r ¤=”¤ ¬ta sº ¤¤=t ¤r·¤r +r s== +za s « ¬r ¤=”¤ ¬ta sº ¤¤=t ¤r·¤r +r s== +za s « ¬r ¤=”¤ ¬ta sº ¤¤=t ¤r·¤r +r s== +za s « ¬r ¤=”¤ ¬ta sº ¤¤=t ¤r·¤r +r s== +za s «
¤z= + +r: ¤·r+rz¤¤ ¤=zr + ar+ +r ¬ra s1` ¤z= + +r: ¤·r+rz¤¤ ¤=zr + ar+ +r ¬ra s1` ¤z= + +r: ¤·r+rz¤¤ ¤=zr + ar+ +r ¬ra s1` ¤z= + +r: ¤·r+rz¤¤ ¤=zr + ar+ +r ¬ra s1` ¤z= + +r: ¤·r+rz¤¤ ¤=zr + ar+ +r ¬ra s1`
( ¤¬ « :
=e·a)
=·¤r·r¤+r’r ¤rt: o-·rr +r +¤r +z° =·¤r·r¤+r’r ¤rt: o-·rr +r +¤r +z° =·¤r·r¤+r’r ¤rt: o-·rr +r +¤r +z° =·¤r·r¤+r’r ¤rt: o-·rr +r +¤r +z° =·¤r·r¤+r’r ¤rt: o-·rr +r +¤r +z°
¬r +r s s= t¤·¤r o -·rr = =·¤ +r o sªr +z=r ¤rs
ar t¤·¤r ·rt s=+ oa ta¤e ¬r« 1 s=taº ¤=·¤t¤n ¤=·¤t¤n ¤=·¤t¤n ¤=·¤t¤n ¤=·¤t¤n
=·¤ :¸za=¤r-¤t¤ta` =·¤ :¸za=¤r-¤t¤ta` =·¤ :¸za=¤r-¤t¤ta` =·¤ :¸za=¤r-¤t¤ta` =·¤ :¸za=¤r-¤t¤ta` ¤=·¤ = ¤ +a o -·r=·r =·¤ +r ·rt
« = cr s : =r ¤rts¤ ¬ = t«”r¤ +a ¤-= +r 1
( =· ¤r · r ¤ +r ’r
aat¤e ¤”e =a)
t¬= t+ar+r ¤ =¤ + =r·r m¸ e ·rt t¤ar sr ar ·rr s-s
=«r¤t t+z¬r=-: ¬t =:t ¤ t++«r t:¤r +za ·r 1 =«¤
:¤r=-: ¬t +r ¤r¤zªr ·rt ¤st ·rr ¤r z s=t +t t’rtrr s-sr =
¤¤= ¤r== «rar +r :t s 1 ¤+ ¤st sra s=+ =rts·¤ +r s
ar ¤¤= ¤r== «rar + taº s=+r ¤r: ’r s t+
·rr s r =·¤ ar s ¤z-a s=+ =r·r +s a =r ¤=·¤ ·rt
s s== t«”r=-¤ +ar-=«a ·¤r-¤r·` ¬ = ¤·¤ ·a¤ ¤-= t«”r
= ¤ +a sr = = cr s = ¤r ·¤ sr ar s « = ¤ o -·r s 1`
( =· ¤r · r ¤ +r ’r
aat¤e ¤”e =a)
(as) +¤r « :¤ar= ¤r¤t ¤¤= o = + ¤: t¤-sr ¤z ¤aa s º
:¤r=-:+ a =rts·¤ + =r·r ·rt º =r +z=r ¤=-: +z o ¤·r«r
=st °
=«r¤t ¬t +r =+aar =st t¤at =«r¤t ¬t +r =+aar =st t¤at =«r¤t ¬t +r =+aar =st t¤at =«r¤t ¬t +r =+aar =st t¤at =«r¤t ¬t +r =+aar =st t¤at
=«r¤t ¬t = =¤r¬ ¤ ¬r + zrs : =rt ¤¤=t ¬r= +r
=raz ¤ sra+z s=+r t«zr ·r t+¤r ¤r z ¤s +s= +r =rs=
t+¤r t+ ts-:¸ =¤r¬ ·r¤ + =r¤ ¤z ¤r=rªs ·r ”er¤rz ¤r z
= ta+ ¤a= +r t’r+rz sr o¤r s 1 «s s ’«z + «r=at«+
=«=¤ ¤r z ·r¤ + ¤¤ = « t¤a sr o¤r s 1 a t+= ¤oz =¤o
: t”e = : =rr ¬r¤ ar :¤r=-: ¬t ¤¤= +·r= ¤r z s: : ’¤ +r
¤¸ zr +z= ¤ =+a =st sr ¤rº +¤r t+ s=+r = ar +r s ¤r ot
o =` t¤ar ¤r z = st s-s =··r t’r«` + :’r = s º t¬=+ taº
«r ·rz = t=+a ·r 1 « :r +r ·rt «r =¤m =st ¤rº ¤r z = =rz
+ + := rr= = ·rt t+=t +r ¤ t+a = t:ar =+ +t-+ =r : st
¤ t+a = ¤r =+ 1 ¤¤= =¤r¬ + ¤r=rtªs¤r = s-sr = = ·r”r
t+¤r1 t¬=+ =at¬ ¤ s-s ¤¤= ¤ rªr o «r= ¤s 1 s=+r
« :·rr”¤ ·rt ¤·r¸ zr st zs o¤r1 :¸ =zr ¬-¤ a +z s= ¤¸ zr +z=
+t +ra s-sr = +st a t+= :¸ =zr ¬-¤ ·rt «r ¤sr =st a ¤rº
+¤r t+ ¤r«ro¤= sr ar =st s 1 s-sr = ¤r¤ =¤r¬ +t =·rr¤=r
+t a t+= «s ·rt ¤¤=t =·rr¤=r + s: : ’¤ = ·re+ o¤r s -
t+-a s¤rzt t’rzr¤tªr =·rr ¤·rt a+ sear«’r ¤¤r=z t+-a s¤rzt t’rzr¤tªr =·rr ¤·rt a+ sear«’r ¤¤r=z t+-a s¤rzt t’rzr¤tªr =·rr ¤·rt a+ sear«’r ¤¤r=z t+-a s¤rzt t’rzr¤tªr =·rr ¤·rt a+ sear«’r ¤¤r=z t+-a s¤rzt t’rzr¤tªr =·rr ¤·rt a+ sear«’r ¤¤r=z
+ ¤ro ¤z ¤a zst s1` + ¤ro ¤z ¤a zst s1` + ¤ro ¤z ¤a zst s1` + ¤ro ¤z ¤a zst s1` + ¤ro ¤z ¤a zst s1`
(s¤+¤tªr+r =·«:rt:·rr”¤·r¸t¤+r
¤”e a)
=·¤ o= +t =rr¬ · «a¤r= =¤r¬ +t t¬-¤:rzt =·¤ o= +t =rr¬ · «a¤r= =¤r¬ +t t¬-¤:rzt =·¤ o= +t =rr¬ · «a¤r= =¤r¬ +t t¬-¤:rzt =·¤ o= +t =rr¬ · «a¤r= =¤r¬ +t t¬-¤:rzt =·¤ o= +t =rr¬ · «a¤r= =¤r¬ +t t¬-¤:rzt
¤t: +r s ¤r:¤t «s =·¤ ¤r=r ¤rsar s ¬r s= ¤ r-a
=st s ar ¤sa s= «s =·¤ =«t+rz=r ¤s or ¬r s=
16
s¤a-·r s 1 ¤r z ¤s =·¤ =¤”e s t+ « :r +r = ar t==+a`
+ ¤r·rrz ¤z =¤mr ¬r =+ar s ¤r z = st ¤z-¤zr + ¤r·
rrz ¤z1 «r º+ º =t ¤s at s t¬-s + «a «st = amr =+ar
s t¬== s-s z¤r s 1 ¤t: « : s ’«zr +a s ar ·rt +r s ¤= ”¤
s=+ zs=¤ +r ¤¤=t + tz +t ¤e+a + +a ¤z =st = amr
=+ar ¤r z ¤t: «s =t”r¤r +t z¤=r s ar ·rt s-s = amr=
+ taº º+ =t”r ¤rts¤ ¤·rr a º+ º =r ·¤t+a ¬r =+
t«¤r¤r +r ¤·rr«a ¬r=ar sr 1 =t”r ¤rs « : + : ”er sr ¤·r«r
= ”er a t+= ¤s =·¤ s t+ « :r +r ¤ ¤rz =t”r¤r = st t+¤r
s 1 ¤r¬ ¤t: « :r + ¤-a·¤ ¤ +st samr« ¤r z ¤=¤”ear s
ar s= = amr= + taº +r s :r’r t=+ =st +t-+ º+ =t”r
¤rtsº1 º+ =t”r +t º+ o = +t ¬ =za ¤r=« ¤r> +r
s¤ ’rr = zst s ¤r z ¤r¬ ·rt s 1
«s +r = sr =+ar s ° ¤s ar +szsra =rr ¬ +r
t«”r¤ s a t+= ¤s ¤ ¤rtªra sr ¤ +r s t+ =«r¤t :¤r=-: ¬t
s= ¬ =za +r ¤¸ zr =st +z =+a 1 s=+ ¬t«= + +e
¤= ·r«r ¤r z « :r·r +r =¤m ¤r= ¤ s=+t ¤r z s== ¤¸ « +
·rr”¤+rzr +t =r+r¤t = ¤ar ¤aar s t+ ·rrza ·r¸ t¤ +r+t
=¤¤ = «r=at«+ ¤r z ¤¸ ªr nr=t o = = tz+a s 1 ¤s : =r:
s a t+= =¤ ¤st s 1
s=+ +r«¬¸ : s¤ ¤+ t= s t+ ·rrza ¬-: st ¤¤=r
=rr ¤r s ¤r ·r¤ =·¤ ¤r z or z« ¤ r-a +z a or +¤r t+
·rrza«r=t =«·rr« = st nr=r+ rtrt s 1 ·ar +ars¬ ’r= + :r z
¤ ¤+ ¬rta ·rr”rr ¤r z zr”e +t + + t=¤r: :t«rz ·rt esat ¬r
zst s 1 ¤’rs¸ z ¤t=t +sr«a s t+
¬+ t«¤r·rt a¤rz sr ¬rar s ar o= s¤t=·ra sr ¬+ t«¤r·rt a¤rz sr ¬rar s ar o= s¤t=·ra sr ¬+ t«¤r·rt a¤rz sr ¬rar s ar o= s¤t=·ra sr ¬+ t«¤r·rt a¤rz sr ¬rar s ar o= s¤t=·ra sr ¬+ t«¤r·rt a¤rz sr ¬rar s ar o= s¤t=·ra sr
¬rar s 1` ¬rar s 1` ¬rar s 1` ¬rar s 1` ¬rar s 1`
¬r e¸ear s «s ¤rar s at+= ... ¬r e¸ear s «s ¤rar s at+= ... ¬r e¸ear s «s ¤rar s at+= ... ¬r e¸ear s «s ¤rar s at+= ... ¬r e¸ear s «s ¤rar s at+= ...
o = +t =rr ¬ +r ¤t·r¤r= ¬rzt zt=r¤ +¤r t+ ¬r
e¸ ear s «st ¤rar s 1 s= ¬osr ¤z ·rt aar’r +tt¬º ¬sr
¤·rt a+ aar’r = t+¤r sr 1 sr =+ar s t+ =t”r s= =¤
¤ ¤r z s= ¤tzt·r ¤ t¤a t¬=+t +-¤=r ·rt = +t sr 1 =t”r
s= ·r ”r-·rr”rr : ’r ¤r z « ’r ¤ t¤a t¬= =«t+rz=r t=¬t
¤s +rz ¤r z zr”e t¤ o« ¤z ¤r e +zar sr 1 +szsra =t”r st
=·¤r o = sr =+ar s 1 ¤+ «r ¬ = ·rt t¤a ¤r z ¬sr ·rt t¤a
·r¤ +r =rtrr·r +z=r ¤r z =+ t«¤r¤r +r ¤·rr«a ¬r==r`
s=+r ¤¸ a atrªr s 1 ¤r¤ s= s= atrªr = ¤s¤r= ¬rº o 1
=+ t«¤r¤r + ¤·rr«a ¬r== ` +r ¤z+t ¤ s-¤ s-¤ s-¤ s-¤ s-¤
¤=¤r +-asr` ¤=¤r +-asr` ¤=¤r +-asr` ¤=¤r +-asr` ¤=¤r +-asr` +sa s ¤rz s= ¤ o -+z s¬ za ¤ s-¤: =rs+
(=-ae ¤·rr a s=¤z ‘rrt-a sr ) +t t«’r ”rar +ars os s 1
: t=r¤ ¬rt=¤ =r t¤¤ =¤tm¤ ¤r z t+z + =ar +tt¬º
+¤r t+ ¤r¤+ + =a = st ¤r¤+r ·rt«”¤ t=·rr tza sr ar s 1
¤r¤+ t«¤rz = st ¤r¤+ +¤ +¸ ea s ¤r z ¤¤= +¤r +r +a
·rt ¤r¤+r =«¤ st ·rr o=r s 1 ¤r¤ =·¤ +t =rr ¬ ¤r z =«t+rz
+ ¤ro ¤z ¤ro +e +z ¤¤=r ¬t«= =«o +=r=r ¤rsa s
¤ t+a ¤r= : ¤r z s ’«z ¤r=r ¤rsa s ¤r t+z ·r ªrr taz=+rz
¤r z ¤¤= ¤ s+rz +t = ¤t :t«rz = st =z e+zra zs=r
¤rsa s ° ¤r=t «st t¤a or ¬sr t+ «r=a« ¤ «s ¤r ¬¸ : s 1
¤ o¤ztt¤+r` = t+=t +r ¤r¬ a+ ¤r=t ==t+ =st s ¤r ar
¤r¤+r + = t¤a ¬rºor °


e¸ te¤ a t+= «sr ¬sr t+ «s =¤¤ ¤ s 1 e¸ te¤ a t+= «sr ¬sr t+ «s =¤¤ ¤ s 1 e¸ te¤ a t+= «sr ¬sr t+ «s =¤¤ ¤ s 1 e¸ te¤ a t+= «sr ¬sr t+ «s =¤¤ ¤ s 1 e¸ te¤ a t+= «sr ¬sr t+ «s =¤¤ ¤ s 1
=e ^--- lR; vlR; ds xzg.k o R;kx
djus eas lnk m|r jgus okys vk;Z D;k
nwljksa dks gh mins’k nsrs jgssaxs\ D;k os Lo;a
lR; i{k dks xzg.k djus eas gBo’k ladksp
gh djrs jgsaxs\*
(=·« :rt:·rr”¤·r¸ t¤+r ¤ ”e
.)
s= t«”r¤ ¤z ¤t·r+ ¬r=+rzt + taº s= t«”r¤ ¤z ¤t·r+ ¬r=+rzt + taº s= t«”r¤ ¤z ¤t·r+ ¬r=+rzt + taº s= t«”r¤ ¤z ¤t·r+ ¬r=+rzt + taº s= t«”r¤ ¤z ¤t·r+ ¬r=+rzt + taº
17
s¤¤r ot o -·r · s¤¤r ot o -·r · s¤¤r ot o -·r · s¤¤r ot o -·r · s¤¤r ot o -·r ·
). + z¤r= ¤¬t: · º+ ¤tz¤¤ + z¤r= ¤¬t: · º+ ¤tz¤¤ + z¤r= ¤¬t: · º+ ¤tz¤¤ + z¤r= ¤¬t: · º+ ¤tz¤¤ + z¤r= ¤¬t: · º+ ¤tz¤¤
a=r+ · ¤rar=r =:=::t= s=arst
¤·rz =:’r =o¤ E-ze ¤+a +-a s-+a«
¬rt¤¤r =oz =s t:-at - ))eezs
z. ¤r«ro¤=t¤ ¤ =¬ -¤ ¤r«ro¤=t¤ ¤ =¬ -¤ ¤r«ro¤=t¤ ¤ =¬ -¤ ¤r«ro¤=t¤ ¤ =¬ -¤ ¤r«ro¤=t¤ ¤ =¬ -¤
a=r+ · sre ¤s--r: ¤s¤:
t¤a= +r ¤ar s¤zr+a
a. t+a= :¸ z t+a= ¤r= t+a= :¸ z t+a= ¤r= t+a= :¸ z t+a= ¤r= t+a= :¸ z t+a= ¤r= t+a= :¸ z t+a= ¤r=
a=r+ · =ª¤: ¤-:-ars artz+
¤+r’r+ · zr’r=t ¤t-at’ro sr==
+r¬rz ===-ars =rr zr¤¤z (se¤e)
online: islaminhindi.blogspot.com
=. =zr’r = ¤r z ¤t-a¤ =t”r =zr’r = ¤r z ¤t-a¤ =t”r =zr’r = ¤r z ¤t-a¤ =t”r =zr’r = ¤r z ¤t-a¤ =t”r =zr’r = ¤r z ¤t-a¤ =t”r
a=r+ · sre «:¤+r’r s¤r·¤r¤
¤+r’r+ · ¬-s¸z ++ ts¤r t=+e ¤t=a¤ +s
:«+-: (se¤e) z=.ss=
online: islaminhindi.blogspot.com
s. s=ar¤ · ¤ra + ¤r ¤r:’r ° s=ar¤ · ¤ra + ¤r ¤r:’r ° s=ar¤ · ¤ra + ¤r ¤r:’r ° s=ar¤ · ¤ra + ¤r ¤r:’r ° s=ar¤ · ¤ra + ¤r ¤r:’r °
a=r+ · nt =«r¤t at¤t‘r+zr¤r¤ ¬t
A- )ce) ¤r«r= t«+r= +rar=t s=¤z¤ =r+=ar
+r=¤ z-ze)ez)