You are on page 1of 36

European and colo nial architecture

European and colo nial architecture Sicilian Baroque : Basilica della Collegiata , Catania, Sicily, Italy. With

Sicilian Baroque: Basilica della

Collegiata, Catania, Sicily, Italy.

With the rise of various Euro pean colonial empires from the 16th centu ry onward through the early 20th century, the n ew stylistic trends of Europe were exporte d to or adopted by locations around the world, o ften evolving into new regional variations.

Baroque architecture

Main article: Baroque archite cture

The periods of Mannerism

and the Baroque that followed the Renais ssance signaled an

increasing anxiety over mea ning and representation. Important develo pments in science and philosophy had separat ed mathematical representations of reality y from the rest of culture, fundamentally cha nging the way humans related to the ir world through architecture. [citation needed] It w ould reach its most extreme and embelli shed development under the decorative tastes o f Rococo.

Baroque architecture is the Italy, that took the Roman

building style of the Baroque era, begun in vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and

late 16th century used it in a new

rhetorical and theatrical fash ion, often to express the triumph of the C atholic Church and the absolutist state. It was ch aracterized by new explorations of form, lig ht and shadow and dramatic intensity.

Whereas the Renaissance dr ew on the wealth and power of the Italian

courts and was a

blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was, initially at least, di rectly linked to the

Counter-Reformation, a mov ement within the Catholic Church to reform

itself in response

to the Protestant Reformatio n. [2] Baroque architecture and its embellish ments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, a visib le statement of the

wealth and power of the Chu rch. The new style manifested itself in partic ular in the context

of the new religious orders , like the Theatines and the Jesuits who

popular piety.

aimed to improve

The architecture of the High

Roman Baroque can be assigned to the pa pal reigns of Urban

VIII, Innocent X and Alexan der VII, spanning from 1623 to 1667. T he three principal

architects of this period were the sculptor Gianlorenzo Bernini, Francesco

Borromini and the

painter Pietro da Cortona an d each evolved their own distinctively indi vidual architectural

expression.

Dissemination of Baroque ar chitecture to the south of Italy resulted in

regional variations

such as Sicilian Baroque archi tecture or that of Naples and Lecce. To the

north, the Theatine

architect Camillo-Guarino G uarini, Bernardo Vittone and Sicilian bo rn Filippo Juvarra

contributed Baroque building s to the city of Turin and the Piedmont regio n.

A synthesis of Bernini, Borrom

mini and Cortona s architecture can be seen in the late Baroque

architecture of northern Euro pe which paved the way for the more decor ative Rococo style.

By the middle of the 17th cen tury, the Baroque style had found its secula r expression in the

form of grand palaces, first i n France with the Château de Maisons (1 642) near Paris by

François Mansart and then

throughout Europe.

During the 17th century, Bar oque architecture spread through Europe

where it was particularly pro moted by the Jesuits.

and Latin America,

Precursors and feat ures of Baroque architecture

wealth and power of the Chu rch. The new style manifested itself in partic ular in

Grassalkovich Palace, Gödöll , Hungary designed by Andreas Mayerhoffe r

Michelangelo 's late Roman buildings, particularly St. Peter's Basilica , may be considered precursors to Baroque

Michelangelo's late Roman buildings, particularly St. Peter's Basilica, may be considered

precursors to Baroque architecture. His pupil Giacomo della Porta continued this work in

Rome, particularly in the façade of the Jesuit church Il Gesù, which leads directly to the most

important church façade of the early Baroque, Santa Susanna (1603), by Carlo Maderno [3]

Distinctive features of Baroque architecture can include:

In churches, broader naves and sometimes given oval forms

Fragmentary or deliberately incomplete architectural elements

dramatic use of light; either strong light-and-shade contrasts (chiaroscuro effects) as

at the church of Weltenburg Abbey, or uniform lighting by means of several windows

(e.g. church of Weingarten Abbey)

opulent use of colour and ornaments (putti or figures made of wood (often gilded),

plaster or stucco, marble or faux finishing)

large-scale ceiling frescoes

an external façade often characterized by a dramatic central projection

the interior is a shell for painting, sculpture and stucco (especially in the late

Baroque)

illusory effects like trompe l'oeil (an art technique involving extremely realistic

imagery in order to create the optical illusion that the depicted objects appear in

three dimensions.) and the blending of painting and architecture

pear-shaped domes in the Bavarian, Czech, Polish and Ukrainian Baroque

Marian and Holy Trinity columns erected in Catholic countries, often in thanksgiving

for ending a plague

In churches, broader naves and sometimes given oval forms Fragmentary or deliberately incomplete architectural elements dramatic

Elector's Palace in Trier, Germany

Santa Susanna in Rom e , Italy Peter and Paul Cathed ral in Saint Petersburg ,

Santa Susanna in Rom e, Italy

Santa Susanna in Rom e , Italy Peter and Paul Cathed ral in Saint Petersburg ,

Peter and Paul Cathed ral in Saint Petersburg, Russia

Santa Susanna in Rom e , Italy Peter and Paul Cathed ral in Saint Petersburg ,

Saints Peter and Paul

Church in Krakow, Poland

The Baroque and colonial ism

Santa Susanna in Rom e , Italy Peter and Paul Cathed ral in Saint Petersburg ,

During the Portuguese colo nization of Goa, India brought about ma ny churches with

baroque architecture (Our La dy of the Immaculate Conception Church).

Though the tendency has be en to see Baroque architecture as a Europe an phenomenon, it

coincided with, and is int egrally enmeshed with, the rise of Euro pean colonialism.

Colonialism required the dev elopment of centralized and powerful gover nments with Spain

and France, the first to mov e in this direction. [4] Colonialism brought in

huge amounts of

wealth, not only in the silve r that was extracted from the mines in B olivia, Mexico and

elsewhere, but also in the re sultant trade in commodities, such as suga r and tobacco. The

need to control trade routes, monopolies, and slavery, which lay primarily in the hands of

the French during the 17th century, created an almost endless cycle of wars between the

colonial powers: the French religious wars, the Thirty Years' War (1618 and 1648), Franco

Spanish War (1653), the Franco-Dutch War (1672 1678), and so on. The initial

mismanagement of colonial wealth by the Spaniards bankrupted them in the 16th century

(1557 and 1560), recovering only slowly in the following century. This explains why the

Baroque style, though enthusiastically developed in Spain, was to a large extent, in Spain, an

architecture of surfaces and façades, unlike in France and Austria where we see the

construction of numerous huge palaces and monasteries. In contrast to Spain, the French,

under Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619 1683), the minister of finance, had begun to industrialize

their economy, and thus, were able to become, initially at least, the benefactors of the flow

of wealth. While this was good for the building industries and the arts, the new wealth

created an inflation, the likes of which had never been experienced before. Rome was

known just as much for its new sumptuous churches as for its vagabonds. [5]

Italy

Main articles: Italian Baroque and Italian Baroque architecture

Rome and Southern Italy

See also: Sicilian Baroque

A number of ecclesiastical buildings of the Baroque period in Rome had plans based on the

Italian paradigm of the basilica with a crossed dome and nave, but the treatment of the

architecture was very different to what had been carried out previously. One of the first

Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions exemplified in the Gesù, was the

church of Santa Susanna, designed by Carlo Maderno. The dynamic rhythm of columns and

pilasters, central massing, and the protrusion and condensed central decoration add

complexity to the structure. There is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design,

but it still maintains rigor.

The same concerns with plasticity, massing, dramatic effects and shadow and light is evident

in the architectural work of Pietro da Cortona, illustrated by his design of Santi Luca e

Martina (construction began in 1635) with what was probably the first curved Baroque

church facade in Rome. [6] These concerns are even more evident in his reworking of Santa

Maria della Pace (1656-8). The facade with its chiaroscuro half-domed portico and concave

side wings, closely resembles a theatrical stage set and the church facade projects forward

so that it substantially fills the tiny trapezoidal piazza. Other Roman ensembles of the

Baroque and Late Baroque period are likewise suffused with theatricality and, as urban

theatres, provide points of focus within their locality in the surrounding cityscape.

Probably the most well known example of such an approach is Saint Peter's Square, which

has been praised as a masterstroke of Baroque theatre. The piazza, designed by Gian

Lorenzo Bernini, is formed principally by two colonnades of free standing columns centred

on an Egyptian obelisk. Bernini's own favourite design was his oval church of Sant'Andrea al

Quirinale decorated with polychome marbles and an ornate gold dome. His secular

architecture included the Pa lazzo Barberini based on plans by Madern o and the Palazzo

Chigi-Odescalchi (1664), both in Rome.

architecture included the Pa lazzo Barberini based on plans by Madern o and the Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi

Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza by Fran cesco Borromini

Bernini's rival, the archite ct Francesco Borromini, produced desig ns that deviated

dramatically from the regul ar compositions of the ancient world and

Renaissance. His

building plans were based

on complex geometric figures, his archite ctural forms were

unusual and inventive and

he employed multi-layered symbolism i n his architectural

designs. Borromini's archite ctural spaces seem to expand and contr act when needed,

showing some affinity with

the late style of Michelangelo. His iconic

diminutive church of San Ca rlo alle Quattro Fontane, distinguished by

masterpiece is the

a complicated plan

arrangement that is partly ov al and partly a cross and so has complex co nvex-concave wall

rhythms. A later work, the

church of Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza, displays

the same playful

inventiveness and antipathy

lantern above the dome.

to the flat surface, epitomized by an un usual corkscrew

Following the death of Bern ini in 1680, Carlo Fontana emerged as th e most influential

architect working in Rome. H is early style is exemplified by the slightly

concave façade of

San Marcello al Corso. Fo ntana's academic approach, though lac king the dazzling

inventiveness of his Roma n predecessors, exerted substantial influ ence on Baroque

architecture both through h is prolific writings and through a numbe r of architects he

trained, who would dissemin ate the Baroque idioms throughout 18th cen tury Europe.

The 18th century saw the ca pital of Europe's architectural world transfe rred from Rome to

Paris. The Italian Rococo, whi ch flourished in Rome from the 1720s onwa rd, was profoundly

influenced by the ideas of

Borromini. The most talented architects

active in Rome

Francesco de Sanctis (Span ish Steps, 1723) and Filippo Raguzzini (P iazza Sant'Ignazio,

1727) had little influence o utside their native country, as did numero us practitioners of

the Sicilian Baroque, includi ng Giovanni Battista Vaccarini, Andrea Pal ma, and Giuseppe

Venanzio Marvuglia.

Basilica di Superga near Turin by Filippo Juvarra The last phase of Baroque a rchitecture in

Basilica di Superga near Turin

by Filippo Juvarra

The last phase of Baroque a rchitecture in Italy is exemplified by Luigi

Vanvitelli's Caserta

Palace, reputedly the largest

building erected in Europe in the 18th ce ntury. Indebted to

contemporary French and Sp anish models, the palace is skillfully related

to the landscape.

At Naples and Caserta, Van vitelli practiced a sober and classicizing ac ademic style, with

equal attention to aesthetics and engineering, a style that would make a n easy transition to

Neoclassicism.

Northern Italy

In the north of Italy, the mo narchs from the House of Savoy were partic cularly receptive to

the new style. They emplo yed a brilliant triad of architects Guarin o Guarini, Filippo

Juvarra, and Bernardo Vitton e to illustrate the grandiose political ambit ions and the newly

acquired royal status of their dynasty.

Guarini was a peripatetic m onk who combined many traditions (includ ing that of Gothic

architecture) to create irr egular structures remarkable for their o val columns and

unconventional façades. Bu ilding upon the findings of contempora ry geometry and

stereometry, Guarini elabora ted the concept of architectura obliqua, w hich approximated

Borromini's style in both th eoretical and structural audacity. Guarini's

Palazzo Carignano

(1679) may have been the mo st flamboyant application of the Baroque st yle to the design of

a private house in the 17th ce ntury.

Fluid forms, weightless detai ls, and the airy prospects of Juvarra's archi tecture anticipated

the art of Rococo. Although

his practice ranged well beyond Turin, Juvar ra's most arresting

designs were created for Vic tor Amadeus II of Sardinia. The visual impa ct of his Basilica di

Superga (1717) derives from

its soaring roof-line and masterful placem ent on a hill above

Turin. The rustic ambiance en couraged a freer articulation of architectura al form at the royal

hunting lodge of the Palazzi na di Stupinigi (1729). Juvarra finished his

short but eventful

career in Madrid, where he w orked on the royal palaces at La Granja and

Aranjuez.

Among the many who were

profoundly influenced by the brilliance and

diversity of Juvarra

and Guarini, none was more i mportant than Bernardo Vittone. This Piedm ontese architect is

remembered for an outcrop

of flamboyant Rococo churches, quatrefoil i n plan and delicate

in detailing. His sophisticat ed designs often feature multiple vaults,

structures and domes within domes.

structures within

Malta

Mellie a Parish Church dedic ated to Our Lady in Malta The island of Malta contains

Mellie a Parish Church dedic ated to Our Lady in Malta

The island of Malta contains a variety of Baroque architecture, most imp ortantly the capital

city of Valletta. It was laid ou t in 1566 to fortify the Knights of Rhodes, w ho had taken over

the island when they were

Francesco Laparelli on a grid

driven from Rhodes by Islamic armies. The

city, designed by

plan, and built up over the next century, re mains a particularly

coherent example of Baroqu e urbanism. Its massive fortifications, whic h were considered

state of the art until the mo dern age, are also largely intact. Valletta

World Heritage Site in 1980.

became a UNESCO

Spain

Main article: Spanish Baroque

As Italian Baroque influences

penetrated across the Pyrenees, they grad ually superseded in

popularity the restrained clas sicizing approach of Juan de Herrera, which

had been in vogue

since the late 16th century.

As early as 1667, the façades of Granada Ca thedral (by Alonso

Cano) and Jaén Cathedral ( by Eufrasio López de Rojas) suggest the

artists' fluency in

interpreting traditional motif fs of Spanish cathedral architecture in the

idiom.

Baroque aesthetic

Mellie a Parish Church dedic ated to Our Lady in Malta The island of Malta contains

The most impressive display

of Churrigueresque spatial decoration ma y be found in the

west façade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela).

Royal Palace of La Granja In contrast to the art of Nor rthern Europe, the Spanish

Royal Palace of La Granja

In contrast to the art of Nor rthern Europe, the Spanish art of the perio d appealed to the

emotions rather than seeki ng to please the intellect. The Churrigu era family, which

specialized in designing altars

and retables, revolted against the sobriety of the Herreresque

classicism and promoted a n intricate, exaggerated, almost capriciou s style of surface

decoration known as the

Churrigueresque.

Within

half

a

century,

they transformed

Salamanca into an exemplar y Churrigueresque city. Among the highligh ts of the style, the

interiors of the Granada Cha rterhouse offer some of the most impressi ve combinations of

space and light in 18th-cent ury Europe. Integrating sculpture and archi tecture even more

radically, Narciso Tomé achi eved striking chiaroscuro effects in his Tr ansparente for the

Toledo Cathedral.

The development of the styl e passed through three phases. Between 1 680 and 1720, the

Churriguera popularized Gua rini's blend of Solomonic columns and comp osite order, known

as the "supreme order". Bet ween 1720 and 1760, the Churrigueresque c olumn, or estipite,

in the shape of an inverted

cone or obelisk, was established as a c entral element of

ornamental decoration. The

years from 1760 to 1780 saw a gradual shi ft of interest away

from twisted movement and

excessive ornamentation toward a neocla ssical balance and

sobriety.

Two of the most eye-catching

creations of Spanish Baroque are the energ etic façades of the

University of Valladolid (Dieg o Tomé, 1719) and Hospicio de San Fernand o in Madrid (Pedro

de Ribera, 1722), whose cur vilinear extravagance seems to herald Anto nio Gaudí and Art

Nouveau. In this case as in

many others, the design involves a pla y of tectonic and

decorative elements with lit tle relation to structure and function. The

focus of the florid

ornamentation is an elaborat ely sculptured surround to a main doorway . If we remove the

intricate maze of broken ped iments, undulating cornices, stucco shells, in verted tapers, and

garlands from the rather pl ain wall it is set against, the building's fo rm would not be

affected in the slightest.

Spanish America an d territories

Catedral Metropolitana , Mexi ico City , started in 1573 Main articles: Spanish Baroqu e architecture

Catedral Metropolitana, Mexi ico City, started in 1573

Main articles: Spanish Baroqu e architecture and Andean Baroque

The combination of the Na tive American and Moorish decorative i nfluences with an

extremely expressive interpr etation of the Churrigueresque idiom may a ccount for the full-

bodied and varied character

of the Baroque in the American colonies o f Spain. Even more

than its Spanish counterpart, American Baroque developed as a style of stucco decoration.

Twin-towered façades of ma ny American cathedrals of the 17th century

had medieval roots

and the full-fledged Baroque

did not appear until 1664, when a Jesuit s hrine on Plaza des

Armas in Cusco was built.

churches.

Even then, the new style hardly affected d the structure of

Catedral Metropolitana , Mexi ico City , started in 1573 Main articles: Spanish Baroqu e architecture

Chapel of the Church of Santo

Domingo, Puebla, Mexico

To the north, the richest pr ovince of 18th-century New Spain Mexic o produced some

fantastically extravagant

and

visually

frenetic

architecture

kno wn

as

Mexican

Churrigueresque. This ultra -Baroque approach culminates in the

works of Lorenzo

Rodriguez, whose masterpie ce is the Sagrario Metropolitano in Mexic o City. Other fine

examples of the style may

be found in remote silver-mining towns.

For instance, the

Sanctuary at Ocotlán (begun i n 1745) is a top-notch Baroque cathedral su rfaced in bright red

tiles, which contrast delightfu lly with a plethora of compressed ornament

lavishly applied to

the main entrance and the sle nder flanking towers. [7]

The true capital of Mexican

Baroque is Puebla, where a ready suppl y of hand-painted

ceramics (talavera) and verna cular gray stone led to its evolving further

into a personalised

and highly localised art for m with a pronounced Indian flavour. The re are about sixty

churches whose façades and

domes display glazed tiles of many colours , often arranged in

Arabic designs. The interiors are densely saturated with elaborate gold l eaf ornamentation.

In the 18th century, local arti sans developed a distinctive brand of white stucco decoration,

named "alfenique" after a Pu eblan candy made from egg whites and suga r.

The Peruvian Baroque was

particularly lavish, as evidenced by the

monastery of San

Francisco at Lima (1673). W hile the rural Baroque of the Jesuit Bloc k and Estancias of

Córdoba in Córdoba, Argen tina, followed the model of Il Gesu, pr ovincial "mestizo"

(crossbred) styles emerged in Arequipa, Potosí, and La Paz. In the 18th ce ntury, architects of

the region turned for inspira tion to the Mudéjar art of medieval Spain . The late Baroque

type of Peruvian façade firs t appears in the Church of Our Lady of L a Merced in Lima.

Similarly, the Church of La C ompañia in Quito suggests a carved altarp iece with its richly

sculpted façade and a surfeit of spiral salomónica.

Portugal and Portu guese Empire

Main article: Baroque archite cture in Portugal

and highly localised art for m with a pronounced Indian flavour. The re are about sixty

The Queluz National Palace n ear Lisbon, Portugal perfectly depicts Baroqu e architecture.

and highly localised art for m with a pronounced Indian flavour. The re are about sixty

The Palace of Brejoeira, a pri me example of northern Portuguese Baroque

and highly localised art for m with a pronounced Indian flavour. The re are about sixty

architecture

Mafra National Palace, a jewe l of Portuguese Baroque architecture

The interior of the São Ro que Church in Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the rich Baroque architecture

The interior of the São Ro que Church in Lisbon, Portugal illustrates

the rich Baroque

architecture in its chapels, in cluding the chapel of St. John the Baptist, a dorned in gold, the

most expensive in the world.

Nothwithstanding a prodigali ty of sensually rich surface decoration assoc iated with Baroque

architecture of the Iberian

Peninsula, the royal courts of Madrid an d Lisbon generally

favoured a more sober archi tectural vocabulary distilled from 17th-cent ury Italy. The royal

palaces of Madrid, La Granj a, Aranjuez, Mafra, and Queluz were desi gned by architects

under strong influence of Ber nini and Juvarra. In the realm of church arc hitecture, Guarini's

design for Santa Maria della

Divina Providenza in Lisbon was a pace-s etter for structural

audacity in the region (even t hough it was never built).

In Portugal, the first fully B aroque church was the

Church of Santa E ngrácia, in Lisbon,

designed by royal architect

João Antunes, which has a Greek cross flo orplan and curved

facades. Antunes also design ed churches in which the inner space is re ctangular but with

curved corners (like the Meni no de Deus Church in Lisbon), a scheme that

is found in several

18th century churches in Po ortugal and Brazil. The court of John V, o n the other hand,

favoured Roman baroque m odels, as attested by the work of royal ar chitect Ludovice, a

German who designed the Ro yal Palace of Mafra, built after 1715.

By the mid-18th century, n orthern Portuguese architects had absorbe d the concepts of

Italian Baroque to revel in th e plasticity of local granite in such projects as the surging 75-

metre-high Torre dos Clérig os in Porto. The foremost centre of the

national Baroque

tradition was Braga, whose

buildings encompass virtually every imp portant feature of

Portuguese architecture and

design. The Baroque shrines and palaces of

Braga are noted for

polychrome ornamental pat terns, undulating roof-lines, and irregular ly shaped window

surrounds.

Brazilian architects also exp lored plasticity in form and decoration, t hough they rarely

surpassed their continental p eers in ostentation. The churches of Maria na and the Rosario

at Ouro Preto are based on B orromini's vision of interlocking elliptical sp aces. At São Pedro

dos Clérigos, Recife), a conve ntional stucco-and-stone façade is enlivened by "a high scrolled

gable squeezed tightly betwe en the towers".[8]

Even after the Baroque con ventions passed out of fashion in Europe,

the style was long

practised in Brazil by Aleijadi nho, a brilliant and prolific architect in who se designs hints of

Rococo could be discerned.

His church of Bom Jesus de Matozinho s at Congonhas is

distinguished by a picturesq ue silhouette and dark ornamental detail o n a light stuccoed

façade. Although Aleijadinho

was originally commissioned to design São

Francisco de Assis

at São João del Rei, his desi gns were rejected, and were displaced to

Francisco in Ouro Preto inste ad.

the church of São

Hungary

at São João del Rei, his desi gns were rejected, and were displaced to Francisco in

Front view of the palace in Fe rt d

at São João del Rei, his desi gns were rejected, and were displaced to Francisco in

The Széchenyi Square of Gy r , Hungary

In the Kingdom of Hungary, t he first great Baroque building was the Jesu it Church of Trnava

built by Pietro Spozzo in 162 9 37, modelling the Church of the Gesu in

Rome. Jesuits were

the main propagators of the

new style with their churches in Gy r (16 34 1641), [Ko ice]

(1671 1684), Eger (1731 173 3) and Székesfehérvár (1745 1751). The re construction of the

territories devastated by the

Intact Baroque townscapes

Ottomans was carried out in Baroque sty le in 18th century.

can be found in Gy r, Székesfehérvár, , Eger, Veszprém,

Esztergom and the Castle Dis trict of Buda. The most important Baroque

palaces in Hungary

were the Royal Palace in Bu da, Grassalkovich Palace in Gödöll , and E sterházy Palace in

Fert d. Smaller Baroque edi fices of the Hungarian aristocracy are scat tered all over the

country. Hungarian Baroque

shows the double influence of Austrian

and Italian artistic

tendencies as many Germa n and Italian architects worked in the c ountry. The main

characteristics of the local ve rsion of the style were modesty, lack of ex cessive decoration,

and some "rural" flavour, esp ecially in the works of the local masters. Im

portant architects

of the Hungarian Baroque we re Andreas Mayerhoffer, Ignác Oraschek an d Márton Wittwer.

Franz Anton Pilgram also w orked in the Kingdom of Hungary, for exa mple on the great

Premonstratensian monaster y of Jászó. In the last decades of the 18th ce ntury Neo-Classical

tendencies became domina nt. The two most important architects of

Melchior Hefele and Jakab Fe llner.

that period were

By the time Hungarian varie ties of Baroque architecture appeared wi th several type of

froms, shapes and decorati ons. Those that have

became famous an d

nice, have been

copied. That's why the Hungarian baroque edificies make groups based on similarities. The

major kind of buildings are the following:

Eszterháza-type

These buildings were designed by the famous Moravian architect, Jakab Fellner for the

noble Eszterházy family

Schloss Esterhazy in Eisenstadt , Austria Eszterházy Palace of Pápa , Hungary The Eszterházy Palace of

Schloss Esterhazy in Eisenstadt, Austria

Schloss Esterhazy in Eisenstadt , Austria Eszterházy Palace of Pápa , Hungary The Eszterházy Palace of

Eszterházy Palace of Pápa, Hungary

Schloss Esterhazy in Eisenstadt , Austria Eszterházy Palace of Pápa , Hungary The Eszterházy Palace of

The Eszterházy Palace of Galanta, Slovakia

Schloss Esterhazy in Eisenstadt , Austria Eszterházy Palace of Pápa , Hungary The Eszterházy Palace of

Lamberg Palace in Mór, Hungary

Schloss Esterhazy in Eisenstadt , Austria Eszterházy Palace of Pápa , Hungary The Eszterházy Palace of

Eszterháza Palace, Eszterháza, Hungary where Joseph Haydn lived

Széchenyi-type

Forgách Palace in Szécsény , Hungary Gödöll -type

Forgách Palace in Szécsény, Hungary

Gödöll

-type

Most of them were designed by Andreas Mayerhoffer and his followers, and built by the

Grassalkovich family.

Nagytétény Castle , Budapest , Hungary Grassalkovich Palace , the residence of the president of Slovakia

Nagytétény Castle, Budapest, Hungary

Nagytétény Castle , Budapest , Hungary Grassalkovich Palace , the residence of the president of Slovakia

Grassalkovich Palace, the residence of the president of Slovakia, Bratislava, Slovakia

Nagytétény Castle , Budapest , Hungary Grassalkovich Palace , the residence of the president of Slovakia

Ráday Mansion, Pécel, Hungary

Nagytétény Castle , Budapest , Hungary Grassalkovich Palace , the residence of the president of Slovakia

Grassalkovich Palace, Hatvan, Hungary

Nagytétény Castle , Budapest , Hungary Grassalkovich Palace , the residence of the president of Slovakia

Batthyány Palace of Körmend, Hungary

Lyceum of Eger , Hungary Palace of the Archbishop of Kalocsa in Kalocsa , Hungary Religious

Lyceum of Eger, Hungary

Lyceum of Eger , Hungary Palace of the Archbishop of Kalocsa in Kalocsa , Hungary Religious

Palace of the Archbishop of Kalocsa in Kalocsa, Hungary

Religious (Ecclestical) Baroque

The Church [disambiguation needed] and monastic orders built larger edifices.

Saint Peter and Paul Church in Baja , Hungary The Pannonhalma Archabbey was rebuilt in Baroque
 

Saint Peter and Paul Church in Baja, Hungary

 

Saint Peter and Paul Church in Baja , Hungary The Pannonhalma Archabbey was rebuilt in Baroque
 

The

Pannonhalma

Archabbey

was

rebuilt

in

Baroque

in

the

17th

century

(Pannonhalma, Hungary)

 

Saint Peter and Paul Church in Baja , Hungary The Pannonhalma Archabbey was rebuilt in Baroque
 

Church in Tata, Hungary

Church in Pápa , Hungary Minorite cgurch in Eger , Hungary The Cathedral of Kalocsa ,

Church in Pápa, Hungary

Church in Pápa , Hungary Minorite cgurch in Eger , Hungary The Cathedral of Kalocsa ,

Minorite cgurch in Eger, Hungary

Church in Pápa , Hungary Minorite cgurch in Eger , Hungary The Cathedral of Kalocsa ,

The Cathedral of Kalocsa, Hungary

Church in Pápa , Hungary Minorite cgurch in Eger , Hungary The Cathedral of Kalocsa ,

Zirc Abbey(the Cistercian convent of Zirc), Hungary

Houses

The wealthier citizens of the cities could afford to build a house of baroque stocked.

Church in Pápa , Hungary Minorite cgurch in Eger , Hungary The Cathedral of Kalocsa ,

A street in the old town of Sopron, Hungary

The city hall of Pécs , Hungary A Baroque house in Budapest , Hungary Another street

The city hall of Pécs, Hungary

The city hall of Pécs , Hungary A Baroque house in Budapest , Hungary Another street

A Baroque house in Budapest, Hungary

The city hall of Pécs , Hungary A Baroque house in Budapest , Hungary Another street

Another street in Sopron, Hungary

The city hall of Pécs , Hungary A Baroque house in Budapest , Hungary Another street

A house built in Baroque in Pápa, Hungary

The city hall of Pécs , Hungary A Baroque house in Budapest , Hungary Another street

A house of a citizen in Budapest, Hungary

The city hall of Pécs , Hungary A Baroque house in Budapest , Hungary Another street

An old pharmacy in Ka posvár, Hungar

Others(castles, pleasa nt's houses

Old castles were re-edified in

Baroque just for the comforts of that age.

Typical Hungarian Bar oque peasant's houses in Halász , Hungary

Typical Hungarian Bar oque peasant's houses in Halász, Hungary

Typical Hungarian Bar oque peasant's houses in Halász , Hungary

The Siklós Castle in Sik lós, Hungary

Transylvania

An old pharmacy in Ka posvár , Hungar Others(castles, pleasa nt's houses Old castles were re-edified

Brukenthal Palace in Herman nstadt

An old pharmacy in Ka posvár , Hungar Others(castles, pleasa nt's houses Old castles were re-edified

Bánffy Palace in Cluj-Napoca, Transylvania

St. George's Cathedral (built b etween 1736 and 1774) of Timi oara Some representative Baroqu e

St. George's Cathedral (built b etween 1736 and 1774) of Timi oara

Some representative Baroqu e structures in Transylvania (Romania) are t he Bánffy Palace in

Cluj, the Brukenthal Palace

in Sibiu and the Bishopric Palace in Orade a. Besides, almost

every Transylvanian town ha s at least a Baroque church, the most repres entatives of which

being St. George's Cathedral

of Timi oara, Saint John the Baptist Church o f Târgu Mure , the

Holy Trinity Cathedral of Blaj and the Piarist Church of Cluj.

France

Main articles: French Baroqu e and French Baroque architecture

St. George's Cathedral (built b etween 1736 and 1774) of Timi oara Some representative Baroqu e

Château de Maisons near Par is by François Mansart (1642)

The centre of Baroque secul ar architecture was France, where the open

three-wing layout

of the palace was establishe d as the canonical solution as early as the 1 6th century. But it

was the Palais du Luxembo urg by Salomon de Brosse that determin ed the sober and

classicizing direction that Fre nch Baroque architecture was to take. For the first time, the

corps de logis was emphasiz ed as the representative main part of the

building, while the

side wings were treated as

hierarchically inferior and appropriately

scaled down. The

medieval tower has been co mpletely replaced by the central projection

in the shape of a

monumental three-storey gat eway.

De Brosse's melding of tradit ional French elements (e.g. lofty mansard ro oofs and a complex

roof-line) with extensive Ita lianate quotations (e.g. ubiquitous rustica tion, derived from

Palazzo Pitti in Florence) ca me to characterize the Louis XIII style.

Probably the most

accomplished formulator of t he new manner was François Mansart, a ti reless perfectionist

credited with introducing the

full Baroque to France. In his design for C hâteau de Maisons

(1642), Mansart succeeded

in

reconciling

academic

and

Baroque

approaches,

while

demonstrating respect for th e gothic-inherited idiosyncrasies of the Frenc h tradition.

(1642), Mansart succeeded in reconciling academic and Baroque approaches, while demonstrating respect for th e gothic-inherited

Versailles's chapel as seen

Baroque

from the tribune royale, an outstanding e xample of French

The Château of Maisons d emonstrates the ongoing transition from

the post-medieval

chateaux of the 16th centur y to the villa-like country houses of the 18t h. The structure is

strictly symmetrical, with an

order applied to each storey, mostly in

pilaster form. The

frontispiece, crowned with a separate aggrandized roof, is infused with re markable plasticity

and the ensemble reads like a

three-dimensional whole. Mansart's struct ures are stripped of

overblown decorative effects , so typical of contemporary Rome. Italian B aroque influence is

muted and relegated to the fi eld of decorative ornamentation.

The next step in the deve lopment of European residential architec ture involved the

integration of the gardens in

the composition of the palace, as is exem plified by Vaux-le-

Vicomte), where the architec t Louis Le Vau, the designer Charles Le Bru n and the gardener

André Le Nôtre complement ed one another. From the main cornice t o a low plinth, the

miniature palace is clothed in the so-called "colossal order", which makes

the structure look

more impressive. The creativ e collaboration of Le Vau and Le Nôtre ma rked the arrival of

the "Magnificent Manner" wh hich allowed to extend Baroque architecture outside the palace

walls and transform the sur rounding landscape into an immaculate m osaic of expansive

vistas.

Les Invalides in Paris by Jules Hardouin-Mansart (1676) The same three artists scaled this concept to

Les Invalides in Paris by Jules Hardouin-Mansart (1676)

The same three artists scaled

this concept to monumental proportions i n the royal hunting

lodge and later main reside nce at Versailles. On a far grander scale , the palace is an

exaggerated and somewhat

repetitive version of Vaux-le-Vicomte. It w as both the most

grandiose and the most im itated residential building of the 17th ce ntury. Mannheim,

Nordkirchen and Drottningho olm were among many foreign residences f or which Versailles

provided a model.

The final expansion of Versai lles was superintended by Jules Hardouin-M ansart, whose key

design is the Dome des Invali ides), generally regarded as the most impor tant French church

of the century. Hardouin-Ma nsart profited from his uncle's instruction

and plans to instill

the edifice with an imperial

grandeur unprecedented in the countries

north of Italy. The

majestic hemispherical dome

balances the vigorous vertical thrust of th e orders, which do

not accurately convey the st ructure of the interior. The younger archite ct not only revived

the harmony and balance as sociated with the work of the elder Mansa rt but also set the

tone for Late Baroque Frenc h architecture, with its grand ponderousn ess and increasing

concessions to academicism.

The reign of Louis XV saw a

reaction against the official Louis XIV Style

in the shape of a

more delicate and intimate m

manner, known as Rococo. The style was pi oneered by Nicolas

Pineau, who collaborated wi th Hardouin-Mansart on the interiors of th e royal Château de

Marly. Further elaborated b y Pierre Le Pautre and Juste-Aurèle Meis sonier, the "genre

pittoresque" culminated in th e interiors of the Petit Château at Chantilly (c. 1722) and Hôtel

de Soubise in Paris (c. 1732), where a fashionable emphasis on the curvil inear went beyond

all reasonable measure, wh ile sculpture, paintings, furniture, and po rcelain tended to

overshadow architectural divi isions of the interior.

The Low Countries

Southern Netherlands

Church of St. Michel in Leuve n , Belgium by Willem Hesius (1650) Baroque architecture in

Church of St. Michel in Leuve n, Belgium by Willem Hesius (1650)

Baroque architecture in the

Protestant North. After the

Southern Netherlands developed rather diff erently than in the

Twelve Years' Truce, the Southern Nether lands remained in

Catholic hands, ruled by the

Spanish Habsburg Kings. Important architec tural projects were

set up in the spirit of the C ounter-Reformation. In them, florid decor ative detailing was

more tightly knit to the stru cture, thus precluding concerns of superfl uity. A remarkable

convergence of Spanish, Fren ch, and Dutch Baroque aesthetics may be se en in the Abbey of

Averbode (1667). Another ch aracteristic example is the Church of St. Mic hel at Louvain, with

its exuberant two-storey faç ade, clusters of half-columns, and the com plex aggregation of

French-inspired sculptural de tailing.

Six decades later, a Flemish a rchitect, Jaime Borty Milia, was the first to in troduce Rococo to

Spain (Cathedral of Murcia,

west façade, 1733). The greatest practitio ner of the Spanish

Rococo style was a native ma ster, Ventura Rodríguez, responsible for the dazzling interior of

the Basilica of Our Lady of the

Pillar in Zaragoza (1750).

Some Flemish architects such

as Wenceslas Cobergher were trained in It aly and their works

were inspired by architects

such as Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola and Gia acomo della Porta.

Cobergher's most major proj ect was the Basilica of Our Lady of Scherp enheuvel which he

designed as the center of a n ew town in the form of a heptagon.

The influence of the painter P ieter Paul Rubens on architecture was very i mportant. With his

book "I Palazzi di Genova" he introduced novel Italian models for the con ception of profane

buildings and decoration in th he Southern Netherlands. The courtyard and portico of his own

house in Antwerp (Rubenshu is) are good examples of his architectural ac tivity. He also took

part in the decoration of the Antwerp Jesuit Church (now Carolus Borrom euskerk) where he

introduced a lavish Baroq ue decoration, integrating sculpture and

architectural program.

painting in the

Northern Netherlands

Amsterdam City Hall by Jacob van Campen (1646) Main article: Dutch Baroque a rchitecture There is

Amsterdam City Hall by Jacob van Campen (1646)

Main article: Dutch Baroque a rchitecture

There is little Baroque about Dutch architecture of the 17th century. The architecture of the

first republic in Northern E urope was meant to reflect democratic

extensively from classical an tiquity. Like contemporary developments

values by quoting

in England, Dutch

Palladianism is marked by so briety and restraint. Two leading architects, Jacob van Campen

and Pieter Post, used such e clectic elements as giant-order pilasters, g able roofs, central

pediments, and vigorous st eeples in a coherent combination that a nticipated Wren's

Classicism.

The most ambitious constru ctions of the period included the seats of

self-government in

Amsterdam (1646) and Maas tricht (1658), designed by Campen and Pos st, respectively. On

the other hand, the residen ces of the House of Orange are closer to

a typical burgher

mansion than to a royal p alace. Two of these, Huis ten Bosch an d Mauritshuis, are

symmetrical blocks with larg e windows, stripped of ostentatious Baro que flourishes and

mannerisms. The same aus terely geometrical effect is achieved with out great cost or

pretentious effects at the Sta dholder's summer residence of Het Loo.

The Dutch Republic was one

of the great powers of 17th-century Europ e and its influence

on European architecture wa s by no means negligible. Dutch architects

were employed on

important projects in Northe rn Germany, Scandinavia and Russia, dissem inating their ideas

in those countries. The Dutc h colonial architecture, once flourishing in

Valley and associated prim arily with red-brick gabled houses, may

Willemstad, Curaçao.

the Hudson River

still

be

seen

in

England

Main articles: English Baroqu e and Edwardian Baroque architecture

Amsterdam City Hall by Jacob van Campen (1646) Main article: Dutch Baroque a rchitecture There is

Greenwich Hospital by Sir Chr ristopher Wren (1694)

Baroque aesthetics, whose in fluence was so potent in mid-17th century France, made little

impact in England during th e Protectorate and the first Restoration y ears. For a decade

between the death of Inigo Jo nes in 1652 and Christopher Wren's visit to Paris in 1665 there

was no English architect of t he accepted premier class. Unsurprisingly,

European architectural devel opments was slight.

general interest in

It was Wren who presided o ver the genesis of the English Baroque man ner, which differed

from the continental mode ls by a clarity of design and a subtle ta ste for classicism.

Following the Great Fire of

London, Wren rebuilt fifty-three churche s, where Baroque

aesthetics are apparent prim

arily in dynamic structure and multiple c hanging views. His

most ambitious work was S t Paul's Cathedral, which bears comparis on with the most

effulgent domed churches of Italy and France. In this majestically propo rtioned edifice, the

Palladian tradition of Inigo J ones is fused with contemporary contine ntal sensibilities in

masterly equilibrium. Less

influential were straightforward attempt s to engraft the

Berniniesque vision onto Bri tish church architecture (e.g. by Thomas A rcher in St. John's,

Smith Square, 1728).

Greenwich Hospital by Sir Chr ristopher Wren (1694) Baroque aesthetics, whose in fluence was so potent

Castle Howard, North Yorkshi re

Although Wren was also activ e in secular architecture, the first truly Baro que country house

in England was built to a de sign by William Talman at Chatsworth, sta rting in 1687. The

culmination of Baroque arch itectural forms comes with Sir John Vanb rugh and Nicholas

Hawksmoor. Each was capa ble of a fully developed architectural st atement, yet they

preferred to work in tandem , most notably at Castle Howard (1699) an d Blenheim Palace

(1705).

Although these two palaces m

ay appear somewhat ponderous or turgid t o Italian eyes, their

heavy embellishment and ov erpowering mass captivated the British publi c, albeit for a short

while. Castle Howard is a flam boyant assembly of restless masses domina ted by a cylindrical

domed tower which would n ot be out of place in Dresden or Munich. B lenheim is a more

solid construction, where the

massed stone of the arched gates and the

huge solid portico

becomes the main ornamen t. Vanbrugh's final work was Seaton Del aval Hall (1718), a

comparatively modest mansi on yet unique in the structural audacity of

its style. It was at

Seaton Delaval that Vanbrugh , a skillful playwright, achieved the peak of Restoration drama,

once again highlighting a par allel between Baroque architecture and con temporary theatre.

Despite his efforts, Baroque

was never truly to the English taste and well before his death in

1724, the style had lost curre ncy in Britain.

Holy Roman Empir e

Despite his efforts, Baroque was never truly to the English taste and well before his death

Schloss Charlottenburg in Ber lin

In the Holy Roman Empire,

the Baroque period began somewhat la ter. Although the

Augsburg architect Elias

H oll

(1573 1646)

and

some

theoretists,

including Joseph

Furttenbach the Elder alre ady practiced the Baroque style, they

remained without

successors due to the ravage s of the Thirty Years' War. From about 165 0 on, construction

work resumes, and secular a nd ecclesiastical architecture are of equal i mportance. During

an initial phase, master-maso ns from southern Switzerland and northern

Italy, the so-called

magistri Grigioni and the Lo

mbard master-masons, particularly the Carlo ne family from Val

d'Intelvi, dominated the field . However, Austria came soon to develop its own characteristic

Baroque style during the last third of the 17th century. Johann Bernhard

Fischer von Erlach

was impressed by Bernini. He e forged a new Imperial style by compiling a rchitectural motifs

from the entire history, mos t prominently seen in his church of St. Ch arles Borromeo in

Vienna. Johann Lucas von Hi ldebrandt also had an Italian training. He

developed a highly

decorative style, particularly

southern Germany.

in façade architecture, which exerted str ong influences on

Despite his efforts, Baroque was never truly to the English taste and well before his death

St. Charles's Church in Vienna , Austria

Frequently, the Southern G erman Baroque is distinguished from the

Northern German

Baroque, which is more pro perly the distinction between the Catholic

and the Protestant

Baroque. In the Catholic Sou th, the Jesuit church of St. Michael in Mun ich was the first to

bring Italian style across the

Alps. However, its influence on the furth er development of

church architecture was rathe er limited. A much more practical and more a adaptable model of

church architecture was prov ided by the Jesuit church in Dillingen): the

wall-pillar church, a

barrel-vaulted nave accomp anied by large open chapels separated

by wall-pillars. As

opposed to St. Michael's in M

unich, the chapels almost reach the height

of the nave in the

wall-pillar church, and their

vault (usually transverse barrel-vaults) spri ngs from the same

level as the main vault of t he nave. The chapels provide ample lighti ng; seen from the

entrance of the church, the w all-pillars form a theatrical setting for the si de altars. The wall-

pillar church was further dev eloped by the Vorarlberg school, as well as

the master-masons

of Bavaria. This new church a lso integrated well with the hall church mo del of the German

late Gothic age. The wall-pill ar church continued to be used throughou t the 18th century

(e.g. even in the early neo-c lassical church of Rot an der Rot Abbey), a nd early wall-pillar

churches could easily be refu rbished by re-decoration without any struc tural changes, such

as the church at Dillingen.

church architecture was prov ided by the Jesuit church in Dillingen ): the wall-pillar church, a

Interior of Vierzehnheiligen c hurch in Bavaria

However, the Catholic South

also received influences from other sourc es, such as the so-

called radical Baroque of Boh emia. The radical Baroque of Christoph Die ntzenhofer and his

son Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhof er, both residing at Prague, was inspired

by examples from

northern Italy, particularly b by the works of Guarino Guarini. It is ch aracterized by the

curvature of walls and interse ection of oval spaces. While some Bohemian

influence is visible

in Bavaria's most prominent

architect of the period, Johann Michael F ischer (the curved

balconies of some of his ear lier wall-pillar churches), the works of Balt hasar Neumann, in

particular the Basilica of th e Vierzehnheiligen, are generally consider ed to be the final

synthesis of Bohemian and G erman traditions.

church architecture was prov ided by the Jesuit church in Dillingen ): the wall-pillar church, a

Church of St Nicholas, Lesser Town, the most famous Baroque church in P rague

Protestant sacred architectur e was of lesser importance during the Baro que, and produced

only a few works of pri

me importance, particularly the Frauenk irche in Dresden.

Architectural theory was m ore

lively

in

the north than

in

the south

of Germany, with

Leonhard

Christoph Sturm' s edition of Nikolaus Goldmann, but S turm's theoretical

considerations (e.g. on Prot estant church architecture) never really m ade it to practical

application. In the south, the ory essentially reduced to the use of build ings and elements

from illustrated books and en gravings as a prototype.

Palace architecture was equ ally important both in the Catholic South

and the Protestant

North. After an initial phase

when Italian architects and influences d ominated (Vienna,

Rastatt), French influence pr evailed from the second decade of the 18th

century onwards.

The French model is characte rized by the horseshoe-like layout enclosin g a cour d'honneur

(courtyard) on the town side

(chateau entre cour et jardin), whereas th e Italian (and also

Austrian) scheme presents a

block-like villa. The principal achievements

of German Palace

architecture, often worked

out in close collaboration of several arc hitects, provide a

synthesis of Austro-Italian an d French models. The most outstanding p alace which blends

Austro-Italian and French infl uences into a completely new type of buildi ng is the Würzburg

Residence. While its general

layout is the horseshoe-like French plan,

it encloses interior

courtyards. Its façades comb ine Lucas von Hildebrandt's love of decor ation with French-

style classical orders in two s uperimposed stories; its interior features th e famous Austrian

"imperial staircase", but also

a French-type enfilade of rooms on the ga rden side, inspired

by the "apartement semi-dou ble" layout of French castles.

Polish Lithuanian C ommonwealth

Main article: Baroque in Pola nd

considerations (e.g. on Prot estant church architecture) never really m ade it to practical application. In

Church of St. Anne in Krakow

The first Baroque church in

Church in Niasvizh, Belarus

the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth was

(1586 1593). [8][9] It also holds a distinction

the Corpus Christi

of being the first

domed basilica with Baroque

art in Eastern Europe. [9]

façade in the Commonwealth and the firs t Baroque piece of

a cut Castle in a cut In the early 17th century, th e Baroque style

a cut Castle in a cut

In the early 17th century, th e Baroque style spread over the Common wealth. Important

Baroque churches include t he SS. Peter and Paul (1597 1619) constr ucted in the early

Baroque style following the p attern of the Vignola's il Gesù, [10] the Vasa C hapel (1644 1676)

of the Wawel Cathedral, B aroque equivalent to neighbouring renais sance Sigismund's

Chapel, St. Anne (1689 170 3) and the Visitationist Church (1692 16 95) in Kraków, St.

Casimir's Chapel (1623 163 6) of the Vilnius Cathedral, another inspi ration of Wawel's

Sigismund's Chapel, [11] SS. P eter and Paul Church (1668 1676) and St . Casimir's Church

(1604 1618, 1750 1755) in

Vilnius, Pa aislis monastery (1667 1712) in

examples from northern Ita aly, the Dominican Church (1744 1769)

a cut Castle in a cut In the early 17th century, th e Baroque style

Kaunas inspired by

modelled after St.

Charles's Church in Vienna [12] and St. George's Church (1746 1762) in Lviv . Others significant

examples include profusly d ecorated Jesuit Church in Pozna (1651 1701) with almost

theatrical decoration inside,

the Xavier Cathedral in Hrodna (1678 1705 ), the Royal Chapel

(1678 1681) in Gda sk, a m

ixture of Dutch and Polish patterns [13] a nd wi ta Lipka in

Masuria (1681 1693), the n orthernmost Tyrolean Baroque building. [14]

In Warsaw, which

before World War II was fille d with Baroque residences, churches, and

houses, and where

Tylman van Gameren was act ive, survived few important buildings Wila nów Palace (1677

1696), Krasi ski Palace (1677 1683), Bernardines Church in Czerniaków ( 1690 1693) as well

as late-baroque Visitationist

Church (1664 1761), Holy Cross Church (1 682 1757) and St.

Kazimierz Church (1688 1692 ).

a cut Castle in a cut In the early 17th century, th e Baroque style

Wilanów Palace in Warsaw

The Church of St. Catherine in Vilnius The magnates throughout th e country competed with the

The Church of St. Catherine in

Vilnius

The magnates throughout th e country competed with the kings. The

Krzy topór, built in the styl e palazzo in fortezza between 1627 and

monumental castle

1644, had several

courtyards surrounded by for tifications. Late baroque fascination with th e culture and art of

the "central nation" is reflect ted in Queen Masysie ka's Chinese Palace i n Zolochiv. [15] 18th

century magnate palaces rep resents the characteristic type of baroque s uburban residence

built entre cour et jardin (be tween the entrance court and the garden).

Its architecture, a

merger of European art with

old Commonwealth building traditions, is

visible in Wilanów

Palace, Branicki Palace in B ia ystok and in Warsaw, Potocki Palace in n Radzy Podlaski,

Raczy ski Palace in Rogalin a nd Wi niowiecki Palace in Vyshnivets. Archit ects such as Johann

Christoph Glaubitz were inst rumental in forming the so-called distincti ve Vilnius Baroque

style, which spread througho ut the region. [16]

By the end of the century, P olish Baroque influences crossed the Dniep er into the Cossack

Hetmanate, where they gave

birth to a particular style of Orthodox arch itecture, known as

the Cossack Baroque. [17] Such was its popular appeal that every medieval church in Kiev and

the Left-Bank Ukraine was re designed according to the newest fashion.

A notable style of baroque a rhitecture emerged in the 18th century wi th work of Johann

Christoph Glaubitz who was

assigned to rebuild the Commonwealth cap pital city of Vilnius.

The style was therefore nam ed Vilnian Baroque and Old Vilnius was n amed the "City of

Baroque". The most notable

(1743), [18] the Church of the

buildings by Glaubitz in Vilnius are the Chur ch of St. Catherine

Ascension (1750), the Church of St. John, t he monastery gate

and the towers of the Churc h of the Holy Trinity. The magnificent and

dynamic Baroque

facade of the formerly Goth ic Church of St. Johns (1749) is mentione d among his best

works. Many church interio rs including the one of the Great Synago gue of Vilna were

reconstructed by Glaubitz as

well as the Town Hall in 1769.

Notable buildings of Vilnian

Baroque in other places are Saint Sophia Ca thedral in Polotsk,

Belarus (rebuilt in 1738-176 5), Carmelite church in Hlybokaye, Belar us (1735) and the

Church of St. Peter and St. Pa ul in Berezovichi, Belarus (built in 1776, the

its replica was constructed in

Bia ystok in the 1990s.

1960s and 1970s),

Russia

Main articles: Naryshkin Baro que and Petrine Baroque

Notable buildings of Vilnian Baroque in other places are Saint Sophia Ca thedral in Polotsk ,

Menshikov Palace in Saint Pe tersburg

Notable buildings of Vilnian Baroque in other places are Saint Sophia Ca thedral in Polotsk ,

Winter Palace in Saint Peters burg

Notable buildings of Vilnian Baroque in other places are Saint Sophia Ca thedral in Polotsk ,

The interior of the Saint Pete rsburg Peter and Paul Cathedral

Peter and Paul Church in Kaza n In Russia, Baroque architectu re passed through three stages

Peter and Paul Church in Kaza n

In Russia, Baroque architectu re passed through three stages the early

Moscow Baroque,

with elegant white decoratio ns on red-brick walls of rather traditional ch urches, the mature

Petrine Baroque, mostly im ported from the Low Countries, and the

late Rastrelliesque

Baroque, which was, in th e words of William Brumfield, "extravag ant in design and

execution,

yet

ordered

by

the

rhythmic

insistence

of

massed

colu mns

and

Baroque

statuary."

The first baroque churches

boyars. It was the family of

were built in the estates of the Naryshkin

family of Moscow

Natalia Naryshkina, Peter the Great's mothe r. Most notable in

this category of small suburb an churches were the Intercession in Fili ( 1693 96), the Holy

Tritity church in Troitse-Lykov vo (1690-1695) and the Saviour in Ubory (16 94 97). They were

built in red brick with profus e detailed decoration in white stone. The

belfry was not any

more placed beside the churc h as was common in the 17th century, but o n the facade itself,

usually surmounting the

octagonal central church and producin g daring vertical

compositions. As the style

gradually spread around Russia, many

monasteries were

remodeled after the latest f ashion. The most delightful of these were

the Novodevichy

Convent and the Donskoy Mo nastery in Moscow, as well as Krutitsy meto chion and Solotcha

Cloister near Riazan. Civic ar chitecture also sought to conform to the b aroque aesthetics,

e.g., the Sukharev Tower in

Moscow and

there

is also

a neo-form of

this style like the

Principal Medicine Store on R Red Square. The most important architects a ssociated with the

Naryshkin Baroque were Yako ov Bukhvostov and Peter Potapov.

Petrine Baroque is a name a pplied by art historians to a style of Baroqu e architecture and

decoration favoured by Pete r the Great and employed to design build ings in the newly-

founded Russian capital, S aint Petersburg, under this monarch a nd his immediate

successors. Unlike contempo raneous Naryshkin Baroque, favoured in M oscow, the Petrine

Baroque represented a dra stic rupture with Byzantine traditions th at had dominated

Russian architecture for alm ost a millennium. Its chief practitioners

Domenico Trezzini,

Andreas Schlüter, and Mikh ail Zemtsov drew inspiration from a rat her modest Dutch,

Danish, and Swedish architec ture of the time. Extant examples of the sty le in St Petersburg

are the Peter and Paul Cath edral, the Twelve Colleges, the Kunstkam era, Kikin Hall and

Menshikov Palace.The Petrin e Baroque structures outside St Petersbur g are scarce; they

include the Menshikov Tower

in Moscow and the Kadriorg Palace in Tallin n.

Ukraine

Main article: Ukrainian Baroq ue

Ukraine Main article: Ukrainian Baroq ue St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery Ukrainian Baroque is an arch itectural

St. Michael's Golden-Domed

Monastery

Ukrainian Baroque is an arch itectural style that emerged in Ukraine dur ing the Hetmanate

era, in the 17th and 18th

centuries. Ukrainian Baroque is distinct

from the Western

European Baroque in having

more moderate ornamentation and simpler forms, and as such

was considered more constr uctivist. One of the unique features of the

Ukrainian baroque,

were bud and pear-shaped

domes, that were later borrowed by the

baroque. [19] Many Ukrainian

Baroque buildings have been preserved,

buildings in Kiev Pechersk

Lavra and the Vydubychi Monastery. The

Baroque painting are the ch urch paintings in the Holy Trinity Church of

similar Naryshkin

including several

best examples of

the Kiev Pechersk

Lavra. Rapid development in

engraving techniques occurred during the

Ukrainian Baroque

period. Advances utilized a

complex system of symbolism, allegories,

heraldic signs, and

sumptuous ornamentation.

Scandinavia

Ukraine Main article: Ukrainian Baroq ue St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery Ukrainian Baroque is an arch itectural

French châteaux of the 17th

century provided models for numerous cou ntry houses across

Northern Europe

Ukraine Main article: Ukrainian Baroq ue St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery Ukrainian Baroque is an arch itectural
Tessin's Drottningholm Pala ce architectural practice. illustrates the proximity between Fre nch and Swedish Amalienborg ,

Tessin's

Drottningholm

Pala ce

architectural practice.

illustrates

the

Tessin's Drottningholm Pala ce architectural practice. illustrates the proximity between Fre nch and Swedish Amalienborg ,

proximity

between

Fre nch

and

Swedish

Amalienborg, a Baroque quar ter in the center of Copenhagen

During the golden age of th e Swedish Empire, the architecture of No rdic countries was

dominated by the Swedish

court

architect

Nicodemus

Tessin

the

Elder

and

his

son

Nicodemus Tessin the Young ger. Their aesthetic was readily adopted a cross the Baltic, in

Copenhagen and Saint Peters burg.

Born in Germany, Tessin th e Elder endowed Sweden with a truly nati ional style, a well-

balanced mixture of contemp orary French and medieval Hanseatic eleme nts. His designs for

the royal manor of Drottning holm seasoned French prototypes with Itali an elements, while

retaining some peculiarly Nor dic features, such as the hipped roof (säterit ak).

Tessin the Younger shared his s father's enthusiasm for discrete palace faça ades. His design for

the Stockholm Palace draws

so heavily on Bernini's unexecuted plans f or the Louvre that

one could well imagine it sta nding in Naples, Vienna, or Saint Petersburg . Another example

of the so-called Internation al Baroque, based on Roman models with

little concern for

national specifics, is the Roya l Palace of Madrid. The same approach is ma nifested is Tessin's

polychrome domeless Kalma r Cathedral, a skillful pastiche of early Italia n Baroque, clothed

in a giant order of paired Ioni c pilasters.

It was not until the mid- 18th century that Danish and Russian

emancipated from Swedish

influence. A milestone of this late period

architecture were

is Nicolai Eigtved's

design for a new district of C openhagen centred on the Amalienborg Pa lace. The palace is

composed of four rectangu lar mansions for the four greatest noble s of the kingdom,

arranged across the angles o f an octagonal square. The restrained façad es of the mansions

hark back to French anteced ents, while their interiors contain some of the finest Rococo

decoration in Northern Europ e.

Turkey

Ortaköy Mosque The Clock Tower of Dolmabah çe Palace The Main Entrance of Dolmab ahçe Palace

Ortaköy Mosque

Ortaköy Mosque The Clock Tower of Dolmabah çe Palace The Main Entrance of Dolmab ahçe Palace

The Clock Tower of Dolmabah çe Palace

Ortaköy Mosque The Clock Tower of Dolmabah çe Palace The Main Entrance of Dolmab ahçe Palace

The Main Entrance of Dolmab ahçe Palace

Istanbul, once the capital of t he Ottoman Empire, hosts many different v arieties of Baroque

architecture. As reforms and

innovations to modernize the country cam e out in 18th and

19th century, various archite cture styles were used in Turkey, one of the m was the Baroque

Style. As Turkish architecture [disambiguation needed] (which is also a combination of Islamic and

Byzantine architecture) combined with Baroque, a new style called Ottoman Baroque

appeared. Baroque architecture is mostly seen in mosques and palaces built in this

centuries. The Ortaköy Mosque, is one of the best examples of Ottoman Baroque

Architecture. The Tanzimat Era caused more architectural development. The architectural

change continued with Sultan Mahmud II, one of the most reformist sultans in Turkish

History. One of his sons, Sultan Abdülmecid and his family left the Topkap Palace and

moved to the Dolmabahçe Palace which is the first European-style palace in the country.

Baroque architecture in Istanbul was mostly used in palaces near the Bosphorus and Golden

Horn. Beyo lu was one of the places that Baroque and other European style architecture

buildings were largely used. The famous streets called Istiklal Avenue, Ni anta , Bankalar

Caddesi consist of these architecture style apartments. The Ottoman flavour gives it its

unique atmosphere, which also distinguishes it from the later "colonial" Baroque styles,

largely used in the Middle East, especially Lebanon. Later and more mature Baroque forms

in Istanbul can be found in the gates of the Dolmabahçe Palace which also has a very

"eastern" flavour, combining Baroque, Romantic, and Oriental architecture.