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lui (el22284) HW 1 li (58545) 1

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001 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points
The dot or scalar product of two (3d) vec-
tors a = a
1
, a
2
, a
3
and

b = b
1
, b
2
, b
3
is
dened as
a

b =
3

i=1
a
i
b
i
= a
1
b
1
+ a
2
b
2
+ a
3
b
3
.
In 3d Euclidean space, the scalar product
has a geometric interpretation, given by
a

b =a

b cos ,
where is the angle between a and

b and the
norm(length) of a vector a is dened by
a=

a a .
In words, the scalar product of two vectors can
be thought of as the product of the magnitude
of a with the magnitude of the projection of

b
onto the direction of a. It is used to calculate
the product of vector quantities when only the
parallel components of each vector contribute
(e.g., Work = Force Displacement).
Let a = 11, 8.25, 0 and

b =
3.63, 7.425, 0.
Calculate a

b.
Explanation:
From the denition, this is simply calcu-
lated by
a

b = a
1
b
1
+ a
2
b
2
+ a
3
b
3
= 11 3.63 + 8.25 7.425 + 0 0
= 101.186 .
002 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
Determine , the angle between a and

b. Ex-
Explanation:
From the geometric interpretation of the
scalar product,
= cos
1
_
a

b
a

b
_
= cos
1
_
_
a

b
_
a
2
1
+ a
2
2
+ a
2
3
_
b
2
1
+ b
2
2
+ b
2
3
_
_
= cos
1
_
101.186
13.75 8.26484
_
= 27.0766 .
003 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
If two vectors are perpendicular, what is their
scalar product?
Explanation:
From the geometric interpretation, one can
see that when = 90

, the scalar product is

equal to zero.
004 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points
Recall that, in a 2d plane polar coordinate
system, a point in space is described by its
lui (el22284) HW 1 li (58545) 2
radial distance r from the origin and the angle
between the +x-axis and a line drawn from
the origin to the point. For example, the point
(3, /4) looks like:
The relations between cartesian (x, y) coor-
dinates and plane polar (r, ) are given by
x = r cos , y = r sin , x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
.
Question: A circle of radius R centered at
the origin is described in plane polar coordi-
nates by r = R. What are the Cartesian (i.e.,
(x,y)) coordinates of a point on the circle at
some arbitrary angle , expressed in terms of
polar quantities? (Note: you will frequently
parametrize a point on a circle in this way.)
1. (Rcos , Rsin ) correct
2. (Rsin , Rcos )
3. (R, )
4. (x, y)
5. (x cos , y sin )
6. (x
2
+ y
2
, tan
1
_
y
x
_
)
Explanation:
From the Cartesian/plane polar rela-
tions given above, the x-coordinate is
Rcos and the y-coordinate is Rsin , so
(Rcos , Rsin ) is the correct choice.
005 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
In 3d, we may extend this idea to cylindrical
coordinates (r, , z), which you may think of
as a plane polar coordinate system with the
z-dimension tacked on.
This coordinate system is useful when deal-
ing with problems that have radial symmetry
about some central axis.
Question: You are given a hollow cylinder
of radius R whose central axis is the z-axis
and whose base rests on the xy-plane. What
are the Cartesian coordinates of an arbitrary
point on the surface of the cylinder in terms
of cylindrical quantities?
1. (R, , z)
2. (Rcos , Rsin , z) correct
3. (x cos , y sin , z)
4. (x
2
+ y
2
, tan
1
_
y
x
_
, z)
5. (x, y, z)
6. (Rsin , Rcos , z)
Explanation:
Since the cylindrical coordinate system is
just a plane polar system with the z-axis ap-
pended to it, the correct answer is the same as
in 1 above, but with the z coordinate added:
(Rcos , Rsin , z)
006 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
In cases where we have radial symmetry about
the origin (usually called spherical symme-
try), it is most useful to use spherical coor-
dinates (r, , ). In the spherical coordinate
system, a point is dened by: its radial dis-
tance from the origin r; the azimuthal angle
, dened as the angle between the +x-axis
lui (el22284) HW 1 li (58545) 3
and the projection on the xy-plane of the line
drawn from the origin to the point; the po-
lar angle , dened as the angle between the
+z axis and the line drawn from the origin
to the point. Note that for the polar angle,
0 .
Question: You are given a solid sphere of
radius R centered at the origin. What are the
Cartesian coordinates of an arbitrary point
within the sphere in terms of spherical quan-
tities. You will need to use the gure to
determine the x,y, and z coordinates in terms
of their spherical counterparts.
1. (Rsin cos , Rsin sin , Rcos )
2. (r sin cos , r sin sin , r cos ) correct
3. (r cos cos , r cos sin , r sin )
4. (r sin cos , r sin sin , r cos )
5. (x, y, z)
6. (r sin sin , r sin cos , r cos )
Explanation:
Examining the gure, the projection onto
the xy plane of the line drawn from the origin
to an arbitrary point is seen to be r sin . The
component of this projection along the x-axis
is r sin cos , and the projection along the
y-axis is r sin sin . Finally, the projection
onto the z-axis of the line drawn from the ori-
gin to the arbirary point is seen to be r cos .
Combining everything, the correct answer is
(r sin cos , r sin sin , r cos ).
007 (part 1 of 5) 10.0 points
A planet is located at

P = 1 10
10
, 8 10
10
, 2 10
10
.
A star is located at

S = 6 10
10
, 5 10
10
, 3 10
10
.
What is

R, the vector pointing from the planet
to the star?
1.

R =
60000000000, 130000000000, 40000000000
2.

R =
80000000000, 120000000000, 60000000000
3.

R =
100000000000, 130000000000, 30000000000
4.

R = 7 10
10
, 1.3 10
11
, 5 10
10

correct
5.

R =
110000000000, 110000000000, 50000000000
Explanation:
This is a vector subtraction problem. To
nd

R, we subtract

S

P by respective com-
ponents:
S
x
P
x
= 6 10
10
(1 10
10
) = 7 10
10
S
y
P
y
= 5 10
10
(8 10
10
) = 1.3 10
11
S
z
P
z
= 3 10
10
(2 10
10
) = 5 10
10
So

R =

S

P
= 7 10
10
, 1.3 10
11
, 5 10
10
.
008 (part 2 of 5) 10.0 points
What is

?
lui (el22284) HW 1 li (58545) 4
Correct answer: 1.55885 10
11
.
Explanation:
To nd

, we use the Pythagorean theo-

rem.

=
_
(7 10
10
)
2
+ (1.3 10
11
)
2
+ (5 10
10
)
2
=
_
2.43 10
22
= 1.55885 10
11
.
009 (part 3 of 5) 10.0 points
For the remaining three parts of this problem,
you will nd the components of

R, the unit
vector in the direction of

R. Begin by nding

R
x
.
Explanation:
We simply divide

R
x
by the magnitude:

R
x
=
r
x

=
7 10
10
1.55885 10
11
= 0.44905.
010 (part 4 of 5) 10.0 points
Find

R
y
.
Explanation:
We divide

R
y
by the magnitude:

R
y
=

R
y

=
1.3 10
11
1.55885 10
11
= 0.83395.
011 (part 5 of 5) 10.0 points
Find

R
z
.
Explanation:
We divide

R
z
by the magnitude:

R
z
=

R
z

=
5 10
10
1.55885 10
11
= 0.32075.
012 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
A particle undergoes two displacements.
The rst has a magnitude of 174 cm and
makes an angle of 114

with the positive x

axis. The resultant displacement has a mag-
nitude of 150 cm and is directed at an angle
of 37.5

to the positive x axis.

Find the magnitude of the second displace-
ment.
Correct answer: 201.47 cm.
Explanation:
Let : R
1
= 174 cm at
1
= 114

and
R = 150 cm at = 37.5

.
r
1
r
2
R
R = R
1
+R
2
R
2
= RR
1
, so
R
2x
= (150 cm) cos 37.5

= 189.775 cm, and

R
2y
= (150 cm) sin 37.5

(174 cm) sin 114

= 67.6427 cm,
and the magnitude is
|R
2
| =
_
R
2
2x
+ R
2
2y
=
_
(189.775 cm)
2
+ (67.6427 cm)
2
= 201.47 cm .
013 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
lui (el22284) HW 1 li (58545) 5
What is the direction of the second displace-
ment (with positive measured counterclock-
wise from the x axis, and between the limits
of 180

and +180

)?

.
Explanation:
tan =
_
s
2y
s
2x
_
= arctan
_
s
2y
s
2x
_
= arctan
_
67.6427 cm
189.775 cm
_
= 19.6179

.
014 10.0 points
Vectors

A,

B,

C,

D, and

E are shown in
the gure. For convenience, the tails of each
vector are arbitrarily located at (0,0).
y
5 3 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
A B C
D
E
Identify

R =

A +

B

C

D

E ,
1. None of these gures is correct.
2.
y
5 3 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
R
3.
y
5 3 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
R
4.
y
5 3 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
R
correct
5.
lui (el22284) HW 1 li (58545) 6
y
5 3 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
R
Explanation:
Let : (x
a
, y
a
) = (2, 4) ,
(x
b
, y
b
) = (2, 4) ,
(x
c
, y
c
) = (1, 4) ,
(x
d
, y
d
) = (3, 5) , and
(x
e
, y
e
) = (1, 3) .
x
r
= (2) + (2) (1) (3) (1) = 5 and
y
r
= (4) + (4) (4) (5) (3) = 2 ,
so (x
r
, y
r
) = (5, 2) .
y
5 3 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
A
B
C
D
E
R
015 10.0 points
The diagram shows an isolated, positive
charge Q, where point B is twice as far away
from Q as point A.
+Q
A B
0 10 cm 20 cm
What is the ratio of the electric eld
strength at point A to the electric eld
strength at point B?
1.
E
A
E
B
=
2
1
2.
E
A
E
B
=
4
1
correct
3.
E
A
E
B
=
1
1
4.
E
A
E
B
=
1
2
5.
E
A
E
B
=
8
1
Explanation:
Let : r
B
= 2 r
A
.
The electric eld strength E
1
r
2
, so
E
A
E
B
=
1
r
2
A
1
r
2
B
=
r
2
B
r
2
A
=
(2 r)
2
r
2
= 4 .
016 10.0 points
An electron in a region where there is an
electric eld experiences a force of magnitude
2.4 10
16
N.
What is the magnitude of the electric eld
at the location of the electron? The charge on
an electron is 1.602 10
19
C
Correct answer: 1498.13 N/C.
Explanation:
The eld is dened to be the force per
unit charge experienced by a particle (so long
as the particle has a charge small enough
that it does not change the background eld
signicantly).
Thus, we have:

q
=
2.4 10
16
N
1.602 10
19
C
= 1498.13 N/C
lui (el22284) HW 1 li (58545) 7
017 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
You want to create an electric eld

E = 0, 3904 N/C, 0
at the origin. Find the y coordinate where
you would need to place a proton, in order to
create this eld at the origin.
The value of k is 8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
and the value of the proton charge is
1.6 10
19
C.
Correct answer: 6.06912 10
7
m.
Explanation:
The equation for the electric eld, in gen-
eral, is

E =
1
4
0
q
|r|
2
r.
In this case, q = 1.6 10
19
C for a proton,
and
r = 0, 1, 0,
since the eld points in the positive y direc-
tion. |r| is the unknown we want to solve for.
We can write
E
y
= 3904 N/C =
1
4
0
1.6 10
19
C
|r|
2
|r|
2
=
1
4
0
1.6 10
19
C
3904 N/C
y =

1
4
0
1.6 10
19
C
3904 N/C
= 6.06912 10
7
m.
We choose the minus sign to place the pro-
ton below the origin; this way the eld will
point upward like we want it to.
018 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Instead of a proton, where would you place
an electron to produce the same eld at the
origin?
Correct answer: 6.06912 10
7
m.
Explanation:
This is simple. The proton and electron
carry the same magnitude of charge, but the
electrons charge is negative. The calculation
from above will be exactly the same, but we
choose a positive sign at the end to place the
electron above the origin. This way the eld
will still point upward as we want it to.
019 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points
The following gure shows a particle with a
positive charge of 2e at location A creating
an electric eld

E at point B. Any charged
particle placed at location B experiences a
force

F.
+
A
B

F
Now, imagine a positive charge of 3e is
placed at point B. What is the value of
the electric eld at location B due to the
charge at A? (Remember that e represents
the fundamental unit of charge, 1.6 10
19
C. Also, r
BA
is the position vector pointing
from point A to point B.)
1.

E =
1
4
0
2e
2
|r
BA
|
r
BA
2.

E =
1
4
0
6e
2
|r
BA
|
2
r
BA
3.

E =
1
4
0
2e
|r
BA
|
2
r
BA
correct
4.

E =
1
4
0
6e
|r
BA
|
r
BA
5.

E =
1
4
0
4e
|r
BA
|
2
r
BA
Explanation:
The electric eld at point B is not related
to the charge at point B, only the one at
point A, so the answers with e
2
are incorrect.
Recalling the form of the electric eld,
lui (el22284) HW 1 li (58545) 8

E =
1
4
0
q
|r|
2
r,
we see that it has the distance squared in the
denominator. Therefore the correct choice is

E =
1
4
0
2e
|r
BA
|
2
r
BA
.
020 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
What is the force on the charged particle at
B?
1.

F =
1
4
0
3e
2
|r
BA
|
r
BA
2.

F =
1
4
0
3e
|r
BA
|
2
r
BA
3.

F =
1
4
0
6e
2
|r
BA
|
2
r
BA
correct
4.

F =
1
4
0
9e
2
|r
BA
|
2
r
BA
5.

F =
1
4
0
6e
|r
BA
|
2
r
BA
Explanation:
Force involves both particles, and has the
general form

F =
1
4
0
Q
1
Q
2
|r|
2
r,
wherer is the vector pointing between the two
charges. In this case, Q
1
= 2e and Q
2
= 3e,
so we end up with

F =
1
4
0
6e
2
|r
BA
|
2
r
BA
.
021 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
The positive particle at B is removed and an
electron is placed at location B.
What is the magnitude of the force on the
electron?
1. F =
1
4
0
e
|r
BA
|
2
2. F =
1
4
0
2e
2
|r
BA
|
2
correct
3. F =
1
4
0
2e
|r
BA
|
4. F =
1
4
0
3e
2
|r
BA
|
2
5. F =
1
4
0
6e
2
|r
BA
|
Explanation:
The magnitude of the force is just

. So
we just take the length of the force vector,
which (following the explanation from part 2)
is given by

F =
1
4
0
2e
2
|r
BA
|
2
r
BA
.
(Remember the electron has a negative
charge.) Taking the length, we get

1
4
0
2e
2
|r
BA
|
2
r
BA

F =
1
4
0
2e
2
|r
BA
|
2

r
BA

=
1
4
0
2e
2
|r
BA
|
2
(1)
=
1
4
0
2e
2
|r
BA
|
2
022 10.0 points
Two identical small charged spheres hang in
equilibrium with equal masses as shown in
the gure. The length of the strings are equal
and the angle (shown in the gure) with the
vertical is identical.
0
.
1
6
m
3

0.04 kg 0.04 kg
Find the magnitude of the charge on
each sphere. The acceleration of gravity is
9.8 m/s
2
and the value of Coulombs constant
is 8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
.
lui (el22284) HW 1 li (58545) 9
Correct answer: 2.53204 10
8
C.
Explanation:
Let : L = 0.16 m,
m = 0.04 kg , and
= 3

.
L
a

m
m
q
q
From the right triangle,
sin =
a
L
a = Lsin = (0.16 m) sin 3

= 0.00837375 m.
The separation of the spheres is r = 2 a =
0.0167475 m. The forces acting on one of the
spheres are shown in the gure below.

mg
F
T
e
T sin
T cos
Because the sphere is in equilibrium, the
resultant of the forces in the horizontal and
vertical directions must separately add up to
zero:

F
x
= T sin F
e
= 0

F
y
= T cos mg = 0 .
Dividing,
F sin
F cos
=
F
e
mg
F
e
= mg tan
= (0.04 kg)
_
9.8 m/s
2
_
tan 3

= 0.0205439 N.
From Coulombs law, the electric force be-
tween the charges has magnitude
|F
e
| = k
e
|q|
2
r
2
|q| =

|F
e
| r
2
k
e
=

(0.0205439 N) (0.0167475 m)
2
(8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
)
= 2.53204 10
8
C .
023 (part 1 of 5) 10.0 points
In the region shown in the diagram below
there is an electric eld due to a point charge
located at the center of the circle. The arrows
indicate the magnitude and direction of the
electric eld at the locations shown.
A
B
D
C
What is the sign of the source charge? Your
answer should either be a plus sign or a minus
sign.
Explanation:
Electric elds point away from positive
charges and toward negative charges.
The elds are pointing toward the circle, so
there should be a net negative charge inside
the circle.
lui (el22284) HW 1 li (58545) 10
024 (part 2 of 5) 10.0 points
Now, a particle whose charge is 6 10
9
C
is placed at location A.
Which arrow best indicates the direction of
the electric force on this charge? Enter j if
the force is the zero vector.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
Explanation:
Like charges repel, so the direction of the
force on a negatively charged particle at point
A should be away from the circle, and thus, in
direction b.
025 (part 3 of 5) 10.0 points
The electric eld at location A has the value
6000 N/C, 6000 N/C, 0.
The unit vector in the direction of

E can be
written in the form:

E =

E
x
,

E
y
,

E
z

where we understand

E
z
= 0.
What is

E
x
?
Explanation:
For any vector, the unit normal can be
found by taking the vector and dividing it by
its magnitude, since
_
v
|v|
_

_
v
|v|
_
=
v v
|v|
2
=
|v|
2
|v|
2
= 1
We can easily nd the magnitude of

E:

=
_
E
2
x
+ E
2
y
=
_
(6000 N/C)
2
+ (6000 N/C)
2
= 8485.28 N/C
So, nally, we nd

E
x
=
E
x

=
6000 N/C
8485.28 N/C
= 0.707107
026 (part 4 of 5) 10.0 points
What is

E
y
?
Explanation:
For any vector, the unit normal can be
found by taking the vector and dividing it by
its magnitude, since
_
v
|v|
_

_
v
|v|
_
=
v v
|v|
2
=
|v|
2
|v|
2
= 1
We can easily nd the magnitude of

E:

=
_
E
2
x
+ E
2
y
=
_
(6000 N/C)
2
+ (6000 N/C)
2
= 8485.28 N/C
So, nally, we nd

E
y
=
E
y

=
6000 N/C
8485.28 N/C
= 0.707107
lui (el22284) HW 1 li (58545) 11
027 (part 5 of 5) 10.0 points
The electric force on the 6 10
9
C charge
can be written in the form
F
x
, F
y
, F
z

where it is understood that F

z
= 0.
What is the value of F
x
?
Correct answer: 3.6 10
5
N.
Explanation:
The force on a charged particle is merely
the charge of that particle times the eld at
its location.
Therefore, we have:

F = q

E
F
x
= qE
x
= (6 10
9
C)(6000 N/C)
= 3.6 10
5
N