ro!ucing "ealth an! overty in In!

onesia#s $ew %ural &conomies 3ungei 6ekan7&uala Buayan, &ecematan Meliau, &alimantan Barat "reliminary !ield .otes, July '8 2ugust +, '(*( Clau!e 'ortin $Masters -andidate% International 6e elo#ment 3tudies, 3aint Mary9s 4ni ersity, Halifa5, .3 Yogyakarta, June 25, 2010 / Informal Interview with Marcus Colchester I met Marcus by chance at Ibu Heru's Home stay in Jogja where I stayed while taking language classes at Wisma Bahasa. We had an informal, brief discussion o er breakfast about his organisation, !orest "eo#les "rogramme $!""%, of which he is the director, and the field work that I was #re#aring to undertake in West &alimantan. Q: What is the main focus of your organisation's work in Indonesia? Working with such organisations as Sawit Watch, HuMa, the World Agroforestry Centre and others, we draw attention to the impact and implications of the oil palm industry on rural communities and indigenous peoples. Our 2 ! pu"lication of Promised Land e#amined the processes "y which land was ac$uired for oil palm plantations, and looked at how smallholders were incorporated in the sector. We also outlined the main principles of %S&O and identified its strengths and weaknesses as a regulatory mechanism for the oil palm industry. In July, '((), !"" and a coalition of *+ Indonesian ci il society and indigenous organisations filed a detailed com#laint against the World Bank's #ri ate sector arm , the International !inance -or#oration $I!-% , for o erriding its own social and en ironmental standards, and des#ite warnings of ./0s, went ahead and awarded major loans to Wilmar #alm oil trading grou#. 1he -om#liance 2d isory 0mbudsman $-20% of the I!- res#onded by launching an internal audit and #roduced a critical re#ort that demonstrated how the I!- failed to assess the su##ly chains or look into the damaging im#acts of Wilmar's subsidiary #lantations that were taking o er community lands in Borneo and 3umatra. 1he World Bank announced in 2ugust '((+, that the I!- would not a##ro e any new #alm oil loans until the deficiencies listed in the -20 re#ort had been addressed. In addition, as a result of the scathing re#ort against Wilmar and the en ironmental issues raised by grou#s like /reen#eace and others, 4nile er, as a major buyer of #alm oil, has since canceled its contract with Wilmar. We all saw this as a major ictory and ha e since this time been lobbying the World Bank to e5tend the I!- social and en ironmental standards to all WB funding and not just to the I!lending #ractices. 1his battle is still being fought, thought there is some headway being made in this area. Q: How effective is the RSPO? What do you see as some of the cha enges in certifying !a m oi '

as sustaina" e? %S&O is a starting point for setting industry standards that address the en(ironmental and social impacts of oil palm plantations and their current pro)ected e#pansion. Certainly, (oluntary mem"ership presents a limitation, "ut we ha(e already seen the influence of negati(e pu"lic pressure as in the case of *nile(er and Wilmar which can help "ring a"out changes in industry practices in the long run. +here are, of course, a num"er of challenges for smallholders to o"tain certification for their plots, not the least of which is the costs which can make it prohi"iti(e. We ha(e listed some of the pro"lems for inclusion of smallholders in Promised Land, as well as other pro"lems associated with %S&O. ,t is safe to say that much more needs to "e done regarding %S&O if palm oil estates are to genuinely contri"ute to community de(elopment rather than "ecoming po(erty traps. Ha ing inter iewed a number of com#anies in ol ed in the #roduction of -rude "alm 0il $-"0%, the issue of certifying oil that has been deri ed solely from a sustainable source and in kee#ing with :3"0 standards is not as straight8forward as it may seem. 1he oil is generally combined from a ariety of sources, and there is currently little infrastructure in #lace to allow for the storage of differentiated -"0 $i.e. :3"0 and non8:3"0%. 2lso, as is the case in international commodity markets in a globali;ed economy, a tanker of -"0 may lea e Indonesia bound for 2frica, but can be traded and sold multi#le times before actually being redirected to a final destination such as -hina for e5am#le. 1he nature of these trading #ractices makes it difficult to track the source and destination of -"0, as does the host of subsidiary com#anies that are in ol ed with the buying, trading, and #rocessing of -"0 destined to be included in a wide ariety of consumable goods. Q: #his week the Indonesian government announced that it wou d esta" ish its own criteria for sustaina" e !a m oi deve o!ment$ What is your take on this? "resently, Indonesian state oil #alm #lantations like "1". *< are not members of the :3"0. 4nder #ressure from the consortium of oil #alm #roducers in Indonesia, the go ernment has indicated that the oluntary :3"0 standard is set too high, and that it will de elo# a national I3"0 $Indonesian 3ustainable "alm 0il% standards that would a##ly to its state #lantations. 1here go ernment has yet to make these standards #ublic. 1he first =uestions is, how will the I3"0 differ from the :3"0> More im#ortantly, will I3"0 sim#ly #romote a ?business as usual@ a##roach, or will there be tangible en ironmental and social gains made as a result of these national criteria> !or the moment, we don't ha e answers to these =uestions. Q: What is the FPP's most current area of research in Indonesia, apart from what you have already mentioned? Ha(ing e#plored the issue of land in great detail in Promised Land, we are now looking at gaining a "etter understanding of how li(elihoods are "eing affected "y the oil palm industry. -y this, , mean, who is working in the sector and under what terms, and who is "eing e#cluded from it and the alternati(es a(aila"le for indigenous people and rural communities. +he oil palm sector is e#pected to e#pand significantly o(er the ne#t ' years, and it is essential that we understand how and to what e#tent agrarian landscapes and li(elihoods are going to change as a result of this e#pansion. Arrival in Kuala Buayan (late afternoon) Friday, July 2 : Observation 2

Met the .epala /esa 0&ak Seysukardi1, .epala /usun 0&ak Mahrani, Adam1, among others and registered with the kantor "y filling in our names in the registry. 2aleh and , waited for &ak Sutanto to arri(e to "ring us "ack to his place. He li(es in Cempaka 0%+ 341 which is a"out a ' 5'4 minute motor"ike ride upri(er along the .apuas %i(er. According to the data charts on the wall of the office, .uala -uayan has '67 kk 0pop. 4!4! – 2896 male : 27!2 female1 li(ing in '' %+s. Sensus &enduduk 2 ' was recently completed 0See Appendi# A1. /aleh and I rode on se#arate motorbikes along a dirt road that was badly eroded in some s#ots and makeshift boards had been #laced to allow #assage where rain had washed out #arts of the road. 1he small bridges were in #articularly bad sha#e, so we ended u# walking o er while the bikes went on ahead. 0n a number of occasions we had to sto# and start because of our hea y loads and the bad road. We rode through arious settlements along the way with houses made either of cement or wood in arious conditions. 2 good number were dela#itated, rundown, and without #aint, while others had #aint and were in better sha#e. 1he o erall im#ression was one of #o erty inters#ersed with #ockets of wealth. 3atellite dishes of arying si;es dotted the landsca#e, and on the waterfront there was much acti ityAbathing, washing, swimming, etc. "eo#le were smiling as we rode by and there was a general feeling of e5citement and curiosity. ak (utanto an! his family &ak Sutanto has a position with the .uala -uayan office 0/esa -&/ : -adan &ermusawaran /esa – started 2 9, for 4 years1, and he is the head of %+3 4 along with &ak Ha)i %uslan who is in his ! s or 7 s. He owns a concrete house that has a large sitting room in the front, a family area off the kitchen at the "ack, and two "edrooms. 2aleh and , are staying in one room together while the family sleep in the other room. +hey ha(e electricity e(eryday from !pm to ! am, e#cept on Sunday where it is a(aila"le all day, and their a(erage "ill is %p ! . per month which &ak pays in person at the central kantor where diesel generators 0S&&O fuel1 pro(ide power for the local area. %ain and wind causes regular outages. +he family has a refrigerator, +;, an electric fan, and outlets throughout house e#cept in the front sitting room. +he floor is tiled and clean, and we eat sitting on the floor, though not e(eryone eats at the same time together. Cooking is done using minyat tanah 0fuel from the ground, not "iodiesel1. +he family doesn‫پ‬ft drink the water from the ri(er< they collect rain water and store it in the fridge. %arely does it happen where they ha(e to resort to using water from the .apuas %i(er, "ecause they ha(e = reser(oirs 0satu ku"ik – ' litre1 and the rain comes regularly, e(en in the dry season. +he family also owns two motor "ikes 0in a(erage condition – family mem"ers, neigh"ours "orrow throughout the day1 and a regular 2 wheeler children ‫پ‬fs "ike. +hey ha(e '8 cats, ! "irds 0one that says Selamat &agi>1, and a num"er of chickens, roosters, and chicks which are not allowed in the house, though this re$uires some chasing a"out periodically to get them out of the house. +hey ha(e access to two latrines 0with roof1 and "athing decks on the .apuas, "oth of which are in pretty good shape. "ak 3utanto and his wife Ibu 2riani ha e two children of their ownA a daughter 1ania $*B yrs old% who is li ing with relati es in 3intang $C hours away by motorbike% while attending a #ri ate school, and a son Ikhsan $*( yrs old% who is =uite li ely, bright, and friendly though =uite small for his age. 1hey also ha e an ado#ted girl $anak aso% li ing with them, 6ewi $*< yrs old , <( cm taller than Ikhsan% who has been li ing with them since June of this year. 3he is from "ontianak, has no siblings, and has no #arents $6ewi doesn9t ha e any information about her #arents, nor does "ak 1anto , ado#tion> "assed away>%. 6ewi hel#s with the kitchen work, is =

friendly, and wants to learn some Dnglish while I am staying here. We ha e already started some instruction using has my Eonely "lanet book. 6ewi, Ikhsan, and I #lay ariations on a marble game that in ol es colours, numbers, and guessing. +heir neigh"our on the one side is ,"u Ariani‫پ‬fs eldest sister, ,"u Wardia, who li(es with her hus"and 0?ayadi1 and two children 0daughter @ea, '9 yrs old, and a son Wahyudin, '4 yrs old1< on the other side is her youngest sister, ,"u Sumiati, who li(es with her hus"and *snen, and 6 children 0three "oys and a daughter all li(ing at home. +he summer holidays ha(e "egun and school will resume ?uly '9 025= weeks holiday1. Background / cono!ics / Oil "al! – #ource KB$% Informant was born in Bojonegoro, Ja a 1imur and mo ed to -em#aka by himself in *++C when he was *F. He worked as a bulldo;er dri er $su#ir% for < years. Married istri $from "ontianak% and they were gi en land to build a house in -em#aka $yang sudah kawing , no cost 7 ado%. 1he house lot is B(m 5 '(m. He cleared the land in ' months with the hel# of gaji workers $local%, then built house in *++C. He owns *F cats, + birds, G cattle, ' goats, and a number of chickens and chicks, as well as roosters that start crowing at Cam. ,nformant has 2 kaplings that are a"out a 2 min walk from his house. He "ought ' kapling as plasma 0lot '2"1 from &ak Mahmudin 0tokay who li(es in Meliau1 for %p 6 )uta, and he "ought a second kapling as pri(ate land 0lot ==1 from Ha)i ?amhir for %p 64 )uta in '997 0See Appendi# -1. ,nformant is a mem"er of .*/ S&2 0in -akti ?aya1. &ak Wi)ianto is the sekreter of S&2 0note &ak Mahumadin is the Sekreter of ..&A for &+&A '=1. ,nformant has paid off one kapling 03'2"1 in 2 9 0ie. no more = B monthly payment to .*/1,and he will ha(e paid off the other kapling 03==1 "y late 2 ''. He has yet to recei(e the sertificat for the first kapling. Aot sure why he doesn‫پ‬ft ha(e it yet. +here are '9 farmers in his ampuran 0hamparan1 and to his knowledge, they ha(e all paid off their credit. He hires 8 workers 02 family mem"ers, ! luar de keluarga – not family1 to har(est +-S 0+andan -uah Sekar – oil palm fruit1 2 times a month. He "ought seedlings from -H/ and he also "orrowed CC from -H/ to de(elop kaplings. On a(erage he har(ests = tons : kapling, and he recei(es "etween %& '.2 : kg to '.7 :kg for +-S. His trees are o(er ' years old, and he has 268 trees on each kapling. +he return on +-S is low for trees 54yrs, good for 45' , and "est for ' 524yrs. On a(erage, he earns %p. 8 )uta from his two kaplings. :oute taken by har ested fruit $1B3%A 3te# * 1B3 from ka#ling hauled by mobil $hiline , * ton% to &a#uas :i er. -ost H :# )B 7 kg, #aid to ehicle owner, "ak 1ugiyo. 3te# ' 1B3 trans#orted to BH6 shore ia ka#al. -ost H :# *(( 7 kg, #aid to ehicle owner. 3te# < 1B3 trans#orted to BH6 factory ia B ton truck. 1B3 is weighed, graded for =uality, and #rocessed into -"0. -ost H :# G) 7 kg. 3te# C "etani recei es a sli# from BH6 and from &46. 3how deductions, weights, etc. "etani recei es #ayment from &46, then #ays em#loyees. 6

Working hours 75 ''am. '% "e!uat 0+-S handlers1D transport fruit (ia wheel"arrow 0ankong1 to the main road where the truck will come to transport to -H/ (ia . : hari. $. .+rivate lan!-. "ut . 0Samprot – spray : Monsanto product purchased in Meliau. Holes are dug e(ery three months. . he attended a week8long course for kela#a sawit farmers. B% "e!buat (obang 0pupuk – fertiliHer1D Opsi ' 0lo"ang1 5 dig 6 holes '.*/ doesn ‫پ‬ft fi# ade$uately.*/. Garns net %p. they earn %p 74.F <% #u&ir 0truck dri(er1D deli(er +-S to . &etani pay %p 6 : kg for roads.In 0ctober.=6! : kg to farmer mem"ers. 1ri# to Meliau . 31C4 4 . koru#si #roblem at &46. 1. F /aily wages for &e!anen and &e!buat workers are calculated on a rate of %p. ga)i E %p 6 . Fertili. C% "e!bersi' 0cleaners1D cut grass around trees. per load. . $See Appendi# C for course info and details1.*/ own road. elect new leaders for &46. and there was no charge for the course. per day. : day. *sed to kill grass 0gulma1 around trees once pem"ersih ha(e cleared:cut the grass.ew leaders oted in. cut the lea(es out of the way. re)ected "y -H/. '4. Meeting once a year to discuss issues. 1he course was held in "arindu where a local branch of ?"usat "enelitian &ela#a 3awit@ is located. opsi ' and 2. On a(erage makes 7 loads a day E %p. 2 kaplings needs 26 litres 0' "ottle E 6 litres. Satu "ag 4 kg E %p 9 . 2lso. . %p 26 . Q: Why is the road not getting fi%ed? 6ifficult and e5#ensi e to get machinery into ka#ling area. yet #roblem ne er sol ed.*/ Slip reproduced1. Satu kapling pakai 4 kg e(ery = months. K)*: currently paying on a(erage for good $uality +-S %p '. '(*( ia boat $* I hrs% 1eker2a on *oat / (ource. and "ring +-S to scale "y the trail:road. 0See Appendi# / – .4 m from tree 04 cm # 4 m # = cm deep1 and fill with fertiliHer and water< Opsi 2 0ta"ur1 – spread pupuk "y hand around tree in =56 rows mo(ing away from tree. '((+. He learned how to care for his #lantation and how to make use of in#uts. ga)i E %p ' : kg < task is to cut fruit from tree. /er*ici!es / estici!es an! 'ertili0er +oundu&: used 2 times per year 0dua rotasi1. 2 total of F farmers attended. +otal cost for year E %p 72 . July <. '24 : kg # total har(est di(ided "y the num"er of workers in the two groups. more or less.*/ : -H/. 3aturday. *sed in ?uni and Ao(em"er. On a(erage. )a*our an! wages in oil +alm . +otal for ' year on "oth kaplings is 6 kg 08 "ags1 E %p 72. &ro"lem with road $uality – petani and .erD applied e(ery = months using "oth methods. &oor $uality E +-S arri(es late. ' 4. *% "e!anen 0har(esters1D ! laki5laki : 2 perempuan.% In+uts.F Har(est takes ' day for "oth kaplings. Mi# ratioD '4 litre I 9 cc good for 2ha.

Mah. and sit with "ak Mahamudin one at a time to resol e #ayment. -etween 2 7 and 2 ' he sold appro#. On a(erage he har(ests = tonnes a month. !armers' wi es hel# out with the cooking.n 2 7. a son who has completed SMA 0high school1 and is waiting to see if he has "een accepted at a uni(ersity in &ontianak to study computer technology. 9 )uta. ".nformant "elie(es that demand is simply low. emeliharan. . .31C2"ak Mahamudin9s wife $Ibu 2ni% and "ak 3utanto9s wife $Ibu 2rianai% are cousins. He is #leased with earnings from oil #alm and the only #roblem he sees is that BH6 doesn9t are about the roads in the #lasma areas. . In *+B'. &rice of seedlingsD ' m E %p. He har(ests only '# : month "ecause his land is far 0o(er 2km away1 from his farm. Jhow to reconcile low demand with "oomKL . in Meliau. He also is a co5owner 0with &ak Mahumadin1 of '8 cattle which is sold for meat 0danging sapi1.n '996. He has li(ed 2= years in Cempaka and worked for &+&A '= from Aug '984 to mid5'996 clearing forest 0utang rim"a1 for tim"er. +he reason for this is that &. diesel for irrigation.1. . Jawa. etc.nformant also owns ' kapling which he "ought from &ak Mahamudin in '987 for %p. and he also pays for all the costs in(ol(ed in planting 0inputs. Works from Monday until !riday from )am to <#m '5 month at har est. !rom "ontianak.Mah fre=uently has to call #eo#le to discuss #rices etc. he dedicated . 1ackgroun! on ak Mahamu!in 5 (ame source . He owns a house that sits on a J ha lot where there is no #lace for a garden. M.oteA 3ee /aleh's note on this indi idual. he left &+&A '= and purchased 4 ha of farmland in %+34 0Cempaka1 0cost %p '7 )uta1 from &ak Mahamudin 0tokay in Meliau1 who inherited land from his father. /aji H :# *((. ha e lunch. 6ewi. 6iscussions and #hone calls are in Melayu. which nets him appro# ''= : kg (ia the . 6oes not own ka#ling. 0nce a month farmers come to his house to recei e #ayment for their 1B3. though he recei es farmers at his home. !ather from 3anggau. His office is at kantor "E.*/. 3ela+a (awit $ursery . there are only ! . He li es in -em#aka with his wife and daughter $B years old%. . 31C5 Born in *+<' in -em#aka.C juta #er month Kseems highL./ %esi!ent in Cem+aka / (ource.((( 7#er ton. . and Ikhsan%. (enior from Cem+aka / owner of ka+lings / (ource. and his mother was from -erbon. 24. He has ' ha of land for the house and (egeta"le garden. He has two children. pays for the seeds 0"i"it1 which he orders (ia regular mail from Sumatra. . 0n a erage he makes :# <. . and two daughters who are still in S/ 0elementary1. In "ontianak worked in lumber industry $mill% for G years in ol ed in the e5#ort of lumber. accom#anied by Ibu 2riani. K0bser ation *A !armers start arri ing around **am. 1he #ayment #rocess is a slow one. He is currently not selling (ery many seedlings 0local kaplings are in production and don ‫پ‬ft re$uire new seedlings as of yet. 1hey met in 3anggau. '2. It is unclear if there <#m $we lea e at that time . they bought 'F ha from a -hinese owner and #roduced rubber. owns B( ha of land in -em#aka. /aleh isited him on a number of occasions. and 'm E %p = . 2 cm E %p. 31C2 He is originally from Sumatera *tara and is 6= years old. &ak Mahamudin is also not re$uesting seedlings to sell. as ".4 ha to growing seedlings of oil palm which he sells on his own or through &ak Mahamudin where either method yields 4 B for the latter. He is res#onsible for the rekening 61B from &46 and works as an accountant $slash tokay which informant whis#ers under his breath%. '4. trees.t took him ! months to clear the land. Informant started kela#a sawit in *++F.Working for the last C years as a worker on ka#lings owned by *( local farmers. 2ccording to informant.

(unnet Cele*ration in %6 4 5 (un!ay.& 0K1 were mentioned "y guest. G(eryone was well dressed and e#cited a"out the e(ent. . 1he ne5t #art of the celebration in ol e members of the audience going u# to sing traditional dangut songs. we left Cempaka (ia small "oat along with '4 or so other (illagers. the main roads are full of #otholes.two farmers left out of a grou# of about *B. and there are no sidewalks. '(. Cem+aka 5 Mon!ay. 6ifficult to reconcile wealth that oil #alm is generating with #oor infrastructureL. Informant told me that a building #roject was starting this month and would in ol e re#lacing < 7 . +he ta"les were co(ered with newspaper. 2lso the dock are in two #laces where we got on7off ka#al. yet wanted me to go dance. so was not engaged in the discussion.either /aleh. nor I had to #ay for the tri#. and A. protest. and the last section was along a 2#6 that was mostly su"merged. and the illagers were accustomed to misha#s and took it all in good strides. then took part in the con(ersation.L K0bser ation 'A . . 1he motor conked out #art way. I understood that the celebration was an im#ortant one. than #artici#atory. . 1he #ower went out a few times which added fun to the celebration. 0nce e eryone had eaten. 1here was also a strong chorus for #eo#le to come u# and dance while others sang. water. July 5. When we arri(ed at the cele"ration.((( $or more 7 less%. I managed to meet two indi iduals whom I wanted to ha e a diskusi with $"ak 3eringoringo and "ak Bro% which was great. 1he tradition was to #lace an en elo#e with :#. e(erything was decorated ela"orately and we were greeted "y 4 or ! men who seemed to "e part of the (illage elders : people of importance. shake hands with the boys and tell them M3emoga ce#at simbu.t seemed that most went for the sapi. Our family was rushed o(er to the food which was setup in two streamsD choose either sapi or ayam. He then produced a document which was a su")ect of discussion for a"out M hour. D eryone on the boat was jubilant and talkati e. rolled up my pants and laughed my way across. One of the (illage ‫پ‬edignitaries‫پ‬f came o(er and put a few sate chicken sticks on my plate.nside the house. 2010 5 (ource. 31C1 O"ser(ation 55 &ak 0nameK1 arri(ed to discuss a pro)ect with informant.t was dark.ndonesia. chose sapi and sat down with my plate "eside 2aleh. . 2010 Around !pm. It was as if #eo#le were too shy to come u# and dance. July 4. When a log was in our path. 2fter a while the motor started and we made our way back home. /aleh broke through the wood and got stuck briefly. . mud. It seemed to be more of a s#ectator e ent. the "oards were rotten in many places. .t was pitch "lack and we na(igated with the help of a small flashlight. but nobody came u# to dance. On a num"er of occasions the words monopoli. 2 number of sho#s are run by -hinese owners. was recording names of kk in %+34.9 I felt a bit like a celebrity with all the #hoto8taking etc. narrow. with the o(erhead tarp starting to spring leaks in a num"er of places. 1he return tri# back home was more e entful than the arri al. It felt a bit odd to be a #art of the entertainment. Meliau town infrastructure was in ery #oor condition . we joined a #rocession to congratulate the two boys and their family. and the rain had started to come down harder now. +here was lots of laughter and "anter in "ahasa . I danced to a few tunes with one or two other men who bra ed the dance floor. . there was lots of yelling which seemed to signal to the supir to steer away from the o"struction. . and we drifted on the &a#uas for =uite a while in the #ouring rain. walking from the dock to dry land was a slightly unner(ing e#perience.

He is not fully certified to teach. Mo ed here from Jakarta and is originally from 3umatera 4tara. Informant also works as an elementary school teacher #art8time at the 36 school in &uala Buayan. 3uala 1uayan / 1/9 : 6ues!ay. . meeting chicks etc. was introduced to a few women. +here was also an a"undance of se#ual references. We made out way to a series of tents where a kind of . one at 3ei -em#ambawang $*Gm 5 Cm%. sat and had some )et fuel arak while &ak S. took a ride to &enelim"au to watch the tail end of a soccer match. though . . +here was also a (olley"all going on where . someone singled out a young man who was sitting somewhat outside the group watching and seeming to en)oy what was going one. and I could see that Ibu 2riani was not #leased with the drinking of arak in her house. At one point. spun his way along. getting laid. We made tentati e #lans to M#arty9 later on during the week. is also from 3umatera 4tara. who is C months old. 3he came into the recei ing room and said something in a shar# tone to a few in the grou#. -ost is co ered by Jakarta.t didn ‫پ‬ft seem appropriate to take pictures 0illegalK1. walked a good portion of the way as &ak S. . and one at 3ei "E. . 1he bridges are to be built at a cost of :# '. 2010 / 1/9 worker an! <uru (9 (ource. and they also ha e a daughter who is B years old. Informant and his family li e in a C room housing su##lied by BH6. I mentioned to John who was sitting ne5t to me.bridgesA one at 3ei -em#aka $*Bm 5 C m%. !or this reason. +he road was slippery and pretty muddy in places. he is working on a distance education #rogram in order to become certified as a teacher. ha(e witnessed what seems to "e "raHen insensiti(ity towards others on a num"er of occasions. and she has been li ing at the BH6 housing area for B years. We rode through the /S& "arracks and saw a familiar gradation of wealth and po(erty with the latter predominating. therefore he is not able to get a full8time #osition at the school. I had already had my fill for the e ening. 1hey ha e a little boy. 1he #roject is e5#ected to be com#leted in 2ugust. 8 . and later a grou# of men7boys came to "ak 3utanto9s house with a mi5ture of coke and arak. Ibu .B* juta by the construction firm "usan ""I".ursani. 24 ml for %p '=k. "y some of the men who were there. +he young man turned away. he continues to hold two jobs. 3C1= ersonal 1ackgroun! He has been working as a security guard at the BH6 factory for *( years. -urrently. &artway we stopped at a a little warung and "ought a "ag of arak. 1hey are both "atak and were married in '((C in "ontianak. and B years ago he added on a #ro#er kitchen with his own money and labour in order to be able to a ailable ) days a week.the women played. and screamed out how the man was a deaf mute 0lots of gesturing so . We then left the area and rode "ack home with a group of a"out ! or 7 other "ikes. could understand e(entually1. After a solid arak. 2driano. the rain has ke#t the follow8u# #arty at bay. His wife. we got "ack on the "ike and rode to a near"y group of tents where more arak was ser(ed. 1hey both ha e family li ing in "ontianak.‫پ‬fm not sure how it was played.. +he game was )ust a"out o(er when we got there.egas casino type game was "eing played. and . felt "ad for him. July . +here was also a good contingent of arak drinkers. that it would be best to carry8on their #arty back at his #lace. +hey called it )udi or kolok5kolok. We made it to our res#ecti e homes. am trying to take it in as o")ecti(ely as possi"le. 7isit to enelim*au 5 (occer match / 8*servations &ak Sutanto and . He e5#ects it will take him between B and *( years to com#lete the #rogram at which time he will seek a full8time #osition at the school. $Fm 5 Cm%. and a good deal of rowdy "anter. 3o far. . . though the empathetic side of me feels the affront nonetheless. stood around )ust letting e(ents unfold.

"ak Jamili. there are serious #roblems with trans#ortation. 1he transmigration #rogram had a number of #roblems. much of the fruit is rejected $u# to B(N at times%. as well as #ri ate truck owners to haul the 1B3 from the collection sites to the #lant for #rocessing. 2--. BH6 is #oorly managedA managers lack skills . 1he go ernment issued a H/4. and "&3A the former two com#anies $BH6 O 63"% em#loy a #lasma8inti scheme. In the rainy season. and they ha e a branch office in "ontianak. Before the con ersion to kela#a sawit. 1he BH6 head office is in Jakarta. In general. factory started #roduction of -"0 $1B3 #rocessing%. sometimes bad. Ja anese. li es in Jakarta. !armers get angry and tensions builds. 1he BH6 also owns subsidiary com#anies 63". &ak ?aya . 1here are no regulations in Indonesia about making com#any information #ublic. they are mostly from Ja a. Eand was gi en to transmigrants. BH6 began #rocess to ac=uire land. while those in the inti are well8maintained at all times. go ernment #aid BH6 to house7feed migrants in a state #rogram called "I:8B4. 1hey don9t understand understand grading system for 1B3 and why their fruit gets rejected. Q: Why are the roads not maintained !ro!er y on ! asma area? Who is res!onsi" e? BH6 is only concerned with inti roads. with some 6ayak.81:2. 1he original inhabitants were a majority of Melayu. 1here is no website info a ailable on com#any. while the latter two $2-. 0riginal land designated for #lasma was sold to outsiders who were not entitled to land. wrong guy in the wrong #lace. 1he BH6 #lant has about '(( workers. In *++'.1/9 information Q: How is the re ationshi! "etween &H' inti and the ! asma farmers? 3ometimes good. 1here was no Msocialisasi9 and the local #eo#le did not want to gi e u# the land. issue of ne#otism. 1he com#any doesn9t #ut out enough ca#ital for the #lasma roads. land was used for kebun karet. "lasma farmers are unable to get their har ested fruit to the BH6 in time $there is a 'C8CF hour window #ost8har est 7 fruit rots =uickly%. 0Serikat &eker)a Seluru . Q: #e me a"out the owner of &H' and a"out the history of &H'$ -hinese owner.ndonesia1 was started in 2 4 under the initiati(es of -H/ factory worker Su Herman. -urrent manager is from 3umatra. Q: #e me a"out the initia efforts to unioni(e workers at the &H' factory$ S&S. -H/ was under the management of ?am ?uri who responded fa(oura"ly to the worker re$uest for "etter wages and "etter working conditions. When the roads are really bad in the #lasma areas. D ery month go ernment #ublishes #rice of -"0 that is directly linked to going #rice for 1B3. 2lso. fruit arri es *8' weeks late. though did not follow #ro#er #rocedure regarding Msocialisasi9. In *++B. and it em#loys both its own truck dri ers.rianto 9 .3.and "&3% ha e all the land in inti with '(N of the #rofit going to the original land owners who ga e u# the land for the #lantation. Initially.n 2 8. . nor is there any information made #ublic. 1he roads in the #lasma area are im#assable at times. Managers rotate to another site e ery two years. and -hinese.

He was born June 'G. some of which were new arri als that he had met only once.antor .-. +here are no current plans to e#tend "uilding pro)ect to impro(e the roads in . age *(%. He was born in 3ekadau and has been li ing in &uala Buayan for <( years. July >. . 774. there is greater wealth and #ros#erity. 2010 1he &e#ala 6usun. . has held #osition since March *. and they came to &alimantan Barat in *+G( to work on rubber #lantantion where "1". 2010 3ela+a (awit $tabur . and a firm from Australia has "een contracted to "uild "ridges 0see earlier notes on "ridge pro)ect1. He has a wife. July . His #arents li e in -em#aka. Su Herman was fired and union acti(ity stopped altogether. "ak Mahrani was unsure about a number of the families in our :1. He har ests his 1B3 once a month only because he only uses one form of fertili. 2ccording to informant. 3antor 3uala 1uayan 5 "ealth %anking with 3e+ala 9usun 5 6ues!ay.0from Sumatera *tara1 "ecame the new manager and he dis"anded the union. Q: What are the main outstanding issues with the workers at the &H' ! ant? +he first issue is healthD e#posure to the processing of +-S into C&O is detrimental to worker health o(er time – no "enefits. is now located.urman 8 age C months%. "ak Mahrani. He #aid :#. as it seemed more accurate. – *pa Minimum . We #roceeded to do the wealth ranking e5ercise. His #arents are from Ja a -am#ur. His land is near "ak 1anto9s ka#lings. not lobang% which means the fruit takes longer to grow and ' ..& 0&em"ang)unan . +he kantor &&. +he second issue hour rotations. Informant has ' ka#lings and also owns a local toko7warung for + years now. +he main issue was low wages. Cem+aka 5 "e!nes!ay. *+)C.uala -uayan will pro(ide la"our for "uilding three "ridges 0cem"atan1 and the pro)ect will take ! months. His siblings don9t own any ka#lings.-. +here are no signed documents for workers regarding their contract with -H/. and a new baby boy $. Before buying the warung. Ni(e workers from . !am 5 !pm and !pm – !am. '((+.oteA /aleh and I decided later to rely on "ak 1anto9s wealth ranking. a son $2ri# . he worked as stand8by hel#.. Informant #urchased ' ka#lings from #eo#le who li e in 3in &uang 6aok. He is li ing with his wife and four children.& is in Sanggau. +his amount is insufficient to maintain an ade$uate standard of li(ing.nformant mo(ed here in '997 from Sunkuan /ao. -H/ pays the minimum wage 0*M. owner of warung/toko in town / (ource. Nactory workers were scared to raise issues after Su Herman got fired. : month. so we discussed the upcoming "ridge construction pro)ect which he will "e in(ol(ed with. "re ious owner of toko now li es in Meliau. Informant has three children. age F%. and he has fi e siblingsA two brothers and three sisters who all li e in -em#aka. Construction "orker / 3ela+a (awit owner / (ource. a daughter $0ki .a"upaten1 as determined "y the district which is currently %p. C 2gustus.nfrastruktur &edersahaan. before kela#a sawit started here. *+ juta #er ka#ling fi e years ago. *+G'. +he pro)ect is entitled &&. ' daughter 09 yrs old1 and a son 0= yrs old1. +he security guards were ne(er allowed to )oin the S&S. He owns one ka#ling. 31C> He was born in -em#aka. 31C 1? 1he worker happened to "e in the . His father was a fisherman and his mother has now #assed away. #eo#le were #oorP now.

2010 etani / 3a+ling owner / /arvest 5 8*servations . and grandmother 0Aene – . His wife works 24 days per month at &+&A '= inti as a grass cutter 0gulmas – pem"ersih1 where she earns %p. Her and her husband own C ka#lings.apuas %i(er to come to work in Cempaka 0' 5'4 minutes (ia atakatak1./ 8*servations &ak +anto owns two kaplings which he har(ests 2 # per month. +he rent."u Ariani and her sister were a part of the la"our force. 1he atmos#here is casual and friendly. July =. * juta #er month on 1B3. We were )oined later "y Surip who came '' . 1his morning. and gi(en that they employ many of the same workers 0some family. 0wns F ka#ling. some hired outside of #er year.nformant crosses the . .t is a"out a '4 minute walk from the house.uala -uayan.4 ha of padi.31C120wner is Ibu 2riani9s eldest sister who li es right beside Ibu 2riani. 31C. and has li ed in "E. . Bought land in *++C8+B from #eo#le li ing in &am#ung Baru. He hires two workers to hel# with the har est and he #ays them :# *<(( 7 kg. has *( children and ') cucu. B( juta. His motto isD Ao money. . . Cem+aka 5 'ri!ay. mostly family."u Aurul 0"orn '98!1. He nets %p.((( on :oundu# #er year. he works ! days per week and is kept "usy with the staggered har(esting of +-S. In general he har ests * I tons #er month. 1wo of his children are still at home and works as guru for 3M".FB(. electricity. July :. 1here are F workers. and then off to BH6. He said it is #ossible to buy ka#lings right now for about :#. He came to . He owns C houses. : day. ?a(a where he owns . . ' 4. no honey> 3ela+a (awit +etani @ ka+ling owner / (ource. there were an additional ! workers. 2010 5 3ela+a (awit 61( /arvest . his daughter 0%aya – ' year old1. Cem+aka 5 6hurs!ay. and along with &ak +anto. We got up at !am and "y 7am were we off to the first kapling. '. . He does not own any land or kapling in ."u Ariani was up at 2am this morning. He is originally from Cilapa. and the 1B3 was ready for trans#ort ia hiline $*8ton truck% to ka#al. ."u Wardia har(ested her kaplings 0owns 6 kaplings – har(ested all of themK1 on +hursday. 1. with < hired workers. per load and makes appro#imately 7 loads per day 0total ga)i for the day E %p. they were har esting from ka#ling Q *B. He mo(ed from to Cempaka two years ago from &ontianak where he worked as a dri(er 0supir1.ri#en.‫پ‬f He li(es with his wife . preparing food for the workers. He s#ends about :#. 2 . lot 3==. 31C11 0riginally from Ja a. and water are co(ered "y the company. He #ays about :#."u Ariani ‫پ‬fs sister. he decided to har(est on Nriday.alimantan -arat for ‫پ‬e"eker)a drus. 2fter < hours. He uses "oth options for fertiliHer 0lo"ang and ta"ur1. the har est was finished.+anen. :1QC $beside -em#aka% for o er <( years. He li(es in Afdeling ' in housing pro(ided "y &+&A '= "ecause his mother and wife work on the inti plantation as grass cutters. 2enerally.((( for fertili. He nets about :#. He dri(es a truck 0hiline – ' to ' M ton1 which is owned "y &ak +ugiyo and is kept in Cempaka right "eside the mos$ue. <B(. After checking the fields and consulting with other farmers. mo ed to -em#aka from &am#ung Baru. the har(est needs to "e staggered. the grou# mo ed o er to the ne5t ka#ling nearby $*( minute walk%. 0Selamet only uses the ti"ur method and as a result only har(ests once a month1. 2fter a break. and for this reason he is a"le to har(est twice in a month. 3ela+a (awit worker / (ource."u Watum1 who looks after his daughter during the day. '4.

He works for farmers linked with Ibu 2riani's family. and his mother #assed away o er B years ago. 1/9 "orker / 6oko owner / (ource. 1he first ste# is to identify the fruit that is ready for har est across an undulating terrain. "ak 1anto was on the #hone a number of times talking with other farmers and 3uri# the dri er. He needs to make two loads for the har est of a single ka#ling. and 4jang $<( yrs old%. . Nor har(ested +-S. 4#on reaching the site. 2ugust $'B yrs old%. 1he kantor BH6 is about *B minutes from the BH6 fabrik. 1he grou# is ery close. Malah $'G yrs old%. and their weight is added to the total at the end. 1he work team mo ed on to the ne5t ka#ling lot Q*' B. and non8family workers seemed to be treated as just one of the family. nor karet. and shared jokes etc. a wheelbarrow is used to trans#ort fruit u# stee# slo#es with one worker #ushing and another #ulling with the hel# of a ro#e. 31C: He was born in -em#aka $:1QB%. the surrounding branches are cut down and the 1B3 bunch is yanked down from the tree. He doesn9t own any ka#ling. He has been working in logistics o#erations at BH6 since *++'. 2010 "ealth %anking (ummary / (ource. he is content working C8B times a month hel#ing with the &3 har est. smoked cigarettes. He has fi e siblingsA 2doni $*+ yrs old%. July 10. 4sing the egrek $for tall trees% or the dodus $for shorter ones%. He has owned the toko7warung $on the edge of the :1 border with ne5t desa on the Dast% for F years now. He found school difficult. 3uri# arri es and the 1B3 is loaded onto the truck. 1hroughout the #rocess. Har esting one ka#ling took about < hours. we had makan #agi. Gach works on each others‫پ‬f kapling as a form of royong 0shared la"our1.with his truck to cart away the fruit to a loading dock. +his e(ening. 0See Appendi# G – &hotos of +-S Har(est1. Informant has only com#leted 36C and does not intend to carry on with school because he is getting too old for 36 $he needs two more years to com#lete #rimary%. 2yang $'F yrs old%. or for further fruit. the +-S will "e loaded onto a kapal and "rought to -H/ directly. he was born in -em#aka. 3ela+a (awit "orker / (ource. He starts in the morning at )am and ends at *#m. indi idual workers carry the 1B3 on their shoulders using a #olyester rice bag for #rotection from the s#ines on the fruit. per se. He tra els ia se#eda motor which is about CBmin one way. When all the fruit has been har ested and carted to the weigh scale $timbagnan%. the pemanen recei(ed a wage per kgD %p '24 : kg di(ided "y the 7 workers. .oteA His father was also inter iewed at a later date. ak 6anto :1 Q B has GC kk H #o#ulation of 'C( jiwa."u Wardia did not recei(e a ga)i. '2 . though his commute to school was relati ely easy ia atakatak across the &a#uas :i er. !or the time being. In #laces where the wheelbarrow cannot get through. Workers use a hook8like de ice $>>>% to haul the fruit either to the area where it will be weighed."u Ariani and . Ibu 2riani and Wardi collect all the indi idual fruit that falls from the bunches. 3ee &B-*). Cem+aka 5 (atur!ay. 31C14 Informant is *B years old. "ak 1anto said both ka#lings yielded about the same olume. 1he 1B3 is weighed in a##ro5 *B(8'(( kg #ortions and the weight is recorded on a &ela#a 3awit branch using a branch needle to scratch the res#ecti e weights. "ak 1anto calls 3uri# to come with his truck. 1he har est of 1B3 is labour intensi e and entirely a manual #rocess.

July 11. His hand was still swollen. 1he following week. I ho#e he wasn9t offended. 1he informant asked his son to bring him a glass of water. came great res#onsibility . kekuasaan besar . *< families own * ka#ling. no means of accumulation. !ield tri# was in fact not a meeting. I had already made arrangements to s#end the night at 3uri#9s #lace in "1". and *( families own either one or two bawas. <rou+ 4. and since he was a child has been aware of a talent for healing. &alimantan Barat. Mas "ujo stayed in 3eng &uak 6aok. then asked the farmer to drink the water. '= . KI added that with such great #ower . but own either bidang and 7 or bawas. He is B' years. he whis#ered some words into the glass. C families own ' bidang. meaning they earn just enough to sur i e but ha e no sa ings. then went off to the soccer match in "enelimau. tanggung jawabL. '* families do not own land. $ * 5 G ka#lings 7 * 5 B ka#lings 7 * 5 C ka#lings 7 C 5 < ka#lings 7 B 5 ' ka#lings%. Cem+aka 5 (un!ay.oteA It may also be #ossible that there are #as #asan in grou# < as well. *< families do not own a ka#ling. 3ome families own karet $bidang% and bawas. *<. at a soccer game in "enelimau. )B. It looked as though the needle was still stuck in his handL. Wealth :anking by land ownershi# 7 :1 Q B%. Cem+aka 5 Mon!ay.<rou+ 1. he de elo#ed diarrhea and blistered li#s which took about a week to reco er from. said Mas "ujo had called a meeting for today. Maybe o ernight stay. in #art due to his lack of rehydration o er the course of the journey. When it came. K I saw the farmer on 3aturday. Many fall into a category called #as #asan. a farmer came to his house and had a swollen left hand which he injured while har esting 1B3 $the needles can =uickly cause swelling. . and he said the dukun9s treatment didn9t work.(((. He was born in &eta#ang. Bring field notes and :#. as I e5#erienced firsthand last !riday%. but an e5cursion by sam#an $F hours total%. July *G. 2010 7illage 9ukun / (ource. July 12. Had to cancel #lans. 2010 !ield tri# to &uala :osan. adding that he used this #ower only to kee# his enemies from harming him. <rou+ ?. <rou+ 2. 3aid he had the ability to kill someone just be staring at them. 1he farmer stayed for a few minutes. While we were ha ing tea and discussing his #rofession. /aleh ended u# getting a sun stroke as a result of the tri#. 31C1> Brief isit to informant9s #lace. He offers his ser ice to the community and the #ayment is oluntary. &un called /aleh last night around +#m. $3ee 2##endi5 ! . though accom#anied us from &uala Buayan to his home stay. and ' families own bawas. B families also own * bidang. *G families own ' or more ka#lings.

general secretary of 3"&3 $3erikat "etani &ela#a 3awit . / /ednesday. 63". "ak Jakaini offered to gi e me the '((+ #ublications . as well. has a wife $Rani% and four children and + cucu. 2#in $'G%. *B(. "ak Jukaini arri ed within *( minutes.((( for the second one. I was introduced to "ak 3uriya when I entered the B"3 office. . so I will check with him before #lanning a tri# to MeliauL. and he did not ha e &uala Buayan :1 QB s#ecific data. and 2ndi $'F%. coordinator of /:"& $/erakan :akyat "emberdayan &am#ung%P and -ion 2leksander. global information% and on Meliau sub8district $kecamatan . 1his information could be found at the &antor -amat Meliau with "ak Joko. 2ndi li es in Ma#ai $' hours away ia atakatak% and owns ' ka#lings. sitting in to hel# with com#rehension $he knew some Dnglish%. 3antor 1 ( -y chance. He #urchased rimba land in *+)F8)+. BH6. and now has kela#a sawit trees that are about *B years old. July %. In addition. He is not sure how much he #ays in ta5es. He asked me what can he do a"out his son ?ohn who doesn ‫پ‬ft want to work and doesn‫پ‬ft want to go to schoolK .((( 7 < hours%. "aling besar masalah H koru#si. He told me that he only had economic data on 3anggau district $kabu#aten . He #urchased his seedlings from "ak Mahumadin. sekarang di bawa. 3ela+a (awit 3a+ling 8wner / (ource. KI wasn9t sure if Mas "ujo maybe already had this info. 2nna $age>%. He #ro ided me with the name "ak Jukaini $office manager for statistical data% along with his tele#hone number. *((. cleared the land. I was interested. "alm 0il "easant !armers 4nion% who a##arently li ed in Bodok. He is originally from ?a(a. He owns G ka#lings. Informant has three sonsA John $'(%. #anggau – -uesday. has li(ed in Sanggau for o(er = years. &abu#aten 3anggau 6alam 2ngka and the &ecamatan Meliau 6alam 2ngka . and we had a * hour meeting in his office with Mas Ben. informed me that I could find an economic #rofile of the families in &uala Buayan at the &antor B"3 $Badan "usat 3tatistik% in 3anggau. While in 3anggau. *< for '(*( to date $3ur ei Industri Besar 6an 3edang Bulanah%. K1here seemed to be a lot of discussion '6 . and 22-. I had ho#ed to meet u# with two contacts that had been #ro ided by 1ania just before she left for -anadaA 3ekundus. and he was kind enough to take me "y sepeda motor to (arious go(ernment offices. global information%. 31C15 He was born in -em#aka. He earns on a erage e ery month :# *' juta from his 1B3. <(. July %0 1he &e#ala 6usun in &uala Buayan. He also has a daughter. 36&. "ak Mahrani. though it would cost me :#. but it is not much.((( for the first one and :#. suggested cutting his funding.1he rest of the inter iew was conducted by /aleh $see his notes%. in getting data on #lantation areas under the control of the "1". and he called "ak Jukaini from his h#. and now makes his li(ing pro(iding musical enterntainment at weddings and sunnat ceremonies. I was ho#ing to collect some information about land ownershi# in :1 BP Mas 1anto suggested I isit the &antor 2graria for mimilik tanah information. and he #ro ided me with his h# tel Q. met Mas -enH in my hotel lo""y 0Hotel Mutiara1. "ak Jukainin #ro ided me with a one #age kela#a sawit #roduction data sheet for '(*( $6aftar Euas 2real 6an "roduksi &ela#a 3awit 1ahun '(*(% and -"07Inti 3awit $kernel% #roduction data for "1". *<. 3BR tidak bagus. I left -em#aka ia s#eedboat to 3anggau $:#.

then coca. *B(. the map '4 .acuk pro(ided me with a detailed map of the land area allocated to kelapa sawit. nor did he know of an 3"&3 office in 3anggau. tanah pertanian etc.elapa Sawit1. He was able to #ro ide me for free with a soft co#y of the '((+ &abu#aten 3anggau 6alam 2ngka $recall :#. While dri ing he told me that he worked #re iously with the World Bank office in Jakarta for a number of years.B(( ha O B((( ha H **. 3antor 1A &9A I met "ak :oni !au. coca etc. 0See Appendi# 2 55 Summary of data1. and "ak Jukaini regarding the cost of the books. would continue my (isits on Wednesday. "ak &acuk was using a /I3 ma##ing data base and he #ro ided me with the hectares allocated to kela#a sawitA BH6 63" 36& 22"1". cash cro#s $karet.L "ak Jukaini informed me that #lantation economic data could be a ailable at &antor 6isbun $6inas "erkebunan%. .B(( ha '(.A.((( ha ''.@A& allowed for the e#clusion of these areas from the area under pri(ate:state control.uala -uayan area Map for . Meeting lasted about <( minutes. of which Meliau is 3!.9is*unMas -enH and .an. 3antor 9inas erke*unan .ecamatan +ahun 2 !52 9 088 pages – copy was made in town with &ak Gko accompanying us with the original document1.((( ha '(. 0See Appendi# H for . . 88 88 88 88 *). &asi :ehabilitasi Hutan dan Eahan. &ak . (isit the .((( ha O +((( ha H . marginal land due to illegal logging% through arious community resource management #rograms in ol ing mining. met with &ak Gko who let me make a copy of a document – Statistik &erke"upaten Sanggau Menurut .antor -A&&G/A for other economic data and for maps of the area. arri(ed at the kantor a"out = minutes "efore closing 0=pm1.%. He is res#onsible for the rehabilitation of degraded forest and land areas $rusak . He said that for the district of 3anggau. 1he sekretri dro e me to the kantor in his brand new 34T which took about * minute. *< . He has been li ing in 3anggau for F years. Nor e#ample. +he document has agricultural production data for the '4 . he was unable to hel#.. When I in=uired about -ion 2leksander $his tel Q came u# as inacti e%.((( cost from B"3SS% and a free hard co#y of the '((+ &ecamatan Meliau 6alam 2ngka. Mas -enH returned me to my hotel and we parted ways. &ak said that in areas where there was o(erlap of H2* allocation and e#isting masyarakat.o data a ailable $Dnsunak% $Melaboh% 'C. He added that the /:"& $3ekundus% has not been acti e for o er 'F months and that it has been re#laced by the !"B of which he was the coordinator. so our meeting wsa short. . followed by karet. so informed "ak Jukaini that I would need to ha e a consultasi with Mas "ujo before deciding to buy the books. &acuk.ecamatan of Sanggau. I felt that I was being swindled.((( ha He added that the &+&A '= used a state model called -*MA 0-adan *saha Milik Aegara1. &ak Gko suggested . 3antor erke*unan I met "ak &acuk who showed me to his office . sekretari of the kantor.between Mas Ben. kela#a sawit was the Q * cro#. He pro(ided me with the name of &ak Awal *dinur. He suggested I isit the &antor "erkebunan for ma#s and #ro ided me with the name of "ak.

and he has not returned to . go to the kantor . F Area E 8=.11. . -urrently. 1here are a##ro5imately <(N from . 1he relations with 63" are not great $kurang%. . and she also is "oarding in student housing. +he kaplings were not ready and food had to come in from outside 0makan ke luar1. Aearly ! B of the farmers from A++ returned to +imor "ecause li(ing conditions were too difficult.11.=72 0?iwa1 : . was a sawa $#adi% farmer with ' ha of land. &atalog B"3A *C(<. He was gi en a ka#ling at no cost back in *++C. check with the . +he youngest. : month1 and he stays in student housing 0tinggal di asalama1. 6 #. yet much land is held under pri(adi ownership. informant9s #arents are working his rice field. He har ests his 1B3 twice a month $a##ro5. He was born in . and he belie es that the &46 lacks the resources to kee# the roads in better condition. He also suggested . .uala -uayan 0girl – '= yrs old : SM&1. ' juta 7 month. is 6 years old and came to /S& as a transmigrant in '996. July 15 6ransmigrant from $66 living in 9( 5 %eturn tri+ from (anggau / (ource. one brother who owns a ka#ling. (.*& goes to a pri(ate Catholic school in +ayan 0cost %p. and a house that has electricity and air summur $well8water%.11. : month1.nformant is from A++. and they all ha e the title $sertifikat% for their ka#lings.11 since his arri al in &alimantan Barat. and the school is located in +rans 2. Informant owns * ka#ling. 31C 1: .Hin *saha &erke"unan1 for details on kelapa sawit licensing and ownership. *< :ata8rata 7 rumah $a ge members #er household% H < %eturn tri+ from (anggau / Cem+aka @ 6hurs!ay.200="ublisherA B"3 &abu#aten 3anggau. Both him and his wife are ha##y li ing in 63".'CG 7 "erem#uan H '. He estimated that a"out the same num"er returned to ?awa. 1here are <( farmers in his am#uran.G*(B.nformant has three childrenD %iki 0"oy – '7 yrs old : SMA1. 3ecamatan Meliau 9alam Angka . and &rista 0girl – ' yrs old : S/1.epadatan 0density1 E 2 : km #. ' &enduduk E 6. 1he road is often a #roblem on the #lasma area.11 to study at the uni ersity in 1imor. <FN from &alBar. *' Eaki8laki H '. and 'N from Bali li ing7working at 63". 9emogra+hic 9ata for 3uala 1uayan / (ource. He bought the land from his #arents. he nets :#. He has two siblings li ing in 63". p. he wants to go back to .*'G 7 :atio H *(G #. goes to S/ negri 0national pu"lic school1 which has no cost. ' tons total 7 month%. but he is certain he wants to stay in . 63" has B &46. He might o#t to work on his father9s rice #adi.= 2 ha C dusun 7 B :W $:unkun Warga% 7 '( :1 $:unkun 1etangga% *<<) && $&e#ala &eluarga% 2 2 p. &rista.shows -H/ holding a H2* for ma)ority of . %iki goes to a pri(ate &rotestant school in Sanggau 0cost %p. He suggested . 0n a erage.B ha of kebun sayur. !armers ha e to #ay too much for #u#uk and they don9t get '! . '2. 2 km : 8. and each &46 has a##ro5imately B(( farmers $total of 'B(( #etani ha e ka#lings of ' ha%. and he only uses the tabur system for #u#uk. and a sister who doesn9t own any land. When his son :iki has finished school. 6 .uala -uayan for a detailed listing of land ownership in %+34. <(N from Ja a. +his particular program "egan in '996 and ended in '997. and to contact &ak @asito in Sanggau Jdid not pursue this lead at this timeL. He is not sure what he wants to study.epala /usun of . His wife ‫پ‬fs name is Margerita.

Gach time has in(ol(ed a heated e#change. He added that /ewi has a si"ling. 2can. learned that /ewi had "een li(ing with her grand5parents in &ontianak until they passed away recently. 6edisusanto $son. though I wasn9t clear as to why the cost went u#. +his is the 2 time the step5mother came to (isit. '7 nd nd . <((. B((. and . we were greeted "y /ewiOs grand5father who is 72 years old.(((. '(yrs old . He has four childrenA &anardi $son. She preferred li(ing closer to the city and she had asked to go "ack. I9m unsure of how this issue got resol ed. came to understand that /ewi ‫پ‬fs step5mother Annie 0li(es in /S&1 came to the house to get /ewi and ha(e her li(e in /S&. . 3M"*%. 1his morning he informed me that the #rice was now :#. July 1>. Byrs old%. *<. Mas +anto was called to /ewiOs school 0SM&1 "ecause there were some pro"lems that needed sorting out. Step5mother owns = kaplings. He said he thought I was the only #erson tra eling. According to what /ewi told 2aleh. I added that maybe by ne5t week the #rice would be :#. 2010 %umah ak 6anto. 3M& Meliau. accompanied Mas +anto and upon arri(ing at school. . he hires < workers from -em#aka $gaji H :# *<C(. I told him that there were always three #eo#le tra eling. *' yrs old . He came from &ontianak area to take /ewi "ack with a sister who is 6 years old. . 8*servations I had a short discussion with "ak 1ugiyo regarding the tra el arrangements for Dntikong on July 'G that would in ol e three #eo#le $2dam.enough for their fruit $kurang #arawatang%. a group of 25= women arri(ed and they had a heated discussion with .((( 7 kg to the local rubber tokay. yielding on a erage C tons. 3ela+a (awit owner / (ource."u Ariani came into the li(ing room and was (isi"ly upset a"out something. /ewi was well taken care of "y Mas +anto and his family. right across from the mos=ue. He also has (. she doesn ‫پ‬ft like li(ing with her step5mother who makes her sell cakes in the morning "efore school and after school as well. /ewi will li(e with her grand5father for the time "eing and attend school in &ontianak. . studying to be a mechanic%. *) yrs old .(((. Informant started growing &3 in *+F+P he owns * ka#ling that is about a '( minute walk from his house. /ewi saw her coming and ran off in the woods near"y. <((. C((. and &hosneni $daughter. and he makes use of only the tabur system of fertili. and the #rice went back to :#.(((S He talked a bit with Mas 1anto. 1ote: On ?uly 22 .(((.B) 7 kg%. "ut she missed her friends etc. When he har ests. /ewi was not unhappy with Mas +anto. 3M2'%. 3ugiharto $son. and I% and include the boat tri# across from -em#aka to "1". 31C20 Informant was born in -em#aka and married Ibu 3umiati $Ibu 2riani's younger sister%. 2nnie. He was gi en a #arcel of land from Ibu 3umiati's father in order to build his house. Cem+aka 5 'ri!ay. He har ests his 1B3 once a month. She left the following day "y atakatak and it was a (ery sad for e(eryone in the family to see her go. and that /ewi had stayed in /S& for one year with her step5mother. At the same time in the morning. +he grand5 father told me that her parents died = years ago."u Ariani said she go to the kepala desa to formaliHe her re$uest to ha(e /ewi stay with them permanently. East week we had agreed on :#. 1he three sisters li e right beside each other in -em#aka. *<. /ewi doesn‫پ‬ft want to go to /S&."u Ariani for a"out 64 minutes then left. twice a month.B ha of karet $*B( trees% which yields a##ro5imately *( kg of karet 7 day which he sells for :#. "ut there was always a risk she could "e sent "ack to /S& which she didnOt like at all.

he did not work in ?akarta. His wife sells snacks in &uala Buayan. '8 rd . G juta of his money and mo ed to "ontianak.4 yr program1. 3ela+a (awit Issues. but they cost anywhere from :#.G 0=.n 2 . = . and Nridays. < years old%. contact "ak 2lwi Binturki.0 – #aturday. but rather relied on money from his family and relati es. farmers and workers ha e more income than in the #ast. K/aleh mentioned later how informant was married only four years ago. though had little #roblems with the #olice because he was able to #ay off the #olice to let his lumber through. <(8G( juta. who is doing business in Bunti. 3anggau $not regular work%P and kebun karet . He dedicates some of it to a kebun sayur. and 6e o $ son . Wednesdays. har ests about *B( kg 7 month. 1he informant said that he was engaged in illegal logging. and "ecause he lacked sufficient $ualifications he was dismissed. he mo(ed to . *(.n 2 6.B juta 7 month%. but ended getting swindled by his business #artner. and he was li(ing in a rented house. '((. and earns about :#.‫پ‬f . he worked in the lumber industry $o#erating a chainsaw%. but his eldest daughter was already se enSL. though now there is no land for #adi and residents need to buy rice from Meliau or elsewhere. Nrom 2 45 2 !. -urrently. . At the time. 23%3 / Journalist – "etani / #ource: KB$4 $Inter iew was recorded *F see &B-G wa file% 1ackgroun! Information He was "orn in -ogor on August = . In '(() he built his house on land $* ha% gi en to him and his wife by his father8in8law. He did not use credit from the bank to build his house and de elo# his karet. he is working three jobsA *% !ree lance journalist for the "ontianak #ublication . for 2 hours per session. &ecamatan.((( #er kg $:# *. he has no longer "een working in the schools "ecause a num"er of properly certified teachers mo(ed to . Q: How has the arriva of ke a!a sawit in )ua a &uayan changed iving standards? 1he standard of li ing for farmers is higher in '(*( than it was in *++C. which #ays him u# to :#.uala -uayan from &ontianak. 1here are more jobs.((( #er storyP '% consultant for a steel com#any in Malaysia. He has decided not to #ursue his former business #artner in court and has absorbed the loss.uala -uayan to work as an Gnglish teacher ‫پ‬fs assistant 0SM&1 working on Mondays. 1heir childrenA &alista $daughter . I would like to buy a ka#ling. July %2. "ar 3unarto. he owns <(( trees.n 2 7. and he doesn9t own any ka#lings. 2nger $son . informant mo(ed to ?akarta to study accounting at the *ni(ersity S+. he mo(ed to Meliau to take a legal course offered in Gnglish "y a company called ‫پ‬eColling. 1he main sources of income in the #ast were karet and #adi. &2EB2: . '972 and has 9 si"lings who all still li(e in -ogor. !or three months in '((+. . : month. ) years old%. * year old%. and she also teaches the &oran to children ages G8*' yrs old in their homes for free. whom he met in &uala Buayan. who took off with :#. He tutored students 2# week. !armers are ha##y if they ha e ' or more ka#lings. Informant has three children and has been married to his wife /ierti since '((G.Kuala Buayan / +. he finished his program and mo(ed to &ontianak where he help three different )o"sD '1 financial consultant for fishing:shrimp industry< 21 radio "roadcaster for 7!! NM< and =1 pri(ate Gnglish tutoring for S/ and SM& students which paid %p. His father worked in a tea factory and has since passed away. Since 2 9.

1he ke#ala desa at the time did not kee# #ro#er records. they said they will check again $durbicara>%. some farmers only recei ed ka#lings of less than *. 1he BH6 only recorded which farmers ga e ).B ha of land for '. and many are protesting in the hearts only.-. and adat% yet they were mislead and e5#loited by them. At the meeting.armina. &ak . the ke#ala desa came at night riding on the bulldo. while others didn9t recei e any ka#lings at all.Q: What are some of the issues with the dea ings "etween !ast ke a!a desas and the &H'? 1wo former ke#ala desas. 1he res#onse from the ke#ala desa was that the land clearing issue was not his #roblem and ad ised that the farmers a##roach the BH6 directly.B ha $#lasma%P or '% gi e them a single cash settlement. +his year. farmers went to the ke#ala desa to com#lain that they had not agreed to gi e their land to the BH6. and Ha)i A"dullah. nor did they agree to had o er land to the BH6."u -udayan – the former camat – has a list of farmers entitled to land1.B ha. the M&s sent a letter to the -H/ asking them to resol(e the issues with the farmers 0the current kepala desa has a copy of this letter1 JCheck to see if Aiken was a"le to get a copy of the letterL. 1he former ke#ala desas were recei ing :#. In reality.? Narmers are growing tired of protesting. "ak Busti Bawadi $now li ing in 3anggau% and "ak Joharan $li ing in &uala Buayan% sold '' ha of bu#aten land to the to the BH6 and they ke#t the money for themsel es. In some cases. while other farmers did not sign any documents. yet other rejected to offer because whether farmers had ka#lings of either (. 1his land has been #lanted with kela#a sawit and is #art of the BH6 inti. 3ome farmers signed a document to gi e u# ). 2nother issue is the distance to the ka#lings from the illage which can be o er an hour away by ojek. and if farmers ga e land.B ha. '9 .er with the dri er. 3ome farmers got money for their karet trees $no records%. dusun. the BH6 land clearing was sanctioned by the ke#ala desa.((( 7 month from the BH6 as a way to kee# the desa on the side of the com#any. B((. Some farmers ha(e gone to the Sanggau parliament and ha(e approached the M&s for Meliau district for helpD Sri . +he -H/ in(ited farmers and the kecamatan camat in Meliau 0&ak ?oko1 to meet in Meliau to discuss the issues. though less that *(N of the farmers recei ed com#ensation for their trees.B ha. some farmers recei(ed land. In addition.Bha in return. some farmers ga e less than ). they were to recei e the same cash settlement from the BH6. &uala Buayan doesn9t get any money for the returns on this land. the kecamatan ordered -H/ to gi(e kaplings to the farmers who were entitled to recei(e land 0.artikan. In *++C. 2 major #roblem is that there are no records on land ownershi#. 1he BH6 #ro#osed two solutionsA *% gi e them each a ka#ling of less than '. +he -H/ said they will check the locations of the land in $uestion. 3ome farmers acce#t o#tions.B ha or *.B ha and they don9t ha e any info on the land area for indi idual #lasma farmers. Q: What are the outstanding issues * !ro" ems invo ving farmers in +. yet the com#any had already cleared their land. Collecti(ely. 1he farmers a##roached the BH6 directly demanding a solution. 1he BH6 #ays no ta5es to &uala Buayan and any ta5es #aid $dinas #ajak% go to the 3anggau &abu#aten. instructing him where to clear kebun karet land for sawit. 1he farmers trusted the leadershi# $ke#ala desas. they will recei e a ka#ling. Q: What are some of the issues involving farmers and farmer protest action? 1he BH6 recei ed the H/4 from Jakarta without ha ing followed the #ro#er #rocedures for socialisasi. When they went to the com#any.

4 )uta each for the land. 1he BH6 has been #lanting right u# to the ri er9s edge since the beginning.L 2 . Nor dri er and cleared his land without his #ermission. though they ha(e "een approached "y the company. 1his regulation has to do with forestry regulations and issues about erosion and water contamination $intensi e #esticide7herbicide use makes it necessary to ha e a #ro#er distance from water sources for health reasons%. Q: /re there any other issues re ating to the &H'? 1he BH6 uses the rule of way $melangar>% and #lant along the ri er edge contrary to go t regulations that say there is to be no kela#a sawit in a <B m . a meeting was held in . '. the 1B3 has not been har ested from "ak Wijanto9s ka#ling. Narmers who own pri(ate land with ke"un karet don ‫پ‬ft want to sell their land to the -H/.anto get a ka! ing whi e Pak / eh did not? +he former kepala dusun 0&ak A"dul Mulok1 registered &ak Wi)anto ‫پ‬fs name with the -H/. had <' ha of land that was taken by the BH6. they had already J. and later.though the ma)ority did not. the national parliament 0/&%1. &ak Aleh has a map of the area in $uestion. met the informant "riefly on ?uly 24. AoteD . a farmer from .uala -uayan. 1o date. +he /&% rep pointed out that the former kepala desas did not ha(e the authority to sell the 22ha to -H/ "ecause it was considered to "e national land under national )urisdiction. 2##arently. Q: How did Pak Wi. &ak Mahumadin and &ak Wakio own many hectares of land which they are selling to indi(iduals as pri(ate land for kelapa sawit de(elopment. because "ak 2leh told him that until his land issued is resol ed with BH6. and to date he has not recei ed any ka#lings. +he purpose of the meeting was to resol(e the 22 ha desa land issue and to address compensation for 77kk who are still waiting for compensation for the land lost to the -H/. many want to purchase pri(ate land for kelapa sawit without ha(ing to go through the plasma credit scheme 0pri(adi purchase1. and a lawyer representing hak from the ri er9s edge. the current kepala desa and kepala dusun regarding outstanding issues. 0ne farmer. +he -H/ said they had only followed the instructions of the kepala desa. yet the go ernment remains silent $koru#si%. &ak Wi)anto is a transmigrant li(ing in +rans 2. Aiken and %etsky attended the meeting and recorded the session. and the ke#ala desa came at night with the bulldo. the !orestry office knows about it. and he told me that on /ecem"er ' . +hese ru""er farmers are producing well with their karet. the land is barren and not de elo#ed into kela#a sawit with the e5ce#tion of ' ka#lings. "ak 2leh. His land was used for karet. He recei ed no com#ensation for the rubber trees. JSee if students in +rans 2 area ha(e any info on this issueL.uala -uaya that included reps from the -H/. was informed "y 2aleh that on the week of ?uly '9 . "ak Wijanto did not resist this re=uest and agreed not to har est the 1B3. One pro"lem is that no local kaplings are a(aila"le any longer. th nd point. "ak Wijanto is not to har est the fruit. and that on the 2 compensated the families %p. as an e5am#le. 3o far. 2 9 he attended a meeting in Meliau that included a representati(e from the -H/. on of which was gi en to "ak Wijanto and I am not sure who got the other one. He is waiting for permission from &ak Aleh to har(est his fruit.

and the owner of the kolok kolok table asked me not to take #hotos because it was illegal. 6uring the game. He doesn't own a se#eda motor. B( yrs old%. Den $'( yrs old% was also in the house at the time of the inter iew. 1here was also an o##ortunity to meet u# with women for se5 after the game. a number of the young men from -em#aka drink arak mi5ed with fruit juice. Den is not #lanning on going to uni ersity for the time beingP the nearest ones would be in 3anggau and "ontianak 2' . nor did he ha e #lans to further his education.((( 7 month etc. 6ekan "utih. 1he informant's ne#hew. there are a number of youth and young adults who come here to drink and ha e fun. Masri $son. Ida's husband. I noticed that children from 36 klas B8G were gambling with :# *k notes. 3M"*% and "ani $son. as well as -em#aka. li es in 3ung 6ai about a B hour dri e from -em#aka. I'm not sure how much money he was gi en. santai. was born in -em#aka. while the latter didn't work at all and li ed off a weekly allowance gi en to him by his father. 1here is gambling $kolok kolok% and alcohol $arak% is a ailable for :# *<k for 'B( ml. tuition . though he does own * &3 ka#ling which he bought *( years ago and was #urchased as #ri ate land. "enelimau was a #lace they fre=uented regularlyP the former worked about C8B days #er month by choice.%. Cem+aka 5 (un!ay. '+ yrs old%. as he didn't want to work too much. <' yrs old%. 2010 %etire! mother living with her !aughter / (ource. and I was told that the #rice was :# 'Bk. He has com#leted 3M2'. "ak :obli. :# *B(. He li es with his father. 36<%. 1here is a friendly and festi e atmos#here at the match. and this amounts to about <8C days of work #er month. Den's mother #assed away a few years ago. 1he informant has her own house across from her daughter's house. and she s#ends most of her time in the latter. Her husband own a kebun karet $* ha% about * hour away on foot. *< yrs old . and he works as a dri er on a truck hauling 1B3 from #lasma farmers in his area. He works as a labourer on ka#lings owned by C different farmers. 1his town is #rimarily 6ayak and has workers from 63" and elsewhere take #art in the e ent. but he seemed =uite disinterested in working. but sto##ed going to school because of the cost $:# ' juta for books.enelimau 21 (atur!ay. who has had a #roblem with his leg for o er < years and cannot work. some are #retty loo#ed. He comes home e ery weekend. though slee#s in her own house at night. Her children are Busni $son. 2010 / (occer match / 8*servations 1his is a fa orite #ass8time for the youth of -em#akaA go to the daily soccer match in "enelimau ia se#eda motor or ia s#eed boat. $3ee &B-*+ wa file% 3he is )( years old. some of whom are li ing in 3anggau. 1hough they are all Muslim in -em#aka. though I'm not sure how long a time one would ha e with these women. CB yrs old%.. July 1:. including his father. 1here is a 6ayak community longhouse at the one end of the field that has many traditional car ings on either side of the C entrances to the building. July 1. uniform. and Ida $daughter. 3aril $son. though this land was sold o er '( years ago. so that by the end of the game. and also because it was o er an hour on foot one8way to go to school. !or young men like Muga or John. 31C1= 2 second inter iew with 2minah was recorded on July 'C . He recei es no #ension income. #referring instead santai. Ida has two childrenA Meri $daughter. Her husband died < years ago. F yrs old . and Bhakti Jaya. Mas &amdani. has C children $all li ing in -em#aka% and *< grand8 children.

!armers #ay the &46 :# 'B7kg for road maintenance. "ut was forced to sell "ecause of her childrenOs gam"ling pro"lems. he has returned to 3umatera 3elatan a total of C times to isit family. Informant is B( years old. owner of 3ela+a (awit ka+ling living is 9( . 1he informant is married to Ibu Rayu 3ulastri. His #arents li e in 1rans B. and he has a two8year old child.B juta from orang #ribumi. 22 th . 3ela+a (awit worker living is Cem+aka / (ource. near the "1". 3ince li ing in this area. He does not own any ka#lings and < months ago he sold his kebun karet $a##ro5.daOs children get teased in school a"out their mother working as a prostitute. he was not gi en any &3 ka#ling./ (ource. who is in 3M"<. If a ka#ling owner is not able to take #art in the monthly road work. ). as well as on #lasma ka#lings. ' hectares% because he needed the money. which her hus"and disappro(es of "ut seemed powerless to stop gi(en that he li(es out of town during the week. He hires workers from within his e5tended family and also from outside his family too. Initially. Informant said the relationshi# between the 63" and #lasma farmers was #retty good. . while the &uala Buayan desa did not use the money for roads and the money was used u# elsewhere $he didn't know where the money went%. . . '(('. Why is the road from Pene imau to 'SP in such good condition0 when the road from 'SP to 1em!aka is so neg ected? He said both desas $"enelimau and &uala Buayan% recei ed the same amount of money for roads from the &abu#aten in 3anggau. blok kotong royong. Rati.da. He worked as a labourer on the 63" inti. He li es with his children in a wooden house. she owned 4 kaplings. 31C1. 1hough these #arcels are a##ro5imately *F kms from the 63" site. )ust prior to going out to record an inter(iew with informant. He would like to buy additional ka#lingsP some are a ailable across the &a#uas :i er. He sold it to #eo#le in &uala Buayan. In 2ugust. net. he must #ay :# B(k to co er the cost of hiring a worker to re#lace him.AoteD On ?uly 26 .6ransmigrasi. 0 er the course of the following F years. 31C21 He is <( years old and mo ed out to 1rans B $1am#ang 6ulang>% *( years ago from 3umatera 3elatan along with members of his family. He com#leted 36 only and owns a motorcycle and house. his son 2gun. he bought his first &3 ka#ling for :#. 1he informant added that he can get credit through the ko#erasi $-redit 4nion Eantang 1i#u in Meliau%. 'armer. with the road conditions being a #oint of tension. D ery month. and the hus"and has threatened to slice her )ohns up with a knife 0cingcang1. and his wife #assed away B years ago. when he arri ed. he har ests about *<8*C tons which translates to about :# *C juta 7 month."u Ariani shared some information a"out her 0informant1. and that he currently holds the land title certificates for each of his ka#lings. *< site. . also worked in the (illage as a prostitute. he #urchased < other &3 ka#lings from the same #eo#le. was born in -em#aka. He has G children $see inter iew with &B-*C%. though the "enelimau desa used the money for building a new road. as well as his B siblings who all work in the &3 sector with the e5ce#tion of the youngest brother."u Ariani also said that her daughter. He works as a har ester of &3 for C farmers G8) days #er week for :# *(( 7 kg. and once a month farmers su##ly labour for road re#airs . She said that at one time.

met up with Mas Sutanto who took me to /ekan &utih "y motorcycle. 1he men were generally wearing a sarong. He called the ke#ala desa to confirm that I could find such data in &B. – Map of area1. He didn't ha e any economic information on &uala Buayan and ad ised that I check with the ke#ala desa in &B. the army came to enforce de elo#ment scheme of kela#a sawit. AAC was issued a H2* in 2 8 for 8. met &ak Mahrani. under the 0rde Baru.. tea. 0See Appendi# ? for the title page1.S was underway with rows upon rows of poisoned trees looming a"o(e the newly planted trees. . photographed the document and will send it along with the other documents that .D<MIn *+F(. there was coffee. Meliau / 9ekan utih . . ha(e photographed. we all took #art in the meal which consisted of a #iece of beef. 2010 3antor Camat Meliau 5 Info on 1/9 B economics of %6C5 / (ource. they were com#ensated for their rubber and fruit trees. the kepala dusun in . We dro(e "y the processing plant in Meliau and we rode through (ast areas of &+&A'= where the replanting of . though farmers ha(e the option to sell their plasma and can opt to work on either the inti or plasma areas. . about '( of them. 2 few of the men talked about general illage e ents which was followed by a '( minute #rayer led by "ak 1ri Irwansha. egetables.'k hectares and is e#pected to start production in 2 '' with a capacity to process ! tons of +-S per hour. and also as #art of a naming ceremony for "ak 1ri Irwansha's month8old baby girl. He added that he also didn't ha e any information on BH6. rice. as well as information #ertaining to land ownershi#. 0See Appendi# . 0nce the #rayer was o er. and . 1he children and wi es were in another room off the kitchen. and fried noodles. ak "ayah Dntung "ak 4ntung has been the secretary to the -amat for < years and he came to Meliau from Rogyakarta in *++'. He pointed out that significant portions of land were e#cluded from the H2* license and fell under the category of Oencla(eO land that could "e held pri(ately "y indi(iduals or "elonged to the desa. was shown a record of the land ta#ation for the desa. and cigarettes offered. 8*servations.oteA 2lso see /aleh's notes on this indi idual as he conducted two lengthy inter iews with him. 2= st . for some photos1. ?uly 2' .$"1 2gro 2badi -emerlang% 0See Appendi# . AoteD On Wednesday.uala -uayan. It was a ery friendly atmos#here and e eryone a##reciated the sharing of a meal together. July 20. Eocal #eo#le were mo ed off adat land.5 Mon!ay. He showed me the same ma# $*++C% Mas "ujo made a ailable to the researchers on our #roject and said he didn't ha e anything more current for the area. and a number of them also wore the traditional muslim ca#. &ak *ntung that skilled la"our for AAC usually came outside the area from either Sumatera or ?a(a. 1he men. 9ekan utih / 6ues!ay. 2fter dinner. sat in the li ing room where the food had been #laced in the centre of the room. 6ahlil 5 Muslim feast to give thanks 5 (ukuran / ak 6ri Irwansha In the afternoon. 6 $ 1?. @ater in the afternoon. and shortly thereafter e eryone returned to their homes. farmers had been com#ensated for their land by the com#any o#erating in their res#ecti e areas. 2ccording to him. July 1=. though he did ha e details on the subsidiary com#any 22. 2010 1ackgroun! Information from Ali . /aleh and I were in ited to take #art in tahlil to gi e thanks for the year's #ros#erity. +he plantation scheme is 8 D2 0inti:plasma1.

families were to recei(e %p 24 .%5-*A5+%AAS scheme.&A and . 1he dis#laced illagers built new illages and li ed mostly off rubber and #adi. to patrol the area and make sure that no +-S is sold to an outside trader. locals who had gi(en up more land "ack in the early '98 s were entitled to more positions< a kakek who held a larger land holding would see 2 of his = sons who applied for work at the plantation get a )o" while others with less holdings would not find employment for their sons. in particular those who were in a position of authority. +he response from the company is that they are in the process of compiling the data. Some farmers ha(e communicated an ultimatum to the &+&A'= that if the information is not shared with them "y Ao(em"er. and the farmer must sell his +-S to the company with the farmer in essence paying for all costs through a . the conflict between the 6ayak and Madurese which occurred #rimarily in Bodok and Dnsunak in *++) remained fresh in the minds of the 6ayak li ing in 6ekan "utih... *nder the . the national police force.&A scheme. Narmers had to start repaying their de"t once the . as well as the main 2fdeling road. A num"er of farmers ha(e reasoned that selling to third party only slows down their de"t repayment scheme which pro(ides incenti(e to keep selling to the company despite their low "argaining power o(er prices and the issue of transparency.&A following the Ao(em"er = /eclaration which asked for plasma land for locals. 1he #rocess of #roduction and #ayment is as followsA farmers recei e a sli# from the com#any 26 th rd rd .&A sold their land which is contrary to . "ut the net result is that farmers ha(e more cash in hand after the har(est. +he wording in the Ao(em"er = /eclaration stipulated a ma#imum duration of one year for well as for the timber taken from the land. 1he local #eo#le saw the Ja anese as coloni. +he fruit is sold at a lower price than the one offered "y the company. the company pro(ides the seedlings.*/. 2lso. "lockades will "e used to force the issue. A ma)or source of contention is the lack of transparency around the process of repayment under the . and compensation of money and rice to account for plantation earnings o(er the past '9 years on adat land..&A regulations. Narmers suspect the percentage will continue to increase to such a rate that they will not "e a"le to continue farming .. . *nder this new scheme. locals formed an organisation to #rotest against the "1".. +he distri"ution of land process would in(ol(e families applying for a kapling and the company awarding land with each family slated to get a minimum of ' kapling. In *+++.n terms of compensation..&A credit scheme. Once farmers ha(e clear title. Some farmers ha(e taken to sell their har(est to a third party "uyer 0tenkola1 to a(oid deductions taken "y .. "ut they only recei(ed it for = months. Narmers ha(e re$uested a complete rendering of their in(estment in plasma. +he company responded "y forming the . .ers as was told to 2li by workers originally from Ja a li ing in 2fdeling *.&A scheme. Another outstanding issue to resol(e is that some plasma owners under the . %egarding finding employment with the &+&A'=. new forest land was to "e de(eloped into plasma intended only for local people and not to outsiders as was the case in the original &. farmers ga(e up ' B of their har(est to ser(ice their de"t with the percentage increasing incrementally o(er the years to a point where in 2 9 farmers were gi(ing = B of their har(est under the credit scheme. Some families were granted 2 or more kaplings. yet didnOt mention a minimum time frame which allowed for an interpretation that shortened compensation "y 9 months. they can sell to other "uyers and can lea(e the . +he kepala adat at the time recei(ed = or 6 kaplings.. +he company has made use of -rimop. for e#ample. inputs etc. "ut they ha(e yet to recei(e this information. employment on inti land.S started to "ear fruit in the 4 year from when the seedlings were first planted.&A scheme.n 2 45!. *< and blockaded the road to the factory.S. per month along with rice 0how muchK1 for an entire year.

so noise carries easily from one room to the ne5t. and he has begun har esting about <((8C((kg #er har est $once a month%. 1heir record so far has been to har est *) tons in one dayS His a erage monthly wage works out to be :#.+ juta. in the afternoon. F. but I o#ted instead to focus on basic con ersation first and de oted the last #ortion of the lesson to concrete nouns only. 3uala 1uayan / 1/9 5 6hurs!ay. 1he students were enthusiastic and #artici#ated well thanks to their teacher's translation of my lesson and #rom#tings to res#ond. 3ome students ha e morning classes from )am to *'#m. then transfers the balance to the &46P the latter makes a number of deductions and #ays the farmer his balance once a month. When family members arri e from the outside. 1he room was =uite barrenA it didn't ha e any books or isual material on the walls.(9I met 3eringoringo at the 36 school in &uala Buayan where he teaches two weeks out of the month #art8time. there were a number of students from other classes that sim#ly stood at the door or outside the window which made me wonder how students mo e around when classes are in session. 3eringoringo also teaches two classes at the BH6 at the re=uest of #arents and the com#any who asked if he could teach Dnglish to a mi5ed grou# of students ranging from grades *8G. He recei es some #ayment for this work. 1hey were all ery #olite in the classroom. though o erall. during the lesson. My im#ression was that the lesson was far too difficult for the students who a##eared to ha e a ery limited working knowledge of Dnglish. he #urchased a ka#ling $#ri ate% about *B minutes from the illage by motorcycle. 1he total school #o#ulation is around C(( students. they work as #art of the royong on #articular #lots of land. 1he noise le el was #retty high in the school o erall which made it more difficult to teach at times. 6 $ 1? Inti "orker an! 3( ka+ling owner 1he worker is 6ayak from 6ekan "utih and he works as a har ester on inti land from Monday to 3aturday. 2lso. though I'm not sure how much. ready for the lesson. I taught two grou#s of students who li ed in the BH6 housing for staff at the #rocessing #lant. July 22. the students were seated in #airs at wooden desks with their notebooks o#en. though did get =uite rambunctious outside of the class as they jostled in #osition for #hotos. 1he classrooms share a common s#ace as #art of the roof structure. and the blackboard was in #oor condition making it difficult to write on with chalk. 1he arying range of students made for a challenging lesson at first. 1here was a small whiteboard at the front of the class which was #laced on chairs 24 .#rocessing #lant that shows weight and #ricing. though I ended u# teaching three classes at the school. and a number of them had to be chased out of the staff room to allow the teachers their break time. In the classroom. 1hree years ago. as well as deductions $which ones>%P the &&"2 takes a #ercentage to ser ice debt and also makes deductions to the total. 2lso. 2010 / 6each &nglish Classes . He works with a #artner and their daily goal is to har est G tons 7 day with their salary set at :# F+ 7 kg. 1he students were =uite e5cited and agitated. I first met the school #rinci#al and the other staff before going into the classroom. 1here were about 'B or so students in each class and a good number needed to sit on the floor due to a lack of chairs and desks. while others ha e classes from *#m to G#m. it went well. 2t the end of each class I taught. 3eringoringo had asked that I teach a lesson on concrete and abstract nouns as laid out in the curriculum. 1he classrooms were in a #re8school that had small desks set u# in #airs. I was asked to sign each student's notebook. We had made #re ious arrangements that I would teach one Dnglish class to a grou# of his grade G students. 1he farmers don't use outside workers to har est #lasma as they work in a royong of about C farmers to #ro ide the labour needed.

3he was originally from . but I ended u# getting there too late and the office was already closed. but they don't grow anything $kebun air saja%. education%. 2s in the first teaching stint in the morning. July 2?. 31C22 2s I was walking toward the illage centre. /aleh asked about any im#ortant e ents that would shed some light on her life story. only com#leted 3M2'% who works as a dri er for &3 on #lasma area. husband's work. we went back to 3eringringo's home on the BH6 com#le5. 1hese students re=uired more direct classroom management inter entions. 2! . etc. 1hakti Jaya 5 'ri!ay. for a host of reasons. 1here are no new . In . 2fter class. 1he informant is a -hristian and has < childrenA . -urrently. 3he said that in . siblings.11. 3he also works on her husband's ka#ling to maintain the trees and to har est the fruit. 1hey also own their house and ha e an additional * hectare for gardening. Between B and *' days a month. July 24. not the least of which is the fact that this class was outside of their regular school hours. her retired life $how she manages financially. while the general workers had more meager accommodations. 6olciana $*F yrs old . yielding about :# *juta7mth.11 $Dast 1imor%. It was a small. but no money. and <%. ) days a week. and they har est once a month. Her #arents still li e in Dast 1imor and she has not been back since to isit. 1he general staff housing was still much better than the BH6'( that was more dela#itated and didn9t ha e running water. 2010 $e!&aka (ife 5istory +ecording / #ource: KB$%6 $3ee &B-*+ wa file% /aleh conducted an inter iew with informant in her daughter's house. they still ha e #adi and bawa land that her #arents and other family members continue to culti ate and use. there are only *B families left li ing in 1rans 'P many ha e either sold their house and land or ha e sim#ly died. and they are closed on the weekends. 3M"<%. she works on inti land as a weeder making :# *((( 7 day to clear the grass from a##ro5imately B( trees #er day. I met a &3 worker who informed me that the &46 usually has one or two #eo#le in the office from Monday to !riday. I was asked to sign e eryone's notebooks. and was now li ing in 1rans ' . rundown building with broken down furniture in the front area. and her son Dduardus $'( years old . Her and her husband own * ka#ling. 2010 8*servations I was intending to isit the &46 office in the town. so I had to hold onto it while writing to #re ent it from falling. land #urchases and sales.%. father's occu#ation. 1here are men and women who do this job.11 she had food.atalia $< yrs old%.11 migrants comig to the area since the *++<8+G transmigrant #eriod. what does she do during the day. Cem+aka / Af!eling 1 5 (atur!ay. 1here was a ery strong smell coming from the #lant which runs 'C hours a day. though the com#any did #ay for the electricity and well water. had mo ed here *) years ago with <B other transmigrant families. 1he inter iew co ered < broad segmentsA *% her early history $born where.%. and it was surrounded by an old housing com#le5 that was #artially abandoned and #artially occu#ied.$not mounted on the wall%. 3eringoringo #ointed our how the management $mandors etc. etc. Blok &. 2 number of #arents stood outside the door and obser ed the lesson. Interview with $66 6ransmigrant / (ource. children. a woman was standing in her doorway with some children and she in ited me in for tea.% were #ro ided much better housing at the to# of the rise. In each segment. '% her married life $li ed where.

I know that the language barrier was a big one. it seemed. 1here was also an outdoor toilet with a #ro#er s=uatting toilet. Eater in the e ening. We met u# with the school teacher from Ikhsan's 36 school. In the morning. We sat on the floor and ate tasty meal of grilled chicken.ear the end of our inter iew with the informant and her grand8son. Bandung – Agrarian +esources $entre (A+$) – August 0 / #ource: *ianto Bac'riadi 1ackgroun! 2:. Mus. 1he main #ur#ose of the tri# o er was to get an im#ression of the li ing conditions for "1". and she was off with her husband and daughter to attend morning mass as they were -hristians. we were joined by a few neighbours who came to drink coffee or tea with us. a neighbour $&B-<% came in and joined our inter iew. and there was always something to do. highlighting how he had little o##ortunity to #ursue an education which he felt was an essential ste##ing stone that led to greater #ros#erity. 3uri# went out to buy two li e chicken which he then #re#ared for the fire that was lit in the front of the house. and this was to be my last day in the illage. fish. . we walked around the illage. 2010 I s#ent the early #art of the afternoon seeing the #eo#le that I had met and had gotten to know o er the course of this #ast month. 3uri#'s home had one large li ing room. and lacked basic ser ices like well8 water. his mother and his wife. 1he li ing room had no furniture. He took #art in the inter iew as well. had not been #ainted in a research and data collection centre that makes a ailable its findings to all organisations 27 t' . We had made #lans to meet 3uri#'s family in 2fdeling * and were to s#end the night at his #lace. and yet I had managed to connect with some of the #eo#le in the illage in a #ersonal and genuine way. and I was feeling a bit sad about lea ing.2lso in the room was her grandson. who was *B years old. We returned to -em#aka around noon. Cem+aka 5 (un!ay. He commented at length on his own #ast e5#eriences. Darlier. I had also seen the housing at 63" which seemed in better condition o erall than the Barracks '(. I ke#t thinking of the BH6 Barrack '( housing which was so dismal. I recogni. 3uri#'s brother8in8law came to say a short Muslim #rayer to gi e thanks for the chickens they were about to sacrifice for our meal. Af!eling 1 8*servations Eater in the afternoon. not Muslims. I noted that before killing the chickens.oteA /aleh will be transcribing the inter iews at a later date. had flowers #lanted along the road. but it all seemed to go by fast. and a kitchen at the back which also led to a washing area that drew water from a well with an electric #um#. *< workers and to get a general feel for the community li ing there. 1he roads were well8maintained and the housing com#le5es were well looked after. 1he road barriers and walls were also #ainted which added to the a##eal of the illage. ' bedrooms.ed that there were a number of other families I had wanted to meet and s#end time with. July 25. /aleh and I crossed the &a#uas :i er ia small motor boat along with 3uri# and "ak 1ugiyo. and homes were #ainted and clean. 1here were a number of #eo#le working on the roadside clearing long grass and #re#aring the ground for either egetable gardens or for flower arrangements. . rice and egetables in the com#any of 3uri#'s siblings with their s#ouses.

to date the dialogue has not amounted to much #ositi e change. Indonesia by Martua 3irait. 1he &"2 does not claim to be an organisation strictly re#resenting #easant farmers and seeks to build a broad8based organisation that also includes local and international . 1his decision reflected di isions amongst the arious grou#s and in ariably fragmented the acti ists working on agrarian reform issues. the 3"I decided that the main actors to be #rioriti.ational Eand 2gency% #ertaining to the 6ecree 1M" '((*. #refers to deal with the &"2." $. 1here has been a case. which are all national organisations. 2/:2. 1he intent here was to #rotect farmer grou#s in Indonesia from outside influences. des#ite the fact that all grou#s are essentially talking about similar agrarian issues though they differ in their methods on how to reach their objecti es. 1. In '((). 1he team is currently #lanning a research field #roject for the fall to study the e5tent at which the oil #alm sector is transforming rural landsca#es and li elihoods. 1here remains an undercurrent of tension amongst arious acti ists grou#s and #easant7farmer organisation.. and "etani Mandiri. 1he organisation ad ocates the use of land occu#ation as an effecti e strategy. as well as from the 6ayakology Institute. K 3ee Indigenous Peoples and &il Palm '(pansion in West )alimantan. 1he &"2 is a national ad ocacy coalition that has chosen to focus #rimarily on issues and #olicies related to agrarian reform.ational "rogram on 2grarian :eform. 6ianto was one of the original founders of &"2 $&onsorsium "embaruan 2graria .I for a detailed look at the arious #ositions and #olitics that ha e sha#ed the current dynamics of #easant7farmer mo ementsL. and as a result non8#easant organisations $. the . -onsortium for 2grarian :eform% back in *++C. and it is engaged in direct dialogue with the B./0s% were e5cluded from membershi# in light of the history of some . 2"I. K3ee Land. '((+ for details of the 3"&3's attem#ts to form coo#erati esL. 4nion of "alm 0il !armers% is an organisation for smallholder farmers engaged in oil #alm #roduction which focuses on < main issuesA *% land . there are B main grou#s claiming to re#resent #easant farmersA 3"I. It recei es funding from the !ord !oundation. and in my o#inion. increase farmer in#ut in #ricing which is currently established at the #ro incial and national le els. 1he 3"&3 $3erikat "etani &ela#a 3awit ./0s ha ing been co8o#ted by e5ternal funding sources in the #ast. and 2:was first established as a research section of &"2 until it e entually became an inde#endent research body in '(( ol ed with agrarian issues in Indonesia.ed were #easants. In *++F./0s. 0 er the #ast B years or more. either obtaining ka#lings for farmers or regaining control o er land altogetherP '% trans#arency related to dealing between farmers and state7#ri ate #lantation ownersP and <% #ricing of fresh fruit bunches $!!B% . '((). 31. which is a self8sufficient and inde#endent organisation. the B". Q: 1an you give me an overview of the main !easant*farmer grou!s o!erating in Indonesia? -urrently. into issuing titles in West Ja a where farmers had occu#ied land since the 28 . "ural #ocial $ovements and %emocratisation in Indonesia . where the 3"" was able to #ressure the B". howe er. and a !rench -atholic . the national organisations ruled that only single membershi#s were to be allowed and that membershi# would only a##ly to indi iduals and not entire organisations as was the case in the #ast. July. by 6ianto Bachriadi. 1he 3"&3 is also trying to establish farmer coo#erati es in order to ha e farmers gain greater control o er the oil #alm #roduction #rocess and o er the financial transactions that are #resently handled by the &46./0 Fr res des hommes! 1he office in Bandung is run by Hilma 3aftri and has two other #rinci#al researchers a#art from 6iantoA Rudi Bachriadi and Jiwo $last name>%. 1here are numerous other localised #easant unions such as the 3"" $"asundan "easant 4nion% in West Ja a and the 31aB $Bengkulu "easant 4nion% in 3umatra.

many 6ayak reside in land designated as !orestry Eand which e5cludes them from the land certification #rocess.*+F(s. the land re erts back to the state. yet only about G million hectares are acti ely in #roduction. 1he B". Q: How does foreign ownershi! come into ! ay in oi !a m ! antation deve o!ment and how are oca !easants and workers factored into this investment? 2 *+FG national go ernment regulation stated that if a com#any was to de elo# an oil #alm #lantation. can't re=uest a re#ort. Q: What is the "iggest cha enge sma ho der !easants and rura workers face in Indonesia? 29 . 0 erall. not the community from which the land was taken. 1he B". 1hree years ago foreign in estors asked the go ernment to e5tend the lease #eriod to +B years instead of the standard 'B. it cannot abolish them without a re#ort from two bodiesA *% the Ministry of 2griculture and '% the Eocal "lantation 2uthority $6inas "erkebunan%. Q: What are some of the cha enges regarding the !rocess of issuing H23s for the deve o!ment of oi !a m ! antations? 1he main issue centers on reconciling state land ownershi# with adat customary rights where. the -onstitutional -ourt ruled that a +B year lease was in conflict with the *+G( Basic 2grarian Eaw $B2E%." to resol e issues related to H/4s. though has not eliminated the #roblem of elite ca#ture of resources and wealth. What that means is that H/4s that ha e been issued in the #ast but are not being #ut to #roducti e use for oil #alm #roduction $more likely issued to allow for the e5traction of timber and not the de elo#ment of #lantations% remain in circulation. dialogue is not #roducing tangible results for #easants. 1he #roblem is that a H/4 license can be e5tended or e en traded to another cor#oration in a business transaction. it remains an isolated case. and kee# land in an un#roducti e state outside of the control of the local #o#ulation. 1he current dri e to increase in in estment in oil #alm #lantations is resulting in the channeling of national go ernment funds to create new laws that #ro ide in estors with greater security on their in estments. and when the license e5#ires. at #resent. in estigate a H/4. In addition. a recent law on land transfer strengthens the #osition of in estors. 6ecentralisation has in essence shifted some of the #ower from the go ernor to the bu#ati at the local le el. In the case where some *F million hectares are already held within H/4 oil #alm #lantation rights. following massi e #rotests by social mo ements across the country. the res#onsibility falls on the B.ew 0rder. !or e5am#le. general usufruct rights are granted on land that is not defined by an official state title. the incor#oration of workers7farmers was to take #lace ia contract farming schemes. there are numerous outstanding land conflicts that ha e note been resol ed and which date back to the time of 3uharto's . What com#licates the issue e en further is that though the B". howe er. are transacted. !oreigners are not allowed ownershi# of land in Indonesia. 2t #resent. issues H/4s. though the latter remain concerned o er inconsistent go ernment decision8making with res#ect to H/4s. 1he World Bank has funded land certification #rograms since *+>>> which has made it more #roblematic for #eo#le with adat rights. later uses this e5am#le to showcase a #ositi e mo e forward with res#ect to agrarian reform when in fact. therefore they are re=uired to gain access to state or #ri ate land through a H/4 license that e5tends a lease o er a fi5ed #eriod of time. only the bu#ati or the local #lantation authority can re=uest that the B".

a cam#aign to educate #eo#le at grassroots le el. 1he B". 2 decision was made by Drfan. 1hough leaders #ay li# ser ice to the cause of 2grarian :eform. said he would be a ailable the ne5t day to answer any =uestions I had regarding 2:.e land holdings through a titling #rocess and not to set about redistributing land to the landless or near landless. 1he &"2. and to monitor the Eand 2dministration "rogram $E2"% which was funded by the World Bank and essentially entailed titling land within the framework of e5isting land use and land tenureshi#. so we ended our discussion./0 conference where 6ianto and .or issues related to agrarian reform and other social mo ementsL. 1he main focus was to rebuild and rein ent issues of agrarian reform. to #ush the national go ernment for reform.% and the . In '((<. the new 3ecretary /eneral of the &"2. Rudi. the &"2 oted to endorse a threefold mandateA ad ocacy for agrarian reform.ational -ommission on Human :ights $HuMa>%. on the other hand. -ertainly former "resident Megawati resisted im#lementation. 1he &"2 #ressure the go ernment to address the issue of agrarian reform which resulted in the #assing of 6ecree 1M" '((* in the national #arliament.i were elected as the leadershi# for the newly formed &"2. this decree was #assed in the early stage of :eformasi following the end of the 3uharto regime. and he went on to found 2/:2 that also reflected his strong Mar5ist iews. the organisation's #osition and strategies for agrarian reform were outlined and centered #rimarily on ad ocacy. though the challenge remains at the im#lementation stage. Bandung – Agricultural +esource $entre (A+$) – August 7 / #ource: 8udi Bac'riadi Q: 1an you give me more information on the )P/ and the nature of the de"ates they are engaged in at !resent? !ollowing the *++C . the . a central debate between &"2 and B". K6ianto was lea ing for the "hili##ines the ne5t day. and to strengthen #easant mo ements and #easant organisation. yet it is unclear just how much genuine will would be directed to the im#lementation of the decree. Rudi and others started to #ull away from &"2 and look to found = t' .ur !au. 2t the second .e the rights of #oor illagers to a better li elihood. as well as the lack of subsidies offered to farmers to hel# them engage in #roducti e and #rofitable farming. -urrently. 1he &"2 also broadened their cam#aign efforts and #ressured the go ernment to establish two bodies.1he most difficult obstacle to o ercome is the lack of #olitical will to im#lement either the *+G( B2E or the 6ecree 1M" '((* that would see a better redistribution of land to smallholders. considers the B2E to be an a##ro#riate framework for resol ing outstanding national land issues that will recogni. His brother. in ol es the B2E of *+G(. to focus on #easant mo ements and organisations. is looking to re#lace the B2E on the grounds that it is no longer reflecti e of contem#orary agrarian issues in Indonesia. and no #resident since had included land reform as #art of an election cam#aign. In #art. D=ually im#ortant is the lack of agricultural e5tension ser ices a ailable to smallholder #roducers. little concrete ste#s ha e been taken to #lace control o er land in the hands of #easants.ational 2ssembly in *+++. It was at this stage that 6ianto. new leadershi# at the &"2 resulted in much debate as to the #ros and cons of the 6ecree 1M" '((* which led to a second debate centered on the &"2 mandate that for some had em#hasised ad ocacy and cam#aign at the e5#ense of strengthening #easant mo ements and organisations.ational Eand 2gency $B". 1he E2" started in *++C $check WB website% and its mandate was strictly to formali.

2:. where registration of #easant land and e5isting land use is underway in many #arts of =' .is looking at three regions. In '((G.became autonomous from D"6423. and ci il society grou#s under the banner of Pergera*an $"eo#le's -entre and 2d ocacy Institute% which ended u# being a #recursor for 2:-. Jiwo has begun research on land tenurial changes in West Ja a in one area where 3"" members ha e occu#ied land for o er *( years. 0ur assessment to date seems to indicate that most #easants sell their land once they recei e title.linked u# with a broader network D"6423 $D. Q: What are the main areas of focus for /R1 at !resent? 1he current focus for 2:. 1here is a #roblem of stagnation with res#ect to the &"2 membershi# and the issue of fragmentation amongst #easant mo ements and organisations remains an im#ortant one to resol e. though not their sense of injustice at ha ing had their land sei. In addition.ed by the go ernment without their consent./0s. "enelitias 6an 2kti itas 3osyal% and worked within this organisation until '((F8(+ when 2:. and the 3"" has set this as one of their objecti es when dealing with the B". with both bodies still in e5istence to this day. 3umatra. Q: What !oints are "eing de"ated within !easant movements and organisations regarding !ost4 occu!ation? -ertainly one issue is how to maintain organisation now that #easants ha e access to land> 2nother #oint of debate. &alimantan. 2:. and in another area where Ja anese in 1a#uas reclaimed land that had been taken from them during the 3uharto era. 1he indi iduals in this case do not retain official title o er the land . Q: What were the initia and use agreements that were associated with the and occu!ations? !or the 3"" members. 2:. . 2nother im#ortant #oint to consider is how to engage in sustainable agriculture once land is occu#ied> 1he challenge for #easant mo ements and organisations is to determine what will be their area of focusA will it be on agricultural the oil #alm trying to determine how successful were #ast land occu#ations. say in the case of 3"I ersus &"2 is should the focus shift now from ad ocacy $&"2's mandate% to how #easants could use technology and modern farming #ractices to im#ro e their li elihoods $3"I's focus%. and 3ulawesi in order to select research sites that will hel# better understand the #resent8day oil #alm industry and its current dynamic state of e5#ansion.their own research8based organisation Initially. It is im#ortant to recall that these indi iduals lost their land in the 3uharto era. mo ed to the city for work. 1he initial assessment seems to indicate that is some cases land was sold while others were able to accumulate land on the occu#ied site. land was to be used for indi idual use only for #easants strictly engaged in subsistence agriculture.. and it is working with the &"2 to de elo# o#tions to engage in joint research initiati es. Most of the tension that led to a #arting of the ways centered on 2/:2 taking the #osition of strengthening #easant mo ements through a strong Mar5ist ideology that alienated some acti ists and . 2:. the focused on ca#acity building of #easants./0s. and for the most #art lost their interest in farming. It is conducting an assessment of *( #easant organisations in Indonesia to assess their status with res#ect to membershi# and land not yet clear on the land titling issue as being either #ositi e or negati e for #easants. or will it be on strengthening land tenure for #easants> 1he E2" is still on going through the B". most #referred to sell their land and work in the city. !or the reci#ients of land on the 1a#uas site.

1he trend has been that once the oil #alm starts in one area. 1he &"2 is drawing attention to the #otential negati e effects of this legislation regarding farmer autonomy and rights. and #olice and military #ersonnel. 2s antici#ated. and they maintained their traditional rubber gardens and di ersified subsistence cro#s. 1he cost of the 1"<& was co ered by the com#any and a monthly sti#end of :# B((. 2 second grou# endorsed oil #alm and were fully incor#orated in the industry with no land being set aside for alternati e cro#s or traditional land use according to indigenous #ractices. it continues to e5#and o er time and local #eo#le #rogressi ely see their communal land eroded. !or these and other reasons. the illage desa and dusun. 'Indigenous "eo#les and 0il "alm "lantation D5#ansion. 1he go ernment task force $1"<&% established to o ersee and to enforce the oil #alm #lantation e5#ansion included such members as the district bu#ati. though he continues to re iew their res#ecti e #ublications and #ro ide feedback and analysis on a regular basis. Q: What are some of the main issues you encountered in West )a imantan concerning indigenous !eo! es and the oi !a m industry? 1here were three distinct res#onses from indigenous #eo#les when oil #alm was being introduced in their res#ecti e areas. In addition. the county camat. Eand in ariably became indi idualised.Indonesia. Martua ga e me a brief o er iew of the field research he is conducting in Eam#ung "ro ince and /arut.:A+) I was able to meet with Martua for about two hours at his home in 3outh Jakarta. He is officially on lea e as a research analyst from the -entre for International !orestry :esearch $-I!0:% and the -onsultati e /rou# on International 2gricultural :esearch $-/I2:%. 0ne grou# endorsed oil #alm #roduction where some customary land was surrendered with some land retained as rubber gardens alongside #lots dedicated to egetable and fruit cro#s. We discussed his research in West &alimantan that led to the #ublication of 'Indigenous "eo#les and 0il "alm "lantation D5#ansion' in '((+. 2t the same time.' $artua #irait has called upon government to support alternatives to palm oil! Is this a re. West Ja a as #art of his dissertation through the I33 in the Hague. "easant organisations in West Ja a are generally of the o#inion that titling will im#ro e tenure security and that it offers them an o##ortunity to engage in subsistence agriculture. outcomes were une en as noted in our '((+ #ublication. Q: In his most recent pu+lication.uest that is +eing made +y the )P-? 1he go ernment is currently #re#aring legislation that will re=uire farmers to register with the Ministry of 2griculture #rior to #lanting new cro#s which will essentially #re ent farmers from engaging in agricultural #roduction that is not sanctioned by the go ernment. 2 third grou# rejected oil #alm from the beginning.((( made it such that task force members were #rimarily re#resenting the com#any interests and securing #ersonal benefits with little regard for the constituents they were sworn to ser e and re#resent as member of #ublic office or #ublic em#loyees. the organisation is also calling for go ernment e5tension ser ices for #alm oil #roduction. I ha e recommended the abolishment of 1"<&. as well as for alternati e cro#s. Jakarta – August 4 / #ource: 9artua #irait ($:FO+ / $. all of which stood to benefit directly from #lantation initiati es. and leaders $adat or desa% stood to be benefit the most by getting more ka#lings or by ha ing their children educated at the e5#ense of the com#any. in =2 t' .

some families ha e yet to recei e their #arcel of land.% ha e in turn called for a halt on all oil #alm #lantation e5#ansions and ha e asked for a resolution of all outstanding land issues first. In my o#inion.5 !u" ication? 1he International -entre for :esearch in 2groforestry $I-:2!%. !or those who did recei e ka#lings. and s#ecifically. while &"2 looks more at #easant issues and not adat land claims #er se.. Jakarta 5 Consortium for Agrarian %eform . currently the World 2groforestry -entre. 1o date.addition to the fact that the body o#erates against the fundamental criteria of the :3"0. 2s #er :3"0 guidelines. the com#any announced in '((G that it would adhere to the :3"0 #rinci#les. the 2kuan scheme. 2 first #oint was that beneficiaries of ka#lings could be geogra#hically dis#ersed de#ending on a ailability and could be anywhere from *(8*B kilometres away from the illage site. in addition to no clear title within reach of most of the smallholders at #resent. 1he Indigenous "eo#les 2lliance of the 2rchi#elago $2M2. the local situation has not changed. and in many cases when they are offered land it is much less than the ' hectares #romised. 1he oil #alm farmers' union is su##orted by 3awit Watch and it works in close relations with 2M2. the e5#ected B year re#ayment of credit for de elo#ing the #arcel which was to be followed by recei ing clear title. 1he Institute of 6ayakology in "ontianak #ublishes the &alimantan :e iew and makes a ailable current information and analysis that hel#s ad ance 3"&3's cause. Q: 1an you te me a"out SP)S in West )a imantan and where the organisation !ositions itse f in re ation to other 62Os and organisations? 3"&3 is not a #art of &"2.3 A.5 August > / (ource.*<. that was not to be regulated by the go ernment and was #resented as a com#any solution to outstanding issues related to the industry. the initial res#onse was to not join. the information concerning the details of the shortfalls remain confidential and outside of the #ublic domain. though C years ha e already gone by since this announcement. !rom this document came the C generation shareholder model. ends u# being e5tended to *B years or more with the total cost of more than tri#ling what was originally #romised. "rior. be it state8run or #ri ate. When :3"0 membershi# was being discussed at the state #lantation "1". Q: 1an you te me more a"out the /kuan scheme you mention in your +. I!ham Arsya! == th . and Holland to write a document entitled '"ri ate8"ublic "artnershi#' and that would address issues related to climate. regarding its #rinci#le of !ree. 0utstanding issues are that years later. 2 second #oint was that the land offered was often less $at times greater than B(N less% than what the beneficiaries were entitled to recei e. the en ironment. Howe er. 3"&3 focuses on issues related to adat land. "1". the relations between 3"&3 and &"2 are not so good.. and in cases where an estate $#ri ate or #ublic% has failed to meet the criteria for certification. only successful certification is made #ublic. Malaysia. 1he 3"&3 is asking for better terms of incor#oration. and better working relations with the estate. was a##roached by oil #alm com#anies from Indonesia.*< is currently being 'sco#ed' for certification. after much criticism from the #ublic and an angry res#onse from #lasma holders. 1hough it is a member of :3"0. and Informed -onsent $!"I-%. and social dimensions of the the oil #alm industry. a written contract.

1he &"2 is also cam#aigning for the management of land and resources to be #laced in the hands of #easants. 1here are many contradictory regulations among different ministries. E2" has recommended changing B2E *+G( altogether and not attem#t to re ise it. and u# until now. the greater majority of B2E *+G( has not been im#lemented. controlling o er )(N of Indonesian land that is categorised as forestry land. there has been a discussion amongst #easant farmers and . )( N of #easants are either landless or own less than *7' ha. the D4. Indonesian "resident 3BR announced he wanted the legal bodies B". Q: 1an you give me an overview of )P/ and the organisation's current areas of focus$ &"2 is a consortium of *F) organisations in *G #ro inces and our main focus is related to 2grarian :eform issues. In '((F.23 to im#lement agrarian reform. and e ery year. 1he im#act of these four #roblems is an increase in #o erty and unem#loyment. Q: What is )P/'s !osition on and tit ing initiatives such as 7/P and 768P'P? =6 . and the Ministry of !orests is endowed with tremendous #ower. and organisations like !rUres des hommes $!6H%. 3ince '(((. and the Ministry of Masallah 2graria. He informed me that funding comes from the !ord !oundation. In *++C. as well as an increase in urbani. and B2""D./0s on re ising B2E *+G( though no consensus has yet been reached on whether to re ise the law. In our iew. -urrently in Indonesia. a -atholic . 3ome of the biggest challenges faced by &"2 is that there is no #olitical will to im#lement agrarian reform. in what manner. agricultural land is decreasing. new legislation has been #assed that in ol es new regulations for B". to deal with land reform issues. I met him in his office in 3outh Jakarta where we had about two hours to discuss arious issues. and he referred to o er F million hectares of land a ailable./0 based in !rance. and if yes. #easants needs access to land for subsistence farming and to grow cro#s for local or e5#ort markets. 1he &"2 argues that in order to increase #roducti ity. 1he organisation works directly with the B". It is interesting to note that though the Ministry of !orestry states that land is a ailable for new #alm oil #lantations. In '((). #easants ha e become marginalised. &"2 has three acti e areas of concernA *% 3trengthening #easant mo ementsP '% 2d ocacy for agrarian reformP and <% research and em#irical data collection. In reality. the Ministry of 2griculture.Idham 2rsyad has been elected the 6irector /eneral of &"2 for the #eriod '((+8'(*'.ation and in conflict which taken all together weaken the national economy and leads to high le els of #easant migration. 3BR has been using 'agrarian reform' only as a means of ad ancing land titling initiati es which has only increased the land grabbing #henomena. yet there is no land a ailable for redistribution to #oor #easants.. 1here are C main #roblems according to &"2A *% the balance of ownershi# and management of resources is skewed against #easantsP '% this imbalance s#urs on conflict related to agrarian reform which in turn leads to human rights iolations and iolenceP <% /o ernment regulations that fa our ca#italist de elo#mentP and C% the lack of will on the #art of the go ernment to im#lement agrarian reform. the biggest administrati e challenge is sectorialism and we need new regulations to im#lement reform.

and the 3"&3 is also a member of &"2. 3awit is not the #roblem. Q: #he )P/ resorts to and occu!ation as a strategy to !ut and in the hands of !easants$ Is this a successfu strategy? 1he &"2 considers the following in its strategic #lanningA how to occu#y land>P how to manage land after the occu#ation> and how to influence the go ernment to make regulations more fa ourable for #easant li elihoods> 1o answer your =uestion. In '((). and that the current a##roach to titling sim#ly formali.((( hectares since *++F. but rather re#resents C regions in West Ja a and is closely affiliated with &"2. In 3umatra.o what e(tent does )P. 1he main objecti es were to facilitate the certification and titling of e5isting land use and land holdings without any #ro isions for the redistribution of land. We look at how the communities can achie e greater social and economic benefits for members in the community. 3inar Mas. but it does undermine agrarian reform in that #eo#le lose access to and control o er land. the . we are also looking to address the issue of land distribution and to find ways to offset the social and en ironmental negati e outcomes associated with a #lantation economy. in light of the go ernment's unwillingness to im#lement agrarian reform.ational Human :ights -ommission $HuMa% #ut forward a #ro#osal to the go ernment to establish a -ommission of -onflict to resol e the outstanding issues with land e5isting imbalances. 3"JB in West Ja a $later to become 3""% and 3"I in 3umatra. 3"" #easant members in West Ja a ha e been occu#ying a##ro5imately )(. and o er time are reduced to a landless labour force working for #lantation interests. $2llians Masyarakat 2dat . In Indonesia. Both titling #rograms were su##orted by the World Bank. but rather a structural one where #ower gra itates within certain circles and e5cludes a broader based distribution of genuine democratic #ower8sharing.wor* with other organisations such as /ia 0ampesina and others? 1here is no direct connection between &"2 and Tia -am#esina which tends to work more closely with the 3"I #easant union and the IE-. 1he &"2 has issued a memorandum that outlines our o##osition to the titling scheme because the main #roblem of balance of ownershi# needs to be addressed first.23. 3"" is not a national organisation. including 3anggau district. and on occasion #olice still come by to intimidate or harass 3"" members.asional% and 3awit Watch. 1he go ernment generally #refers to use the security a##roach $ie% bring in B:IM0" security forces% to inter ene and dismantle land occu#ation areas or #easant farmer #rotests. 1he #ro#osal was su##orted by former "resident Megawati. 1he #olice would regularly e5ert iolence and arrest #eo#le who were agitating for agrarian reform. while the E. we are discussing ways in which community ownershi# of land dedicated to oil #alm can be achie ed. &"2 has members in < regions. though the current "resident 3BR has effecti ely blocked the formation of this commission. though is not without #roblems.T"6" came into #lay from the year '((( to '((+ working through B2""D. 1he land has been brought into acti e culti ation since this time. our #roblem is not an institutional one. 6uring the 0rde Baru there were only two #easant mo ements in e5istence.E2" was im#lemented between *++C8'((( through the B". Q: . !or 3"&3. land occu#ation as a strategy has been successful to date. which controls o er B(N =4 .. #er se. In &alimantan Barat. the main organisations where they draw su##ort is from and legali. Q: What is )P/'s !osition with regards to the oi !a m industry? In 3umatra.

they shot into the crowd injuring three #easants. the current leader of the ""J.urdin from &"2 is in charge of #ro iding needed su##ort for #easants in ol ed in land occu#ation as a strategy to reclaim land from the com#any. and to u#date #easants on the status of negotiations that are on going with go ernment officials in Jakarta. new leadershi# at the ""J resulted in a re ersal of this agreement where the leader o#ted instead for a collaborati e solution between #easants and 3inar Mas that would not in ol e the release of the land already agreed u#on. 1he ""J was established in '((*. Iwan and 1hibault met with 'B illage leaders from Jambi #ro ince to discuss strategy and coordination among ""J members. and it has #lantations in eight #ro inces in 3umatra. '(*(. #easant farmers were able to de elo# their cro#s inde#endently. 2ccording to the ""J. #easants in Jambi initiated their land occu#ation across multi#le illage sites. 3 A office / (ource. He added that the com#any is the enemy. 2t the time W&3 indicated that they sim#ly wanted to e5tract the lumber and would lea e the land in the hands of the #easants. 0n 2ugust C. In '((F. W&3 began de elo#ing their acacia and eucaly#tus #lantations. though the occu#ations are s#urring an aggressi e res#onse from the national assault force B:IM0".of the oil #alm area in 3umatra. I sat with 1hibault who had been working as a olunteer at &"2 for o er a month as #art of his academic re=uirements as an undergrad student in "aris. 1he &"2 has #rioriti. the go ernment does nothing. volunteer with $<8 'rEres !es hommes . but the go ernment is as well because it not only shelters the com#any. howe er. Tillagers from 6aenau =! . the com#any acts with im#unity. and #easants are determined more than e er to reclaim their national and local forces to #romote com#any interestsP here like in Jakarta. When I finished my inter iew with Idham. 3ome communities in Jambi ha e succeeded in occu#ying some *( N of the claimed land to date. 6hi*ault (imonet. Eater. 2Vdil said that #easants who currently occu#y land are intimidated by the #olice force and army #ersonnel. and those who o##osed the #roject were intimidated by officials and some were arrested. e5#lained that before the arri al of W&3 $3inar Mas subsidiary% in *++C. it mobili.ed su##orting #easant mo ements as #art of its larger mandate on agrarian reform.'9/I met 1hibault at the &"2 office in 3outh Jakarta. 1he s#ecial #olice force B:IM0" was sent in. homes are burned to the ground as a means of forcing #easants to abandon their occu#ied land. the documents which grant W&3 access to #easant land clearly state that inhabited areas are to be e5cluded from the com#any9s de elo#ment area which makes the iolent tactics used to force #easants to lea e their land an illegal act. !rance. and in a number of cases. He #ro ided me with im#ortant information about ongoing land dis#ute sites in the Jambi #ro ince. 1he com#any holds a license to de elo# B(( ((( hectares in Jambi #ro ince alone. '(*(. #easant land was incor#orated into the area claimed by W&3. and in '((B. and dis#ersed the #easant grou#s. is one of our main challenges when #ushing for agrarian reform and change of ownershi# schemes for smallholders. and Iwan . 2Vdil. 2Vdil stated that with the com#licity of the local go ernment. it had successfully obtained a signed agreement with the local go ernment that would ha e 3inar Mas return B' ((( hectares of land back to the #easants li ing in Jambi. 1his change of a##roach was treated as a betrayal by ""J members who ha e since elected a new leader in '((+ who endorses land occu#ation to reclaim their land. 0n 2ugust <. 3umatra where the &"2 is acti ely su##orting members of the #easant mo ement ""J $G ((( members% that is engaged in land occu#ations on land currently under the control of 3inar Mas.

In the illage of "ouked Indah. and when the #easants mobilise to occu#y land. 3umatra occu#ied an oil #alm #lantation site to #rotest against the management of the coo#erati e !armer 3ehati "rima that is res#onsible for the #lantation. 1he &"2 met with re#resentati es of the -ommission of Human :ights. though also includes members of #arliament. '( were seriously wounded. 3awit Watch e5#anded its sco#e and mandate beyond en ironmental issues and began including issues related to human rights. mostly acti ists. as well as the -ommission of the . B:IM0" from :iau was mobilised. 1he &"2 ho#es to organise the ""J illages into a more coherent and coordinated #easant mo ement similar to that of the 3"" in West Ja a that has successfully occu#ied land since the *+F(s. transmigrant illagers started #lanting oil #alm on reclaimed 3inar Mas land in '((F. and ** #eo#le were arrested. Irwan from the &"2 noted that at the national le el. adding that on the third letter. 2t that time./0s in 3weden. Idham 2rsyad. 1wo months earlier. 1heir strategy entails a less confrontational a##roach which has not #ro oked any iolent or re#ressi e res#onses from the armed forces so far. 1he illage of "ouked Indah continues to resist and #ursues a di erse agricultural #roduction of banana. the =ualified and com#etent commissions ha e little effecti e #ower. the #olice ha e legal grounds to arrest them for land occu#ation. the secretary general of the &"2 organised a #ress conference in Jakarta on June +th denouncing the use of iolence to resol e agrarian conflicts. 23%3 / #ource: Abetnego -arigan ( >ecutive *irector) $Inter iew was recorded <) see 2 1arigan 3W wa file% Q: 1an you give me a "rief "ackground on Sawit Watch? 3awit Watch was established in *++F. the human rights commission. yet no concrete outcomes ha e been discerned from these meetings. '(*(. Bogor < #a=it /atc' / August 2. 0ur organisation recei es funding from . G(( transmigrants ha e been li ing here since '((<. In the illage of :antau Badak. and the . e5#loitation. the military and #olice are sent in des#ite the local go ernment's su##ort for ha ing the land in =uestion returned to the #easants. the coo#erati e in :iau controls a##ro5imately *( ((( hectares of land that was released by the original #easant owners under a #lasma8inti scheme that has only #ro ided minimal returns to the #lasma farmers as a result of mismanagement. on June )th. #alm oil de elo#ment and e5#ansion was one of the main causes of the ram#ant forest fires in Indonesia at the time as a result of the burning of forests to clear land for #lantations.ational "olice !orce in Jakarta on Jun **. We ha e #ut together a strong network of #ublic interest lawyers who hel# su##ort indi idual and community claims and who hel# organise an effecti e cam#aign lobbying for social and economic rights for rural =7 . 'B others were slightly injured.etherlands. *C illagers ga e been arrested to date for land occu#ation. and corn which its sells to a local market ia their illage coo#erati e. Belgium.Eamo indicated that two members recei ed letters of intimidation from the #olice. 3awit Watch is a member of :3"0 and it is now sitting on the e5ecuti e board of :3"0. coconut. and social and economic de elo#ment. and outright fraud on the #art of the coo#erati e. and they are slowly and #rogressi ely adding land that was e5#ro#riated by 3inar Mas and de elo#ing it into #alm oil #roduction. 1here are members from all the #ro inces and there are members from the . one woman was killed by the #olice. 3ince '((B.etherlands and the 4&. 1wo years ago the illage leader had his house burned down by com#any militiamen. In '((<. 2ccording to the &"2. 3awit Watch has obtained the legal status of an association $#erkum#ulan% and has *<B indi idual members. #easants from ** illages in :iau #ro ince. while at the local le el corru#tion is endemic. /ermany. and that since '(('.

and 3umatra 4tara. working hours. workers. both in terms of land. We also work closely with 3"&3 which re#resents o er G((( members of inde#endent oil #alm smallholder #roducers. these com#anies which don't ha e legal #ermits to de elo# oil #alm. and which land is state landP therefore.Indonesians. or how currently about only half of the com#anies ha e legal #ermits to de elo# oil #alm in Indonesia. yet continue to o#erate and e5#and. the go ernment lacks #ro#er information as to which land is #ri ate. and labour. agricultural etc. :iau.% forests. financial commitment. Q: What is the main focus of your organisation? 1he main focus of our organisation is to ad ance the cause of social and economic rights for communities in ol ed in the oil #alm industry by lobbying the go ernment and the #ri ate sector to address our concerns. access to in#uts. from the 3awit Watch stand#oint. 1he go ernment is already clearly in iolation of its own socialisasi #rocess which is a necessary ste# to legally de elo#ing #alm oil #lantations. 2lso. Q: What are some of the main !ro" ems that your organisation has identified in re ation to the oi !a m sector? In Indonesia. of course. &alimantan 1imur. We look at ways in which land tenure #olicies at the national and subnational le els affect local communities and how these #olicies #lay into the #rocess of land ac=uisition. In this regard. !or labourers the issues tend to gra itate around worker rights. the issues in ol e #ower relations with the estate or com#any. 1his in ol es #ro iding them with information to hel# them build a stronger #osition when making a claim for better work conditions. Eand rights are an im#ortant focus. Jambi. !or smallholders. We are also in ol ed in building community ca#acity in order to hel# local #easant farmers and workers achie e greater benefits and fairer returns from their in ol ement with oil #alm. largely do so under the authority of the bu#ati and effecti ely by#ass legal channels in #ractice. 1here are serious issues related to communication of information and trans#arency as well. or better returns on their in estment in oil #alm. and fair #ricing for the har ested fruit. which land is communal. 2lso. a major #roblem centers on how #olicies are im#lemented by the go ernment and how com#anies are allowed to not fulfill their obligations to smallholders. it is not in a #osition to in ite in estors to de elo# oil #alm until this land issue is =8 . many issues related to land conflict and com#eting land claims. 0ur entry #oint with e5isting #lantations is to su##ort communities in ol ed in #alm oil which includes both labourers and smallholder farmers. we look at ways to su##ort indigenous #eo#les' land claims and local communities affected by #otential oil #alm e5#ansion. In terms of the land tenure conflict. and communities. one of the main #roblems is structural #roblems at the national and subnational go ernment le els that includes such issues as o erla##ing #olicies between com#eting ministries i. greater trans#arency. the go ernment has in ited in estors #rior to #ro#er consultation with the communities in ol ed in the the #rocess. in addition to ways to achie e sustainable rural li elihoods. 3awit Watch is acti ely su##orting communities in B main #ro incesA &alimantan Barat. 1here are. In areas where #lantation e5#ansion is the issue. and working conditions.e.

In theory. yet much of the land is being acti ely and #roducti ely used by communities. we found that <*B #ermits were issued o er a total area of <. only about C(N of the land in Indonesia is registered. and the G(N area that is non8registered directly in ol es large #ortions of the Indonesian #o#ulation. many com#anies o#erate without a #ro#er license which means they are not #aying #ro#er ta5es on the land. 2t the local le el. it is sim#le for the go ernment to re oke an o#erating a license.B million hectares of forest land.made clear. 0n the other hand. 2s a result. 1he B". the H/4 #roblem is difficult for the go ernment to sol e because many #ermits ha e been issued in land designated as forest which is an illegal allocation of land. In our e5#erience. we are assisting in a case where a com#any o#erating in 3umatra is not sure with which district they need to register their land dis#ute claim. 1he national go ernment gi es u# the re enue of land ta5 because the H/4 is not issued. In &alimantan Barat. though they remain unregistered. !or e5am#le. ado#ts a #assi e stance and doesn't #roacti ely seek to sol e the #roblem of illegal oil #alm o#erations. would attem#t to issue H/4s to com#anies that now lack a legal #ermit. It is also difficult for the go ernment to make changes because the com#any is in full o#eration. "resently. "alm oil is a ery #rofitable sector. because of the o erla##ing claims and lack of clarity of boundaries. If the B". 1he resolution of border dis#utes falls under the Ministry of the Interior. :emember that oil #alm can only be de elo#ed on non8forest land where forest land is su##osed to be first con erted to agricultural land and taken out of the forest reser es. yet in #ractice the go ernment wants to maintain an 'in estor8friendly' climate e en though the go ernment in essence is against its own regulations.orth 3umatra. either :iau or . though it remains ery attracti e for in estors to de elo# oil #alm under such conditions des#ite it #resenting a risk gi en the illegality of the enter#rise. and to de elo# effecti e mechanisms to fairly resol e land dis#utes. the benefits are linked to what is termed the multi#lier effect where em#loyment and wealth is generated locally that can bring greater #ros#erity to an area in ol ed in the oil #alm industry. the mill is acti ely #roducing -"0. and much of the economy is de#endent on the industry des#ite it not ha ing been legally established from the beginning. 2nother issue in ol es a breakdown in the #rocess occurs when the bu#ati issues a #ermit to a com#any without a clear understanding of the land status. Eocal go ernment issues the #ermits $illegally%. Q: Why is the government not "eing !ro4active in so ving the icensing issue if it means ost revenue for the government? 1his is a difficult =uestion to answer. 1o deal with the H/4 in ol es ha ing to sort out which forest land was de elo#ed into oil #alm and which one wasn't. and also without the authority to issue a H/4 which can only legally be issued by the B".. and by that I mean through corru#t means of obtaining su##ort. 1he ta5ation system in Indonesia is ery =9 . 1he business #layers in Indonesia knows how to ensure that o#erations can kee# running by influencing go ernment officials informally. nor on their o#erations. the H/4 would be considered illegal because the com#anies are o#erating on land designated as forest. but it recei es a ta5 on the e5#orted -"0. but on the one hand the e5em#tion from ha ing to #ay land ta5es because of the lack of a H/4 works as an incenti e for in estors to in est in the oil #alm industry in Indonesia. 1he go ernment needs to com#letely reform its #olicy regarding community land rights. to #ro#erly identify community lands. 1he go ernment claims full authority on all non8registered land. the #ro incial and community borders themsel es often lack clarity and are in conflict with one another.

Q: /re there efforts to revise the ta%ation system in order to "etter serve oca communities? 1his would be ery difficult in the Indonesian conte5t. so there is little incenti e for the national go ernment to enforce legal re=uirements gi en that Jakarta has little to gain financially from the increased ta5 re enue. yet little of that money stays in the local communities. 1he e5#ansion is a ery big issue and behind it lies the corru#tion related to the issuing of #ermits. and the bulk of their ta5 money stays locally. 1here are many benefits that could follow on a re ision of the ta5ation schemes that go also beyond infrastructure and the #ro ision of #ublic ser ices.centralised and the largest #ortion of the ta5 re enue goes to Jakarta. is that most of the middle and u##er management of the oil #alm industry is registered in Jakarta which is where their income ta5 dollars stay. in addition to the reliance on the multi#lier effect to generate local re enue. the total land area was *B million hectares $check . 1o date. It is an odd situation where a skewed ta5ation system $and multi#le illegalities% add to the argument for a greater e5#ansion of land dedicated to #lantations. yet e5isting #lantations co er +(( ((( hectares. funds channeled locally could be used to deal with e5ternalities like floods that occur fre=uently during the rainy season or #ollution as a result of #alm oil #roduction. no one has raised the signal of dealing with the issue of redistributi e ta5ation with re enue generated from the agricultural sector. !or e5am#le. Most of the largest oil #alm income earners in in Indonesia are com#anies based in Jakarta with some im#ortant ones also based in Malaysia. 1he central go ernment. 3ee slide show in the field documents file entitled 3awit Watch 2betnego 1ariganL. In 3anggau district.C million hectares which includes the ri ers.G million hectares are not de elo#ed into oil #alm yet. 2n im#ortant #oint to consider also. has not demonstrated a willingness to tackle this issue. creates a situation where there is a need to continually e5#and oil #alm #lantations to hel# raise standards of income rurally. 1he lack of re enue that stays locally. 2##ro5imately <. In the case of &alimantan. K2t this #oint. It is a local #roblem. yet most of the wealth is directed to the central go ernment. 6 . 1his has only been a##lied to oil and gas so far. are ta5ed locally. More than half of the concessions are issued by bu#atiA C. 1he -"0 ta5es are channeled e5clusi ely to the ca#ital. 1herefore the national go ernment collects land ta5 only on half of the current oil #alm #lantation land. 1his hel#s e5#lain why the infrastructure and #ublic ser ices are so #oorly de elo#ed in rural areas across Indonesia. In the case of the land and building ta5es. 1he majority funnels #rimarily to foreign in estors and a small #ercentage stays as -"0 ta5 destined for Jakarta. while the area e5cluded from #lantation concessions is '. while general labourers and lower income #eo#le are registered in their local areas. did he say B( or *B> unclear%.B million hectares are dedicated to oil #alm concessions. I attended a meeting last week on oil #alm #roduction in &alimantan 1imur. until now. the Ministry of Water is ha ing to deal with a serious com#laint related to the contamination of local water from effluents coming from -"0 mills. "ak 2betnego showed me his "ower"oint #resentation on the e5#ansion of oil #alm in -entral &alimantan from '((< to '((F from a isual stand#oint using ma#s. and the annual #roduction alue of -"0 is a##ro5imately 43W B( billion. of which only CB( ((( hectares ha e a #ro#er H/4. the majority is intended for the local go ernment. 1he skewed ta5ation system fa ours a wide dis#arity between central ca#ital and local rural in the country.

!rom a more e5treme #oint of iew. Dach hectare was to ha e *'B seedlings $bibit% #lanted on it. and there is little written documentation to refer to.!rom our stand#oint. !armers generally only hear about the benefits of oil #alm from the com#any #ers#ecti e. Q: /re there terms in the contract signed "y the com!any and the sma ho der that out ine the conse9uences of fai ure to com! y with its contents :ie$ in the case where su"standard ! ots are deve o!ed "y the estate? 6' . and e5#ected earnings. 1here are good e5am#les of smallholders in 3umatra that are doing well in oil #alm. 1here is a serious #roblem of corru#tion regarding the de elo#ment of the #lasma land. In many meetings with the #ri ate and state #lantation managers. In addition. and refused to sign their contracts. In the case of "1".ed they were sub8standard relati e to the number of re=uired trees. ke#ala desa7dusun% ha e cons#ired with the com#any to by#ass legal #rocesses to benefit themsel es #ersonally and to #romote com#any interests o er those of the communities they are su##osed to re#resent. !or e5am#le. in the socialisasi #rocess. *< for e5am#le. 3"&3 #easant farmers in Dast &alimantan ins#ected their #lasma #lots. yet this oftentimes doesn't ha##en for com#le5 reasons. yet in a lot of cases only F( to *(( trees were #lanted with the remaining seedlings sold for #rofit at :# 'B ((( each. In informal discussions. ha e in many cases been decei ed from the outset. nor the com#anies #ro#erly e5#lain to the #eo#le the risks and benefits of oil #alm. reali. but rather community initiati e to #ro#erly manage their #lots and look to benefit from the o##ortunities #resent. many of the ka#lings were underde elo#ed by the state with res#ect to industry standards. this is one of the #roblems related to the corru#tion issue that is a challenge for the national go ernment. it is con=uest. yet the estate #osition tends to be that the 6ayak are la. es#ecially when you consider that -"0 is a commodity subject to international market fluctuations. How are these #lasma farmers to become #roducti e> 1hese ka#lings naturally end u# #roducing much less fruit gi en the reduced number of tress. local go ernment $camat. what debt will be incurred and for how long. we ha e learned that the bu#ati recei es :# * billion #er *((( hectare released into oil #alm concessions. Who takes res#onsibility for these substandard #lots> In reality.y and don't o#timi. etc. neither the go ernment. and 3awit Watch has hel#ed inform them of the nature of the industry. oil #alm is not de elo#ment. that the 6ayak are not fit to become oil #alm farmers. but it has nothing to do with either go ernment #olicies or com#any su##ort. 1he 3"&3 farmers didn't know what was the industry standard for * hectare of land. as well as the lack of trans#arency on multi#le le els including where their #lasma #lots will be located in relation to the illage. be it corru#tion or sim#ly by the com#any's $#ri ate or state% creati e way to a oid the #roblem and shift the blame. it is the go ernment's res#onsibility to enforce the industry standard and to #ressure the com#any to fulfill their contractual obligations. 1his is the stigma that is associated with many of the 6ayak #lasma farmersP also. they fail to #roduce regulations that outline #lasma standards that would enable smallholders to become more efficient and #roducti e growers.. In #articular. In many cases. 1he com#any then says that they ha e documents signed by the bu#ati. the risks get o erlooked. credit. Q: What is your im!ression of how sma ho ders are "rought into ! asma schemes? 2#art from the lack of understanding farmers ha e on the risks in ol ed in the oil #alm industry. smallholders.e their #lasma holdings for high yield. 1here is a lack of trans#arency and clarity as to the amounts of land. e en though the com#any is legally obligated to negotiate with the local community. and com#ensation.

then the #lasma card is #layed by the com#any. there are many #lantations that are de elo#ed without #lasma $cites e5am#les where no #lasma e5ists in oil #alm de elo#ment . but I do think at times that the substandard #lots are de elo#ed by design. Q: Wou d you say that "y kee!ing ! asma ho dings at su"standard eve s a so "ecomes a means of accumu ation for individua s or com!anies that go on to ac9uire ka! ings from fai ed farmers? Many. at the end of the session. . unclear on recording%. we ne er got any training. 1here are also cases where farmers cannot contend with the management of their ka#lings due to lack of ca#acity and e5tension ser ices by the go ernment which leads them to sell their #lots and seek a li elihood elsewhere or in another area as is the case with many "a#uans who are #resently selling their oil #alm #lots. . 2 irtual time bomb is in motion. 1he com#any and go ernment don't really ha e a big interest in de elo#ing #lasma #lots because the main focus is on the estate 7 inti land. 1here will be an increase in the imbalance in landholdings between com#any and communities. I'm not one to s#eculate too much about cons#iracies or the like. In the current e5#ansion stage. 1he reality is that oil #alm is #romoted as a means of accessing land. *< is not different from #ri ate com#anies. -om#anies would build #lasma if there was conflict with land ac=uisition.1here are no such #oints outlined in the contract. Ironically. the ratio was '(AF( under "I:81rans where the bulk of the land was held in #lasma for smallholder #roduction. and mills were not running at #roduction with #lasma which led to a shift in de elo#ment schemes where #lantations seek to increase estate holdings. ca#acity. some of the farmers were crying. When we offered training to the farmers in Dast &alimantan.ow. etc. When #easants resisted gi ing u# their land. Q: /ccording to Sawit Watch0 how then shou d oi !a m "e deve o!ed and managed? . saying that ?after twenty years of farming in oil #alm.@ 1he farmers signed the contract without knowing the industry standards.ew generation of #lantation schemes started around '(((. and I will gi e you one #ers#ecti eA to bring back the com#any #lantation as a trigger for de elo#ment. Why is it called inti> Because inti is not bigS 1here were many #roblems with #roduction. !rom the current model stand#oint.@ 2 big #roblem is that oil #alm is #romoted without ca#acity building that should include go ernment e5tension ser ices. and "1". in s#ite of all all the corru#tion associated with his regime. When 3uharto started with the inti8#lasma schemes for oil #alm in the *+)(s. Just sign the contract. we will see the majority of the land will be held as inti land. it is easier to manage the workers on the #lantation than it is to manage the #lasma farmers because the latter retains inde#endence to some degree while the former is totally de#endent on the com#any. as did #eo#le li ing in Bodok and elsewhere who #urchased the failed #lots at a good #rice. meaning that the 62 . ?We will re#air the substandard #lots.ed by land shortage on the one hand and labour sur#lus on the other gi en the limited ca#acity of #lantations to absorb labour. many #lasma farmers failed and in a large number of cases the #lots were sold to #lantation managers. and an increasing number of farmers will be #rogressi ely s=uee. and in some res#ects it is already started. the 3uharto era #lasma scheme offered more o##ortunities to farmers than the current model of majority inti.ow there is some debate within 3awit Watch about this #oint. Many of the managers at "1".o wonder we struggled so much. we found that com#anies told the farmers.*< accumulated land this way. . In many cases.

orth 3umatra that has struggled to recei e its #lasma holdings which dates back to *+)F. yet they fail to acknowledge that the wage is not sector s#ecific and that it re#resents and a erage wage across all sectors. in 3umatra.orth 3umatra. much is controlled by the state 7 com#any #lantation and little seems to be channeled back to the community. In many res#ects. 3o far. 1hey are not interested in the land #er se. there is increasing unem#loyment. !or the com#any. In &alimantan. but in the raw material from the land which can be #roduced by communities. to which the Indonesian com#anies had no res#onse. In an odd way. the big difference is one of #ower relations that are ery much 6= . My e5#erience with a community in . yet it needs to be considered as an o#tion for genuine de elo#ment to occur and for oil #alm to be a trigger of de elo#ment. the issue is to find a way to access the raw material $1B3% to #roduce -"0 which is where the money is being made. When you look at Ja a where an indi idual may own (.original #lantation scheme can be reinstated where the majority of the land is owned by #lasma farmers and they are the main #roducers of the oil #alm fruit. Q: What is Sawit Watch's !osition on the current &/PP. back to the community> 1his has ne er been the intent of #lasma8inti schemes. the image of a #lantation worker is better than working for a smallholder in that some #restige is associated with #lantation work. In my o#inion. !rom our #ers#ecti e. and they see re enue returned to their community for infrastructure and ser ices. 1he com#anies here may claim that they are #aying the workers the minimum wage as determined by the go ernment. 1he #roblem in Ja a is not sol ed by #lantation e5#ansion.B ha and yet a com#any can control *((( hectares. and through the state.'B or (. 2lso. land titling is not a #roblem #er se. and yet they are still struggling to regain the initial land holding of *G+ hectares from o er three decades ago. what e5tensions are being made a ailable to su##ort rural li elihoods> 1he e5#ansion issue is an im#ortant one because the machine of unem#loyment in Ja a is ali e and well and is dri ing the go ernment to #romote #lantation e5#ansion as a solution to the unem#loyment #roblem. 1he issue debated is often surrounding communal land.6/S and tit ing !rogram? :emember that the titling #rogram is not taking #lace in areas where there are serious land conflicts like in &alimantan or elsewhere. yet the #lantation wage is considerably higher in Malaysia. Q: In genera 0 how do you com!are oi !a m in some !arts of Sumatra with that in )a imantan? 0ne big difference is that in 3umatra. 1hey were originally struggling for li elihoods and now they are struggling for housing and li elihoods. we ha e noticed that labourers on the #lantation earn less than on #lasma holdings. you get a sense of the imbalance that e entually creates a time bomb. but the community #o#ulation has gone from '(( families to BB(. they grow their fruit. but rather what is the ca#acity of farmers. such as . In #lantation areas. some communities ha e retained control o er the #roduction #rocessA they manage their #lots. 1he key is how to transfer the management to the state. in contrast. the com#any uses the minimum wage line as a sca#egoat to a oid #aying a decent li ing wage. they ha e not recei ed the land. It was interesting to witness a debate last year about how the -"0 from Indonesia and Malaysia is sold on the international market at the same #rice.

!armers would retain the license of their #arcel 1he go ernment is also #ro#osing a ':e#lanting 3cheme' where all land will be transformed into inti land only. the com#any still o#ted to #ro#ose a 'one8roof8management' scheme con erting all the land to inti for the sim#le reason that more #rofits could be funneled to the com#any. It is interesting to note that though #lasma farmers in 3umatra were recognised for their #roducti ity on their ka#lings. will not file a re#ort concerning the land occu#ation undertaken by the farmers. 1he objecti e also is to hel# strengthen the smallholders as an organised grou# to better manage their #lots and to increase their ca#acity to ultimately manage the #lantations in the long run. 1he ultimate objecti e is to build sufficient ca#acity with the smallholders so that they are able to manage the #lantations as a way of better securing li elihoods and to a ert the e entual time bomb that is at our doorste# related to labour sur#lus and land shortages. according to unofficial re#orts of the incident. go ernment. In the case of &alimantan. Q: What can you te me a"out the current e%!ansion that is "eing !ro!osed for Indonesia? 1he e5isting + million hectares is being #ro#osed to e5#and to 'G million hectares. !armers #rotested because their offered wages was between :# *B(k to :# B((k #er month $lower than current earnings%. 1he focus now has shifted to the criminalisation of the farmers. it is im#ortant that the smallholders are organised as a grou# in order to more effecti ely negotiate for better terms with the com#any. farmers were informed of the scheme. and in the end rejected the scheme. the go ernment launched its ':e italisation "roject' for oil #alm which is described as a one8roof management scheme where all the land would be de elo#ed as inti.ect that "egan in +. there is much re#lanting taking #lace that is creating an o##ortunity to e5#and as well the estate area. for e5am#le. Many organisations such as 3"&3 and others o##ose this scheme. there were confrontations between #easant farmers and the #olice. How is the go ernment #romoting this scheme and what is the res#onse> In :iau. and one #erson was killed with many injured as well.skewed in fa our of the state7#ri ate com#any in &alimantan in com#arison to oil #alm in some #arts of 3umatra./0s. though there has been some reform to the coo#erati e in order to gain a better return to the farmers. 1hrough this #rogram. and the #olice.<? Many studies from . :esolution to date has not been resol ed. and com#anies show that #lasma #roduction is generally *B tons of 1B3 lower #er year. Much of the #ro#osed e5#ansion is slated to ha##en under the 'one8roof8management' scheme. Q: /ny c osing ideas0 thoughts? !or 3awit Watch.. the #olice ha e asked that the farmers not file an incident re#ort related to the death of one indi idual. informed of the a erage earnings. In '((). We ha e already looked at some of the reasons why the #roduction is lower on #lasma #lots. the go ernment has been #romoting e5#ansion under a one8roof management model. Q: 1an you te me a"out the atest government scheme entit ed the Revita isation Pro. on their side. 2lso. -orru#tion channels ensure that such initiati es are sustained and su##orted by the 66 . !armers who had gi en u# land to the inti scheme would recei e a #ercentage of the earnings from a s#ecified area of inti based on the land surrendered to the estate.

army and #olice force if local resistance is sufficiently high. !or Indonesia. making a change toward democracy in ol es breaking out of the mindset of money #olitics and look for ways to de elo# industry in the country that brings greater returns by #roducing alue8added #roducts instead of sim#ly being an e5#orted or raw goods. 64 .

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