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Another Absurdly Short Chronology of Events: this time for the Former Yugoslavia Political Science 318 Fall

!13 Prof" Scott Straus 1#8!s: $ac%ground to &iolence -Yugoslavia is a Federation of Six Republics: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Macedonia, and Montenegro -Mars!al "osip #ito, dictatorial leader $!o ruled for %& 'ears and e(p!asized )brot!er!ood and unit',* dies in +,-& - Significant econo(ic decline in Yugoslavia B' +,-., one (illion une(plo'ed, /&0 inflation rate1 2orld Ban3 and 4MF i(pose austerit' (easures -Co((unist 5astern Bloc begins to unravel1 nationalist (ove(ents de(anding secession arise in t!e for(er Soviet 6nion -+,-. Serb )7cade(' of Sciences* publication clai(ing Serbs faced discri(ination and )genocide* in Yugoslavia -Fa(ous +,-8 Slobodan Milosevic speec! in 9osovo :a province of Serbia; $!ere !e pro(ises 9osovar Serbs )You $ill not be beaten again * -+,-8-+,-,: Milosevic consolidates po$er inside Serbia, riding a tide of Serb nationalis(1 elected leader in <arlia(ent in +,-, 1##! -5lections in t!e republics t!roug!out Yugoslavia Milosevic $ins -.0 of vote in Serbia =ationalist parties also $in over$!el(ingl' in Croatia and in Slovenia -Croat nationalists adopt flag t!at rese(bles 6stase fascist flag :see belo$; -Serbs in Croatia :Serbs (a3e up +>0 of t!e Croat population; organize para(ilitaries, appeal for and receive (ilitar' supplies fro( Milosevic?Serb ar(' Serbs in 9ra@ina region $ant to !old a referendu( on autono(', possibl' to lin3 up $it! Serb Republic Croats refuse to let referendu( ta3e place Beginning of confrontation in Croatia 1##1 -"une: 7fter referendu( votes !eavil' in favor, Slovenia and Croatia declare independence 5uropean states assure bot! of international recognition -Milosevic and ot!er Serb nationalist officials deplo' Serb-do(inated Yugoslav =ational 7r(' to prevent secession in Slovenia -+& da', largel' bloodless $ar in Slovenia, $!ic! is !o(e to fe$ resident Serbs Yugoslav forces $it!dra$1 Slovenia beco(es independent -"ul': Start of 8-(ont! $ar in Croatia Croat Serbs expel et!nic Croats fro( areas $!ere Serbs are do(inant Serbs 3ill so(e Croat police(en -Croat defense forces attac3 Serb areas Croat Serbs appeal to Milosevic, $!o aut!orizes t!e deplo'(ent of >&-(ile long tan3 colu(n to Croatia -5t!nic cleansing on bot! sides: Serbs expel Croats fro( Serb-do(inated areas1 Croats do t!e sa(e to Serbs in Croat-do(inated areas 1## -2ar ends in Croatia Serb ar(' controls about +?A of Croat territor'1 about /&&,&&& Croat and >A&,&&& Serb refugees and internall' displaced1 +&-+/,&&& civilians 3illed -2orried about Serb-do(inance in $!at is left of Yugoslavia, Bosnian leaders !old a referendu( on independence Bosnian Serbs bo'cott Referendu( $ins $it! ,,0 of votes -Bosnian Serb leaders declare an independent Bosnian Serb State: )Republi3a Srps3a *

-Beginning of $ar: Bosnian Musli(s and ot!ers ta3e control of Sara@evoBs :t!e Bosnian capital; cit' center1 Serbs ta3e control of strategic !eig!ts1 Bosnian Serbs receive reinforce(ents fro( Yugoslav ar(' and begin a siege of Sara@evo -5t!nic cleansing in (an' parts of Bosnia: pri(aril' Serbs expelling Musli(s fro( to$ns t!at Bosnian Serbs capture -Men are separated out and put in concentration ca(ps1 best-3no$n is called C(ars3a -4n Croat-do(inant areas, Croats also )cleanse* areas of Musli(s Musli( (en also put in concentration ca(ps -)Cleansed* Musli( civilians congregate in large to$ns, eg Dorazde, Srebrenica, Evorni3, etc -Bosnian Serbs control bet$een t$o-t!irds and t!ree-Fuarters of Bosnia b' end of +,,> 1##3 -#!e 6= declares Sara@evo and ot!er cities $!ere Musli( civilians !ave congregated )safe areas,* $!ere t!e 6= pledges to protect civilians and deter aggression -6= peace3eepers deplo'ed to )safe areas * -5uropean 6nion proposes peace plan called )Gance-C$en <lan* t!at $ould separate Bosnia into +& et!nic enclaves <lan falters 1##' -2ar continues Siege of Sara@evo ends in Marc! More peace efforts falter 1##( -Bosnian Serbs continue to $age $ar 7ssault on Srebrenica )safe area*: Hutc! peace3eepers ta3en !ostage1 /,&&&-8,&&& Bosnian Musli( (en (assacred1 (an' $o(en raped -7ttac3 leads to t!ree $ee3s of =7#C bo(bing Serb forces retreat -Clinton calls Bal3an leaders to Ha'ton, C!io, $!ere peace plan is signed >&,&&& =7#C troops deplo'ed to enforce t!e agree(ent )ey *erms )5t!nic Cleansing*: Co(bination of executions, deportations, institutionalized discri(ination, occasional (assacring, sexual violence, and general terror to force or induce (e(bers of specific et!nic populations to abandon particular territories )4C#Y*: 4nternational Cri(inal #ribunal for t!e for(er Yugoslavia: set up to tr' Bal3ans leaders for genocide and cri(es against !u(anit' )Field of Blac3birds*: +A-, battle in $!ic! invading Ctto(an #ur3s defeat (edieval Serb e(pire S'(bol of Serb nationalis( and Serb victi(ization )C!etni3s*: #er(s for Serb (onarc!ists during 2orld 2ar 44 )6stase*: 22 44 Croat fascist part' accused of large-scale 3illing of Serbs Some +very fe,- )ey Players 7li@a 4zetbegovic: Bosnian <resident, Musli( Slobodan Milosevic: Serb <resident Rat3o Mladic: Bosnian Serb Militar' Co((ander Radovan 9aradzic: Bosnian Serb political leader Fran@o #ud@(an: Croat <resident
Main Sources: =or(an =ai(ar3, Fires of Hatred1 7llan Iittle and Iaura Silber, Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation, Susan 2ood$ard, Balkan Tragedy1 5ric 2eitz: A Century of Genocide