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Swadeshi

Introduction
The concept of Swadeshi is more than 100 years old. It was a guiding force for the Indian freedom struggle under the visionary leadership of Lokmanya Tilak, Veer Savarkar, Shri uro!indo and "ahatama #andhi. $ven decades after independence from %ritish &olonialism it was felt that for total economic freedom it is essential to make Swadeshi a way of life. To make people aware of the on going economic imperialism, few organi'ations like %haratiya "a'door Sangh (%"S), %haratiya *isan Sangh (%*S), khil %haratiya Vidyarthi +arishad ( %V+) etc. started a massive campaign for Swadeshi in 1,-0s. This movement helped in spreading awareness among the masses a!out the importance of Swadeshi as a way of life. To give this movement a concrete form, It was decided to esta!lish Swadeshi .agaran "anch (S."). ccordingly, S." came into e/istence on 0ovem!er 11, 1,,1 at 0agpur. 2epresentatives of five national level organisations including %"S, %V+, %*S, khil %haratiya #rahak +anchayat ( %#+) 3 Sahkar %harati took this decision in the presence of Shri 4ottopant Thengdi, founder of %"S. 5or proper e/ecution of movement a &entral &ommittee was formed and 4r. ".#. %okare ($/

Vice &hancellor, 0agpur 6niversity) was given the responsi!ility of convener. 7n 11 .anuary 1,,1, %irth nniversary of Swami Vivekanand, the first massive campaign against the economic policy of central government started. +eople from all walks of life with distinct ideologies came together on the S." platform to fight against economic imperialism. Su!se8uently literature on Swadeshi, intellectual property rights. # TT and economic imperialism of multinationals was pu!lished and distri!uted to populari'e the cause of S.". Later on many other organi'ations 9oined the forces for Swadeshi like Vanvasi *alyan shram, Vidya %harati, 2ashtra Sevika Samiti, %haratiya Sikshan "andal etc. Today S." has !ecome an all:encompassing movement with more than 1; organi'ations associated with it and has many other dimensions to its credit. <e have an all India network of su! units up to district level across the country. In some districts our units have reached up to !lock level. S." is progressively reaching geographical and social spread of the country. t the same time S." is actively coordinating with all those people and organi'ations that !elieve in Swadeshi viewpoint, and in the process has !ecome an important link !etween the lowest strata of the society and policy planners and opinion makers at the national level.+romotion of Swadeshi products, arranging help in development of professionals, cultural 3 value oriented Indian &orporate Structure, a monthly maga'ine

in =indi as well as in $nglish, intellectual support center and awards to master craftsmen 3 producers for e/cellent Swadeshi +roducts are some of the dimensions in which S." has worked with marked success. In short, Swadeshi .agran "anch has emerged as a forceful mo!ili'ation, with a vision and action plan for a truly self reliant %harat and e8uita!le world order, that no!ody can afford to ignore.

Movement
Activities & Programmes of SJM
S." come into e/istence on 11 0ovem!er 1,,1 at 0agpur and within a short period it started its activities on a warfront. 7n the !irth anniversary of Swami Vivekanand, 11 .anuary 1,,1 the struggle against the economic imperialism !egan in the form of mass awareness programme. In this campaign the changes in the economic policies, devaluation of rupee and interference of e/ternal powers in the policy:making decisions and their collective harmful impacts on Indian economy were e/posed to the pu!lic. round the same time primary literature on Swadeshi was circulated in the different states. Later on various related topics were covered 3 pu!lished on a regular !asis. mong them the prominent ones are > The Third lternative > !y Shri 4attapant Thengdi, > The "enace of "ultinationals? !y Shri 4ayakrishna, > =indu $conomics? !y 4r.".#.%oakare etc. The first ma9or pu!lic meeting of S." was organised at "um!ai on 11 0ovem!er 1,,1, which was addressed !y prominent thinkers and national level workers. This

meeting proved that people from different ideological !ackgrounds were willing to share the platform of S." on an all:concerning issue like Swadeshi.

The first national convention was held at 0ew 4elhi on Septem!er @: ;, 1,,AB which did C11 delegates attend. %efore that many associate organisations of S." like %"S, %V+, %*S, %#+ etc. carried out their own action programmes for spreading awareness a!out harmful effects of 4uncalDs 4raft. Therefore, representatives from these organisations were also present at 4elhi convention. Thereafter on all India level a meeting of main workers was held at 0agpur on 1;th 0ovem!er 1,,A. In this meeting it was decided to !oycott the products of "0&s like +epsi, &oke 3 &olgate. The &entral #ovt. was re8uested for not to agree on 4uncalDs 4raft. The first meeting at 0ational &ouncil was held at +une on pril 1:A, 1,,@. ll state conveners, representatives from associated organisations and all central committee mem!ers attended it. In this meeting it was decided to !egin afresh a massive mass:awakening programme. This was a ma9or achievement for S.". <ithin a time:span of 1; days, 1,-A,@01 workers were organised at ;@1- towns 3 1,0,,1@0 villages. In these meetings the +resident of India was urged upon to stop the #ovt. from going ahead

with 4uncalDs proposals. +eople took vow to use Swadeshi products and there!y help India in !ecoming a self:sufficient nation. 4uring this movement AE1 Swadeshi 4epots were opened and more than A0 million pamphlets were distri!uted among people. +olitical activities from distinct ideologies work together for S." in its struggle for economic independence. Second 0ational &ouncil meeting was held at "adras. Thereafter one:day conference was organised against the #ovt. policy of giving permission to "0&s for catching fish in the Indian waters. 7n "ay C:E, 1,,; 0ational &onference against e/port of cattle:meat was held at =ydera!ad. seminar was organised on the issue of power at "um!ai on 1Cth "ay 1,,;. 0ational ction #roup on +ower was esta!lished to fight against the irregularities in the deals with "0&s. This ction #roup had its first meeting on 11st 7cto!er 1,,;. movement was started against $nron &orp., which had a deal with "aharashtra State #ovt. to start a mega power at 4a!hol. This deal violated all principles and the pu!lic was kept in total darkness a!out the agreements. The advice of <orld %ank and the central energy tri!unal was ignored and the deal was overpriced !y at least 1100 crore 2s. 4ue to strong agitation !y S.", the pu!lic 3 the media !ecame aware of the issue and su!se8uently the newly elected state govt. was forced to withdraw the deal. It was a

massive victory for Swadeshi "ovement which saved thousands of crores of 2upees !y forcing other power companies to down price their deals. In ugust 1,,; another milestone was achieved when pu!lication of Swadeshi patrika started. It was desired for long and would help the movement in long run. The second national convention of S." was held at &alcutta on 0ovem!er @:;, 1,,;. Total @@1 delegates from different part of country took part in it. 2esolutions on F &ultural Invasion through "edia F3 F $conomic situation of the country F were passed in this convention. ction groups on +ower, pro!lems of weavers, +atent laws, livestock safety 3 fishing in deep sea were formed to effectively handle these issues. +resentation of cattle wealth was the first among many issues on which the "anch launched a successful nationwide movement. The campaign started from Sewagram, <ardha on 1; th 0ovem!er, 1,,;. The cow: protection cavalcade moved out again from %apu *utir. Twenty:three cookers from all over the country participated in the "arch. fter covering C00 kms. during the 11 days from 1; th 0ovem!er to Cth 4ecem!er these activities (+adayatris) reached the I *a!ir mechanised a!attoir at 2udroram. 4espite heavy police deployment and terror the Satyagraha was a great success.

The first meeting of the campaign committee in support of %eedi workers was held at +une at +une on E th .anuary, 1,,C. The threat faced !y the millions of %eedi workers, as a result of the governmentDs decision to permit manufacturer of mini cigarettes and to reduce ta/es on them, was discussed at the meeting. .al Gatra (%oat "arch) was organised against the decision of the central government to grant licenses to the "0&s for deep:sea:fishing from !oth the coastal areas of the country covering a!out E000 kms. this .al Gatra passed through si/ coastal states of the country. 5or the first time, in this struggle for survival !y the fisherman, their own !oats and other e8uipment were used as an instrument of mass:awakening one !ranch of .al Gatra started from +or!andar (#u9arat) on the west coast on 1nd .anuary, 1,,C under the leadership of Shri Lal9i %hai +atel and another from *akdwip on the $ast &oast on 1@ th .anuary under the leadership of Shri Sura9 "itra. %oth ended on - th 5e!ruary at Thiruvananthapuram. seminar on >+ower +olicy &ontradiction and Swadeshi +erspective? was organised in 4elhi on Eth 3 - th pril 1,,C !y the working group on power formed !y the Swadeshi .agaran "anch. Shri Trilok 0ath &haturvedi, "+ and 5ormer &ontroller and uditor #eneral of India inaugurated this seminar. "any e/perts and technologists from the power sector participated in the seminar.

meeting of the 0ational &ouncil was held on ; and C 7cto!er 1,,C at 4elhi. report on the past activities and a plan of the future programmes was presented. 7rganisational goals were determined and an action plan was prepared at the meeting. 0ational <orkshop on > The &oncept of 4evelopment? was organised at +une from 7cto!er 1-:A0, 1,,C the 0ational <orking #roup on 4evelopment and was attended !y 1; prominent activists from all over the country. The Third 0ational &onvention of Swadeshi .agaran "anch was held at Varanasi on 0ovem!er 1@:1C, 1,,E. 4elegates from all over the country of ,C0 items had participated in the Varanasi &onference. The former 4irector of 60&T 4 Shri %hagirath Lal 4as inaugurated it. t this conference the "anch had called upon the government to disassociate itself from the <orld Trade 7rganisation (<T7). The "anch had decided upon three initiatives from the organisational point of view. 1) $sta!lishment of study circles throughout the countryB 1)7rganisation of a Sangarsha Vahini and A) &onstitution of a forum of well:wishers for providing financial support to the "anch. "eeting of the 2ashtriya Sa!ha of the "anch was held at 2aipur on pril 1-:1,, 1,,-. The "anch had clearly

warned the government against the free imports of A-0 items under e/im policy.

The first 2ashtriya Vichar Varga was organised in 4elhi from "ay A:,, 1,,- in order to hold discussions on the current economic situation in the country, the challenges posed !y li!eralisation, <T7 and related issues, the concept of development, Swadeshi strategy and various other topics. Swadeshi &hetna Gatras were organised from 1E th Septem!er to 1nd 7cto!er, 1,,- throughout the country. In ndhra +radesh, #u9arat and *erala, the processions were taken out from 1nd 7cto!er to 10th 7cto!er owing to organisational compulsions. Swadeshi &hetna Gatra marks an important milestone in the progress of the Swadeshi movement. The &hetna Gatra aimed at forewarning people a!out e/ternal dangers and to call upon them to take constructive interest in the Swadeshi movement. The agitation against $nron, the long march from the Sewagram to lka!ir for the preservation of out cattle wealth, the Gatra for the protection of the 9o!s of our fisherfolk, and the Swadeshi &hetna Gatra all are indicative of the organisational growth and sweep of the Swadeshi .agaran "anch.

The &entral Steering &ommittee of Swadeshi .agaran "anch met on 7cto!er 1-:1, at "um!ai. t the meeting a resolution was passed against the controversial economic decisions of the &entral #overnment. The "anch organised a dharna at .antar "antar in 4elhi on 4ecem!er A, 1,,- to register its protest against the insurance !ill. To promote %haratiya producers and to esta!lish Swadeshi entrepreneurs a Swadeshi "ela was organised on grand scale !y &entre for %haratiya "arketing 4evelopment (&%"4) at +ragati "aidan, 0ew 4elhi from .anuary 1;:A0, 1,,,. "ore than A00 !usiness houses participated in the "ela. Shri tal %ehari Va9payee =onD!l. +rime "inister inaugurated "ela. 7n 5e!ruary 1;, 1,,, a mass rally was organised at 2amlila "aidan, 4elhi, to challenge the undemocratic structure of <T7.

Philosophy
H<here the mind is without fear 3 the head is held high <here knowledge is free..... Into that heaven of freedom,my father Let my country awakeH : 2a!indranath Tagore <hile capitalism solely rests on "arket and State as the twin socio:economic delivery systems, socialism primarily rests on the State as the delivery system. In contrast, the Swadeshi thought relies on the social institutional order, !esides "arket and State, as the socio:economic delivery system. This makes the "arket and the State share the pu!lic space with family, community and society. 5amilyI The lowest socio:cultural economic unit of society in the Swadeshi view is not the individual !ut the family. This single institution relieves the modern State of

e/traordinary welfare commitments like old age !enefits and unemployment doles which work out to over half of the #4+ in many <estern countries, like 6S and #ermany. &ommunity, SocietyI Swadeshi !elieves in the legitimacy of different social units. It !elieves that the un!ridled and un!alanced individualism of the <est is destructive of community living. The individual, for his free interplay, creative manifestation and progressive unfoldment, re8uires the mutually complimentary and interactive relationship of the community. 2eligion : %alancing the family, Society and the IndividualI The <estern notion of individual freedom, which fragments and compartmentalises family, economy, culture and social values, is not accepta!le to the Swadeshi approach. Individual freedom is tempered !y the individualDs integration into the family and community. The State acts only to protect it from incursions, F4harmaD sustains the whole framework and religion provides support and linkage to community living. The 2ole of the "arketI The <estern notion of a glo!al market does not fit into the Swadeshi approach. The market has to !e an instrument and not the master of the people. The smaller the si'e of the market, the !etter it is as an instrument. The Swadeshi approach is to limit the si'e of the market and not to eliminate the market as

communism does. The Swadeshi glo!al view is >let a thousand markets !loom : and not merge into one glo!al market?. The 2ole of the StateI Swadeshi approach sees the State as the primary instrument to protect the nation and its interests and a residuary instrument in respect of all intra: national matters. Its role is, as %hishma said in Shanti +arva in "aha!harata, to protect the weak and to ensure that 4harma is adhered to. The state must defend the wealth and honour of the nation. 7rdinarily, and e/cept in order to protect national interests against foreign interests, the State must not !e a traderB !ut must ensure that trade and commerce conforms to 4harma. rrangement !etween individual, state, market and communityJsocietyJfamilyI Swadeshi looks upon the individual, State, "arket and the 4harmic collectivities namely, family, community, religion and society, as a means to sustain the FVyavaharD (material life) consistent with the total and integral o!9ect of individual and collective life, namely, the +urusharthas. In the Swadeshi approach, all these institutions are delivery mechanisms as much for socio:economic purposes as for the higher purposes. Swadeshi Life is !ased on 4harmaI Swadeshi !elieves that, mere rule of law is inade8uate to lay the ground for social interactions. higher order of life

has !een in practice in IndiaB all non:official community and social transactions take place on this higher principle of life called dharma, even today. F4harmaD : an ancient Indian concept, which has no $nglish e8uivalent : means Fthat which sustainsD. In its wider sense, it implies the nourishment of all aspects of life : individual social glo!al. Swadharma forms the very core of SwadeshiB Swadeshi is the living tradition of India. Though !uried under the veneer of the superficial <est:centric Indian e/terior it is still the largest sustaining force and the core of Indian society, economy and polity. The essential ingredients of the Swadeshi thought may !e summarised as followsI Swadeshi means that which is natural and native to a country and society, !ut allows scope for assimilation of wholesome and !eneficial elements from the outside. This applies to economics as well as politicsB culture as well as technology. It is the principle of preferring the neigh!orhood to the remote. It commands need:!ased life, and rules out unlimited consumption as an end. It renews and relies on family, community and society as socio:economic delivery systems. It does not su!stitute these traditional institutions !y the State and the "arket.

It is not autarkyB !ut a glo!al alternative, which accepts only need:!ased trans nationalism. Swadeshi restores economics to its earlier definition which even now the dictionary meaning of economy indicates, namely, practical human needs, frugality, savings, thrift etc. and seeks to remove the latter:day distortion of defining economics as multiplication of wants and efforts to satisfy them, powered !y greed. Stated in simple terms, Swadeshi re9ects materialistic and imperialistic homogenisation and aimless transnationalism of the <estern assumption. Swadeshi is a multidimensional thought, em!racing civilisational, political and economic aspects of human life and presenting an integrated vision of life in harmony with nature. #oal 3 7!9ectives K &reation of a 9ust world order !ased on integral and holistic life vision. : $nsuring national security, unity and integrity. : %uilding a self:reliant nation : 0ourishment of %haratiya cultural values. : +reservation of natural wealth.

: %alanced development of all regions and the society as a whole. To achieve these goals, following o!9ectives need to !e fulfilled$nsuring satisfaction of the !asic needs of all people within 10 years. 5ood, clothing, housing, education, health, drinking water, energy and transport !e recognised as !asic needs. Involvement in meaningful and productive work is the only guarantee for achieving !asic needs. Therefore, ensuring proper employment to all eligi!le hands should !e the first o!9ective of national planning. $nsuring fulfillment of this o!9ective in the ne/t decade. %uilding %harat as a world power in the ne/t 1; years. $nsuring that income:ine8ualities remain within reasona!le limits. 2atio of income of top 10 per cent and !ottom 10 per cent should not e/ceed 10I1.#enerally promoting national self:confidence and national pride !y 8ualitative change in education, sports, media programmes, and conduct of pu!lic men. 5or achieving these important indices of national strength, pride and self: respect, the nation has to evolve a !road national consensus cutting across all differences. Swadeshi means creation of national wealth and power. It is a mistaken notion that the need:!ased approach of the Swadeshi philosophy is against creation of wealth. The Swadeshi thought is merely an in9unction against unlimited consumptionB it is a mandate for conservation and

preservation of national assets and resourcesB it is an emphasis on personal and family savings, it is an in9unction against wasteful and needless e/penditure. The tradition of Swadeshi alone made India one of the richest and prosperous nations in the world. That is why &olum!us and Vasco:de:#ama set out to search for India. India attracted !ar!aric invasions !ecause of its well: known prosperity. %ut prosperity was considered a social and national asset : not merely a personal asset. <ealth was not the sole or even the most important inde/ of social respect. India was wealthy, without making wealth the ar!iter of social interaction. Swadeshi is not anti: wealth. It is all for augmenting wealth and power. #lo!al varsities allowed to setup campuses in India &hanges made to make it attractive for foreign universities to enter India. The government has opened the doors for top foreign universities to set up campuses in the country and award degrees, giving Indian students the opportunity to study in glo!al institutions without leaving home or spending a fortune in dollars. The human resource development ministry has decided to allow the top @00 institutions to enter via an e/ecutive order. It is working on regulations under the 6niversity #rants &ommission ct to let foreign institutions !egin

operations without an Indian partner, which is currently a re8uirement.

The proposed 6#& ($sta!lishment 3 7peration of &ampuses of 5oreign $ducational Institutions) 2ules re8uires that foreign education providers set up the India campuses as not:for:profit companies, that is companies set up under Section 1; of the old &ompanies ct (Section - of the new one). The proposal has the support of the department of industrial policy 3 promotion (4I++) and the department of economic affairs (4$ ). HThe ministry had sought comments and o!servations of 4I++ and 4$ on the rules. %oth have supported the proposal,H the =24 ministry spokesperson said. To foreign universities, the move presents an opportunity to tap a country with a population of 1.1 !illion. Several foreign universities have !een keen to enter India to tap a higher educational market that is worth 2s.@C,100 crore and e/panding !y 1-L every year.Till now they had to do so through partnerships. The 5oreign $ducation +rovidersD %ill is still awaiting parliamentary approval. The announcement, which is effectively an e/ecutive order, doesnDt need to !e approved !y +arliament and could see a rush of foreign universities to enter India.

6nder the proposed rules, foreign universities can set up campuses in India once they have !een notified as Fforeign education providerD !y 6#&. n educational institution wishing to operate in India needs to !e in the top @00 in one of three glo!al rankingsI the 6*:!ased Times =igher $ducation 2ankingB Muac8uarelli Symonds ranking pu!lished in 6* againB and the &hina:!ased Shanghai .iao Tong 6niversity rankings. n =24 ministry official has reportedly said that at least 10 foreign universitiesNmostly from 6S, followed !y ustralia and &anadaNhave e/pressed their desire to enter the market. The degrees awarded !y foreign universities in India will !e considered foreign degrees and students holding these degrees need to get an e8uivalence certificate from the ssociation of Indian 6niversities ( I6), the =24 ministry said in its statement. These universities will also function under the 6#& rules.

The profit motive foreign university cannot repatriate money that it makes in India. nd any university seeking entry to India must !e accredited !y !odies in its home country. >Muality control

is key and we will !uild the safeguard mechanism with each of the universities,? a second official in the =24 ministry said. The two =24 ministry officials have said enough changes have !een made to make it attractive for foreign universities to enter India. The India campus will function as a !ranch campus of the parent, rather than as an independent campus. The universities will offer the same degree they are offering in their parent campus. nd the ministry has reduced the deposit universities have to maintain with the ministry (and which they will forfeit in case of any violation) from 2s.;0 crore to 2s.1; crore. The official descri!ed the ministryDs move as >li!erali'ing the higher education space the way India economy was li!erali'ed !etween 1,,1 and 1,,A?. O4espite economic !oom, IndiaOs 9o! growth has shrunkO 2aising 8uestions over the governmentOs slogan of inclusive growth, an official report has said the rate at which new 9o!s were added to IndiaOs la!our force had declined !etween 1,,A and 100; despite an economic !oom. The annual growth rate of employment declined to 1.-; percent from 1.0A percent !etween 1,,A and 100; despite higher aggregate growth, said the report released here !y the 0ational &ommission for $nterprises in the 6norganised Sector.

OThe net growth in employment has also !een mostly of an informal kind,O the commission said in the report titledI O&hallenges of $mployment in IndiaI n Informal $conomy +erspectiveO. OThe national agenda of inclusion would !e deficient were it not to provide a life of dignity and security to the poor and vulnera!le in India, constituting over E; percent of the population. $mployment, then, !ecomes the central o!9ective.O

$8ually alarming was the finding that the growth rate of wages under all categories of workers, including casual la!ourers, also declined during the period under review. OInstead of creating a level playing field, policies have focused on creating special playing fields for large corporate entities, undermining micro and small enterprises that provide productive employment to the growing la!our force,O it said. OInformal sector lacks access to credit, technology, marketing, skills and incentives,O said the commission, which was set up in Septem!er 100@ to review the status of employment in IndiaOs unorganised or informal sector. This section of the la!our force constitutes a whopping ,A percent of IndiaOs la!our force, which is estimated at ;Amillion as in 100E, e8ualling the countryOs entire population in 1,E1.

The commission also said that the share of government and pu!lic sector in the countryOs total workforce declined from ;.@ percent in 1,-A to A., percent in 100;, while it shrank from 1.; percent to 9ust 1.- percent for private sector.

O4espite the private sector constituting merely 1 percent of the workforce, it receives inordinate attention and preferred treatment,O says the commission, listing the incentives as cheap credit, access to overseas funds and e/port sops. OInstead of !ailing out !ig companies, the government should now shift attention to more local markets and rural areas,O *.+. *annan, mem!er of the commission, told I 0S, soon after presenting the report to +rime "inister "anmohan Singh. OIf the current trends continue, the comparative deficit in education and skills in regions of the country that will contri!ute to a ma9or part of the growth of the la!our force will !e even more glaring in the future,O *annan added. Looking ahead, the commission has pro9ected the countryOs la!our force at ;01 million !y 1011 and ;;1 million !y 101E : a num!er that is greater than the countryOs population of ;@- million in 1,E1.

It, accordingly, says that were the Indian economy to grow at , percent per annum during the period, some @-million 9o!s will !e created, leaving an unemployment level of 1.; percent !y 1011.

%ut if the economy grows at 9ust ; percent during the period, 9o! creation will !e around @C; million, leaving an unemployment level of a little over E percent.

0evertheless, it says that if the economy e/pands !y , percent per annum, there would !e no unemployment !y 101E. %ut on the flip side, if economic growth is 9ust ; percent, the unemployment level will !e over 10 percent. (I 0S) $mployement