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500 BC CONFUCIAN ANALECTS Confucius 1 The Master "Is it not p easant to earn !

ith a constant perse"erance an# app ication$ "Is it not #e i%htfu to ha"e frien#s co&in% fro& #istant 'uarters$ "Is he not a &an of co&p ete "irtue( !ho fee s no #isco&posure thou%h &en &a) ta*e no note of hi&$" The phi osopher +u sai#( "The) are fe! !ho( ,ein% fi ia an# fraterna ( are fon# of offen#in% a%ainst their superiors- There ha"e ,een none( !ho( not i*in% to offen# a%ainst their superiors( ha"e ,een fon# of stirrin% up confusion- "The superior &an ,en#s his attention to !hat is ra#ica - That ,ein% esta, ishe#( a practica courses natura ) %ro! up- Fi ia piet) an# fraterna su,&ission(.are the) not the root of a ,ene"o ent actions$" The Master sai#( "Fine !or#s an# an insinuatin% appearance are se #o& associate# !ith true "irtue-" The phi osopher Tsan% sai#( "I #ai ) e/a&ine &)se f on three points0. !hether( in transactin% ,usiness for others( I &a) ha"e ,een not faithfu 1.!hether( in intercourse !ith frien#s( I &a) ha"e ,een not sincere1 .!hether I &a) ha"e not &astere# an# practice# the instructions of &) teacher-" The Master sai#( "To ru e a countr) of a thousan# chariots( there &ust ,e re"erent attention to ,usiness( an# sincerit)1 econo&) in e/pen#iture( an# o"e for &en1 an# the e&p o)&ent of the peop e at the proper seasons-" The Master sai#( "A )outh( !hen at ho&e( shou # ,e fi ia ( an#( a,roa#( respectfu to his e #ers- 2e shou # ,e earnest an# truthfu - 2e shou # o"erf o! in o"e to a ( an# cu ti"ate the frien#ship of the %oo#- 3hen he has ti&e an# opportunit)( after the perfor&ance of these thin%s( he shou # e&p o) the& in po ite stu#ies-" Ts4e.hsia sai#( "If a &an !ith#ra!s his &in# fro& the o"e of ,eaut)( an# app ies it as sincere ) to the o"e of the "irtuous1 if( in ser"in% his parents( he can e/ert his ut&ost stren%th1 if( in ser"in% his prince( he can #e"ote his ife1 if( in his intercourse !ith his frien#s( his !or#s are sincere0.a thou%h &en sa) that he has not earne#( I !i certain ) sa) that he has- The Master sai#( "If the scho ar ,e not %ra"e( he !i not ca forth an) "eneration( an# his earnin% !i not ,e so i#- "2o # faithfu ness an# sincerit) as first princip es- "2a"e no frien#s not e'ua to )ourse f"3hen )ou ha"e fau ts( #o not fear to a,an#on the&-" The phi osopher Tsan% sai#( "Let there ,e a carefu attention to perfor& the funera rites to parents( an# et the& ,e fo o!e# !hen on% %one !ith the cere&onies of sacrifice1.then the "irtue of the peop e !i resu&e its proper e/ce ence-"

Ts4e.ch5in as*e# Ts4e.*un% sa)in%( "3hen our &aster co&es to an) countr)( he #oes not fai to earn a a,out its %o"ern&ent- 6oes he as* his infor&ation$ or is it %i"en to hi&$" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "Our &aster is ,eni%n( upri%ht( courteous( te&perate( an# co&p aisant an# thus he %ets his infor&ationThe &aster5s &o#e of as*in% infor&ation(.is it not #ifferent fro& that of other &en$" The Master sai#( "3hi e a &an5s father is a i"e( oo* at the ,ent of his !i 1 !hen his father is #ea#( oo* at his con#uct- If for three )ears he #oes not a ter fro& the !a) of his father( he &a) ,e ca e# fi ia -" The phi osopher +u sai#( "In practicin% the ru es of propriet)( a natura ease is to ,e pri4e#- In the !a)s prescri,e# ,) the ancient *in%s( this is the e/ce ent 'ua it)( an# in thin%s s&a an# %reat !e fo o! the&- "+et it is not to ,e o,ser"e# in a cases- If one( *no!in% ho! such ease shou # ,e pri4e#( &anifests it( !ithout re%u atin% it ,) the ru es of propriet)( this i*e!ise is not to ,e #one-" The phi osopher +u sai#( "3hen a%ree&ents are &a#e accor#in% to !hat is ri%ht( !hat is spo*en can ,e &a#e %oo#3hen respect is sho!n accor#in% to !hat is proper( one *eeps far fro& sha&e an# #is%race- 3hen the parties upon !ho& a &an eans are proper persons to ,e inti&ate !ith( he can &a*e the& his %ui#es an# &asters-" The Master sai#( "2e !ho ai&s to ,e a &an of co&p ete "irtue in his foo# #oes not see* to %ratif) his appetite ( nor in his #!e in% p ace #oes he see* the app iances of ease1 he is earnest in !hat he is #oin%( an# carefu in his speech1 he fre'uents the co&pan) of &en of princip e that he &a) ,e rectifie#0.such a person &a) ,e sai# in#ee# to o"e to earn-" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "3hat #o )ou pronounce concernin% the poor &an !ho )et #oes not f atter( an# the rich &an !ho is not prou#$" The Master rep ie#( "The) !i #o1 ,ut the) are not e'ua to hi&( !ho( thou%h poor( is )et cheerfu ( an# to hi&( !ho( thou%h rich( o"es the ru es of propriet)-" Ts4e.*un% rep ie#( "It is sai# in the Boo* of 7oetr)( 5As )ou cut an# then fi e( as )ou car"e an# then po ish-5.The &eanin% is the sa&e( I apprehen#( as that !hich )ou ha"e 8ust e/presse#-" The Master sai#( "3ith one i*e Ts54e( I can ,e%in to ta * a,out the o#es- I to # hi& one point( an# he *ne! its proper se'uence-" The Master sai#( "I !i not ,e aff icte# at &en5s not *no!in% &e1 I !i ,e aff icte# that I #o not *no! &en-" 9

The Master sai#( "2e !ho e/ercises %o"ern&ent ,) &eans of his "irtue &a) ,e co&pare# to the north po ar star( !hich *eeps its p ace an# a the stars turn to!ar#s it-" The Master sai#( "In the Boo* of 7oetr) are three hun#re# pieces( ,ut the #esi%n of the& a &a) ,e e&,race# in one sentence 52a"in% no #epra"e# thou%hts-5" The Master sai#( "If the peop e ,e e# ,) a!s( an# unifor&it) sou%ht to ,e %i"en the& ,) punish&ents( the) !i tr) to a"oi# the punish&ent( ,ut ha"e no sense of sha&e- "If the) ,e e# ,) "irtue( an# unifor&it) sou%ht to ,e %i"en the& ,) the ru es of propriet)( the) !i ha"e the sense of sha&e( an# &oreo"er !i ,eco&e %oo#-" The Master sai#( "At fifteen( I ha# &) &in# ,ent on earnin%- "At thirt)( I stoo# fir&- "At fort)( I ha# no #ou,ts- "At fift)( I *ne! the #ecrees of 2ea"en- "At si/t)( &) ear !as an o,e#ient or%an for the reception of truth- "At se"ent)( I cou # fo o! !hat &) heart #esire#( !ithout trans%ressin% !hat !as ri%ht-" Man% I as*e# !hat fi ia piet) !as- The Master sai#( "It is not ,ein% #iso,e#ient-" Soon after( as Fan Ch5ih !as #ri"in% hi&( the Master to # hi&( sa)in%( "Man%. sun as*e# &e !hat fi ia piet) !as( an# I ans!ere# hi&(.5not ,ein% #iso,e#ient-5" Fan Ch5ih sai#( "3hat #i# )ou &ean$" The Master rep ie#( "That parents( !hen a i"e( ,e ser"e# accor#in% to propriet)1 that( !hen #ea#( the) shou # ,e ,urie# accor#in% to propriet)1 an# that the) shou # ,e sacrifice# to accor#in% to propriet)-" Man% 3u as*e# !hat fi ia piet) !as- The Master sai#( "7arents are an/ious est their chi #ren shou # ,e sic*-" Ts4e.)u as*e# !hat fi ia piet) !as- The Master sai#( "The fi ia piet) no!a#a)s &eans the support of one5s parents- But #o%s an# horses i*e!ise are a, e to #o so&ethin% in the !a) of support1.!ithout re"erence( !hat is there to #istin%uish the one support %i"en fro& the other$" Ts4e.hsia as*e# !hat fi ia piet) !as- The Master sai#( "The #ifficu t) is !ith the countenanceIf( !hen their e #ers ha"e an) trou, eso&e affairs( the )oun% ta*e the toi of the&( an# if( !hen the )oun% ha"e !ine an# foo#( the) set the& ,efore their e #ers( is T2IS to ,e consi#ere# fi ia piet)$" The Master sai#( "I ha"e ta *e# !ith 2ui for a !ho e #a)( an# he has not &a#e an) o,8ection to an)thin% I sai#1.as if he !ere stupi#- 2e has retire#( an# I ha"e e/a&ine# his con#uct !hen a!a) fro& &e( an# foun# hi& a, e to i ustrate &) teachin%s2ui:.2e is not stupi#-" The Master sai#( "See !hat a &an #oes- "Mar* his &oti"es- "E/a&ine in !hat thin%s he rests- "2o! can a &an concea his

character$ 2o! can a &an concea his character$" The Master sai#( "If a &an *eeps cherishin% his o # *no! e#%e( so as continua ) to ,e ac'uirin% ne!( he &a) ,e a teacher of others-" The Master sai#( "The acco&p ishe# scho ar is not a utensi -" Ts4e.*un% as*e# !hat constitute# the superior &anThe Master sai# ( " 2e acts ,efore he spea*s( an# after!ar#s spea*s accor#in% to his actions-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an is catho ic an# not partisanThe &ean &an is partisan an# not catho ic-" The Master sai#( "Learnin% !ithout thou%ht is a,or ost1 thou%ht !ithout earnin% is peri ous-" The Master sai#( "The stu#) of stran%e #octrines is in8urious in#ee#:" The Master sai#( "+u( sha I teach )ou !hat *no! e#%e is$ 3hen )ou *no! a thin%( to ho # that )ou *no! it1 an# !hen )ou #o not *no! a thin%( to a o! that )ou #o not *no! it1.this is *no! e#%e-" Ts4e.chan% !as earnin% !ith a "ie! to officia e&o u&ent- The Master sai#( "2ear &uch an# put asi#e the points of !hich )ou stan# in #ou,t( !hi e )ou spea* cautious ) at the sa&e ti&e of the others0.then )ou !i affor# fe! occasions for , a&e- See &uch an# put asi#e the thin%s !hich see& peri ous( !hi e )ou are cautious at the sa&e ti&e in carr)in% the others into practice0 then )ou !i ha"e fe! occasions for repentance- 3hen one %i"es fe! occasions for , a&e in his !or#s( an# fe! occasions for repentance in his con#uct( he is in the !a) to %et e&o u&ent-" The 6u*e Ai as*e#( sa)in%( "3hat shou # ,e #one in or#er to secure the su,&ission of the peop e$" Confucius rep ie#( "A#"ance the upri%ht an# set asi#e the croo*e#( then the peop e !i su,&it- A#"ance the croo*e# an# set asi#e the upri%ht( then the peop e !i not su,&it-" Chi ;5an% as*e# ho! to cause the peop e to re"erence their ru er( to ,e faithfu to hi&( an# to %o on to ner"e the&se "es to "irtue- The Master sai#( "Let hi& presi#e o"er the& !ith %ra"it)1.then the) !i re"erence hi&- Let hi& ,e fina an# *in# to a 1.then the) !i ,e faithfu to hi&- Let hi& a#"ance the %oo# an# teach the inco&petent1.then the) !i ea%er ) see* to ,e "irtuous-" So&e one a##resse# Confucius( sa)in%( "Sir( !h) are )ou not en%a%e# in the %o"ern&ent$" The Master sai#( "3hat #oes the Shu.chin% sa) of fi ia piet)$.5+ou are fina ( )ou #ischar%e )our ,rother ) #uties- These 'ua ities are #isp a)e# in %o"ern&ent-5 This then a so constitutes the e/ercise of

%o"ern&ent- 3h) &ust there ,e T2AT.&a*in% one ,e in the %o"ern&ent$" The Master sai#( "I #o not *no! ho! a &an !ithout truthfu ness is to %et on2o! can a ar%e carria%e ,e &a#e to %o !ithout the cross,ar for )o*in% the o/en to( or a s&a carria%e !ithout the arran%e&ent for )o*in% the horses$" Ts4e.chan% as*e# !hether the affairs of ten a%es after cou # ,e *no!nConfucius sai#( "The +in #)nast) fo o!e# the re%u ations of the 2sia0 !herein it too* fro& or a##e# to the& &a) ,e *no!n- The Chau #)nast) has fo o!e# the re%u ations of +in0 !herein it too* fro& or a##e# to the& &a) ,e *no!n- So&e other &a) fo o! the Chau( ,ut thou%h it shou # ,e at the #istance of a hun#re# a%es( its affairs &a) ,e *no!n-" The Master sai#( "For a &an to sacrifice to a spirit !hich #oes not ,e on% to hi& is f atter)- "To see !hat is ri%ht an# not to #o it is !ant of coura%e-" < Confucius sai# of the hea# of the Chi fa&i )( !ho ha# ei%ht ro!s of panto&i&es in his area( "If he can ,ear to #o this( !hat &a) he not ,ear to #o$" The three fa&i ies use# the +un%o#e( !hi e the "esse s !ere ,ein% re&o"e#( at the conc usion of the sacrifice- The Master sai#( "5Assistin% are the princes1.the son of hea"en oo*s profoun# an# %ra"e51.!hat app ication can these !or#s ha"e in the ha of the three fa&i ies$" The Master sai#( "If a &an ,e !ithout the "irtues proper to hu&anit)( !hat has he to #o !ith the rites of propriet)$ If a &an ,e !ithout the "irtues proper to hu&anit)( !hat has he to #o !ith &usic$" Lin Fan% as*e# !hat !as the first thin% to ,e atten#e# to in cere&onies- The Master sai#( "A %reat 'uestion in#ee#: "In festi"e cere&onies( it is ,etter to ,e sparin% than e/tra"a%ant- In the cere&onies of &ournin%( it is ,etter that there ,e #eep sorro! than in &inute attention to o,ser"ances-" The Master sai#( "The ru#e tri,es of the east an# north ha"e their princes( an# are not i*e the States of our %reat an# !hich are !ithout the&-" The chief of the Chi fa&i ) !as a,out to sacrifice to the T5ai &ountain- The Master sai# to =an +u( "Can )ou not sa"e hi& fro& this$" 2e ans!ere#( "I cannot-" Confucius sai#( "A as: !i )ou sa) that the T5ai

&ountain is not so #iscernin% as Lin Fan%$" The Master sai#( "The stu#ent of "irtue has no contentions- If it ,e sai# he cannot a"oi# the&( sha this ,e in archer)$ But he ,o!s co&p aisant ) to his co&petitors1 thus he ascen#s the ha ( #escen#s( an# e/acts the forfeit of #rin*in%- In his contention( he is sti the Chun.ts4e-" Ts4e.hsia as*e#( sa)in%( "3hat is the &eanin% of the passa%e.5The prett) #i&p es of her artfu s&i e: The !e .#efine# , ac* an# !hite of her e)e: The p ain %roun# for the co ors$5" The Master sai#( "The ,usiness of a)in% on the co ors fo o!s the preparation of the p ain %roun#-" "Cere&onies then are a su,se'uent thin%$" The Master sai#( "It is Shan% !ho can ,rin% out &) &eanin%- No! I can ,e%in to ta * a,out the o#es !ith hi&-" The Master sai#( "I cou # #escri,e the cere&onies of the 2sia #)nast)( ,ut Chi cannot sufficient ) attest &) !or#s- I cou # #escri,e the cere&onies of the +in #)nast)( ,ut Sun% cannot sufficient ) attest &) !or#sThe) cannot #o so ,ecause of the insufficienc) of their recor#s an# !ise &enIf those !ere sufficient( I cou # a##uce the& in support of &) !or#s-" The Master sai#( "At the %reat sacrifice( after the pourin% out of the i,ation( I ha"e no !ish to oo* on-" So&e one as*e# the &eanin% of the %reat sacrifice- The Master sai#( "I #o not *no!- 2e !ho *ne! its &eanin% !ou # fin# it as eas) to %o"ern the *in%#o& as to oo* on this".pointin% to his pa &- 2e sacrifice# to the #ea#( as if the) !ere present- 2e sacrifice# to the spirits( as if the spirits !ere present- The Master sai#( "I consi#er &) not ,ein% present at the sacrifice( as if I #i# not sacrifice-" 3an%.sun Chia as*e#( sa)in%( "3hat is the &eanin% of the sa)in%( 5It is ,etter to pa) court to the furnace then to the south!est corner$5" The Master sai#( "Not so2e !ho offen#s a%ainst 2ea"en has none to !ho& he can pra)-" The Master sai#( "Chau ha# the a#"anta%e of "ie!in% the t!o past #)nasties- 2o! co&p ete an# e e%ant are its re%u ations: I fo o! Chau-" The Master( !hen he entere# the %ran# te&p e( as*e# a,out e"er)thin%- So&e one sai#( " 3ho sa) that the son of the &an of Tsau *no!s the ru es of propriet): 2e has entere# the %ran# te&p e an# as*s a,out e"er)thin%-" The Master hear# the re&ar*( an# sai#( "This is a ru e of propriet)-" The Master sai#( "In archer) it is not %oin% throu%h the eather !hich is the principa thin%1.,ecause peop e5s stren%th is not e'ua -

This !as the o # !a)-" Ts4e.*un% !ishe# to #o a!a) !ith the offerin% of a sheep connecte# !ith the inau%uration of the first #a) of each &onthThe Master sai#( "Ts54e( )ou o"e the sheep1 I o"e the cere&on)-" The Master sai#( "The fu o,ser"ance of the ru es of propriet) in ser"in% one5s prince is accounte# ,) peop e to ,e f atter)-" The 6u*e Tin% as*e# ho! a prince shou # e&p o) his &inisters( an# ho! &inisters shou # ser"e their princeConfucius rep ie#( "A prince shou # e&p o) his &inister accor#in% to accor#in% to the ru es of propriet)1 &inisters shou # ser"e their prince !ith faithfu ness-" The Master sai#( "The ;!an Tsu is e/pressi"e of en8o)&ent !ithout ,ein% icentious( an# of %rief !ithout ,ein% hurtfu ) e/cessi"e-" The 6u*e Ai as*e# Tsai 3o a,out the a tars of the spirits of the an#Tsai 3o rep ie#( "The 2sia so"erei%n p ante# the pine tree a,out the&1 the &en of the +in p ante# the c)press1 an# the &en of the Chau p ante# the chestnut tree( &eanin% there,) to cause the peop e to ,e in a!e-" 3hen the Master hear# it( he sai#( "Thin%s that are #one( it is nee# ess to spea* a,out1 thin%s that ha"e ha# their course( it is nee# ess to re&onstrate a,out1 thin%s that are past( it is nee# ess to , a&e-" The Master sai#( "S&a in#ee# !as the capacit) of ;!an Chun%:" So&e one sai#( "3as ;!an Chun% parsi&onious$" ";!an(" !as the rep )( "ha# the San ;!ei( an# his officers perfor&e# no #ou, e #uties1 ho! can he ,e consi#ere# parsi&onious$" "Then( #i# ;!an Chun% *no! the ru es of propriet)$" The Master sai#( "The princes of States ha"e a screen interceptin% the "ie! at their %ates- ;!an ha# i*e!ise a screen at his %ate- The princes of States on an) frien# ) &eetin% ,et!een t!o of the&( ha# a stan# on !hich to p ace their in"erte# cups- ;!an ha# a so such a stan#- If ;!an *ne! the ru es of propriet)( !ho #oes not *no! the&$" The Master instructin% the %ran# &usic &aster of Lu sai#( "2o! to p a) &usic &a) ,e *no!n- At the co&&ence&ent of the piece( a the parts shou # soun# to%ether- As it procee#s( the) shou # ,e in har&on) !hi e se"era ) #istinct an# f o!in% !ithout ,rea*( an# thus on to the conc usion-" The ,or#er !ar#en at +i re'ueste# to ,e intro#uce# to the Master( sa)in%(

"3hen &en of superior "irtue ha"e co&e to this( I ha"e ne"er ,een #enie# the pri"i e%e of seein% the&-" The fo o!ers of the sa%e intro#uce# hi&( an# !hen he ca&e out fro& the inter"ie!( he sai#( "M) frien#s( !h) are )ou #istresse# ,) )our &aster5s oss of office$ The *in%#o& has on% ,een !ithout the princip es of truth an# ri%ht1 2ea"en is %oin% to use )our &aster as a ,e !ith its !oo#en ton%ue-" The Master sai# of the Shao that it !as perfect ) ,eautifu an# a so perfect ) %oo#- 2e sai# of the 3u that it !as perfect ) ,eautifu ,ut not perfect ) %oo#- The Master sai#( "2i%h station fi e# !ithout in#u %ent %enerosit)1 cere&onies perfor&e# !ithout re"erence1 &ournin% con#ucte# !ithout sorro!1.!here!ith shou # I conte&p ate such !a)s$" > The Master sai#( "It is "irtuous &anners !hich constitute the e/ce ence of a nei%h,orhoo#- If a &an in se ectin% a resi#ence #o not fi/ on one !here such pre"ai ( ho! can he ,e !ise$" The Master sai#( "Those !ho are !ithout "irtue cannot a,i#e on% either in a con#ition of po"ert) an# har#ship( or in a con#ition of en8o)&ent- The "irtuous rest in "irtue1 the !ise #esire "irtue-" The Master sai#( "It is on ) the tru ) "irtuous &an( !ho can o"e( or !ho can hate( others-" The Master sai#( "If the !i ,e set on "irtue( there !i ,e no practice of !ic*e#ness-" The Master sai#( "?iches an# honors are !hat &en #esire- If the) cannot ,e o,taine# in the proper !a)( the) shou # not ,e he #- 7o"ert) an# &eanness are !hat &en #is i*e- If the) cannot ,e a"oi#e# in the proper !a)( the) shou # not ,e a"oi#e#- "If a superior &an a,an#on "irtue( ho! can he fu fi the re'uire&ents of that na&e$ "The superior &an #oes not( e"en for the space of a sin% e &ea ( act contrar) to "irtue- In &o&ents of haste( he c ea"es to it- In seasons of #an%er( he c ea"es to it-" The Master sai#( "I ha"e not seen a person !ho o"e# "irtue( or one !ho hate# !hat !as not "irtuous- 2e !ho o"e# "irtue( !ou # estee& nothin% a,o"e it- 2e !ho hate# !hat is not "irtuous( !ou # practice "irtue in such a !a) that he !ou # not a o! an)thin% that is not "irtuous to approach his person- "Is an) one a, e for one #a) to app ) his stren%th to "irtue$ I ha"e not seen the

case in !hich his stren%th !ou # ,e insufficient- "Shou # there possi, ) ,e an) such case( I ha"e not seen it-" The Master sai#( "The fau ts of &en are characteristic of the c ass to !hich the) ,e on%- B) o,ser"in% a &an5s fau ts( it &a) ,e *no!n that he is "irtuous-" The Master sai#( "If a &an in the &ornin% hear the ri%ht !a)( he &a) #ie in the e"enin% hear re%ret-" The Master sai#( "A scho ar( !hose &in# is set on truth( an# !ho is asha&e# of ,a# c othes an# ,a# foo#( is not fit to ,e #iscourse# !ith-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an( in the !or #( #oes not set his &in# either for an)thin%( or a%ainst an)thin%1 !hat is ri%ht he !i fo o!-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an thin*s of "irtue1 the s&a &an thin*s of co&fort- The superior &an thin*s of the sanctions of a!1 the s&a &an thin*s of fa"ors !hich he &a) recei"e-" The Master sai#0 "2e !ho acts !ith a constant "ie! to his o!n a#"anta%e !i ,e &uch &ur&ure# a%ainst-" The Master sai#( "If a prince is a, e to %o"ern his *in%#o& !ith the co&p aisance proper to the ru es of propriet)( !hat #ifficu t) !i he ha"e$ If he cannot %o"ern it !ith that co&p aisance( !hat has he to #o !ith the ru es of propriet)$" The Master sai#( "A &an shou # sa)( I a& not concerne# that I ha"e no p ace( I a& concerne# ho! I &a) fit &)se f for one- I a& not concerne# that I a& not *no!n( I see* to ,e !orth) to ,e *no!n-" The Master sai#( "Shan( &) #octrine is that of an a .per"a#in% unit)-" The #iscip e Tsan% rep ie#( "+es-" The Master !ent out( an# the other #iscip es as*e#( sa)in%( "3hat #o his !or#s &ean$" Tsan% sai#( "The #octrine of our &aster is to ,e true to the princip es.of our nature an# the ,ene"o ent e/ercise of the& to others(. this an# nothin% &ore-" The Master sai#( "The &in# of the superior &an is con"ersant !ith ri%hteousness1 the &in# of the &ean &an is con"ersant !ith %ain-" The Master sai#( "3hen !e see &en of !orth( !e shou # thin* of e'ua in% the&1 !hen !e see &en of a contrar) character( !e shou # turn in!ar#s an# e/a&ine ourse "es-" The Master sai#( "In ser"in% his parents( a son &a) re&onstrate !ith the&( ,ut %ent )1 !hen he sees that the) #o not inc ine to fo o! his a#"ice( he sho!s an increase# #e%ree of re"erence( ,ut #oes not a,an#on his purpose1 an# shou # the) punish hi&( he #oes not a o! hi&se f to &ur&ur-" The Master sai#( "3hi e his parents are a i"e( the son

&a) not %o a,roa# to a #istance- If he #oes %o a,roa#( he &ust ha"e a fi/e# p ace to !hich he %oes-" The Master sai#( "If the son for three )ears #oes not a ter fro& the !a) of his father( he &a) ,e ca e# fi ia -" The Master sai#( "The )ears of parents &a) ,) no &eans not ,e *ept in the &e&or)( as an occasion at once for 8o) an# for fear-" The Master sai#( "The reason !h) the ancients #i# not rea#i ) %i"e utterance to their !or#s( !as that the) feare# est their actions shou # not co&e up to the&-" The Master sai#( "The cautious se #o& err-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an !ishes to ,e s o! in his speech an# earnest in his con#uct-" The Master sai#( "@irtue is not eft to stan# a one- 2e !ho practices it !i ha"e nei%h,ors-" Ts4e.)u sai#( "In ser"in% a prince( fre'uent re&onstrances ea# to #is%race- Bet!een frien#s( fre'uent reproofs &a*e the frien#ship #istant-" 5 The Master sai# of ;un%.)e Ch5an% that he &i%ht ,e !i"e#1 a thou%h he !as put in ,on#s( he ha# not ,een %ui t) of an) cri&e- Accor#in% )( he %a"e hi& his o!n #au%hter to !ife- Of Nan +un% he sai# that if the countr) !ere !e %o"erne# he !ou # not ,e out of office( an# if it !ere in %o"erne#( he !ou # escape punish&ent an# #is%race- 2e %a"e hi& the #au%hter of his o!n e #er ,rother to !ife- The Master sai# of Ts4e.chien( "Of superior "irtue in#ee# is such a &an: If there !ere not "irtuous &en in Lu( ho! cou # this &an ha"e ac'uire# this character$" Ts4e.*un% as*e#( "3hat #o )ou sa) of &e( Ts54e:" The Master sai#( "+ou are a utensi -" "3hat utensi $" "A %e&&e# sacrificia utensi -" So&e one sai#( "+un% is tru ) "irtuous( ,ut he is not rea#) !ith his ton%ue-" The Master sai#( "3hat is the %oo# of ,ein% rea#) !ith the ton%ue$ The) !ho encounter &en !ith s&artness of speech for the &ost part procure the&se "es hatre#- I *no! not !hether he ,e tru ) "irtuous( ,ut !h) shou # he sho! rea#iness of the ton%ue$" The Master !as !ishin% Ch5i. tiao ;5ai to enter an officia e&p o)&ent- 2e rep ie#( "I a& not )et a, e to rest in the assurance of this-" The Master !as p ease#- The Master sai#( "M)

#octrines &a*e no !a)- I !i %et upon a raft( an# f oat a,out on the sea2e that !i acco&pan) &e !i ,e +u( I #are sa)-" Ts4e. u hearin% this !as % a#( upon !hich the Master sai#( "+u is fon#er of #arin% than I a&- 2e #oes not e/ercise his 8u#%&ent upon &atters-" Man% 3u as*e# a,out Ts4e. u( !hether he !as perfect ) "irtuous- The Master sai#( "I #o not *no!-" 2e as*e# a%ain( !hen the Master rep ie#( "In a *in%#o& of a thousan# chariots( +u &i%ht ,e e&p o)e# to &ana%e the &i itar) e"ies( ,ut I #o not *no! !hether he ,e perfect ) "irtuous-" "An# !hat #o )ou sa) of Ch5iu$" The Master rep ie#( "In a cit) of a thousan# fa&i ies( or a c an of a hun#re# chariots( Ch5iu &i%ht ,e e&p o)e# as %o"ernor( ,ut I #o not *no! !hether he is perfect ) "irtuous-" "3hat #o )ou sa) of Ch5ih$" The Master rep ie#( "3ith his sash %irt an# stan#in% in a court( Ch5ih &i%ht ,e e&p o)e# to con"erse !ith the "isitors an# %uests( ,ut I #o not *no! !hether he is perfect ) "irtuous-" The Master sai# to Ts4e.*un%( "3hich #o )ou consi#er superior( )ourse f or 2ui$" Ts4e.*un% rep ie#( "2o! #are I co&pare &)se f !ith 2ui$ 2ui hears one point an# *no!s a a,out a su,8ect1 I hear one point( an# *no! a secon#-" The Master sai#( "+ou are not e'ua to hi&- I %rant )ou( )ou are not e'ua to hi&-" Tsai +u ,ein% as eep #urin% the #a)ti&e( the Master sai#( "?otten !oo# cannot ,e car"e#1 a !a of #irt) earth !i not recei"e the tro!e - This +u(.!hat is the use of &) repro"in% hi&$" The Master sai#( "At first( &) !a) !ith &en !as to hear their !or#s( an# %i"e the& cre#it for their con#uctNo! &) !a) is to hear their !or#s( an# oo* at their con#uct- It is fro& +u that I ha"e earne# to &a*e this chan%e-" The Master sai#( "I ha"e not seen a fir& an# un,en#in% &an-" So&e one rep ie#( "There is Shan Ch5an%-" "Ch5an%(" sai# the Master( "is un#er the inf uence of his passions1 ho! can he ,e pronounce# fir& an# un,en#in%$" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "3hat I #o not !ish &en to #o to &e( I a so !ish not to #o to &en-" The Master sai#( "Ts54e( )ou ha"e not attaine# to that-" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "The Master5s persona #isp a)s of his princip es an# or#inar) #escriptions of the& &a) ,e hear#- 2is #iscourses a,out &an5s

nature( an# the !a) of 2ea"en( cannot ,e hear#-" 3hen Ts4e. u hear# an)thin%( if he ha# not )et succee#e# in carr)in% it into practice( he !as on ) afrai# est he shou # hear so&ethin% e se- Ts4e.*un% as*e#( sa)in%( "On !hat %roun# #i# ;un%.!an %et that tit e of 3an$" The Master sai#( "2e !as of an acti"e nature an# )et fon# of earnin%( an# he !as not asha&e# to as* an# earn of his inferiors:.On these %roun#s he has ,een st) e# 3an-" The Master sai# of Ts4e.ch5an that he ha# four of the characteristics of a superior &an.in his con#uct of hi&se f( he !as hu&, e1 in ser"in% his superior( he !as respectfu 1 in nourishin% the peop e( he !as *in#1 in or#erin% the peop e( he !as 8ust-" The Master sai#( "+en 75in% *ne! !e ho! to &aintain frien# ) intercourse- The ac'uaintance &i%ht ,e on%( ,ut he sho!e# the sa&e respect as at first-" The Master sai#( "Tsan% 3an *ept a ar%e tortoise in a house( on the capita s of the pi ars of !hich he ha# hi s &a#e( an# !ith representations of #uc*!ee# on the s&a pi ars a,o"e the ,ea&s supportin% the rafters-.Of !hat sort !as his !is#o&$" Ts4e.chan% as*e#( sa)in%( "The &inister Ts4e.!an thrice too* office( an# &anifeste# no 8o) in his countenance- Thrice he retire# fro& office( an# &anifeste# no #isp easure- 2e &a#e it a point to infor& the ne! &inister of the !a) in !hich he ha# con#ucte# the %o"ern&ent1 !hat #o )ou sa) of hi&$" The Master rep ie#- "2e !as o)a -" "3as he perfect ) "irtuous$" "I #o not *no!- 2o! can he ,e pronounce# perfect ) "irtuous$" Ts4e.chan% procee#e#( "3hen the officer Ch5ui *i e# the prince of Ch5i( Ch5an 3an( thou%h he !as the o!ner of fort) horses( a,an#one# the& an# eft the countr)- Co&in% to another state( he sai#( 5The) are here i*e our %reat officer( Ch5ui(5 an# eft it- 2e ca&e to a secon# state( an# !ith the sa&e o,ser"ation eft it a so1.!hat #o )ou sa) of hi&$" The Master rep ie#( "2e !as pure-" "3as he perfect ) "irtuous$" "I #o not *no!- 2o! can he ,e pronounce# perfect ) "irtuous$" Chi 3an thou%ht thrice( an# then acte#- 3hen the Master !as infor&e# of it( he sai#( "T!ice &a) #o-" The Master sai#( "3hen %oo# or#er pre"ai e# in his countr)( Nin% 3u acte# the part of a !ise &an- 3hen his countr) !as in #isor#er( he acte# the

part of a stupi# &an- Others &a) e'ua his !is#o&( ,ut the) cannot e'ua his stupi#it)-" 3hen the Master !as in Ch5an( he sai#( "Let &e return: Let &e return: The itt e chi #ren of &) schoo are a&,itious an# too hast)- The) are acco&p ishe# an# co&p ete so far( ,ut the) #o not *no! ho! to restrict an# shape the&se "es-" The Master sai#( "7o.i an# Shu.ch5i #i# not *eep the for&er !ic*e#nesses of &en in &in#( an# hence the resent&ents #irecte# to!ar#s the& !ere fe!-" The Master sai#( "3ho sa)s of 3eishan% ;ao that he is upri%ht$ One ,e%%e# so&e "ine%ar of hi&( an# he ,e%%e# it of a nei%h,or an# %a"e it to the &an-" The Master sai#( "Fine !or#s( an insinuatin% appearance( an# e/cessi"e respect1.Tso Ch5iu.&in% !as asha&e# of the&- I a so a& asha&e# of the&- To concea resent&ent a%ainst a person( an# appear frien# ) !ith hi&1.Tso Ch5iu.&in% !as asha&e# of such con#uct- I a so a& asha&e# of it-" +en +uan an# Chi Lu ,ein% ,) his si#e( the Master sai# to the&( "Co&e( et each of )ou te his !ishes-" Ts4e. u sai#( "I shou # i*e( ha"in% chariots an# horses( an# i%ht fur c othes( to share the& !ith &) frien#s( an# thou%h the) shou # spoi the&( I !ou # not ,e #isp ease#-" +en +uan sai#( "I shou # i*e not to ,oast of &) e/ce ence( nor to &a*e a #isp a) of &) &eritorious #ee#s-" Ts4e. u then sai#( "I shou # i*e( sir( to hear )our !ishes-" The Master sai#( "The) are( in re%ar# to the a%e#( to %i"e the& rest1 in re%ar# to frien#s( to sho! the& sincerit)1 in re%ar# to the )oun%( to treat the& ten#er )-" The Master sai#( "It is a o"er- I ha"e not )et seen one !ho cou # percei"e his fau ts( an# in!ar# ) accuse hi&se f-" The Master sai#( "In a ha& et of ten fa&i ies( there &a) ,e foun# one honora, e an# sincere as I a&( ,ut not so fon# of earnin%-" A The Master sai#( "There is +un%:.2e &i%ht occup) the p ace of a prince-" Chun%.*un% as*e# a,out Ts4e.san% 7o.ts4e- The Master sai#( "2e &a) pass- 2e #oes not &in# s&a &atters-" Chun%.*un% sai#( "If a &an cherish in hi&se f a re"erentia fee in% of the necessit) of attention to ,usiness( thou%h he &a) ,e eas) in s&a &atters in his %o"ern&ent of the peop e( that &a) ,e

a o!e#- But if he cherish in hi&se f that eas) fee in%( an# a so carr) it out in his practice( is not such an eas)&o#e of proce#ure e/cessi"e$" The Master sai#( "+un%5s !or#s are ri%ht-" The 6u*e Ai as*e# !hich of the #iscip es o"e# to earn- Confucius rep ie# to hi&( "There !as +en 2ui1 he o"e# to earn- 2e #i# not transfer his an%er1 he #i# not repeat a fau tUnfortunate )( his appointe# ti&e !as short an# he #ie#1 an# no! there is not such another- I ha"e not )et hear# of an) one !ho o"es to earn as he #i#-" Ts4e.h!a ,ein% e&p o)e# on a &ission to Ch5i( the #iscip e =an re'ueste# %rain for his &other- The Master sai#( "Bi"e her a fu-" +en re'ueste# &ore"Bi"e her a )i(" sai# the Master- +en %a"e her fi"e pin%- The Master sai#( "3hen Ch5ih !as procee#in% to Ch5i( he ha# fat horses to his carria%e( an# !ore i%ht furs- I ha"e hear# that a superior &an he ps the #istresse#( ,ut #oes not a## to the !ea th of the rich-" +uan S4e ,ein% &a#e %o"ernor of his to!n ,) the Master( he %a"e hi& nine hun#re# &easures of %rain( ,ut S4e #ec ine# the&- The Master sai#( "6o not #ec ine the&- Ma) )ou not %i"e the& a!a) in the nei%h,orhoo#s( ha& ets( to!ns( an# "i a%es$" The Master( spea*in% of Chun%.*un%( sai#( "If the ca f of a ,rin# e# co! ,e re# an# ho&e#( a thou%h &en &a) not !ish to use it( !ou # the spirits of the &ountains an# ri"ers put it asi#e$" The Master sai#( "Such !as 2ui that for three &onths there !ou # ,e nothin% in his &in# contrar) to perfect "irtueThe others &a) attain to this on so&e #a)s or in so&e &onths( ,ut nothin% &ore-" Chi ;5an% as*e# a,out Chun%.)u( !hether he !as fit to ,e e&p o)e# as an officer of %o"ern&ent- The Master sai#( "+u is a &an of #ecision1 !hat #ifficu t) !ou # he fin# in ,ein% an officer of %o"ern&ent$" ;5an% as*e#( "Is Ts54e fit to ,e e&p o)e# as an officer of %o"ern&ent$" an# !as ans!ere#( "Ts54e is a &an of inte i%ence1 !hat #ifficu t) !ou # he fin# in ,ein% an officer of %o"ern&ent$" An# to the sa&e 'uestion a,out Ch5iu the Master %a"e the sa&e rep )( sa)in%( "Ch5iu is a &an of "arious a,i it)-" The chief of the Chi fa&i ) sent to as* Min Ts4e.ch5ien to ,e %o"ernor of 7i- Min Ts4ech5ien

sai#( "6ec ine the offer for &e po ite )- If an) one co&e a%ain to &e !ith a secon# in"itation( I sha ,e o, i%e# to %o an# i"e on the ,an*s of the 3an-" 7o.niu ,ein% i ( the Master !ent to as* for hi&- 2e too* ho # of his han# throu%h the !in#o!( an# sai#( "It is *i in% hi&- It is the appoint&ent of 2ea"en( a as: That such a &an shou # ha"e such a sic*ness: That such a &an shou # ha"e such a sic*ness:" The Master sai#( "A#&ira, e in#ee# !as the "irtue of 2ui: 3ith a sin% e ,a&,oo #ish of rice( a sin% e %our# #ish of #rin*( an# i"in% in his &ean narro! ane( !hi e others cou # not ha"e en#ure# the #istress( he #i# not a o! his 8o) to ,e affecte# ,) itA#&ira, e in#ee# !as the "irtue of 2ui:" +en Ch5iu sai#( "It is not that I #o not #e i%ht in )our #octrines( ,ut &) stren%th is insufficient-" The Master sai#( "Those !hose stren%th is insufficient %i"e o"er in the &i## e of the !a) ,ut no! )ou i&it )ourse f-" The Master sai# to Ts4e.hsia( "6o )ou ,e a scho ar after the st) e of the superior &an( an# not after that of the &ean &an-" Ts4e.)u ,ein% %o"ernor of 3u.ch5an%( the Master sai# to hi&( "2a"e )ou %ot %oo# &en there$" 2e ans!ere#( "There is Tan.t5ai Mieh&in%( !ho ne"er in !a *in% ta*es a short cut( an# ne"er co&es to &) office( e/ceptin% on pu, ic ,usiness-" The Master sai#( "Man% Chih.fan #oes not ,oast of his &eritBein% in the rear on an occasion of f i%ht( !hen the) !ere a,out to enter the %ate( he !hippe# up his horse( sa)in%( "It is not that I #are to ,e ast- M) horse !ou # not a#"ance-" The Master sai#( "3ithout the specious speech of the itanist T5o an# the ,eaut) of the prince Chao of Sun%( it is #ifficu t to escape in the present a%e-" The Master sai#( "3ho can %o out ,ut ,) the #oor$ 2o! is it that &en !i not !a * accor#in% to these !a)s$" The Master sai#( "3here the so i# 'ua ities are in e/cess of acco&p ish&ents( !e ha"e rusticit)1 !here the acco&p ish&ents are in e/cess of the so i# 'ua ities( !e ha"e the &anners of a c er*- 3hen the acco&p ish&ents an# so i# 'ua ities are e'ua ) , en#e#( !e then ha"e the &an of "irtue-" The Master sai#( "Man is ,orn for upri%htness- If a &an ose his upri%htness( an# )et i"e( his escape fro& #eath is the effect of &ere %oo# fortune-" The Master sai#( "The) !ho *no! the truth are not e'ua to those !ho o"e it( an# the) !ho o"e it are

not e'ua to those !ho #e i%ht in it-" The Master sai#( "To those !hose ta ents are a,o"e &e#iocrit)( the hi%hest su,8ects &a) ,e announce#To those !ho are ,e o! &e#iocrit)( the hi%hest su,8ects &a) not ,e announce#-" Fan Ch5ih as*e# !hat constitute# !is#o&- The Master sai#( "To %i"e one5s se f earnest ) to the #uties #ue to &en( an#( !hi e respectin% spiritua ,ein%s( to *eep a oof fro& the&( &a) ,e ca e# !is#o&-" 2e as*e# a,out perfect "irtue- The Master sai#( "The &an of "irtue &a*es the #ifficu t) to ,e o"erco&e his first ,usiness( an# success on ) a su,se'uent consi#eration1.this &a) ,e ca e# perfect "irtue-" The Master sai#( "The !ise fin# p easure in !ater1 the "irtuous fin# p easure in hi s- The !ise are acti"e1 the "irtuous are tran'ui - The !ise are 8o)fu 1 the "irtuous are on%. i"e#-" The Master sai#( "Ch5i( ,) one chan%e( !ou # co&e to the State of Lu- Lu( ,) one chan%e( !ou # co&e to a State !here true princip es pre#o&inate#-" The Master sai#( "A cornere# "esse !ithout corners.a stran%e cornere# "esse : A stran%e cornere# "esse :" Tsai 3o as*e#( sa)in%( "A ,ene"o ent &an( thou%h it ,e to # hi&(.5There is a &an in the !e " !i %o in after hi&( I suppose-" Confucius sai#( "3h) shou # he #o so$" A superior &an &a) ,e &a#e to %o to the !e ( ,ut he cannot ,e &a#e to %o #o!n into it2e &a) ,e i&pose# upon( ,ut he cannot ,e foo e#-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an( e/tensi"e ) stu#)in% a earnin%( an# *eepin% hi&se f un#er the restraint of the ru es of propriet)( &a) thus i*e!ise not o"erstep !hat is ri%ht-" The Master ha"in% "isite# Nan.ts4e( Ts4e. u !as #isp ease#( on !hich the Master s!ore( sa)in%( "3herein I ha"e #one i&proper )( &a) 2ea"en re8ect &e( &a) 2ea"en re8ect &e:" The Master sai#( "7erfect is the "irtue !hich is accor#in% to the Constant Mean: ?are for a on% ti&e has ,een its practice a&on% the peop e-" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "Suppose the case of a &an e/tensi"e ) conferrin% ,enefits on the peop e( an# a, e to assist a ( !hat !ou # )ou sa) of hi&$ Mi%ht he ,e ca e# perfect ) "irtuous$" The Master sai#( "3h) spea* on ) of "irtue in connection !ith hi&$ Must he not ha"e the 'ua ities of a sa%e$ E"en +ao an# Shun !ere sti so icitous a,out this"No! the &an of perfect "irtue( !ishin% to ,e esta, ishe# hi&se f( see*s a so to

esta, ish others1 !ishin% to ,e en ar%e# hi&se f( he see*s a so to en ar%e others- "To ,e a, e to 8u#%e of others ,) !hat is ni%h in ourse "es1.this &a) ,e ca e# the art of "irtue-" C The Master sai#( "A trans&itter an# not a &a*er( ,e ie"in% in an# o"in% the ancients( I "enture to co&pare &)se f !ith our o # 75an%-" The Master sai#( "The si ent treasurin% up of *no! e#%e1 earnin% !ithout satiet)1 an# instructin% others !ithout ,ein% !earie#0.!hich one of these thin%s ,e on%s to &e$" The Master sai#( "The ea"in% "irtue !ithout proper cu ti"ation1 the not thorou%h ) #iscussin% !hat is earne#1 not ,ein% a, e to &o"e to!ar#s ri%hteousness of !hich a *no! e#%e is %aine#1 an# not ,ein% a, e to chan%e !hat is not %oo#0.these are the thin%s !hich occasion &e so icitu#e-" 3hen the Master !as unoccupie# !ith ,usiness( his &anner !as eas)( an# he oo*e# p ease#- The Master sai#( "E/tre&e is &) #eca)- For a on% ti&e( I ha"e not #rea&e#( as I !as !ont to #o( that I sa! the #u*e of Chau-" The Master sai#( "Let the !i ,e set on the path of #ut)- "Let e"er) attain&ent in !hat is %oo# ,e fir& ) %raspe#- "Let perfect "irtue ,e accor#e# !ith- "Let re a/ation an# en8o)&ent ,e foun# in the po ite arts-" The Master sai#( "Fro& the &an ,rin%in% his ,un# e of #rie# f esh for &) teachin% up!ar#s( I ha"e ne"er refuse# instruction to an) one-" The Master sai#( "I #o not open up the truth to one !ho is not ea%er to %et *no! e#%e( nor he p out an) one !ho is not an/ious to e/p ain hi&se f- 3hen I ha"e presente# one corner of a su,8ect to an) one( an# he cannot fro& it earn the other three( I #o not repeat &) esson-" 3hen the Master !as eatin% ,) the si#e of a &ourner( he ne"er ate to the fu - 2e #i# not sin% on the sa&e #a) in !hich he ha# ,een !eepin%The Master sai# to +en +uan( "3hen ca e# to office( to un#erta*e its #uties1 !hen not so ca e#( to he retire#1.it is on ) I an# )ou !ho ha"e attaine# to this-" Ts4e. u sai#( "If )ou ha# the con#uct of the ar&ies of a %reat state( !ho& !ou # )ou ha"e to act !ith )ou$" The Master sai#( "I !ou # not ha"e hi&

to act !ith &e( !ho !i unar&e# attac* a ti%er( or cross a ri"er !ithout a ,oat( #)in% !ithout an) re%ret- M) associate &ust ,e the &an !ho procee#s to action fu of so icitu#e( !ho is fon# of a#8ustin% his p ans( an# then carries the& into e/ecution-" The Master sai#( "If the search for riches is sure to ,e successfu ( thou%h I shou # ,eco&e a %roo& !ith !hip in han# to %et the&( I !i #o so- As the search &a) not ,e successfu ( I !i fo o! after that !hich I o"e-" The thin%s in reference to !hich the Master e/ercise# the %reatest caution !ere.fastin%( !ar( an# sic*ness- 3hen the Master !as in Ch5i( he hear# the Shao( an# for three &onths #i# not *no! the taste of f esh- "I #i# not thin*5" he sai#( "that &usic cou # ha"e ,een &a#e so e/ce ent as this-" +en +u sai#( "Is our Master for the ru er of 3ei$" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "Oh: I !i as* hi&-" 2e !ent in accor#in% )( an# sai#( "3hat sort of &en !ere 7o.i an# Shu.ch5i$" "The) !ere ancient !orthies(" sai# the Master- "6i# the) ha"e an) repinin%s ,ecause of their course$" The Master a%ain rep ie#( "The) sou%ht to act "irtuous )( an# the) #i# so1 !hat !as there for the& to repine a,out$" On this( Ts4e.*un% !ent out an# sai#( "Our Master is not for hi&-" The Master sai#( "3ith coarse rice to eat( !ith !ater to #rin*( an# &) ,en#e# ar& for a pi o!1.I ha"e sti 8o) in the &i#st of these thin%s- ?iches an# honors ac'uire# ,) unri%hteousness( are to &e as a f oatin% c ou#-" The Master sai#( "If so&e )ears !ere a##e# to &) ife( I !ou # %i"e fift) to the stu#) of the +i( an# then I &i%ht co&e to ,e !ithout %reat fau ts-" The Master5s fre'uent the&es of #iscourse !ere.the O#es( the 2istor)( an# the &aintenance of the ?u es of 7ropriet)- On a these he fre'uent ) #iscourse#- The 6u*e of Sheh as*e# Ts4e. u a,out Confucius( an# Ts4e. u #i# not ans!er hi&- The Master sai#( "3h) #i# )ou not sa) to hi&(.2e is si&p ) a &an( !ho in his ea%er pursuit of *no! e#%e for%ets his foo#( !ho in the 8o) of its attain&ent for%ets his sorro!s( an# !ho #oes not percei"e that o # a%e is co&in% on$" The Master sai#( "I a& not one !ho !as ,orn in the possession of *no! e#%e1 I a& one !ho is fon# of anti'uit)( an# earnest in see*in% it there-" The su,8ects on !hich the Master #i# not ta *( !ere.e/traor#inar) thin%s( feats of stren%th( #isor#er( an# spiritua ,ein%s-

The Master sai#( "3hen I !a * a on% !ith t!o others( the) &a) ser"e &e as &) teachers- I !i se ect their %oo# 'ua ities an# fo o! the&( their ,a# 'ua ities an# a"oi# the&-" The Master sai#( "2ea"en pro#uce# the "irtue that is in &e- 2!an T5ui.!hat can he #o to &e$" The Master sai#( "6o )ou thin*( &) #iscip es( that I ha"e an) concea &ents$ I concea nothin% fro& )ouThere is nothin% !hich I #o that is not sho!n to )ou( &) #iscip es1 that is &) !a)-" There !ere four thin%s !hich the Master tau%ht(. etters( ethics( #e"otion of sou ( an# truthfu ness- The Master sai#( "A sa%e it is not &ine to see1 cou # I see a &an of rea ta ent an# "irtue( that !ou # satisf) &e-" The Master sai#( "A %oo# &an it is not &ine to see1 cou # I see a &an possesse# of constanc)( that !ou # satisf) &e- "2a"in% not an# )et affectin% to ha"e( e&pt) an# )et affectin% to ,e fu ( straitene# an# )et affectin% to ,e at ease0.it is #ifficu t !ith such characteristics to ha"e constanc)-" The Master an% e#(.,ut #i# not use a net- 2e shot(.,ut not at ,ir#s perchin%The Master sai#( "There &a) ,e those !ho act !ithout *no!in% !h)- I #o not #o so2earin% &uch an# se ectin% !hat is %oo# an# fo o!in% it1 seein% &uch an# *eepin% it in &e&or)0 this is the secon# st) e of *no! e#%e-" It !as #ifficu t to ta * profita, ) an# reputa, ) !ith the peop e of 2u.hsian%( an# a a# of that p ace ha"in% ha# an inter"ie! !ith the Master( the #iscip es #ou,te#- The Master sai#( "I a#&it peop e5s approach to &e !ithout co&&ittin% &)se f as to !hat the) &a) #o !hen the) ha"e retire#- 3h) &ust one ,e so se"ere$ If a &an purif) hi&se f to !ait upon &e( I recei"e hi& so purifie#( !ithout %uaranteein% his past con#uct-" The Master sai#( "Is "irtue a thin% re&ote$ I !ish to ,e "irtuous( an# o: "irtue is at han#-" The &inister of cri&e of Ch5an as*e# !hether the #u*e Chao *ne! propriet)( an# Confucius sai#( "2e *ne! propriet)-" Confucius ha"in% retire#( the &inister ,o!e# to 3u.&a Ch5i to co&e for!ar#( an# sai#( "I ha"e hear# that the superior &an is not a partisan- Ma) the superior &an ,e a partisan a so$ The prince &arrie# a #au%hter of the house of 3U( of the sa&e surna&e !ith hi&se f( an# ca e# her(.5The e #er Ts4e of 3u-5 If the prince *ne! propriet)( !ho #oes not *no! it$" 3u.&a Ch5i reporte# these re&ar*s( an# the Master sai#( "I a& fortunate:

If I ha"e an) errors( peop e are sure to *no! the&-" 3hen the Master !as in co&pan) !ith a person !ho !as sin%in%( if he san% !e ( he !ou # &a*e hi& repeat the son%( !hi e he acco&panie# it !ith his o!n "oice- The Master sai#( "In etters I a& perhaps e'ua to other &en( ,ut the character of the superior &an( carr)in% out in his con#uct !hat he professes( is !hat I ha"e not )et attaine# to-" The Master sai#( "The sa%e an# the &an of perfect "irtue1.ho! #are I ran* &)se f !ith the&$ It &a) si&p ) ,e sai# of &e( that I stri"e to ,eco&e such !ithout satiet)( an# teach others !ithout !eariness-" ;un%.hsi 2!a sai#( "This is 8ust !hat !e( the #iscip es( cannot i&itate )ou in-" The Master ,ein% "er) sic*( Ts4e. u as*e# ea"e to pra) for hi&- 2e sai#( "Ma) such a thin% ,e #one$" Ts4e. u rep ie#( "It &a)- In the Eu o%ies it is sai#( 57ra)er has ,een &a#e for thee to the spirits of the upper an# o!er !or #s-5" The Master sai#( "M) pra)in% has ,een for a on% ti&e-" The Master sai#( "E/tra"a%ance ea#s to insu,or#ination( an# parsi&on) to &eanness- It is ,etter to ,e &ean than to ,e insu,or#inate-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an is satisfie# an# co&pose#1 the &ean &an is a !a)s fu of #istress-" The Master !as &i #( an# )et #i%nifie#1 &a8estic( an# )et not fierce1 respectfu ( an# )et eas)D The Master sai#( "T5ai.po &a) ,e sai# to ha"e reache# the hi%hest point of "irtuous action- Thrice he #ec ine# the *in%#o&( an# the peop e in i%norance of his &oti"es cou # not e/press their appro,ation of his con#uct-" The Master sai#( "?espectfu ness( !ithout the ru es of propriet)( ,eco&es a,orious ,ust e1 carefu ness( !ithout the ru es of propriet)( ,eco&es ti&i#it)1 ,o #ness( !ithout the ru es of propriet)( ,eco&es insu,or#ination1 strai%htfor!ar#ness( !ithout the ru es of propriet)( ,eco&es ru#eness"3hen those !ho are in hi%h stations perfor& !e a their #uties to their re ations( the peop e are arouse# to "irtue- 3hen o # frien#s are not ne% ecte# ,) the&( the peop e are preser"e# fro& &eanness-" The phi osopher Tsan% ,ein% i ( he care# to hi& the #iscip es of his schoo ( an# sai#( "Unco"er &) feet( unco"er &) han#s- It is sai# in the Boo* of 7oetr)( 53e shou # ,e apprehensi"e an# cautious( as if on the ,rin* of a #eep %u f( as if

trea#in% on thin ice( I an# so ha"e I ,een- No! an# hereafter( I *no! &) escape fro& a in8ur) to &) person- O )e( &) itt e chi #ren-" The phi osopher Tsan% ,ein% i ( Men% Chan% !ent to as* ho! he !as- Tsan% sai# to hi&( "3hen a ,ir# is a,out to #ie( its notes are &ournfu 1 !hen a &an is a,out to #ie( his !or#s are %oo#- "There are three princip es of con#uct !hich the &an of hi%h ran* shou # consi#er specia ) i&portant0.that in his #eport&ent an# &anner he *eep fro& "io ence an# hee# essness1 that in re%u atin% his countenance he *eep near to sincerit)1 an# that in his !or#s an# tones he *eep far fro& o!ness an# i&propriet)- As to such &atters as atten#in% to the sacrificia "esse s( there are the proper officers for the&-" The phi osopher Tsan% sai#( "Bifte# !ith a,i it)( an# )et puttin% 'uestions to those !ho !ere not so1 possesse# of &uch( an# )et puttin% 'uestions to those possesse# of itt e1 ha"in%( as thou%h he ha# not1 fu ( an# )et countin% hi&se f as e&pt)1 offen#e# a%ainst( an# )et enterin% into no a tercation1 for&er ) I ha# a frien# !ho pursue# this st) e of con#uct-" The phi osopher Tsan% sai#( "Suppose that there is an in#i"i#ua !ho can ,e entruste# !ith the char%e of a )oun% orphan prince( an# can ,e co&&issione# !ith authorit) o"er a state of a hun#re# i( an# !ho& no e&er%enc) ho!e"er %reat can #ri"e fro& his princip es0.is such a &an a superior &an$ 2e is a superior &an in#ee#-" The phi osopher Tsan% sai#( "The officer &a) not ,e !ithout ,rea#th of &in# an# "i%orous en#urance- 2is ,ur#en is hea") an# his course is on%- "7erfect "irtue is the ,ur#en !hich he consi#ers it is his to sustain1.is it not hea")$ On ) !ith #eath #oes his course stop1.is it not on%$ The Master sai#( "It is ,) the O#es that the &in# is arouse#- "It is ,) the ?u es of 7ropriet) that the character is esta, ishe#- "It is fro& Music that the finish is recei"e#-" The Master sai#( "The peop e &a) ,e &a#e to fo o! a path of action( ,ut the) &a) not ,e &a#e to un#erstan# it-" The Master sai#( "The &an !ho is fon# of #arin% an# is #issatisfie# !ith po"ert)( !i procee# to insu,or#ination- So !i the &an !ho is not "irtuous( !hen )ou carr) )our #is i*e of hi& to an e/tre&e-" The Master sai#( "Thou%h a &an ha"e a,i ities as a#&ira, e as those of the 6u*e of Chau( )et if he ,e prou# an# ni%%ar# )( those other thin%s are rea ) not !orth ,ein% oo*e# at-" The Master sai#( "It is not eas) to fin# a &an !ho has earne# for three )ears

!ithout co&in% to ,e %oo#-" The Master sai#( "3ith sincere faith he unites the o"e of earnin%1 ho #in% fir& to #eath( he is perfectin% the e/ce ence of his course- "Such an one !i not enter a totterin% state( nor #!e in a #isor%ani4e# one- 3hen ri%ht princip es of %o"ern&ent pre"ai in the *in%#o&( he !i sho! hi&se f1 !hen the) are prostrate#( he !i *eep concea e#"3hen a countr) is !e %o"erne#( po"ert) an# a &ean con#ition are thin%s to ,e asha&e# of- 3hen a countr) is i %o"erne#( riches an# honor are thin%s to ,e asha&e# of-" The Master sai#( "2e !ho is not in an) particu ar office has nothin% to #o !ith p ans for the a#&inistration of its #uties-" The Master sai#( "3hen the &usic &aster Chih first entere# on his office( the finish of the ;!an Tsu !as &a%nificent1.ho! it fi e# the ears:" The Master sai#( "Ar#ent an# )et not upri%ht( stupi# an# )et not attenti"e1 si&p e an# )et not sincere0.such persons I #o not un#erstan#-" The Master sai#( "Learn as if )ou cou # not reach )our o,8ect( an# !ere a !a)s fearin% a so est )ou shou # ose it-" The Master sai#( "2o! &a8estic !as the &anner in !hich Shun an# +u he # possession of the e&pire( as if it !ere nothin% to the&: The Master sai#( "Breat in#ee# !as +ao as a so"erei%n: 2o! &a8estic !as he: It is on ) 2ea"en that is %ran#( an# on ) +ao correspon#e# to it- 2o! "ast !as his "irtue: The peop e cou # fin# no na&e for it- "2o! &a8estic !as he in the !or*s !hich he acco&p ishe#: 2o! % orious in the e e%ant re%u ations !hich he institute#:" Shun ha# fi"e &inisters( an# the e&pire !as !e %o"erne#;in% 3u sai#( "I ha"e ten a, e &inisters-" Confucius sai#( "Is not the sa)in% that ta ents are #ifficu t to fin#( true$ On ) !hen the #)nasties of T5an% an# +u &et( !ere the) &ore a,un#ant than in this of Chau( )et there !as a !o&an a&on% the&- The a, e &inisters !ere no &ore than nine &en- ";in% 3an possesse# t!o of the three parts of the e&pire( an# !ith those he ser"e# the #)nast) of +in- The "irtue of the house of Chau &a) ,e sai# to ha"e reache# the hi%hest point in#ee#-" The Master sai#( "I can fin# no f a! in the character of +u- 2e use# hi&se f coarse foo# an# #rin*( ,ut #isp a)e# the ut&ost fi ia piet) to!ar#s the spirits- 2is or#inar) %ar&ents !ere poor( ,ut

he #isp a)e# the ut&ost e e%ance in his sacrificia cap an# apron- 2e i"e# in a o!( &ean house( ,ut e/pen#e# a his stren%th on the #itches an# !ater channe s- I can fin# nothin% i*e a f a! in +u-" E The su,8ects of !hich the Master se #o& spo*e !ere.profita, eness( an# a so the appoint&ents of 2ea"en( an# perfect "irtue- A &an of the "i a%e of Ta.hsian% sai#( "Breat in#ee# is the phi osopher ;5un%: 2is earnin% is e/tensi"e( an# )et he #oes not ren#er his na&e fa&ous ,) an) particu ar thin%-" The Master hear# the o,ser"ation( an# sai# to his #iscip es( "3hat sha I practice$ Sha I practice charioteerin%( or sha I practice archer)$ I !i practice charioteerin%-" The Master sai#( "The inen cap is that prescri,e# ,) the ru es of cere&on)( ,ut no! a si * one is !orn- It is econo&ica ( an# I fo o! the co&&on practice- "The ru es of cere&on) prescri,e the ,o!in% ,e o! the ha ( ,ut no! the practice is to ,o! on ) after ascen#in% it- That is arro%ant- I continue to ,o! ,e o! the ha ( thou%h I oppose the co&&on practice-" There !ere four thin%s fro& !hich the Master !as entire ) free- 2e ha# no fore%one conc usions( no ar,itrar) pre#eter&inations( no o,stinac)( an# no e%ois&- The Master !as put in fear in ;5!an%- 2e sai#( "After the #eath of ;in% 3an( !as not the cause of truth o#%e# here in &e$ "If 2ea"en ha# !ishe# to et this cause of truth perish( then I( a future &orta : shou # not ha"e %ot such a re ation to that cause3hi e 2ea"en #oes not et the cause of truth perish( !hat can the peop e of ;5!an% #o to &e$" A hi%h officer as*e# Ts4e.*un%( sa)in%( "Ma) !e not sa) that )our Master is a sa%e$ 2o! "arious is his a,i it):" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "Certain ) 2ea"en has en#o!e# hi& un i&ite# )- 2e is a,out a sa%eAn#( &oreo"er( his a,i it) is "arious-" The Master hear# of the con"ersation an# sai#( "6oes the hi%h officer *no! &e$ 3hen I !as )oun%( &) con#ition !as o!( an# I ac'uire# &) a,i it) in &an) thin%s( ,ut the) !ere &ean &attersMust the superior &an ha"e such "ariet) of a,i it)$ 2e #oes not nee# "ariet) of a,i it)- Lao sai#( "The Master sai#( 52a"in% no officia e&p o)&ent( I ac'uire# &an) arts-5" The Master sai#( "A& I in#ee# possesse# of *no! e#%e$ I a& not *no!in%- But if a &ean person( !ho appears 'uite e&pt). i*e( as* an)thin% of &e( I set it forth fro& one en# to the other( an# e/haust it-" The Master sai#( "The Fan% ,ir# #oes not co&e1 the ri"er sen#s forth no

&ap0.it is a o"er !ith &e:" 3hen the Master sa! a person in a &ournin% #ress( or an) one !ith the cap an# upper an# o!er %ar&ents of fu #ress( or a , in# person( on o,ser"in% the& approachin%( thou%h the) !ere )oun%er than hi&se f( he !ou # rise up( an# if he ha# to pass ,) the&( he !ou # #o so hasti )- +en +uan( in a#&iration of the Master5s #octrines( si%he# an# sai#( "I oo*e# up to the&( an# the) see&e# to ,eco&e &ore hi%h1 I trie# to penetrate the&( an# the) see&e# to ,eco&e &ore fir&1 I oo*e# at the& ,efore &e( an# su##en ) the) see&e# to ,e ,ehin#- "The Master( ,) or#er ) &etho#( s*i fu ) ea#s &en on- 2e en ar%e# &) &in# !ith earnin%( an# tau%ht &e the restraints of propriet)- "3hen I !ish to %i"e o"er the stu#) of his #octrines( I cannot #o so( an# ha"in% e/erte# a &) a,i it)( there see&s so&ethin% to stan# ri%ht up ,efore &e1 ,ut thou%h I !ish to fo o! an# a) ho # of it( I rea ) fin# no !a) to #o so-" The Master ,ein% "er) i ( Ts4e. u !ishe# the #iscip es to act as &inisters to hi&- 6urin% a re&ission of his i ness( he sai#( "Lon% has the con#uct of +u ,een #eceitfu : B) preten#in% to ha"e &inisters !hen I ha"e the& not( !ho& shou # I i&pose upon$ Shou # I i&pose upon 2ea"en$ "Moreo"er( than that I shou # #ie in the han#s of &inisters( is it not ,etter that I shou # #ie in the han#s of )ou( &) #iscip es$ An# thou%h I &a) not %et a %reat ,uria ( sha I #ie upon the roa#$" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "There is a ,eautifu %e& here- Shou # I a) it up in a case an# *eep it$ or shou # I see* for a %oo# price an# se it$" The Master sai#( "Se it: Se it: But I !ou # !ait for one to offer the price-" The Master !as !ishin% to %o an# i"e a&on% the nine !i # tri,es of the eastSo&e one sai#( "The) are ru#e- 2o! can )ou #o such a thin%$" The Master sai#( "If a superior &an #!e t a&on% the&( !hat ru#eness !ou # there ,e$" The Master sai#( "I returne# fro& 3ei to Lu( an# then the &usic !as refor&e#( an# the pieces in the ?o)a son%s an# 7raise son%s a foun# their proper p aces-" The Master sai#( "A,roa#( to ser"e the hi%h &inisters an# no, es1 at ho&e( to ser"e one5s father an# e #er ,rothers1 in a #uties to the #ea#( not to #are not to e/ert one5s se f1 an# not to ,e o"erco&e of !ine0. !hich one of these thin%s #o I attain to$" The Master stan#in% ,) a strea&( sai#( "It passes on 8ust i*e this( not ceasin% #a) or ni%ht:" The Master sai#( "I

ha"e not seen one !ho o"es "irtue as he o"es ,eaut)-" The Master sai#( "The prosecution of earnin% &a) ,e co&pare# to !hat &a) happen in raisin% a &oun#- If there !ant ,ut one ,as*et of earth to co&p ete the !or*( an# I stop( the stoppin% is &) o!n !or*- It &a) ,e co&pare# to thro!in% #o!n the earth on the e"e %roun#- Thou%h ,ut one ,as*etfu is thro!n at a ti&e( the a#"ancin% !ith it &) o!n %oin% for!ar#-" The Master sai#( "Ne"er f a%%in% !hen I set forth an)thin% to hi&1.ah: that is 2ui-" The Master sai# of +en +uan( "A as: I sa! his constant a#"ance- I ne"er sa! hi& stop in his pro%ress-" The Master sai#( "There are cases in !hich the , a#e sprin%s( ,ut the p ant #oes not %o on to f o!er: There are cases !here it f o!ers ,ut fruit is not su,se'uent ) pro#uce#:" The Master sai#( "A )outh is to ,e re%ar#e# !ith respect- 2o! #o !e *no! that his future !i not ,e e'ua to our present$ If he reach the a%e of fort) or fift)( an# has not &a#e hi&se f hear# of( then in#ee# he !i not ,e !orth ,ein% re%ar#e# !ith respect-" The Master sai#( "Can &en refuse to assent to the !or#s of strict a#&onition$ But it is refor&in% the con#uct ,ecause of the& !hich is "a ua, e- Can &en refuse to ,e p ease# !ith !or#s of %ent e a#"ice$ But it is unfo #in% their ai& !hich is "a ua, e- If a &an ,e p ease# !ith these !or#s( ,ut #oes not unfo # their ai&( an# assents to those( ,ut #oes not refor& his con#uct( I can rea ) #o nothin% !ith hi&-" The Master sai#( "2o # faithfu ness an# sincerit) as first princip es- 2a"e no frien#s not e'ua to )ourse f- 3hen )ou ha"e fau ts( #o not fear to a,an#on the&-" The Master sai#( "The co&&an#er of the forces of a ar%e state &a) ,e carrie# off( ,ut the !i of e"en a co&&on &an cannot ,e ta*en fro& hi&-" The Master sai#( "6resse# hi&se f in a tattere# ro,e 'ui te# !ith he&p( )et stan#in% ,) the si#e of &en #resse# in furs( an# not asha&e#1.ah: it is +u !ho is e'ua to this: "2e #is i*es none( he co"ets nothin%1.!hat can he #o ,ut !hat is %oo#:" Ts4e. u *ept continua ) repeatin% these !or#s of the o#e( !hen the Master sai#( "Those thin%s are ,) no &eans sufficient to constitute perfect e/ce ence-" The Master sai#( "3hen the )ear ,eco&es co #( then !e *no! ho! the pine an# the c)press are the ast to ose their ea"es-" The Master sai#( "The !ise are free fro& perp e/ities1 the "irtuous fro& an/iet)1 an# the ,o # fro&

fear-" The Master sai#( "There are so&e !ith !ho& !e &a) stu#) in co&&on( ,ut !e sha fin# the& una, e to %o a on% !ith us to princip es- 7erhaps !e &a) %o on !ith the& to princip es( ,ut !e sha fin# the& una, e to %et esta, ishe# in those a on% !ith us- Or if !e &a) %et so esta, ishe# a on% !ith the&( !e sha fin# the& una, e to !ei%h occurrin% e"ents a on% !ith us-" "2o! the f o!ers of the aspen.p u& f utter an# turn: 6o I not thin* of )ou$ But )our house is #istant-" The Master sai#( "It is the !ant of thou%ht a,out it- 2o! is it #istant$" 10 Confucius( in his "i a%e( oo*e# si&p e an# sincere( an# as if he !ere not a, e to spea*- 3hen he !as in the prince5s ancestra te&p e( or in the court( he spo*e &inute ) on e"er) point( ,ut cautious )- 3hen he !as !aitin% at court( in spea*in% !ith the %reat officers of the o!er %ra#e( he spo*e free )( ,ut in a strai%htfor!ar# &anner1 in spea*in% !ith those of the hi%her %ra#e( he #i# so , an# )( ,ut precise )- 3hen the ru er !as present( his &anner #isp a)e# respectfu uneasiness1 it !as %ra"e( ,ut se f. possesse#3hen the prince ca e# hi& to e&p o) hi& in the reception of a "isitor( his countenance appeare# to chan%e( an# his e%s to &o"e for!ar# !ith #ifficu t)2e inc ine# hi&se f to the other officers a&on% !ho& he stoo#( &o"in% his eft or ri%ht ar&( as their position re'uire#( ,ut *eepin% the s*irts of his ro,e ,efore an# ,ehin# e"en ) a#8uste#- 2e hastene# for!ar#( !ith his ar&s i*e the !in%s of a ,ir#- 3hen the %uest ha# retire#( he !ou # report to the prince( "The "isitor is not turnin% roun# an) &ore-" 3hen he entere# the pa ace %ate( he see&e# to ,en# his ,o#)( as if it !ere not sufficient to a#&it hi&- 3hen he !as stan#in%( he #i# not occup) the &i## e of the %ate!a)1 !hen he passe# in or out( he #i# not trea# upon the thresho #- 3hen he !as passin% the "acant p ace of the prince( his countenance appeare# to chan%e( an# his e%s to ,en# un#er hi&( an# his !or#s ca&e as if he har# ) ha# ,reath to utter the&- 2e ascen#e# the reception ha ( ho #in% up his ro,e !ith ,oth

his han#s( an# his ,o#) ,ent1 ho #in% in his ,reath a so( as if he #are# not ,reathe- 3hen he ca&e out fro& the au#ience( as soon as he ha# #escen#e# one step( he ,e%an to re a/ his countenance( an# ha# a satisfie# oo*- 3hen he ha# %ot the ,otto& of the steps( he a#"ance# rapi# ) to his p ace( !ith his ar&s i*e !in%s( an# on occup)in% it( his &anner sti sho!e# respectfu uneasiness- 3hen he !as carr)in% the scepter of his ru er( he see&e# to ,en# his ,o#)( as if he !ere not a, e to ,ear its !ei%ht- 2e #i# not ho # it hi%her than the position of the han#s in &a*in% a ,o!( nor o!er than their position in %i"in% an)thin% to another- 2is countenance see&e# to chan%e( an# oo* apprehensi"e( an# he #ra%%e# his feet a on% as if the) !ere he # ,) so&ethin% to the %roun#- In presentin% the presents !ith !hich he !as char%e#( he !ore a p aci# appearance- At his pri"ate au#ience( he oo*e# hi%h ) p ease#- The superior &an #i# not use a #eep purp e( or a puce co or( in the orna&ents of his #ress- E"en in his un#ress( he #i# not !ear an)thin% of a re# or re##ish co or- In !ar& !eather( he ha# a sin% e %ar&ent either of coarse or fine te/ture( ,ut he !ore it #isp a)e# o"er an inner %ar&entO"er a&,5s fur he !ore a %ar&ent of , ac*1 o"er fa!n5s fur one of !hite1 an# o"er fo/5s fur one of )e o!- The fur ro,e of his un#ress !as on%( !ith the ri%ht s ee"e short- 2e re'uire# his s eepin% #ress to ,e ha f as on% a%ain as his ,o#)- 3hen sta)in% at ho&e( he use# thic* furs of the fo/ or the ,a#%er3hen he put off &ournin%( he !ore a the appen#a%es of the %ir# e- 2is un#er%ar&ent( e/cept !hen it !as re'uire# to ,e of the curtain shape( !as &a#e of si * cut narro! a,o"e an# !i#e ,e o!- 2e #i# not !ear a&,5s fur or a , ac* cap on a "isit of con#o ence- On the first #a) of the &onth he put on his court ro,es( an# presente# hi&se f at court- 3hen fastin%( he thou%ht it necessar) to ha"e his c othes ,ri%ht ) c ean an# &a#e of inen c oth3hen fastin%( he thou%ht it necessar) to chan%e his foo#( an# a so to chan%e the p ace !here he co&&on ) sat in the apart&ent- 2e #i# not #is i*e to ha"e his rice fine ) c eane#( nor to ha"e his &ince &eat cut 'uite s&a - 2e #i# not

eat rice !hich ha# ,een in8ure# ,) heat or #a&p an# turne# sour( nor fish or f esh !hich !as %one- 2e #i# not eat !hat !as #isco ore#( or !hat !as of a ,a# f a"or( nor an)thin% !hich !as i .coo*e#( or !as not in season- 2e #i# not eat &eat !hich !as not cut proper )( nor !hat !as ser"e# !ithout its proper sauce- Thou%h there &i%ht ,e a ar%e 'uantit) of &eat( he !ou # not a o! !hat he too* to e/cee# the #ue proportion for the rice- It !as on ) in !ine that he ai# #o!n no i&it for hi&se f( ,ut he #i# not a o! hi&se f to ,e confuse# ,) it- 2e #i# not parta*e of !ine an# #rie# &eat ,ou%ht in the &ar*et- 2e !as ne"er !ithout %in%er !hen he ate- 2e #i# not eat &uch3hen he ha# ,een assistin% at the prince5s sacrifice( he #i# not *eep the f esh !hich he recei"e# o"erni%ht- The f esh of his fa&i ) sacrifice he #i# not *eep o"er three #a)s- If *ept o"er three #a)s( peop e cou # not eat it- 3hen eatin%( he #i# not con"erse- 3hen in ,e#( he #i# not spea*- A thou%h his foo# &i%ht ,e coarse rice an# "e%eta, e soup( he !ou # offer a itt e of it in sacrifice !ith a %ra"e( respectfu air- If his &at !as not strai%ht( he #i# not sit on it- 3hen the "i a%ers !ere #rin*in% to%ether( upon those !ho carrie# staffs %oin% out( he a so !ent out i&&e#iate ) after- 3hen the "i a%ers !ere %oin% throu%h their cere&onies to #ri"e a!a) pesti entia inf uences( he put on his court ro,es an# stoo# on the eastern steps- 3hen he !as sen#in% co&p i&entar) in'uiries to an) one in another state( he ,o!e# t!ice as he escorte# the &essen%er a!a)- Chi ;5an% ha"in% sent hi& a present of ph)sic( he ,o!e# an# recei"e# it( sa)in%( "I #o not *no! it- I #are not taste it-" The sta, e ,ein% ,urne# #o!n( !hen he !as at court( on his return he sai#( "2as an) &an ,een hurt$" 2e #i# not as* a,out the horses- 3hen the he !ou # a#8ust his &at( first taste it( an# then %i"e it a!a) to others- 3hen the prince sent hi& a %ift of un#resse# &eat( he !ou # ha"e it coo*e#( an# offer it to the spirits of his ancestors- 3hen the prince sent hi& a %ift of a i"in% ani&a ( he !ou # *eep it a i"e- 3hen he !as in atten#ance on the prince an# 8oinin% in the entertain&ent( the prince on ) sacrifice#- 2e first taste# e"er)thin%3hen he !as i an# the prince ca&e to "isit hi&( he ha# his hea# to the

east( &a#e his court ro,es ,e sprea# o"er hi&( an# #re! his %ir# e across the&- 3hen the prince5s or#er ca e# hi&( !ithout !aitin% for his carria%e to ,e )o*e#( he !ent at once- 3hen he entere# the ancestra te&p e of the state( he as*e# a,out e"er)thin%- 3hen an) of his frien#s #ie#( if he ha# no re ations offices( he !ou # sa)( "I !i ,ur) hi&-" 3hen a frien# sent hi& a present( thou%h it &i%ht ,e a carria%e an# horses( he #i# not ,o!- The on ) present for !hich he ,o!e# !as that of the f esh of sacrifice- In ,e#( he #i# not ie i*e a corpse- At ho&e( he #i# not put on an) for&a #eport&ent3hen he sa! an) one in a &ournin% #ress( thou%h it &i%ht ,e an ac'uaintance( he !ou # chan%e countenance1 !hen he sa! an) one !earin% the cap of fu #ress( or a , in# person( thou%h he &i%ht ,e in his un#ress( he !ou # sa ute hi& in a cere&onious &anner- To an) person in &ournin% he ,o!e# for!ar# to the cross,ar of his carria%e1 he ,o!e# in the sa&e !a) to an) one ,earin% the ta, es of popu ation- 3hen he !as at an entertain&ent !here there !as an a,un#ance of pro"isions set ,efore hi&( he !ou # chan%e countenance an# rise up- On a su##en c ap of thun#er( or a "io ent !in#( he !ou # chan%e countenance- 3hen he !as a,out to &ount his carria%e( he !ou # stan# strai%ht( ho #in% the cor#- 3hen he !as in the carria%e( he #i# not turn his hea# 'uite roun#( he #i# not ta * hasti )( he #i# not point !ith his han#sSeein% the countenance( it instant ) rises- It f ies roun#( an# ,) an# ,) sett es- The Master sai#( "There is the hen.pheasant on the hi ,ri#%e- At its season: At its season:" Ts4e. u &a#e a &otion to it- Thrice it s&e t hi& an# then rose11 The Master sai#( "The &en of for&er ti&es in the &atters of cere&onies an# &usic !ere rustics( it is sai#( !hi e the &en of these atter ti&es( in cere&onies an# &usic( are acco&p ishe# %ent e&en- "If I ha"e occasion to use those thin%s( I fo o! the &en of for&er ti&es-" The Master sai#( "Of those !ho !ere !ith &e in Ch5an an# Ts5ai( there are none to ,e foun# to enter &)

#oor-" 6istin%uishe# for their "irtuous princip es an# practice( there !ere +en +uan( Min Ts4e.ch5ien( =an 7o.niu( an# Chun%.*un%1 for their a,i it) in speech( Tsai 3o an# Ts4e.*un%1 for their a#&inistrati"e ta ents( =an +u an# Chi Lu1 for their iterar) ac'uire&ents( Ts4e.)u an# Ts4e.hsia- The Master sai#( "2ui %i"es &e no assistance- There is nothin% that I sa) in !hich he #oes not #e i%ht-" The Master sai#( "Fi ia in#ee# is Min Ts4e.ch5ien: Other peop e sa) nothin% of hi& #ifferent fro& the report of his parents an# ,rothers-" Nan +un% !as fre'uent ) repeatin% the ines a,out a !hite scepter stone- Confucius %a"e hi& the #au%hter of his e #er ,rother to !ife- Chi ;5an% as*e# !hich of the #iscip es o"e# to earn- Confucius rep ie# to hi&( "There !as +en 2ui1 he o"e# to earn- Unfortunate ) his appointe# ti&e !as short( an# he #ie#- No! there is no one !ho o"es to earn( as he #i#-" 3hen +en +uan #ie#( +en Lu ,e%%e# the carria%e of the Master to se an# %et an outer she for his son5s coffin- The Master sai#( "E"er) one ca s his son his son( !hether he has ta ents or has not ta ents- There !as Li1 !hen he #ie#( he ha# a coffin ,ut no outer she - I !ou # not !a * on foot to %et a she for hi&( ,ecause( ha"in% fo o!e# in the rear of the %reat officers( it !as not proper that I shou # !a * on foot-" 3hen +en +uan #ie#( the Master sai#( "A as: 2ea"en is #estro)in% &e: 2ea"en is #estro)in% &e:" 3hen +en +uan #ie#( the Master ,e!ai e# hi& e/cee#in% )( an# the #iscip es !ho !ere !ith hi& sai#( "Master( )our %rief is e/cessi"e:" "Is it e/cessi"e$" sai# he- "If I a& not to &ourn ,itter ) for this &an( for !ho& shou # I &ourn$" 3hen +en +uan #ie#( the #iscip es !ishe# to %i"e hi& a %reat funera ( an# the Master sai#( "+ou &a) not #o so-" The #iscip es #i# ,ur) hi& in %reat st) e- The Master sai#( "2ui ,eha"e# to!ar#s &e as his father- I ha"e not ,een a, e to treat hi& as &) son- The fau t is not &ine1 it ,e on%s to )ou( O #iscip es-" Chi Lu as*e# a,out ser"in% the spirits of the #ea#- The Master sai#( "3hi e )ou are not a, e to ser"e &en( ho! can )ou ser"e their spirits$" Chi Lu a##e#( "I "enture to as* a,out #eath$" 2e !as ans!ere#( "3hi e )ou #o not *no! ife( ho! can )ou *no! a,out #eath$" The #iscip e Min !as stan#in% ,)

his si#e( oo*in% , an# an# precise1 Ts4e. u( oo*in% ,o # an# so #ier )1 =an +u an# Ts4e.*un%( !ith a free an# strai%htfor!ar# &anner- The Master !as p ease#- 2e sai#( "+u( there:.he !i not #ie a natura #eath-" So&e parties in Lu !ere %oin% to ta*e #o!n an# re,ui # the Lon% Treasur)- Min Ts4e. ch5ien sai#( "Suppose it !ere to ,e repaire# after its o # st) e1.!h) &ust it ,e a tere# an# &a#e ane!$" The Master sai#( "This &an se #o& spea*s1 !hen he #oes( he is sure to hit the point-" The Master sai#( "3hat has the ute of +u to #o in &) #oor$" The other #iscip es ,e%an not to respect Ts4e u- The Master sai#( "+u has ascen#e# to the ha ( thou%h he has not )et passe# into the inner apart&ents-" Ts4e.*un% as*e# !hich of the t!o( Shih or Shan%( !as the superior- The Master sai#( "Shih %oes ,e)on# the #ue &ean( an# Shan% #oes not co&e up to it-" "Then(" sai# Ts4e.*un%( "the superiorit) is !ith Shih( I suppose-" The Master sai#( "To %o ,e)on# is as !ron% as to fa short-" The hea# of the Chi fa&i ) !as richer than the #u*e of Chau ha# ,een( an# )et Ch5iu co ecte# his i&posts for hi&( an# increase# his !ea th- The Master sai#( "2e is no #iscip e of &ine- M) itt e chi #ren( ,eat the #ru& an# assai hi&-" Ch5ai is si&p e- Shan is #u - Shih is specious- +u is coarseThe Master sai#( "There is 2ui: 2e has near ) attaine# to perfect "irtue2e is often in !ant- "Ts54e #oes not ac'uiesce in the appoint&ents of 2ea"en( an# his %oo#s are increase# ,) hi&- +et his 8u#%&ents are often correct-" Ts4e.chan% as*e# !hat !ere the characteristics of the %oo# &an- The Master sai#( "2e #oes not trea# in the footsteps of others( ,ut &oreo"er( he #oes not enter the cha&,er of the sa%e-" The Master sai#( "If( ,ecause a &an5s #iscourse appears so i# an# sincere( !e a o! hi& to ,e a %oo# &an( is he rea ) a superior &an$ or is his %ra"it) on ) in appearance$" Ts4e. u as*e# !hether he shou # i&&e#iate ) carr) into practice !hat he hear#- The Master sai#( "There are )our father an# e #er ,rothers to ,e consu te#1.!h) shou # )ou act on that princip e of i&&e#iate ) carr)in% into practice !hat )ou hear$" =an +u as*e# the sa&e( !hether he shou # i&&e#iate ) carr) into

practice !hat he hear#( an# the Master ans!ere#( "I&&e#iate ) carr) into practice !hat )ou hear-" ;un%.hsi 2!a sai#( "+u as*e# !hether he shou # carr) i&&e#iate ) into practice !hat he hear#( an# )ou sai#( 5There are )our father an# e #er ,rothers to ,e consu te#-5 Ch5iu as*e# !hether he shou # i&&e#iate ) carr) into practice !hat he hear#( an# )ou sai#( 5Carr) it i&&e#iate ) into practice-5 I( Ch5ih( a& perp e/e#( an# "enture to as* )ou for an e/p anation-" The Master sai#( "Ch5iu is retirin% an# s o!1 therefore I ur%e# hi& for!ar#- +u has &ore than his o!n share of ener%)1 therefore I *ept hi& ,ac*-" The Master !as put in fear in ;5!an% an# +en +uan fe ,ehin#- The Master( on his re8oinin% hi&( sai#( "I thou%ht )ou ha# #ie#-" 2ui rep ie#( "3hi e )ou !ere a i"e( ho! shou # I presu&e to #ie$" Chi Ts4e. 4an as*e# !hether Chun% +u an# =an Ch5iu cou # ,e ca e# %reat &inistersThe Master sai#( "I thou%ht )ou !ou # as* a,out so&e e/traor#inar) in#i"i#ua s( an# )ou on ) as* a,out +u an# Ch5iu: "3hat is ca e# a %reat &inister( is one !ho ser"es his prince accor#in% to !hat is ri%ht( an# !hen he fin#s he cannot #o so( retires- "No!( as to +u an# Ch5iu( the) &a) ,e ca e# or#inar) &inisters-" Ts4e.4an sai#( "Then the) !i a !a)s fo o! their chief1.!in the)$" The Master sai#( "In an act of parrici#e or re%ici#e( the) !ou # not fo o! hi&-" Ts4e. u %ot Ts4e.*ao appointe# %o"ernor of 7i- The Master sai#( "+ou are in8urin% a &an5s son-" Ts4e. u sai#( "There are( there( co&&on peop e an# officers1 there are the a tars of the spirits of the an# an# %rain- 3h) &ust one rea# ,oo*s ,efore he can ,e consi#ere# to ha"e earne#$" The Master sai#( "It is on this account that I hate )our % i,.ton%ue# peop e-" Ts4e. u( Tsan% 2si( =an +u( an# ;un%hsi 2!a !ere sittin% ,) the Master- 2e sai# to the&( "Thou%h I a& a #a) or so o #er than )ou( #o not thin* of that- "Fro& #a) to #a) )ou are sa)in%( 53e are not *no!n-5 If so&e ru er !ere to *no! )ou( !hat !ou # )ou i*e to #o$" Ts4e. u hasti ) an# i%ht ) rep ie#( "Suppose the case of a state of ten thousan# chariots1 et it ,e straitene# ,et!een other ar%e cities1 et it ,e sufferin% fro& in"a#in% ar&ies1 an# to this et there ,e a##e# a fa&ine in corn an# in a "e%eta, es0.if I !ere intruste# !ith the %o"ern&ent of it( in three )ears5 ti&e I cou # &a*e the peop e to ,e ,o #( an# to reco%ni4e the ru es of ri%hteous con#uct-" The Master s&i e# at hi&- Turnin% to +en +u( he sai#( "Ch5iu( !hat are )our !ishes$" Ch5iu rep ie#( "Suppose a state of si/t) or se"ent) i s'uare( or one of fift) or si/t)( an# et &e ha"e the %o"ern&ent

of it1.in three )ears5 ti&e( I cou # &a*e p ent) to a,oun# a&on% the peop eAs to teachin% the& the princip es of propriet)( an# &usic( I &ust !ait for the rise of a superior &an to #o that-" "3hat are )our !ishes( Ch5ih(" sai# the Master ne/t to ;un%.hsi 2!a- Ch5ih rep ie#( "I #o not sa) that &) a,i it) e/ten#s to these thin%s( ,ut I shou # !ish to earn the&- At the ser"ices of the ancestra te&p e( an# at the au#iences of the princes !ith the so"erei%n( I shou # i*e( #resse# in the #ar* s'uare.&a#e ro,e an# the , ac* inen cap( to act as a s&a assistant-" Last of a ( the Master as*e# Tsan% 2si( "Tien( !hat are )our !ishes$" Tien( pausin% as he !as p a)in% on his ute( !hi e it !as )et t!an%in%( ai# the instru&ent asi#e( an# "M) !ishes(" he sai#( "are #ifferent fro& the cherishe# purposes of these three %ent e&en-" "3hat har& is there in that$" sai# the Master1 "#o )ou a so( as !e as the)( spea* out )our !ishes-" Tien then sai#( "In this( the ast &onth of sprin%( !ith the #ress of the season a co&p ete( a on% !ith fi"e or si/ )oun% &en !ho ha"e assu&e# the cap( an# si/ or se"en ,o)s( I !ou # !ash in the I( en8o) the ,ree4e a&on% the rain a tars( an# return ho&e sin%in%-" The Master hea"e# a si%h an# sai#( "I %i"e &) appro"a to Tien-" The three others ha"in% %one out( Tsan% 2si re&aine# ,ehin#( an# sai#( "3hat #o )ou thin* of the !or#s of these three frien#s$" The Master rep ie#( "The) si&p ) to # each one his !ishes-" 2si pursue#( "Master( !h) #i# )ou s&i e at +u$" 2e !as ans!ere#( "The &ana%e&ent of a state #e&an#s the ru es of propriet)- 2is !or#s !ere not hu&, e1 therefore I s&i e# at hi&-" 2si a%ain sai#( "But !as it not a state !hich Ch5iu propose# for hi&se f$" The rep ) !as( "+es1 #i# )ou e"er see a territor) of si/t) or se"ent) i or one of fift) or si/t)( !hich !as not a state$" Once &ore( 2si in'uire#( "An# !as it not a state !hich Ch5ih propose# for hi&se f$" The Master a%ain rep ie#( "+es1 !ho ,ut princes ha"e to #o !ith ancestra te&p es( an# !ith au#iences ,ut the so"erei%n$ If Ch5ih !ere to ,e a s&a assistant in these ser"ices( !ho cou # ,e a %reat one$ 19

+en +uan as*e# a,out perfect "irtue- The Master sai#( "To su,#ue one5s se f an# return to propriet)( is perfect "irtue- If a &an can for one #a) su,#ue hi&se f an# return to propriet)( an un#er hea"en !i ascri,e perfect "irtue to hi&- Is the practice of perfect "irtue fro& a &an hi&se f( or is it fro& others$" +en +uan sai#( "I ,e% to as* the steps of that process-" The Master rep ie#( "Loo* not at !hat is contrar) to propriet)1 isten not to !hat is contrar) to propriet)1 spea* not !hat is contrar) to propriet)1 &a*e no &o"e&ent !hich is contrar) to propriet)-" +en +uan then sai#( "Thou%h I a& #eficient in inte i%ence an# "i%or( I !i &a*e it &) ,usiness to practice this esson-" Chun%.*un% as*e# a,out perfect "irtue- The Master sai#( "It is( !hen )ou %o a,roa#( to ,eha"e to e"er) one as if )ou !ere recei"in% a %reat %uest1 to e&p o) the peop e as if )ou !ere assistin% at a %reat sacrifice1 not to #o to others as )ou !ou # not !ish #one to )ourse f1 to ha"e no &ur&urin% a%ainst )ou in the countr)( an# none in the fa&i )-" Chun%. *un% sai#( "Thou%h I a& #eficient in inte i%ence an# "i%or( I !i &a*e it &) ,usiness to practice this esson-" S4e.&a Niu as*e# a,out perfect "irtueThe Master sai#( "The &an of perfect "irtue is cautious an# s o! in his speech-" "Cautious an# s o! in his speech:" sai# Niu1."is this !hat is &eant ,) perfect "irtue$" The Master sai#( "3hen a &an fee s the #ifficu t) of #oin%( can he ,e other than cautious an# s o! in spea*in%$" S4e.&a Niu as*e# a,out the superior &an- The Master sai#( "The superior &an has neither an/iet) nor fear-" "Bein% !ithout an/iet) or fear:" sai# Nui1"#oes this constitute !hat !e ca the superior &an$" The Master sai#( "3hen interna e/a&ination #isco"ers nothin% !ron%( !hat is there to ,e an/ious a,out( !hat is there to fear$" S4e.&a Niu( fu of an/iet)( sai#( "Other &en a ha"e their ,rothers( I on ) ha"e not-" Ts4e.hsia sai# to hi&( "There is the fo o!in% sa)in% !hich I ha"e hear#.56eath an# ife ha"e their #eter&ine# appoint&ent1 riches an# honors #epen# upon 2ea"en-5 "Let the superior &an ne"er fai re"erentia ) to or#er his o!n con#uct( an# et hi& ,e respectfu to others an# o,ser"ant of propriet)0.then a !ithin the four seas !i ,e his ,rothers- 3hat has the superior &an to #o !ith ,ein% #istresse# ,ecause he has no ,rothers$"

Ts4e.chan% as*e# !hat constitute# inte i%ence- The Master sai#( "2e !ith !ho& neither s an#er that %ra#ua ) soa*s into the &in#( nor state&ents that start e i*e a !oun# in the f esh( are successfu &a) ,e ca e# inte i%ent in#ee#- +ea( he !ith !ho& neither soa*in% s an#er( nor start in% state&ents( are successfu ( &a) ,e ca e# farseein%-" Ts4e.*un% as*e# a,out %o"ern&entThe Master sai#( "The re'uisites of %o"ern&ent are that there ,e sufficienc) of foo#( sufficienc) of &i itar) e'uip&ent( an# the confi#ence of the peop e in their ru er-" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "If it cannot ,e he pe#( an# one of these &ust ,e #ispense# !ith( !hich of the three shou # ,e fore%one first$" "The &i itar) e'uip&ent(" sai# the Master- Ts4e.*un% a%ain as*e#( "If it cannot ,e he pe#( an# one of the re&ainin% t!o &ust ,e #ispense# !ith( !hich of the& shou # ,e fore%one$" The Master ans!ere#( "7art !ith the foo#- Fro& of o #( #eath has ,een the ot of an &en1 ,ut if the peop e ha"e no faith in their ru ers( there is no stan#in% for the state-" Chi Ts4e.ch5an% sai#( "In a superior &an it is on ) the su,stantia 'ua ities !hich are !ante#1.!h) shou # !e see* for orna&enta acco&p ish&ents$" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "A as: +our !or#s( sir( sho! )ou to ,e a superior &an( ,ut four horses cannot o"erta*e the ton%ue- Orna&ent is as su,stance1 su,stance is as orna&ent- The hi#e of a ti%er or a eopar# strippe# of its hair( is i*e the hi#e of a #o% or a %oat strippe# of its hair-" The 6u*e Ai in'uire# of +u =o( sa)in%( "The )ear is one of scarcit)( an# the returns for e/pen#iture are not sufficient1.!hat is to ,e #one$" +u =o rep ie# to hi&( "3h) not si&p ) tithe the peop e$" "3ith t!o tenths( sai# the #u*e( "I fin# it not enou%h1.ho! cou # I #o !ith that s)ste& of one tenth$" +u =o ans!ere#( "If the peop e ha"e p ent)( their prince !i not ,e eft to !ant a one- If the peop e are in !ant( their prince cannot en8o) p ent) a one-" Ts4e.chan% ha"in% as*e# ho! "irtue !as to ,e e/a te#( an# #e usions to ,e #isco"ere#( the Master sai#( "2o # faithfu ness an# sincerit) as first princip es( an# ,e &o"in% continua ) to !hat is ri%ht(.this is the !a) to e/a t one5s "irtue- "+ou o"e a &an an# !ish hi& to i"e1 )ou hate hi& an# !ish hi& to #ie- 2a"in% !ishe# hi& to i"e( )ou a so !ish hi& to #ie- This is a case of #e usion- 5It &a) not ,e on account of her ,ein% rich( )et )ou co&e to &a*e a #ifference-5" The 6u*e Chin%( of Ch5i( as*e# Confucius a,out %o"ern&ent- Confucius rep ie#( "There

is %o"ern&ent( !hen the prince is prince( an# the &inister is &inister1 !hen the father is father( an# the son is son-" "Boo#:" sai# the #u*e1 "if( in#ee#( the prince ,e not prince( the not &inister( the father not father( an# the son not son( a thou%h I ha"e &) re"enue( can I en8o) it$" The Master sai#( "Ah: it is +u( !ho cou # !ith ha f a !or# sett e iti%ations:" Ts4e. u ne"er s ept o"er a pro&ise- The Master sai#( "In hearin% iti%ations( I a& i*e an) other ,o#)- 3hat is necessar)( ho!e"er( is to cause the peop e to ha"e no iti%ations-" Ts4e.chan% as*e# a,out %o"ern&ent- The Master sai#( "The art of %o"ernin% is to *eep its affairs ,efore the &in# !ithout !eariness( an# to practice the& !ith un#e"iatin% consistenc)-" The Master sai#( "B) e/tensi"e ) stu#)in% a earnin%( an# *eepin% hi&se f un#er the restraint of the ru es of propriet)( one &a) thus i*e!ise not err fro& !hat is ri%ht-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an see*s to perfect the a#&ira, e 'ua ities of &en( an# #oes not see* to perfect their ,a# 'ua ities- The &ean &an #oes the opposite of this-" Chi ;5an% as*e# Confucius a,out %o"ern&entConfucius rep ie#( "To %o"ern &eans to rectif)- If )ou ea# on the peop e !ith correctness( !ho !i #are not to ,e correct$" Chi ;5an%( #istresse# a,out the nu&,er of thie"es in the state( in'uire# of Confucius ho! to #o a!a) !ith the&- Confucius sai#( "If )ou( sir( !ere not co"etous( a thou%h )ou shou # re!ar# the& to #o it( the) !ou # not stea -" Chi ;5an% as*e# Confucius a,out %o"ern&ent( sa)in%( "3hat #o )ou sa) to *i in% the unprincip e# for the %oo# of the princip e#$" Confucius rep ie#( "Sir( in carr)in% on )our %o"ern&ent( !h) shou # )ou use *i in% at a $ Let )our e"ince# #esires ,e for !hat is %oo#( an# the peop e !i ,e %oo#- The re ation ,et!een superiors an# inferiors is i*e that ,et!een the !in# an# the %rass- The %rass &ust ,en#( !hen the !in# , o!s across it-" Ts4e.chan% as*e#( "3hat &ust the officer ,e( !ho &a) ,e sai# to ,e #istin%uishe#$" The Master sai#( "3hat is it )ou ca ,ein% #istin%uishe#$" Ts4e.chan% rep ie#( "It is to ,e hear# of throu%h the state( to ,e hear# of throu%hout his c an-" The Master sai#( "That is notoriet)( not #istinction- "No! the &an of #istinction is so i# an# strai%htfor!ar#( an# o"es ri%hteousness- 2e e/a&ines peop e5s !or#s( an#

oo*s at their countenances- 2e is an/ious to hu&, e hi&se f to othersSuch a &an !i ,e #istin%uishe# in the countr)1 he !i ,e #istin%uishe# in his c an- "As to the &an of notoriet)( he assu&es the appearance of "irtue( ,ut his actions are oppose# to it( an# he rests in this character !ithout an) #ou,ts a,out hi&se f- Such a &an !i ,e hear# of in the countr)1 he !i ,e hear# of in the c an-" Fan Ch5ih ra&, in% !ith the Master un#er the trees a,out the rain a tars( sai#( "I "enture to as* ho! to e/a t "irtue( to correct cherishe# e"i ( an# to #isco"er #e usions-" The Master sai#( "Tru ) a %oo# 'uestion: "If #oin% !hat is to ,e #one ,e &a#e the first ,usiness( an# success a secon#ar) consi#eration0.is not this the !a) to e/a t "irtue$ To assai one5s o!n !ic*e#ness an# not assai that of others1.is not this the !a) to correct cherishe# e"i $ For a &ornin%5s an%er to #isre%ar# one5s o!n ife( an# in"o "e that of his parents1.is not this a case of #e usion$" Fan Ch5ih as*e# a,out ,ene"o ence- The Master sai#( "It is to o"e a &en-" 2e as*e# a,out *no! e#%e- The Master sai#( "It is to *no! a &en-" Fan Ch5ih #i# not i&&e#iate ) un#erstan# these ans!ers- The Master sai#( "E&p o) the upri%ht an# put asi#e a the croo*e#1 in this !a) the croo*e# can ,e &a#e to ,e upri%ht-" Fan Ch5ih retire#( an#( seein% Ts4e.hsia( he sai# to hi&( "A Litt e !hi e a%o( I ha# an inter"ie! !ith our Master( an# as*e# hi& a,out *no! e#%e- 2e sai#( 5E&p o) the upri%ht( an# put asi#e a the croo*e#1. in this !a)( the croo*e# !i ,e &a#e to ,e upri%ht-5 3hat #i# he &ean$" Ts4e.hsia sai#( "Tru ) rich is his sa)in%: "Shun( ,ein% in possession of the *in%#o&( se ecte# fro& a&on% a the peop e( an# e&p o)e# ;ai.)ao.on !hich a !ho !ere #e"oi# of "irtue #isappeare#- T5an%( ,ein% in possession of the *in%#o&( se ecte# fro& a&on% a the peop e( an# e&p o)e# I +in.an# an !ho !ere #e"oi# of "irtue #isappeare#-" Ts4e.*un% as*e# a,out frien#shipThe Master sai#( "Faithfu ) a#&onish )our frien#( an# s*i fu ) ea# hi& onIf )ou fin# hi& i&practica, e( stop- 6o not #is%race )ourse f-" The phi osopher Tsan% sai#( "The superior &an on %roun#s of cu ture &eets !ith his frien#s( an# ,) frien#ship he ps his "irtue-"

1< Ts4e. u as*e# a,out %o"ern&ent- The Master sai#( "Bo ,efore the peop e !ith )our e/a&p e( an# ,e a,orious in their affairs-" 2e re'ueste# further instruction( an# !as ans!ere#( "Be not !ear) in these thin%s-" Chun%. *un%( ,ein% chief &inister to the hea# of the Chi fa&i )( as*e# a,out %o"ern&entThe Master sai#( "E&p o) first the ser"ices of )our "arious officers( par#on s&a fau ts( an# raise to office &en of "irtue an# ta ents-" Chun%.*un% sai#( "2o! sha I *no! the &en of "irtue an# ta ent( so that I &a) raise the& to office$" 2e !as ans!ere#( "?aise to office those !ho& )ou *no!- As to those !ho& )ou #o not *no!( !i others ne% ect the&$" Ts4e. u sai#( "The ru er of 3ei has ,een !aitin% for )ou( in or#er !ith )ou to a#&inister the %o"ern&ent- 3hat !i )ou consi#er the first thin% to ,e #one$" The Master rep ie#( "3hat is necessar) is to rectif) na&es-" "So: in#ee#:" sai# Ts4e. u"+ou are !i#e of the &ar*: 3h) &ust there ,e such rectification$" The Master sai#( "2o! uncu ti"ate# )ou are( +u: A superior &an( in re%ar# to !hat he #oes not *no!( sho!s a cautious reser"e- "If na&es ,e not correct( an%ua%e is not in accor#ance !ith the truth of thin%s- If an%ua%e ,e not in accor#ance !ith the truth of thin%s( affairs cannot ,e carrie# on to success"3hen affairs cannot ,e carrie# on to success( proprieties an# &usic #o not f ourish- 3hen proprieties an# &usic #o not f ourish( punish&ents !i not ,e proper ) a!ar#e#- 3hen punish&ents are not proper ) a!ar#e#( the peop e #o not *no! ho! to &o"e han# or foot- "Therefore a superior &an consi#ers it necessar) that the na&es he uses &a) ,e spo*en appropriate )( an# a so that !hat he spea*s &a) ,e carrie# out appropriate )- 3hat the superior &an re'uires is 8ust that in his !or#s there &a) ,e nothin% incorrect-" Fan Ch5ih re'ueste# to ,e tau%ht hus,an#r)- The Master sai#( "I a& not so %oo# for that as an o # hus,an#&an-" 2e re'ueste# a so to ,e tau%ht %ar#enin%( an# !as ans!ere#( "I a& not so %oo# for that as an o # %ar#ener-" Fan Ch5ih ha"in% %one out( the Master sai#( "A s&a &an( in#ee#( is Fan 2su: If a superior

&an o"e propriet)( the peop e !i not #are not to ,e re"erent- If he o"e ri%hteousness( the peop e !i not #are not to su,&it to his e/a&p e- If he o"e %oo# faith( the peop e !i not #are not to ,e sincere- No!( !hen these thin%s o,tain( the peop e fro& a 'uarters !i co&e to hi&( ,earin% their chi #ren on their ,ac*s1 !hat nee# has he of a *no! e#%e of hus,an#r)$" The Master sai#( "Thou%h a &an &a) ,e a, e to recite the three hun#re# o#es( )et if( !hen intruste# !ith a %o"ern&enta char%e( he *no!s not ho! to act( or if( !hen sent to an) 'uarter on a &ission( he cannot %i"e his rep ies unassiste#( not!ithstan#in% the e/tent of his earnin%( of !hat practica use is it$" The Master sai#( "3hen a prince5s persona con#uct is correct( his %o"ern&ent is effecti"e !ithout the issuin% of or#ers- If his persona con#uct is not correct( he &a) issue or#ers( ,ut the) !i not ,e fo o!e#-" The Master sai#( "The %o"ern&ents of Lu an# 3ei are ,rothers-" The Master sai# of Chin%( a scion of the #uca fa&i ) of 3ei( that he *ne! the econo&) of a fa&i ) !e - 3hen he ,e%an to ha"e &eans( he sai#( "2a: here is a co ection.:" 3hen the) !ere a itt e increase#( he sai#( "2a: this is co&p ete:" 3hen he ha# ,eco&e rich( he sai#( "2a: this is a#&ira, e:" 3hen the Master !ent to 3ei =an +u acte# as #ri"er of his carria%e- The Master o,ser"e#( "2o! nu&erous are the peop e:" +u sai#( "Since the) are thus nu&erous( !hat &ore sha ,e #one for the&$" "Enrich the&( !as the rep )"An# !hen the) ha"e ,een enriche#( !hat &ore sha ,e #one$" The Master sai#( "Teach the&-" The Master sai#( "If there !ere an) of the princes !ho !ou # e&p o) &e( in the course of t!e "e &onths( I shou # ha"e #one so&ethin% consi#era, e- In three )ears( the %o"ern&ent !ou # ,e perfecte#-" The Master sai#( "5If %oo# &en !ere to %o"ern a countr) in succession for a hun#re# )ears( the) !ou # ,e a, e to transfor& the "io ent ) ,a#( an# #ispense !ith capita punish&ents-5 True in#ee# is this sa)in%:" The Master sai#( "If a tru ) ro)a ru er !ere to arise( it !ou # stir re'uire a %eneration( an# then "irtue !ou # pre"ai -" The Master sai#( "If a &inister &a*e his o!n con#uct correct( !hat #ifficu t) !i he ha"e in assistin% in %o"ern&ent$ If he cannot rectif) hi&se f( !hat has he to #o !ith rectif)in% others$" The #iscip e =an returnin% fro& the court( the Master sai# to hi&( "2o! are )ou

so ate$" 2e rep ie#( "3e ha# %o"ern&ent ,usiness-" The Master sai#( "It &ust ha"e ,een fa&i ) affairs- If there ha# ,een %o"ern&ent ,usiness( thou%h I a& not no! in office( I shou # ha"e ,een consu te# a,out it-" The 6u*e Tin% as*e# !hether there !as a sin% e sentence !hich cou # &a*e a countr) prosperous- Confucius rep ie#( "Such an effect cannot ,e e/pecte# fro& one sentence- "There is a sa)in%( ho!e"er( !hich peop e ha"e .5To ,e a prince is #ifficu t1 to ,e a &inister is not eas)-5 "If a ru er *no!s this(.the #ifficu t) of ,ein% a prince(.&a) there not ,e e/pecte# fro& this one sentence the prosperit) of his countr)$" The #u*e then sai#( "Is there a sin% e sentence !hich can ruin a countr)$" Confucius rep ie#( "Such an effect as that cannot ,e e/pecte# fro& one sentence- There is( ho!e"er( the sa)in% !hich peop e ha"e.5I ha"e no p easure in ,ein% a prince( ,ut on ) in that no one can offer an) opposition to !hat I sa):5 "If a ru er5s !or#s ,e %oo#( is it not a so %oo# that no one oppose the&$ But if the) are not %oo#( an# no one opposes the&( &a) there not ,e e/pecte# fro& this one sentence the ruin of his countr)$" The 6u*e of Sheh as*e# a,out %o"ern&ent- The Master sai#( "Boo# %o"ern&ent o,tains !hen those !ho are near are &a#e happ)( an# those !ho are far off are attracte#-" Ts4e.hsia: ,ein% %o"ernor of Chu.fu( as*e# a,out %o"ern&ent- The Master sai#( "6o not ,e #esirous to ha"e thin%s #one 'uic* )1 #o not oo* at s&a a#"anta%es- 6esire to ha"e thin%s #one 'uic* ) pre"ents their ,ein% #one thorou%h )- Loo*in% at s&a a#"anta%es pre"ents %reat affairs fro& ,ein% acco&p ishe#-" The 6u*e of Sheh infor&e# Confucius( sa)in%( "A&on% us here there are those !ho &a) ,e st) e# upri%ht in their con#uct- If their father ha"e sto en a sheep( the) !i ,ear !itness to the fact-" Confucius sai#( "A&on% us( in our part of the countr)( those !ho are upri%ht are #ifferent fro& this- The father concea s the &iscon#uct of the son( an# the son concea s the &iscon#uct of the father- Upri%htness is to ,e foun# in this-" Fan Ch5ih as*e# a,out perfect "irtue- The Master sai#( "It is( in retire&ent( to ,e se#ate ) %ra"e1 in the &ana%e&ent of ,usiness( to ,e re"erent ) attenti"e1 in intercourse !ith others( to ,e strict ) sincereThou%h a &an %o a&on% ru#e( uncu ti"ate# tri,es( these 'ua ities &a) not ,e

ne% ecte#-" Ts4e.*un% as*e#( sa)in%( "3hat 'ua ities &ust a &an possess to entit e hi& to ,e ca e# an officer$ The Master sai#( "2e !ho in his con#uct of hi&se f &aintains a sense of sha&e( an# !hen sent to an) 'uarter !i not #is%race his prince5s co&&ission( #eser"es to ,e ca e# an officer-" Ts4e.*un% pursue#( "I "enture to as* !ho &a) ,e p ace# in the ne/t o!er ran*$" An# he !as to #( "2e !ho& the circ e of his re ati"es pronounce to ,e fi ia ( !ho& his fe o! "i a%ers an# nei%h,ors pronounce to ,e fraterna -" A%ain the #iscip e as*e#( "I "enture to as* a,out the c ass sti ne/t in or#er-" The Master sai#( "The) are #eter&ine# to ,e sincere in !hat the) sa)( an# to carr) out !hat the) #o- The) are o,stinate itt e &en- +et perhaps the) &a) &a*e the ne/t c ass-" Ts4e.*un% fina ) in'uire#( "Of !hat sort are those of the present #a)( !ho en%a%e in %o"ern&ent$" The Master sai# "7ooh: the) are so &an) pec*s an# ha&pers( not !orth ,ein% ta*en into account-" The Master sai#( "Since I cannot %et &en pursuin% the #ue &e#iu&( to !ho& I &i%ht co&&unicate &) instructions( I &ust fin# the ar#ent an# the cautious ).#eci#e#- The ar#ent !i a#"ance an# a) ho # of truth1 the cautious ).#eci#e# !i *eep the&se "es fro& !hat is !ron%-" The Master sai#( "The peop e of the south ha"e a sa)in% .5A &an !ithout constanc) cannot ,e either a !i4ar# or a #octor-5 Boo#: "Inconstant in his "irtue( he !i ,e "isite# !ith #is%race-" The Master sai#( "This arises si&p ) fro& not atten#in% to the pro%nostication-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an is affa, e( ,ut not a#u ator)1 the &ean &an is a#u ator)( ,ut not affa, e-" Ts4e.*un% as*e#( sa)in%( "3hat #o )ou sa) of a &an !ho is o"e# ,) a the peop e of his nei%h,orhoo#$" The Master rep ie#( "3e &a) not for that accor# our appro"a of hi&-" "An# !hat #o )ou sa) of hi& !ho is hate# ,) a the peop e of his nei%h,orhoo#$" The Master sai#( "3e &a) not for that conc u#e that he is ,a#- It is ,etter than either of these cases that the %oo# in the nei%h,orhoo# o"e hi&( an# the ,a# hate hi&-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an is eas) to ser"e an# #ifficu t to p ease- If )ou tr) to p ease hi& in an) !a) !hich is not accor#ant !ith ri%ht( he !i not ,e p ease#- But in his e&p o)&ent of &en( he uses the& accor#in% to their capacit)- The &ean &an is

#ifficu t to ser"e( an# eas) to p ease- If )ou tr) to p ease hi&( thou%h it ,e in a !a) !hich is not accor#ant !ith ri%ht( he &a) ,e p ease#- But in his e&p o)&ent of &en( he !ishes the& to ,e e'ua to e"er)thin%-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an has a #i%nifie# ease !ithout pri#e- The &ean &an has pri#e !ithout a #i%nifie# ease-" The Master sai#( "The fir&( the en#urin%( the si&p e( an# the &o#est are near to "irtue-" Ts4e. u as*e#( sa)in%( "3hat 'ua ities &ust a &an possess to entit e hi& to ,e ca e# a scho ar$" The Master sai#( "2e &ust ,e thus(.earnest( ur%ent( an# , an#0.a&on% his frien#s( earnest an# ur%ent1 a&on% his ,rethren( , an#-" The Master sai#( "Let a %oo# &an teach the peop e se"en )ears( an# the) &a) then i*e!ise ,e e&p o)e# in !ar-" The Master sai#( "To ea# an uninstructe# peop e to !ar( is to thro! the& a!a)-" 1> 2sien as*e# !hat !as sha&efu - The Master sai#( "3hen %oo# %o"ern&ent pre"ai s in a state( to ,e thin*in% on ) of sa ar)1 an#( !hen ,a# %o"ern&ent pre"ai s( to ,e thin*in%( in the sa&e !a)( on ) of sa ar)1.this is sha&efu -" "3hen the o"e of superiorit)( ,oastin%( resent&ents( an# co"etousness are represse#( this &a) ,e #ee&e# perfect "irtue-" The Master sai#( "This &a) ,e re%ar#e# as the achie"e&ent of !hat is #ifficu t- But I #o not *no! that it is to ,e #ee&e# perfect "irtue-" The Master sai#( "The scho ar !ho cherishes the o"e of co&fort is not fit to ,e #ee&e# a scho ar-" The Master sai#( "3hen %oo# %o"ern&ent pre"ai s in a state( an%ua%e &a) ,e oft) an# ,o #( an# actions the sa&e- 3hen ,a# %o"ern&ent pre"ai s( the actions &a) ,e oft) an# ,o #( ,ut the an%ua%e &a) ,e !ith so&e reser"e-" The Master sai#( "The "irtuous !i ,e sure to spea* correct )( ,ut those !hose speech is %oo# &a) not a !a)s ,e "irtuous- Men of princip e are sure to ,e ,o #( ,ut those !ho are ,o # &a) not a !a)s ,e &en of princip e-" Nan.*un% ;!o( su,&ittin% an in'uir) to Confucius( sai#( "I !as s*i fu at archer)( an# Ao cou # &o"e a

,oat a on% upon the an#( ,ut neither of the& #ie# a natura #eath- +u an# Chi persona ) !rou%ht at the toi s of hus,an#r)( an# the) ,eca&e possessors of the *in%#o&-" The Master &a#e no rep )1 ,ut !hen Nan.*un% ;!o !ent out( he sai#( "A superior &an in#ee# is this: An estee&er of "irtue in#ee# is this:" The Master sai#( "Superior &en( an# )et not a !a)s "irtuous( there ha"e ,een( a as: But there ne"er has ,een a &ean &an( an#( at the sa&e ti&e( "irtuous-" The Master sai#( "Can there ,e o"e !hich #oes not ea# to strictness !ith its o,8ect$ Can there ,e o)a t) !hich #oes not ea# to the instruction of its o,8ect$" The Master sai#( "In preparin% the %o"ern&enta notifications( 75i Shan first &a#e the rou%h #raft1 Shi.shu e/a&ine# an# #iscusse# its contents1 Ts4e.)u( the &ana%er of forei%n intercourse( then po ishe# the st) e1 an#( fina )( Ts4e.ch5an of Tun%. i %a"e it the proper e e%ance an# finish-" So&e one as*e# a,out Ts4e.ch5an- The Master sai#( "2e !as a *in# &an-" 2e as*e# a,out Ts4e.hsi- The Master sai#( "That &an: That &an:" 2e as*e# a,out ;!an Chun%- "For hi&(" sai# the Master( "the cit) of 7ien( !ith three hun#re# fa&i ies( !as ta*en fro& the chief of the 7o fa&i )( !ho #i# not utter a &ur&urin% !or#( thou%h( to the en# of his ife( he ha# on ) coarse rice to eat-" The Master sai#( "To ,e poor !ithout &ur&urin% is #ifficu t- To ,e rich !ithout ,ein% prou# is eas)-" The Master sai#( "Man% ;un%.ch5o is &ore than fit to ,e chief officer in the fa&i ies of Chao an# 3ei( ,ut he is not fit to ,e %reat officer to either of the states Tan% or 2sieh-" Ts4e. u as*e# !hat constitute# a COM7LETE &an- The Master sai#( "Suppose a &an !ith the *no! e#%e of Tsan% 3u.chun%( the free#o& fro& co"etousness of ;un%.ch5o( the ,ra"er) of Ch!an% of 7ien( an# the "arie# ta ents of =an Ch5iu1 a## to these the acco&p ish&ents of the ru es of propriet) an# &usic1.such a one &i%ht ,e rec*one# a COM7LETE &an-" 2e then a##e#( "But !hat is the necessit) for a co&p ete &an of the present #a) to ha"e a these thin%s$ The &an( !ho in the "ie! of %ain( thin*s of ri%hteousness1 !ho in the "ie! of #an%er is prepare# to %i"e up his ife1 an# !ho #oes not for%et an o # a%ree&ent ho!e"er far ,ac* it e/ten#s0.such a &an &a) ,e rec*one# a COM7LETE &an-" The Master as*e# ;un%.&in% Chia a,out

;un%.shu 3an( sa)in%( "Is it true that )our &aster spea*s not( au%hs not( an# ta*es not$" ;un%.&in% Chia rep ie#( "This has arisen fro& the reporters %oin% ,e)on# the truth-.M) &aster spea*s !hen it is the ti&e to spea*( an# so &en #o not %et tire# of his spea*in%- 2e au%hs !hen there is occasion to ,e 8o)fu ( an# so &en #o not %et tire# of his au%hin%- 2e ta*es !hen it is consistent !ith ri%hteousness to #o so( an# so &en #o not %et tire# of his ta*in%-" The Master sai#( "So: But is it so !ith hi&$" The Master sai#( "Tsan% 3u.chun%( *eepin% possession of Fan%( as*e# of the #u*e of Lu to appoint a successor to hi& in his fa&i )- A thou%h it &a) ,e sai# that he !as not usin% force !ith his so"erei%n( I ,e ie"e he !as-" The Master sai#( "The #u*e 3an of Tsin !as craft) an# not upri%ht- The #u*e 2!an of Ch5i !as upri%ht an# not craft)-" Ts4e. u sai#( "The 6u*e 2!an cause# his ,rother Chiu to ,e *i e#( !hen Shao 2u #ie#( !ith his &aster( ,ut ;!an Chun% #i# not #ieMa) not I sa) that he !as !antin% in "irtue$" The Master sai#( "The 6u*e 2!an asse&, e# a the princes to%ether( an# that not !ith !eapons of !ar an# chariots0.it !as a throu%h the inf uence of ;!an Chun%- 3hose ,eneficence !as i*e his$ 3hose ,eneficence !as i*e his$" Ts4e.*un% sai#( ";!an Chun%( I apprehen# !as !antin% in "irtue- 3hen the 6u*e 2!an cause# his ,rother Chiu to ,e *i e#( ;!an Chun% !as not a, e to #ie !ith hi&- Moreo"er( he ,eca&e pri&e &inister to 2!an-" The Master sai#( ";!an Chun% acte# as pri&e &inister to the 6u*e 2!an &a#e hi& ea#er of a the princes( an# unite# an# rectifie# the !ho e *in%#o&- 6o!n to the present #a)( the peop e en8o) the %ifts !hich he conferre#- But for ;!an Chun%( !e shou # no! ,e !earin% our hair un,oun#( an# the appets of our coats ,uttonin% on the eft si#e- "3i )ou re'uire fro& hi& the s&a fi#e it) of co&&on &en an# co&&on !o&en( !ho !ou # co&&it suici#e in a strea& or #itch( no one *no!in% an)thin% a,out the&$" The %reat officer( 2sien( !ho ha# ,een fa&i ) &inister to ;un%.shu 3an( ascen#e# to the prince5s court in co&pan) !ith 3an- The Master( ha"in% hear# of it( sai#( "2e

#eser"e# to ,e consi#ere# 3AN Fthe acco&p ishe#G-" The Master !as spea*in% a,out the unprincip e# course of the #u*e Lin% of 3ei !hen Ch5i ;5an% sai#( "Since he is of such a character( ho! is it he #oes not ose his state$" Confucius sai#( "The Chun%.shu +u has the superinten#ence of his %uests an# of stran%ers1 the itanist( T5o( has the &ana%e&ent of his ancestra te&p e1 an# 3an%.sun Chia has the #irection of the ar&) an# forces0.!ith such officers as these( ho! shou # he ose his state$" The Master sai#( "2e !ho spea*s !ithout &o#est) !i fin# it #ifficu t to &a*e his !or#s %oo#-" Chan Ch5an% &ur#ere# the 6u*e Chien of Ch5i- Confucius ,athe#( !ent to court an# infor&e# the 6u*e Ai( sa)in%( "Chan 2an% has s ain his so"erei%n- I ,e% that )ou !i un#erta*e to punish hi&-" The #u*e sai#( "Infor& the chiefs of the three fa&i ies of it-" Confucius retire#( an# sai#( "Fo o!in% in the rear of the %reat officers( I #i# not #are not to represent such a &atter( an# &) prince sa)s( "Infor& the chiefs of the three fa&i ies of it-" 2e !ent to the chiefs( an# infor&e# the&( ,ut the) !ou # not act- Confucius then sai#( "Fo o!in% in the rear of the %reat officers( I #i# not #are not to represent such a &atter-" Ts4e. u as*e# ho! a ru er shou # ,e ser"e#- The Master sai#( "6o not i&pose on hi&( an#( &oreo"er( !ithstan# hi& to his face-" The Master sai#( "The pro%ress of the superior &an is up!ar#s1 the pro%ress of the &ean &an is #o!n!ar#s-" The Master sai#( "In ancient ti&es( &en earne# !ith a "ie! to their o!n i&pro"e&ent- No!a#a)s( &en earn !ith a "ie! to the appro,ation of others-" Chu 7o.)u sent a &essen%er !ith frien# ) in'uiries to Confucius- Confucius sat !ith hi&( an# 'uestione# hi&- "3hat(" sai# he: "is )our &aster en%a%e# in$" The &essen%er rep ie#( "M) &aster is an/ious to &a*e his fau ts fe!( ,ut he has not )et succee#e#-" 2e then !ent out( an# the Master sai#( "A &essen%er in#ee#: A &essen%er in#ee#:" The Master sai#( "2e !ho is not in an) particu ar office has nothin% to #o !ith p ans for the a#&inistration of its #uties-" The phi osopher Tsan% sai#( "The superior &an( in his thou%hts( #oes not %o out of his p ace-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an is &o#est in his speech( ,ut e/cee#s in his actions-" The Master sai#( "The !a) of the superior &an is threefo #( ,ut I a& not e'ua to it@irtuous( he is free fro& an/ieties1 !ise( he is free fro& perp e/ities1

,o #( he is free fro& fear- Ts4e.*un% sai#( "Master( that is !hat )ou )ourse f sa)-" Ts4e.*un% !as in the ha,it of co&parin% &en to%etherThe Master sai#( "Ts4e &ust ha"e reache# a hi%h pitch of e/ce ence: No!( I ha"e not eisure for this-" The Master sai#( "I !i not ,e concerne# at &en5s not *no!in% &e1 I !i ,e concerne# at &) o!n !ant of a,i it)-" The Master sai#( "2e !ho #oes not anticipate atte&pts to #ecei"e hi&( nor thin* ,eforehan# of his not ,ein% ,e ie"e#( an# )et apprehen#s these thin%s rea#i ) !hen the) occur1.is he not a &an of superior !orth$" 3ei.shan% Mau sai# to Confucius( "Ch5iu( ho! is it that )ou *eep roostin% a,out$ Is it not that )ou are an insinuatin% ta *er$ Confucius sai#( "I #o not #are to p a) the part of such a ta *er( ,ut I hate o,stinac)-" The Master sai#( "A horse is ca e# a ch5i( not ,ecause of its stren%th( ,ut ,ecause of its other %oo# 'ua ities-" So&e one sai#( "3hat #o )ou sa) concernin% the princip e that in8ur) shou # ,e reco&pense# !ith *in#ness$" The Master sai#( "3ith !hat then !i )ou reco&pense *in#ness$" "?eco&pense in8ur) !ith 8ustice( an# reco&pense *in#ness !ith *in#ness-" The Master sai#( "A as: there is no one that *no!s &e-" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "3hat #o )ou &ean ,) thus sa)in%.that no one *no!s )ou$" The Master rep ie#( "I #o not &ur&ur a%ainst 2ea"en- I #o not %ru&, e a%ainst &en- M) stu#ies ie o!( an# &) penetration rises hi%h- But there is 2ea"en1.that *no!s &e:" The ;un%.po Liao( ha"in% s an#ere# Ts4e. u to Chi.sun( Ts4e.fu Chin%.po infor&e# Confucius of it( sa)in%( "Our &aster is certain ) ,ein% e# astra) ,) the ;un%.po Liao( ,ut I ha"e sti po!er enou%h eft to cut Liao off( an# e/pose his corpse in the &ar*et an# in the court-" The Master sai#( "If &) princip es are to a#"ance( it is so or#ere#- If the) are to fa to the %roun#( it is so or#ere#- 3hat can the ;un%.po Liao #o !here such or#erin% is concerne#$" The Master sai#( "So&e &en of !orth retire fro& the !or #- So&e retire fro& particu ar states- So&e retire ,ecause of #isrespectfu oo*s- So&e retire ,ecause of contra#ictor) an%ua%e-" The Master sai#( "Those !ho ha"e #one this are se"en &en-" Ts4e. u happenin% to pass the ni%ht in Shih.&an( the %ate*eeper sai# to hi&( "3ho& #o )ou co&e fro&$" Ts4e. u sai#( "Fro& Mr- ;5un%-" "It is he(.is it not$".sai# the other(

"!ho *no!s the i&practica, e nature of the ti&es an# )et !i ,e #oin% in the&-" The Master !as p a)in%( one #a)( on a &usica stone in 3ei !hen a &an carr)in% a stra! ,as*et passe# #oor of the house !here Confucius !as( an# sai#( "2is heart is fu !ho so ,eats the &usica stone-" A itt e !hi e after( he a##e#( "2o! conte&pti, e is the one.i#eae# o,stinac) those soun#s #isp a): 3hen one is ta*en no notice of( he has si&p ) at once to %i"e o"er his !ish for pu, ic e&p o)&ent- 56eep !ater &ust ,e crosse# !ith the c othes on1 sha o! !ater &a) ,e crosse# !ith the c othes he # up-5" The Master sai#( "2o! #eter&ine# is he in his purpose: But this is not #ifficu t:" Ts4e. chan% sai#( "3hat is &eant !hen the Shu sa)s that ;ao.tsun%( !hi e o,ser"in% the usua i&peria &ournin%( !as for three )ears !ithout spea*in%$" The Master sai#( "3h) &ust ;ao.tsun% ,e referre# to as an e/a&p e of this$ The ancients a #i# so- 3hen the so"erei%n #ie#( the officers a atten#e# to their se"era #uties( ta*in% instructions fro& the pri&e &inister for three )ears-" The Master sai#( "3hen ru ers o"e to o,ser"e the ru es of propriet)( the peop e respon# rea#i ) to the ca s on the& for ser"ice-" Ts4e. u as*e# !hat constitute# the superior &an- The Master sai#( "The cu ti"ation of hi&se f in re"erentia carefu ness-" "An# is this a $" sai# Ts4e. u- "2e cu ti"ates hi&se f so as to %i"e rest to others(" !as the rep )- "An# is this a $" a%ain as*e# Ts4e. u- The Master sai#( "2e cu ti"ates hi&se f so as to %i"e rest to a the peop e- 2e cu ti"ates hi&se f so as to %i"e rest to a the peop e0.e"en +ao an# Shun !ere sti so icitous a,out this-" +uan =an% !as s'uattin% on his hee s( an# so !aite# the approach of the Master( !ho sai# to hi&( "In )outh not hu&, e as ,efits a 8unior1 in &anhoo#( #oin% nothin% !orth) of ,ein% han#e# #o!n1 an# i"in% on to o # a%e0.this is to ,e a pest-" 3ith this he hit hi& on the shan* !ith his staff- A )outh of the "i a%e of Ch5ueh !as e&p o)e# ,) Confucius to carr) the &essa%es ,et!een hi& an# his "isitors- So&e one as*e# a,out hi&( sa)in%( "I suppose he has &a#e %reat pro%ress-" The Master sai#( "I o,ser"e that he is fon# of occup)in% the seat

of a fu .%ro!n &an1 I o,ser"e that he !a *s shou #er to shou #er !ith his e #ers- 2e is not one !ho is see*in% to &a*e pro%ress in earnin%- 2e !ishes 'uic* ) to ,eco&e a &an-" 15 The 6u*e Lin% of 3ei as*e# Confucius a,out tactics- Confucius rep ie#( "I ha"e hear# a a,out sacrificia "esse s( ,ut I ha"e not earne# &i itar) &atters-" On this( he too* his #eparture the ne/t #a)- 3hen he !as in Chan( their pro"isions !ere e/hauste#( an# his fo o!ers ,eca&e so in that the) !ere una, e to rise- Ts4e. u( !ith e"i#ent #issatisfaction( sai#( "2as the superior &an i*e!ise to en#ure in this !a)$" The Master sai#( "The superior &an &a) in#ee# ha"e to en#ure !ant( ,ut the &ean &an( !hen he is in !ant( %i"es !a) to un,ri# e# icense-" The Master sai#( "Ts54e( )ou thin*( I suppose( that I a& one !ho earns &an) thin%s an# *eeps the& in &e&or)$" Ts4e.*un% rep ie#( "+es(.,ut perhaps it is not so$" "No(" !as the ans!er1 "I see* a unit) a per"a#in%-" The Master sai#( "+u I those !ho *no! "irtue are fe!-" The Master sai#( "Ma) not Shun ,e instance# as ha"in% %o"erne# efficient ) !ithout e/ertion$ 3hat #i# he #o$ 2e #i# nothin% ,ut %ra"e ) an# re"erent ) occup) his ro)a seat-" Ts4e.chan% as*e# ho! a &an shou # con#uct hi&se f( so as to ,e e"er)!here appreciate#- The Master sai#( "Let his !or#s ,e sincere an# truthfu an# his actions honora, e an# carefu 1.such con#uct &a) ,e practice# a&on% the ru#e tri,es of the South or the North- If his !or#s ,e not sincere an# truthfu an# his actions not honora, e an# carefu !i he( !ith such con#uct( ,e appreciate#( e"en in his nei%h,orhoo#$ "3hen he is stan#in%( et hi& see those t!o thin%s( as it !ere( frontin% hi&3hen he is in a carria%e( et hi& see the& attache# to the )o*e- Then &a) he su,se'uent ) carr) the& into practice-" Ts4e.chan% !rote these counse s on the en# of his sash- The Master sai#( "Tru ) strai%htfor!ar# !as the historio%rapher +u- 3hen %oo# %o"ern&ent pre"ai e# in his state( he !as i*e an arro!- 3hen ,a# %o"ern&ent pre"ai e#( he !as i*e an arro!- A superior &an

in#ee# is Chu 7o.)u: 3hen %oo# %o"ern&ent pre"ai s in his state( he is to ,e foun# in office- 3hen ,a# %o"ern&ent pre"ai s( he can ro his princip es up( an# *eep the& in his ,reast-" The Master sai#( "3hen a &an &a) ,e spo*en !ith( not to spea* to hi& is to err in reference to the &an- 3hen a &an &a) not ,e spo*en !ith( to spea* to hi& is to err in reference to our !or#sThe !ise err neither in re%ar# to their &an nor to their !or#s-" The Master sai#( "The #eter&ine# scho ar an# the &an of "irtue !i not see* to i"e at the e/pense of in8urin% their "irtue- The) !i e"en sacrifice their i"es to preser"e their "irtue co&p ete-" Ts4e.*un% as*e# a,out the practice of "irtue- The Master sai#( "The &echanic( !ho !ishes to #o his !or* !e ( &ust first sharpen his too s- 3hen )ou are i"in% in an) state( ta*e ser"ice !ith the &ost !orth) a&on% its %reat officers( an# &a*e frien#s of the &ost "irtuous a&on% its scho ars-" +en +uan as*e# ho! the %o"ern&ent of a countr) shou # ,e a#&inistere#- The Master sai#( "Fo o! the seasons of 2sia"?i#e in the state carria%e of +in- "3ear the cere&onia cap of Chau- "Let the &usic ,e the Shao !ith its panto&i&es- Banish the son%s of Chan%( an# *eep far fro& specious ta *ers- The son%s of Chan% are icentious1 specious ta *ers are #an%erous-" The Master sai#( "If a &an ta*e no thou%ht a,out !hat is #istant( he !i fin# sorro! near at han#-" The Master sai#( "It is a o"er: I ha"e not seen one !ho o"es "irtue as he o"es ,eaut)-" The Master sai#( "3as not Tsan% 3an i*e one !ho ha# sto en his situation$ 2e *ne! the "irtue an# the ta ents of 2ui of Liu.hsia( an# )et #i# not procure that he shou # stan# !ith hi& in court-" The Master sai#( "2e !ho re'uires &uch fro& hi&se f an# itt e fro& others( !i *eep hi&se f fro& ,ein% the o,8ect of resent&ent-" The Master sai#( "3hen a &an is not in the ha,it of sa)in%.53hat sha I thin* of this$ 3hat sha I thin* of this$5 I can in#ee# #o nothin% !ith hi&:" The Master sai#( "3hen a nu&,er of peop e are to%ether( for a !ho e #a)( !ithout their con"ersation turnin% on ri%hteousness( an# !hen the) are fon# of carr)in% out the su%%estions of a s&a shre!#ness1.theirs is in#ee# a har# case-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an in e"er)thin% consi#ers ri%hteousness to ,e essentia - 2e perfor&s it accor#in% to the ru es of propriet)- 2e ,rin%s it forth in hu&i it)- 2e co&p etes it !ith sincerit)- This is in#ee# a superior &an-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an is #istresse# ,) his !ant of a,i it)- 2e is not #istresse# ,) &en5s not

*no!in% hi&-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an #is i*es the thou%ht of his na&e not ,ein% &entione# after his #eath-" The Master sai#( "3hat the superior &an see*s( is in hi&se f- 3hat the &ean &an see*s( is in others-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an is #i%nifie#( ,ut #oes not !ran% e2e is socia, e( ,ut not a partisan-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an #oes not pro&ote a &an si&p ) on account of his !or#s( nor #oes he put asi#e %oo# !or#s ,ecause of the &an-" Ts4e.*un% as*e#( sa)in%( "Is there one !or# !hich &a) ser"e as a ru e of practice for a one5s ife$" The Master sai#( "Is not ?ECI7?OCIT+ such a !or#$ 3hat )ou #o not !ant #one to )ourse f( #o not #o to others-" The Master sai#( "In &) #ea in%s !ith &en( !hose e"i #o I , a&e( !hose %oo#ness #o I praise( ,e)on# !hat is proper$ If I #o so&eti&es e/cee# in praise( there &ust ,e %roun# for it in &) e/a&ination of the in#i"i#ua "This peop e supp ie# the %roun# !h) the three #)nasties pursue# the path of strai%htfor!ar#ness-" The Master sai#( "E"en in &) ear ) #a)s( a historio%rapher !ou # ea"e a , an* in his te/t( an# he !ho ha# a horse !ou # en# hi& to another to ri#e- No!( a as: there are no such thin%s-" The Master sai#( "Specious !or#s confoun# "irtue- 3ant of for,earance in s&a &atters confoun#s %reat p ans-" The Master sai#( "3hen the &u titu#e hate a &an( it is necessar) to e/a&ine into the case- 3hen the &u titu#e i*e a &an( it is necessar) to e/a&ine into the case-" The Master sai#( "A &an can en ar%e the princip es !hich he fo o!s1 those princip es #o not en ar%e the &an-" The Master sai#( "To ha"e fau ts an# not to refor& the&(.this( in#ee#( shou # ,e pronounce# ha"in% fau ts-" The Master sai#( "I ha"e ,een the !ho e #a) !ithout eatin%( an# the !ho e ni%ht !ithout s eepin%0.occupie# !ith thin*in%It !as of no use- ,etter p an is to earn-" The Master sai#( "The o,8ect of the superior &an is truth- Foo# is not his o,8ect- There is p o!in%1.e"en in that there is so&eti&es !ant- So !ith earnin%1.e&o u&ent &a) ,e foun# in itThe superior &an is an/ious est he shou # not %et truth1 he is not an/ious

est po"ert) shou # co&e upon hi&-" The Master sai#( "3hen a &an5s *no! e#%e is sufficient to attain( an# his "irtue is not sufficient to ena, e hi& to ho #( !hate"er he &a) ha"e %aine#( he !i ose a%ain- "3hen his *no! e#%e is sufficient to attain( an# he has "irtue enou%h to ho # fast( if he cannot %o"ern !ith #i%nit)( the peop e !i not respect hi&- "3hen his *no! e#%e is sufficient to attain( an# he has "irtue enou%h to ho # fast1 !hen he %o"erns a so !ith #i%nit)( )et if he tr) to &o"e the peop e contrar) to the ru es of propriet)0.fu e/ce ence is not reache#-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an cannot ,e *no!n in itt e &atters1 ,ut he &a) ,e intruste# !ith %reat concerns- The s&a &an &a) not ,e intruste# !ith %reat concerns( ,ut he &a) ,e *no!n in itt e &atters-" The Master sai#( "@irtue is &ore to &an than either !ater or fire- I ha"e seen &en #ie fro& trea#in% on !ater an# fire( ,ut I ha"e ne"er seen a &an #ie fro& trea#in% the course of "irtue-" The Master sai#( "Let e"er) &an consi#er "irtue as !hat #e"o "es on hi&se f2e &a) not )ie # the perfor&ance of it e"en to his teacher-" The Master sai#( "The superior &an is correct ) fir&( an# not fir& &ere )-" The Master sai#( "A &inister( in ser"in% his prince( re"erent ) #ischar%es his #uties( an# &a*es his e&o u&ent a secon#ar) consi#eration-" The Master sai#( "In teachin% there shou # ,e no #istinction of c asses-" The Master sai#( "Those !hose courses are #ifferent cannot a) p ans for one another-" The Master sai#( "In an%ua%e it is si&p ) re'uire# that it con"e) the &eanin%-" The &usic &aster( Mien( ha"in% ca e# upon hi&( !hen the) ca&e to the steps( the Master sai#( "2ere are the steps-" 3hen the) ca&e to the &at for the %uest to sit upon( he sai#( "2ere is the &at-" 3hen a !ere seate#( the Master infor&e# hi&( sa)in%( "So an# so is here1 so an# so is here-" The &usic &aster( Mien( ha"in% %one out( Ts4e.chan% as*e#( sa)in%- "Is it the ru e to te those thin%s to the &usic &aster$" The Master sai#( "+es- This is certain ) the ru e for those !ho ea# the , in#-" 1A The hea# of the Chi fa&i ) !as %oin% to attac* Ch!an.)u- =an +u an# Chi. u ha# an inter"ie! !ith Confucius( an# sai#( "Our chief( Chi is %oin% to co&&ence operations a%ainst Ch!an.)u-" Confucius sai#( "Ch5iu( is it not )ou !ho are in fau t here$ "No!( in re%ar# to Ch!an.)u( on% a%o( a for&er *in%

appointe# its ru er to presi#e o"er the sacrifices to the eastern Man%1 &oreo"er( it is in the &i#st of the territor) of our state1 an# its ru er is a &inister in #irect connection !ith the so"erei%n0 3hat has )our chief to #o !ith attac*in% it$" =an +u sai#( "Our &aster !ishes the thin%1 neither of us t!o &inisters !ishes it-" Confucius sai#( "Ch5iu( there are the !or#s of Chau =an( .53hen he can put forth his a,i it)( he ta*es his p ace in the ran*s of office1 !hen he fin#s hi&se f una, e to #o so( he retires fro& it- 2o! can he ,e use# as a %ui#e to a , in# &an( !ho #oes not support hi& !hen totterin%( nor raise hi& up !hen fa en$5 "An# further( )ou spea* !ron% )- 3hen a ti%er or rhinoceros escapes fro& his ca%e1 !hen a tortoise or piece of 8a#e is in8ure# in its repositor)0.!hose is the fau t$" =an +u sai#( "But at present( Ch!an.)u is stron% an# near to 7i1 if our chief #o not no! ta*e it( it !i hereafter ,e a sorro! to his #escen#ants-" Confucius sai#- "Ch5iu( the superior &an hates those #ec inin% to sa).5I !ant such an# such a thin%(5 an# fra&in% e/p anations for their con#uct- "I ha"e hear# that ru ers of states an# chiefs of fa&i ies are not trou, e# est their peop e shou # ,e fe!( ,ut are trou, e# est the) shou # not *eep their se"era p aces1 that the) are not trou, e# !ith fears of po"ert)( ,ut are trou, e# !ith fears of a !ant of contente# repose a&on% the peop e in their se"era p aces- For !hen the peop e *eep their se"era p aces( there !i ,e no po"ert)1 !hen har&on) pre"ai s( there !i ,e no scarcit) of peop e1 an# !hen there is such a contente# repose( there !i ,e no re,e ious upsettin%s- "So it is-.Therefore( if re&oter peop e are not su,&issi"e( a the inf uences of ci"i cu ture an# "irtue are to ,e cu ti"ate# to attract the& to ,e so1 an# !hen the) ha"e ,een so attracte#( the) &ust ,e &a#e contente# an# tran'ui "No!( here are )ou( +u an# Ch5iu( assistin% )our chief- ?e&oter peop e are not su,&issi"e( an#( !ith )our he p( he cannot attract the& to hi&- In his o!n territor) there are #i"isions an# #o!nfa s( ea"in%s an# separations( an#( !ith )our he p( he cannot preser"e it- "An# )et he is p annin% these hosti e &o"e&ents !ithin the state-.I a& afrai# that the sorro! of the Chi.sun fa&i ) !i not ,e on account of Ch!an.)u( ,ut !i ,e foun# !ithin the screen of their o!n court-" Confucius sai#( "3hen %oo# %o"ern&ent pre"ai s in the e&pire( cere&onies( &usic( an# puniti"e &i itar) e/pe#itions procee# fro& the son of 2ea"en- 3hen ,a# %o"ern&ent pre"ai s in the e&pire( cere&onies( &usic( an# puniti"e &i itar) e/pe#itions procee# fro& the

princes- 3hen these thin%s procee# fro& the princes( as a ru e( the cases !i ,e fe! in !hich the) #o not ose their po!er in ten %enerations3hen the) procee# fro& the %reat officers of the princes( as a ru e( the case !i ,e fe! in !hich the) #o not ose their po!er in fi"e %enerations- 3hen the su,si#iar) &inisters of the %reat officers ho # in their %rasp the or#ers of the state( as a ru e the cases !i ,e fe! in !hich the) #o not ose their po!er in three %enerations- "3hen ri%ht princip es pre"ai in the *in%#o&( %o"ern&ent !i not ,e in the han#s of the %reat officers- "3hen ri%ht princip es pre"ai in the *in%#o&( there !i ,e no #iscussions a&on% the co&&on peop e-" Confucius sai#( "The re"enue of the state has eft the #uca house no! for fi"e %enerations- The %o"ern&ent has ,een in the han#s of the %reat officers for four %enerations- On this account( the #escen#ants of the three 2!an are &uch re#uce#-" Confucius sai#( "There are three frien#ships !hich are a#"anta%eous( an# three !hich are in8urious- Frien#ship !ith the up i%ht1 frien#ship !ith the sincere1 an# frien#ship !ith the &an of &uch o,ser"ation0.these are a#"anta%eous- Frien#ship !ith the &an of specious airs1 frien#ship !ith the insinuatin% ) soft1 an# frien#ship !ith the % i,.ton%ue#0.these are in8urious-" Confucius sai#( "There are three thin%s &en fin# en8o)&ent in !hich are a#"anta%eous( an# three thin%s the) fin# en8o)&ent in !hich are in8urious- To fin# en8o)&ent in the #iscri&inatin% stu#) of cere&onies an# &usic1 to fin# en8o)&ent in spea*in% of the %oo#ness of others1 to fin# en8o)&ent in ha"in% &an) !orth) frien#s0.these are a#"anta%eous- To fin# en8o)&ent in e/tra"a%ant p easures1 to fin# en8o)&ent in i# eness an# saunterin%1 to fin# en8o)&ent in the p easures of feastin%0.these are in8urious-" Confucius sai#( "There are three errors to !hich the) !ho stan# in the presence of a &an of "irtue an# station are ia, e- The) &a) spea* !hen it #oes not co&e to the& to spea*1.this is ca e# rashness- The) &a) not spea* !hen it co&es to the& to spea*1.this is ca e# concea &ent- The) &a) spea* !ithout oo*in% at the countenance of their superior1.this is ca e# , in#ness-" Confucius sai#( "There are three thin%s !hich the superior &an %uar#s a%ainst- In )outh( !hen the ph)sica po!ers are

not )et sett e#( he %uar#s a%ainst ust- 3hen he is stron% an# the ph)sica po!ers are fu of "i%or( he %uar#s a%ainst 'uarre so&eness- 3hen he is o #( an# the ani&a po!ers are #eca)e#( he %uar#s a%ainst co"etousness-" Confucius sai#( "There are three thin%s of !hich the superior &an stan#s in a!e2e stan#s in a!e of the or#inances of 2ea"en- 2e stan#s in a!e of %reat &en- 2e stan#s in a!e of the !or#s of sa%es- "The &ean &an #oes not *no! the or#inances of 2ea"en( an# conse'uent ) #oes not stan# in a!e of the&2e is #isrespectfu to %reat &en- 2e &a*es sport of the !or#s of sa%es-" Confucius sai#( "Those !ho are ,orn !ith the possession of *no! e#%e are the hi%hest c ass of &en- Those !ho earn( an# so rea#i ) %et possession of *no! e#%e( are the ne/t- Those !ho are #u an# stupi#( an# )et co&pass the earnin%( are another c ass ne/t to these- As to those !ho are #u an# stupi# an# )et #o not earn1.the) are the o!est of the peop e-" Confucius sai#( "The superior &an has nine thin%s !hich are su,8ects !ith hi& of thou%htfu consi#eration- In re%ar# to the use of his e)es( he is an/ious to see c ear )- In re%ar# to the use of his ears( he is an/ious to hear #istinct )In re%ar# to his countenance( he is an/ious that it shou # ,e ,eni%n- In re%ar# to his #e&eanor( he is an/ious that it shou # ,e respectfu - In re%ar# to his speech( he is an/ious that it shou # ,e sincere- In re%ar# to his #oin% of ,usiness( he is an/ious that it shou # ,e re"erent ) carefu - In re%ar# to !hat he #ou,ts a,out( he is an/ious to 'uestion others- 3hen he is an%r)( he thin*s of the #ifficu ties his an%er &a) in"o "e hi& in- 3hen he sees %ain to ,e %ot( he thin*s of ri%hteousness-" Confucius sai#( "Conte&p atin% %oo#( an# pursuin% it( as if the) cou # not reach it1 conte&p atin% e"i : an# shrin*in% fro& it( as the) !ou # fro& thrustin% the han# into ,oi in% !ater0.I ha"e seen such &en( as I ha"e hear# such !or#s"Li"in% in retire&ent to stu#) their ai&s( an# practicin% ri%hteousness to carr) out their princip es0.I ha"e hear# these !or#s( ,ut I ha"e not seen such &en-" The 6u*e Chin% of Ch5i ha# a thousan# tea&s( each of four horses( ,ut on the #a) of his #eath( the peop e #i# not praise hi& for a sin% e "irtue- 7o.i an# Shu.ch5i #ie# of hun%er at the foot of the Shau.)an% &ountains( an# the peop e( #o!n to the present ti&e( praise the&- "Is not that sa)in% i ustrate# ,) this$" Ch5an ;5an% as*e# 7o.)u( sa)in%( "2a"e )ou

hear# an) essons fro& )our father #ifferent fro& !hat !e ha"e a hear#$" 7o.)u rep ie#( "No- 2e !as stan#in% a one once( !hen I passe# ,e o! the ha !ith hast) steps( an# sai# to &e( 52a"e )ou earne# the O#es$5 On &) rep )in% 5Not )et(5 he a##e#( If )ou #o not earn the O#es( )ou !i not ,e fit to con"erse !ith-5 I retire# an# stu#ie# the O#es- "Another #a)( he !as in the sa&e !a) stan#in% a one( !hen I passe# ,) ,e o! the ha !ith hast) steps( an# sai# to &e( 52a"e )ou earne# the ru es of 7ropriet)$5 On &) rep )in% 5Not )et(5 he a##e#( 5If )ou #o not earn the ru es of 7ropriet)( )our character cannot ,e esta, ishe#-5 I then retire#( an# earne# the ru es of 7ropriet)- "I ha"e hear# on ) these t!o thin%s fro& hi&-" Ch5an% ;5an% retire#( an#( 'uite #e i%hte#( sai#( "I as*e# one thin%( an# I ha"e %ot three thin%s- I ha"e hear# a,out the O#es- I ha"e hear# a,out the ru es of 7ropriet)- I ha"e a so hear# that the superior &an &aintains a #istant reser"e to!ar#s his son-" The !ife of the prince of a state is ca e# ,) hi& Fu =an- She ca s herse f 2siao T5un%- The peop e of the state ca her Chun Fu =an( an#( to the peop e of other states( the) ca her ;5!a 2siao ChunThe peop e of other states a so ca her Chun Fu =an- 1C +an% 2o !ishe# to see Confucius( ,ut Confucius !ou # not %o to see hi&- On this( he sent a present of a pi% to Confucius( !ho( ha"in% chosen a ti&e !hen 2o !as not at ho&e !ent to pa) his respects for the %ift- 2e &et hi&( ho!e"er( on the !a)- 2o sai# to Confucius( "Co&e( et &e spea* !ith )ou-" 2e then as*e#( "Can he ,e ca e# ,ene"o ent !ho *eeps his 8e!e in his ,oso&( an# ea"es his countr) to confusion$" Confucius rep ie#( "No-" "Can he ,e ca e# !ise( !ho is an/ious to ,e en%a%e# in pu, ic e&p o)&ent( an# )et is constant ) osin% the opportunit) of ,ein% so$" Confucius a%ain sai#( "No-" "The #a)s an# &onths are passin% a!a)1 the )ears #o not !ait for us-" Confucius sai#( "?i%ht1 I !i %o into office-" The Master sai#( "B) nature( &en are near ) a i*e1 ,) practice( the) %et to ,e !i#e apart-" The Master sai#( "There are on ) the !ise of the hi%hest c ass( an# the stupi# of the o!est c ass( !ho cannot ,e chan%e#-" The Master( ha"in% co&e to 3u. ch5an%( hear# there the soun# of strin%e# instru&ents an# sin%in%- 3e p ease# an# s&i in%( he sai#( "3h) use an o/ *nife to *i a fo! $" Ts4e.)u rep ie#( "For&er )( Master( I hear# )ou sa)(.53hen the &an of hi%h station is !e

instructe#( he o"es &en1 !hen the &an of o! station is !e instructe#( he is easi ) ru e#-5" The Master sai#( "M) #iscip es( +en5s !or#s are ri%ht3hat I sai# !as on ) in sport-" ;un%.shan Fu.4ao( !hen he !as ho #in% 7i( an# in an attitu#e of re,e ion( in"ite# the Master to "isit hi&( !ho !as rather inc ine# to %o- Ts4e. u !as #isp ease#- an# sai#( "In#ee#( )ou cannot %o: 3h) &ust )ou thin* of %oin% to see ;un%.shan$" The Master sai#( "Can it ,e !ithout so&e reason that he has in"ite# ME$ If an) one e&p o) &e( &a) I not &a*e an eastern Chau$" Ts4e.chan% as*e# Confucius a,out perfect "irtueConfucius sai#( "To ,e a, e to practice fi"e thin%s e"er)!here un#er hea"en constitutes perfect "irtue-" 2e ,e%%e# to as* !hat the) !ere( an# !as to #( "Bra"it)( %enerosit) of sou ( sincerit)( earnestness( an# *in#ness- If )ou are %ra"e( )ou !i not ,e treate# !ith #isrespect- If )ou are %enerous( )ou !i !in a - If )ou are sincere( peop e !i repose trust in )ou- If )ou are earnest( )ou !i acco&p ish &uch- If )ou are *in#( this !i ena, e )ou to e&p o) the ser"ices of others- 7i 2si in"itin% hi& to "isit hi&( the Master !as inc ine# to %o- Ts4e. u sai#( "Master( for&er ) I ha"e hear# )ou sa)( 53hen a &an in his o!n person is %ui t) of #oin% e"i ( a superior &an !i not associate !ith hi&-5 7i 2si is in re,e ion( ho #in% possession of Chun%.&au1 if )ou %o to hi&( !hat sha ,e sai#$" The Master sai#( "+es( I #i# use these !or#s- But is it not sai#( that( if a thin% ,e rea ) har#( it &a) ,e %roun# !ithout ,ein% &a#e thin$ Is it not sai#( that( if a thin% ,e rea ) !hite( it &a) ,e steepe# in a #ar* f ui# !ithout ,ein% &a#e , ac*$ "A& I a ,itter %our#$ 2o! can I ,e hun% up out of the !a) of ,ein% eaten$" The Master sai#( "+u( ha"e )ou hear# the si/ !or#s to !hich are attache# si/ ,ec ou#in%s$" +u rep ie#( "I ha"e not-" "Sit #o!n( an# I !i te the& to )ou- "There is the o"e of ,ein% ,ene"o ent !ithout the o"e of earnin%1. the ,ec ou#in% here ea#s to a foo ish si&p icit)- There is the o"e of *no!in% !ithout the o"e of earnin%1.the ,ec ou#in% here ea#s to #issipation of &in#- There is the o"e of ,ein% sincere !ithout the o"e of earnin%1.the ,ec ou#in% here ea#s to an in8urious #isre%ar# of conse'uences- There is the o"e of strai%htfor!ar#ness !ithout the o"e of earnin%1.the ,ec ou#in% here ea#s to ru#eness- There is the o"e of ,o #ness !ithout the o"e of earnin%1.the ,ec ou#in% here ea#s to insu,or#ination- There is the o"e of fir&ness !ithout the o"e of earnin%1.the ,ec ou#in% here ea#s to

e/tra"a%ant con#uct-" The Master sai#( "M) chi #ren( !h) #o )ou not stu#) the Boo* of 7oetr)$ "The O#es ser"e to sti&u ate the &in#- "The) &a) ,e use# for purposes of se f.conte&p ation- "The) teach the art of socia,i it)- "The) sho! ho! to re%u ate fee in%s of resent&ent- "Fro& the& )ou earn the &ore i&&e#iate #ut) of ser"in% one5s father( an# the re&oter one of ser"in% one5s prince- "Fro& the& !e ,eco&e ar%e ) ac'uainte# !ith the na&es of ,ir#s( ,easts( an# p ants-" The Master sai# to 7o.)u( "6o )ou %i"e )ourse f to the Chau.nan an# the Shao.nan- The &an !ho has not stu#ie# the Chau.nan an# the Shao.nan is i*e one !ho stan#s !ith his face ri%ht a%ainst a !a - Is he not so$" The Master sai#( "5It is accor#in% to the ru es of propriet)(5 the) sa)-.5It is accor#in% to the ru es of propriet)(5 the) sa)- Are %e&s an# si * a that is &eant ,) propriet)$ 5It is &usic(5 the) sa)-.5It is &usic(5 the) sa)- Are hers an# #ru&s a that is &eant ,) &usic$" The Master sai#( "2e !ho puts on an appearance of stern fir&ness( !hi e in!ar# ) he is !ea*( is i*e one of the s&a ( &ean peop e1.)ea( is he not i*e the thief !ho ,rea*s throu%h( or c i&,s o"er( a !a $" The Master sai#( "+our %oo#( carefu peop e of the "i a%es are the thie"es of "irtue-" The Master sai#( To te ( as !e %o a on%( !hat !e ha"e hear# on the !a)( is to cast a!a) our "irtue-" The Master sai#( "There are those &ean creatures: 2o! i&possi, e it is a on% !ith the& to ser"e one5s prince: "3hi e the) ha"e not %ot their ai&s( their an/iet) is ho! to %et the&- 3hen the) ha"e %ot the&( their an/iet) is est the) shou # ose the&- "3hen the) are an/ious est such thin%s shou # ,e ost( there is nothin% to !hich the) !i not procee#-" The Master sai#( "Ancient )( &en ha# three fai in%s( !hich no! perhaps are not to ,e foun#"The hi%h.&in#e#ness of anti'uit) sho!e# itse f in a #isre%ar# of s&a thin%s1 the hi%h.&in#e#ness of the present #a) sho!s itse f in !i # icenseThe stern #i%nit) of anti'uit) sho!e# itse f in %ra"e reser"e1 the stern #i%nit) of the present #a) sho!s itse f in 'uarre so&e per"erseness- The stupi#it) of anti'uit) sho!e# itse f in strai%htfor!ar#ness1 the stupi#it) of the present #a) sho!s itse f in sheer #eceit-" The Master sai#( "Fine !or#s an# an insinuatin% appearance are se #o& associate# !ith "irtue-" The Master

sai#( "I hate the &anner in !hich purp e ta*es a!a) the uster of "er&i ionI hate the !a) in !hich the son%s of Chan% confoun# the &usic of the +a- I hate those !ho !ith their sharp &ouths o"erthro! *in%#o&s an# fa&i ies-" The Master sai#( "I !ou # prefer not spea*in%-" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "If )ou( Master( #o not spea*( !hat sha !e( )our #iscip es( ha"e to recor#$" The Master sai#( "6oes 2ea"en spea*$ The four seasons pursue their courses( an# a thin%s are continua ) ,ein% pro#uce#( ,ut #oes 2ea"en sa) an)thin%$" =u 7ei !ishe# to see Confucius( ,ut Confucius #ec ine#( on the %roun# of ,ein% sic*( to see hi&- 3hen the ,earer of this &essa%e !ent out at the #oor( the Master too* his ute an# san% to it( in or#er that 7ei &i%ht hear hi&- Tsai 3o as*e# a,out the three )ears5 &ournin% for parents( sa)in% that one )ear !as on% enou%h- "If the superior &an(" sai# he( "a,stains for three )ears fro& the o,ser"ances of propriet)( those o,ser"ances !i ,e 'uite ost- If for three )ears he a,stains fro& &usic( &usic !i ,e ruine#- 3ithin a )ear the o # %rain is e/hauste#( an# the ne! %rain has sprun% up( an#( in procurin% fire ,) friction( !e %o throu%h a the chan%es of !oo# for that purpose- After a co&p ete )ear( the &ournin% &a) stop-" The Master sai#( "If )ou !ere( after a )ear( to eat %oo# rice( an# !ear e&,roi#ere# c othes( !ou # )ou fee at ease$" "I shou #(" rep ie# 3o- The Master sai#( "If )ou can fee at ease( #o it- But a superior &an( #urin% the !ho e perio# of &ournin%( #oes not en8o) p easant foo# !hich he &a) eat( nor #eri"e p easure fro& &usic !hich he &a) hear- 2e a so #oes not fee at ease( if he is co&forta, ) o#%e#- Therefore he #oes not #o !hat )ou propose- But no! )ou fee at ease an# &a) #o it-" Tsai 3o then !ent out( an# the Master sai#( "This sho!s +u5s !ant of "irtueIt is not ti a chi # is three )ears o # that it is a o!e# to ea"e the ar&s of its parents- An# the three )ears5 &ournin% is uni"ersa ) o,ser"e# throu%hout the e&pire- 6i# +u en8o) the three )ears5 o"e of his parents$" The Master sai#( "2ar# is it to #ea !ith !ho !i stuff hi&se f !ith foo# the !ho e #a)( !ithout app )in% his &in# to an)thin% %oo#: Are there not

%a&esters an# chess p a)ers$ To ,e one of these !ou # sti ,e ,etter than #oin% nothin% at a -" Ts4e. u sai#( "6oes the superior &an estee& "a or$" The Master sai#( "The superior &an ho #s ri%hteousness to ,e of hi%hest i&portance- A &an in a superior situation( ha"in% "a or !ithout ri%hteousness( !i ,e %ui t) of insu,or#ination1 one of the o!er peop e ha"in% "a or !ithout ri%hteousness( !i co&&it ro,,er)-" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "2as the superior &an his hatre#s a so$" The Master sai#( "2e has his hatre#s- 2e hates those !ho proc ai& the e"i of others- 2e hates the &an !ho( ,ein% in a o! station( s an#ers his superiors- 2e hates those !ho ha"e "a or &ere )( an# are uno,ser"ant of propriet)- 2e hates those !ho are for!ar# an# #eter&ine#( an#( at the sa&e ti&e( of contracte# un#erstan#in%-" The Master then in'uire#( "Ts54e( ha"e )ou a so )our hatre#s$" Ts4e. *un% rep ie#( "I hate those !ho pr) out &atters( an# ascri,e the *no! e#%e to their !is#o&- I hate those !ho are on ) not &o#est( an# thin* that the) are "a orous- I hate those !ho &a*e *no!n secrets( an# thin* that the) are strai%htfor!ar#-" The Master sai#( "Of a peop e( %ir s an# ser"ants are the &ost #ifficu t to ,eha"e to- If )ou are fa&i iar !ith the&( the) ose their hu&i it)- If )ou &aintain a reser"e to!ar#s the&( the) are #iscontente#-" The Master sai#( "3hen a &an at fort) is the o,8ect of #is i*e( he !i a !a)s continue !hat he is-" 1D The @iscount of 3ei !ith#re! fro& the court- The @iscount of Chi ,eca&e a s a"e to Chau- 7i.*an re&onstrate# !ith hi& an# #ie#- Confucius sai#( "The +in #)nast) possesse# these three &en of "irtue-" 2ui of Liu.hsia( ,ein% chief cri&ina 8u#%e( !as thrice #is&isse# fro& his office- So&e one sai# to hi&( "Is it not )et ti&e for )ou( sir( to ea"e this$" 2e rep ie#( "Ser"in% &en in an upri%ht !a)( !here sha I %o to( an# not e/perience such a thrice.repeate# #is&issa $ If I choose to ser"e &en in a croo*e# !a)( !hat necessit) is there for &e to ea"e the countr) of &) parents$" The #u*e Chin% of Ch5i( !ith reference to the &anner in !hich he shou # treat Confucius( sai#( "I cannot treat hi& as I !ou # the chief of the Chi fa&i )- I !i treat hi& in a &anner ,et!een that accor#e# to the chief of the Chi an# that

%i"en to the chief of the Man% fa&i )-" 2e a so sai#( "I a& o #1 I cannot use his #octrines-" Confucius too* his #eparture- The peop e of Ch5i sent to Lu a present of fe&a e &usicians( !hich Chi 2!an recei"e#( an# for three #a)s no court !as he #- Confucius too* his #eparture- The &a#&an of Ch5u( Chieh.)u( passe# ,) Confucius( sin%in% an# sa)in%( "O FANB: O FANB: 2o! is )our "irtue #e%enerate#: As to the past( reproof is use ess1 ,ut the future &a) sti ,e pro"i#e# a%ainst- Bi"e up )our "ain pursuit- Bi"e up )our "ain pursuit7eri a!aits those !ho no! en%a%e in affairs of %o"ern&ent-" Confucius a i%hte# an# !ishe# to con"erse !ith hi&( ,ut Chieh.)u hastene# a!a)( so that he cou # not ta * !ith hi&- Ch5an%.tsu an# Chieh.ni !ere at !or* in the fie # to%ether( !hen Confucius passe# ,) the&( an# sent Ts4e. u to in'uire for the for#Ch5an%.tsu sai#( "3ho is he that ho #s the reins in the carria%e there$" Ts4e. u to # hi&( "It is ;5un% Ch5iu-5( "Is it not ;5un% of Lu$" as*e# he"+es(" !as the rep )( to !hich the other re8oine#( "2e *no!s the for#-" Ts4e. u then in'uire# of Chieh.ni( !ho sai# to hi&( "3ho are )ou( sir$" 2e ans!ere#( "I a& Chun% +u-" "Are )ou not the #iscip e of ;5un% Ch5iu of Lu$" as*e# the other- "I a&(" rep ie# he( an# then Chieh.ni sai# to hi&( "6isor#er( i*e a s!e in% f oo#( sprea#s o"er the !ho e e&pire( an# !ho is he that !i chan%e its state for )ou$ ?ather than fo o! one !ho &ere ) !ith#ra!s fro& this one an# that one( ha# )ou not ,etter fo o! those !ho ha"e !ith#ra!n fro& the !or # a to%ether$" 3ith this he fe to co"erin% up the see#( an# procee#e# !ith his !or*( !ithout stoppin%- Ts4e. u !ent an# reporte# their re&ar*s( !hen the Master o,ser"e# !ith a si%h( "It is i&possi, e to associate !ith ,ir#s an# ,easts( as if the) !ere the sa&e !ith us- If I associate not !ith these peop e(.!ith &an*in#(.!ith !ho& sha I associate$ If ri%ht princip es pre"ai e# throu%h the e&pire( there !ou # ,e no use for &e to chan%e its state-" Ts4e. u( fo o!in% the Master( happene# to fa ,ehin#( !hen he &et an o # &an( carr)in% across his shou #er on a staff a ,as*et for !ee#s- Ts4e. u sai# to hi&( "2a"e )ou seen &) &aster( sir$" The o # &an rep ie#( "+our four i&,s are unaccusto&e# to toi 1 )ou

cannot #istin%uish the fi"e *in#s of %rain0.!ho is )our &aster$" 3ith this( he p ante# his staff in the %roun#( an# procee#e# to !ee#- Ts4e. u 8oine# his han#s across his ,reast( an# stoo# ,efore hi&- The o # &an *ept Ts4e. u to pass the ni%ht in his house( *i e# a fo! ( prepare# &i et( an# feaste# hi&2e a so intro#uce# to hi& his t!o sons- Ne/t #a)( Ts4e. u !ent on his !a)( an# reporte# his a#"enture- The Master sai#( "2e is a rec use(" an# sent Ts4e. u ,ac* to see hi& a%ain( ,ut !hen he %ot to the p ace( the o # &an !as %one- Ts4e. u then sai# to the fa&i )( "Not to ta*e office is not ri%hteousIf the re ations ,et!een o # an# )oun% &a) not ,e ne% ecte#( ho! is it that he sets asi#e the #uties that shou # ,e o,ser"e# ,et!een so"erei%n an# &inister$ 3ishin% to &aintain his persona purit)( he a o!s that %reat re ation to co&e to confusion- A superior &an ta*es office( an# perfor&s the ri%hteous #uties ,e on%in% to it- As to the fai ure of ri%ht princip es to &a*e pro%ress( he is a!are of that-" The &en !ho ha"e retire# to pri"ac) fro& the !or # ha"e ,een 7o.i( Shu.ch5i( +uchun%( I.)i( Chu.chan%( 2ui of Liu.hsia( an# Shao. ien- The Master sai#( "?efusin% to surren#er their !i s( or to su,&it to an) taint in their persons1 such( I thin*( !ere 7o.i an# Shu.ch5i- "It &a) ,e sai# of 2ui of Liu.hsia: an# of Shao ien( that the) surren#ere# their !i s( an# su,&itte# to taint in their persons( ,ut their !or#s correspon#e# !ith reason( an# their actions !ere such as &en are an/ious to see- This is a that is to ,e re&ar*e# in the&- "It &a) ,e sai# of +u.chun% an# I.)i( that( !hi e the) hi# the&se "es in their sec usion( the) %a"e a icense to their !or#s1 ,ut in their persons( the) succee#e# in preser"in% their purit)( an#( in their retire&ent( the) acte# accor#in% to the e/i%enc) of the ti&es- "I a& #ifferent fro& a these- I ha"e no course for !hich I a& pre#eter&ine#( an# no course a%ainst !hich I a& pre#eter&ine#-" The %ran# &usic &aster( Chih( !ent to Ch5i- ;an( the &aster of the ,an# at the secon# &ea ( !ent to Ch5u- Liao( the ,an# &aster at the thir# &ea ( !ent to Ts5ai- Chueh( the ,an# &aster at the fourth &ea ( !ent to Ch5in- Fan%.shu( the #ru& &aster( !ith#re! to the north of the ri"er- 3u( the &aster of the han# #ru&( !ith#re! to the 2an- +an%( the assistant &usic &aster( an# 2sian%( &aster of the &usica stone( !ith#re! to an is an# in the sea- The #u*e of Chau a##resse# his son( the #u*e of Lu( sa)in%( "The

"irtuous prince #oes not ne% ect his re ations- 2e #oes not cause the %reat &inisters to repine at his not e&p o)in% the&- 3ithout so&e %reat cause( he #oes not #is&iss fro& their offices the &e&,ers of o # fa&i ies- 2e #oes not see* in one &an ta ents for e"er) e&p o)&ent-" To Chau ,e on%e# the ei%ht officers( 7o.ta( 7o.*!o( Chun%.tu( Chun%.h!u( Shu.)a( Shuhsia( Chi.sui( an# Chi.*!a1E Ts4e.chan% sai#( "The scho ar( traine# for pu, ic #ut)( seein% threatenin% #an%er( is prepare# to sacrifice his ife- 3hen the opportunit) of %ain is presente# to hi&( he thin*s of ri%hteousness- In sacrificin%( his thou%hts are re"erentia - In &ournin%( his thou%hts are a,out the %rief !hich he shou # fee - Such a &an co&&an#s our appro,ation in#ee# Ts4e.chan% sai#( "3hen a &an ho #s fast to "irtue( ,ut !ithout see*in% to en ar%e it( an# ,e ie"es in ri%ht princip es( ,ut !ithout fir& sincerit)( !hat account can ,e &a#e of his e/istence or non.e/istence$" The #iscip es of Ts4e.hsia as*e# Ts4e.chan% a,out the princip es that shou # characteri4e &utua intercourseTs4e.chan% as*e#( "3hat #oes Ts4e.hsia sa) on the su,8ect$" The) rep ie#( "Ts4e.hsia sa)s0 5Associate !ith those !ho can a#"anta%e )ou- 7ut a!a) fro& )ou those !ho cannot #o so-5" Ts4e.chan% o,ser"e#( "This is #ifferent fro& !hat I ha"e earne#- The superior &an honors the ta ente# an# "irtuous( an# ,ears !ith a - 2e praises the %oo#( an# pities the inco&petent- A& I possesse# of %reat ta ents an# "irtue$.!ho is there a&on% &en !ho& I !i not ,ear !ith$ A& I #e"oi# of ta ents an# "irtue$.&en !i put &e a!a) fro& the&3hat ha"e !e to #o !ith the puttin% a!a) of others$" Ts4e.hsia sai#( "E"en in inferior stu#ies an# e&p o)&ents there is so&ethin% !orth ,ein% oo*e# at1 ,ut if it ,e atte&pte# to carr) the& out to !hat is re&ote( there is a #an%er of their pro"in% inapp ica, e- Therefore( the superior &an #oes not practice the&-" Ts4e.hsia sai#( "2e( !ho fro& #a) to #a) reco%ni4es !hat he has not

)et( an# fro& &onth to &onth #oes not for%et !hat he has attaine# to( &a) ,e sai# in#ee# to o"e to earn-" Ts4e.hsia sai#( "There are earnin% e/tensi"e )( an# ha"in% a fir& an# sincere ai&1 in'uirin% !ith earnestness( an# ref ectin% !ith se f.app ication0."irtue is in such a course-" Ts4e.hsia sai#( "Mechanics ha"e their shops to #!e in( in or#er to acco&p ish their !or*s- The superior &an earns( in or#er to reach to the ut&ost of his princip es-" Ts4e.hsia sai#( "The &ean &an is sure to % oss his fau ts-" Ts4e.hsia sai#( "The superior &an un#er%oes three chan%es- Loo*e# at fro& a #istance( he appears stern1 !hen approache#( he is &i #1 !hen he is hear# to spea*( his an%ua%e is fir& an# #eci#e#-" Ts4e.hsia sai#( "The superior &an( ha"in% o,taine# their confi#ence( &a) then i&pose a,ors on his peop eIf he ha"e not %aine# their confi#ence( the) !i thin* that he is oppressin% the&2a"in% o,taine# the confi#ence of his prince( one &a) then re&onstrate !ith hi&- If he ha"e not %aine# his confi#ence( the prince !i thin* that he is "i if)in% hi&-" Ts4e.hsia sai#( "3hen a person #oes not trans%ress the ,oun#ar) ine in the %reat "irtues( he &a) pass an# repass it in the s&a "irtues-" Ts4e.)u sai#( "The #iscip es an# fo o!ers of Ts4e.hsia( in sprin* in% an# s!eepin% the %roun#( in ans!erin% an# rep )in%( in a#"ancin% an# rece#in%( are sufficient ) acco&p ishe#- But these are on ) the ,ranches of earnin%( an# the) are eft i%norant of !hat is essentia -.2o! can the) ,e ac*no! e#%e# as sufficient ) tau%ht$" Ts4e.hsia hear# of the re&ar* an# sai#( "A as: +en +u is !ron%- Accor#in% to the !a) of the superior &an in teachin%( !hat #epart&ents are there !hich he consi#ers of pri&e i&portance( an# #e i"ers$ !hat are there !hich he consi#ers of secon#ar) i&portance( an# a o!s hi&se f to ,e i# e a,out$ But as in the case of p ants( !hich are assorte# accor#in% to their c asses( so he #ea s !ith his #iscip es- 2o! can the !a) of a superior &an ,e such as to &a*e foo s of an) of the&$ Is it not the sa%e a one( !ho can unite in one the ,e%innin% an# the consu&&ation of earnin%$" Ts4e.hsia sai#( "The officer( ha"in% #ischar%e# a his #uties( shou # #e"ote his eisure to earnin%- The stu#ent( ha"in% co&p ete# his earnin%( shou # app ) hi&se f to ,e an officer-" Ts4e.hsia sai#( "Mournin%( ha"in% ,een carrie# to the ut&ost #e%ree of %rief( shou # stop !ith that-"

Ts4e.hsia sai#( "M) frien# Chan% can #o thin%s !hich are har# to ,e #one( ,ut )et he is not perfect ) "irtuous-" The phi osopher Tsan% sai#( "2o! i&posin% is the &anner of Chan%: It is #ifficu t a on% !ith hi& to practice "irtue-" The phi osopher Tsan% sai#( "I hear# this fro& our Master0 5Men &a) not ha"e sho!n !hat is in the& to the fu e/tent( an# )et the) !i ,e foun# to #o so( on the occasion of &ournin% for their parents-" The phi osopher Tsan% sai#( "I ha"e hear# this fro& our Master0.5The fi ia piet) of Man% Ch!an%( in other &atters( !as !hat other &en are co&petent to( ,ut( as seen in his not chan%in% the &inisters of his father( nor his father5s &o#e of %o"ern&ent( it is #ifficu t to ,e attaine# to-5" The chief of the Man% fa&i ) ha"in% appointe# +an% Fu to ,e chief cri&ina 8u#%e( the atter consu te# the phi osopher Tsan%- Tsan% sai#( "The ru ers ha"e fai e# in their #uties( an# the peop e conse'uent ) ha"e ,een #isor%ani4e# for a on% ti&e- 3hen )ou ha"e foun# out the truth of an) accusation( ,e %rie"e# for an# pit) the&( an# #o not fee 8o) at )our o!n a,i it)-" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "Chau5s !ic*e#ness !as not so %reat as that na&e i&p ies- Therefore( the superior &an hates to #!e in a o!. )in% situation( !here a the e"i of the !or # !i f o! in upon hi&-" Ts4e.*un% sai#( "The fau ts of the superior &an are i*e the ec ipses of the sun an# &oon- 2e has his fau ts( an# a &en see the&1 he chan%es a%ain( an# a &en oo* up to hi&-" ;un%.sun Ch5ao of 3ei as*e# Ts4e*un%( sa)in%- "Fro& !ho& #i# Chun%.ni %et his earnin%$" Ts4e.*un% rep ie#( "The #octrines of 3an an# 3u ha"e not )et fa en to the %roun#- The) are to ,e foun# a&on% &en- Men of ta ents an# "irtue re&e&,er the %reater princip es of the&( an# others( not possessin% such ta ents an# "irtue( re&e&,er the s&a er- Thus( a possess the #octrines of 3an an# 3u- 3here cou # our Master %o that he shou # not ha"e an opportunit) of earnin% the&$ An# )et !hat necessit) !as there for his ha"in% a re%u ar &aster$" Shu.sun 3u. shu o,ser"e# to the %reat officers in the court( sa)in%( "Ts4e.*un% is superior

to Chun%.ni-" Ts4e.fu Chin%.po reporte# the o,ser"ation to Ts4e.*un%( !ho sai#( "Let &e use the co&parison of a house an# its enco&passin% !a M) !a on ) reaches to the shou #ers- One &a) peep o"er it( an# see !hate"er is "a ua, e in the apart&ents- "The !a of &) Master is se"era fatho&s hi%hIf one #o not fin# the #oor an# enter ,) it( he cannot see the ancestra te&p e !ith its ,eauties( nor a the officers in their rich arra)- "But I &a) assu&e that the) are fe! !ho fin# the #oor- 3as not the o,ser"ation of the chief on ) !hat &i%ht ha"e ,een e/pecte#$" Shu.sun 3u.shu ha"in% spo*en re"i in% ) of Chun%.ni( Ts4e.*un% sai#( "It is of no use #oin% so- Chun%. ni cannot ,e re"i e#- The ta ents an# "irtue of other &en are hi oc*s an# &oun#s !hich &a) ,e steppe# o"er- Chun%.ni is the sun or &oon( !hich it is not possi, e to step o"er- A thou%h a &an &a) !ish to cut hi&se f off fro& the sa%e( !hat har& can he #o to the sun or &oon$ 2e on ) sho!s that he #oes not *no! his o!n capacit)- Ch5an Ts4e.ch5 in( a##ressin% Ts4e.*un%( sai#( "+ou are too &o#est- 2o! can Chun%.ni ,e sai# to ,e superior to )ou$" Ts4e.*un% sai# to hi&( "For one !or# a &an is often #ee&e# to ,e !ise( an# for one !or# he is often #ee&e# to ,e foo ish- 3e ou%ht to ,e carefu in#ee# in !hat !e sa)- "Our Master cannot ,e attaine# to( 8ust in the sa&e !a) as the hea"ens cannot ,e %one up ,) the steps of a stair- "3ere our Master in the position of the ru er of a state or the chief of a fa&i )( !e shou # fin# "erifie# the #escription !hich has ,een %i"en of a sa%e5s ru e0.he !ou # p ant the peop e( an# forth!ith the) !ou # ,e esta, ishe#1 he !ou # ea# the& on( an# forth!ith the) !ou # fo o! hi&1 he !ou # &a*e the& happ)( an# forth!ith &u titu#es !ou # resort to his #o&inions1 he !ou # sti&u ate the&( an# forth!ith the) !ou # ,e har&onious- 3hi e he i"e#( he !ou # ,e % orious3hen he #ie#( he !ou # ,e ,itter ) a&ente#- 2o! is it possi, e for hi& to ,e attaine# to$" 90 +ao sai#( "Oh: )ou( Shun( the 2ea"en.#eter&ine# or#er of succession no! rests

in )our person- Sincere ) ho # fast the #ue Mean- If there sha ,e #istress an# !ant !ithin the four seas( the 2ea"en ) re"enue !i co&e to a perpetua en#-" Shun a so use# the sa&e an%ua%e in %i"in% char%e to +u- T5an% sai#( "I the chi # Li( presu&e to use a #ar*.co ore# "icti&( an# presu&e to announce to Thee( O &ost %reat an# so"erei%n Bo#( that the sinner I #are not par#on( an# th) &inisters( O Bo#( I #o not *eep in o,scurit)- The e/a&ination of the& is ,) th) &in#( O Bo#- If( in &) person( I co&&it offenses( the) are not to ,e attri,ute# to )ou( the peop e of the &)ria# re%ions- If )ou in the &)ria# re%ions co&&it offenses( these offenses &ust rest on &) person-" Chau conferre# %reat %ifts( an# the %oo# !ere enriche#- "A thou%h he has his near re ati"es( the) are not e'ua to &) "irtuous &en- The peop e are thro!in% , a&e upon &e( the One &an-" 2e carefu ) atten#e# to the !ei%hts an# &easures( e/a&ine# the ,o#) of the a!s( restore# the #iscar#e# officers( an# the %oo# %o"ern&ent of the *in%#o& too* its course- 2e re"i"e# states that ha# ,een e/tin%uishe#( restore# fa&i ies !hose ine of succession ha# ,een ,ro*en( an# ca e# to office those !ho ha# retire# into o,scurit)( so that throu%hout the *in%#o& the hearts of the peop e turne# to!ar#s hi&3hat he attache# chief i&portance to !ere the foo# of the peop e( the #uties of &ournin%( an# sacrifices- B) his %enerosit)( he !on a - B) his sincerit)( he &a#e the peop e repose trust in hi&- B) his earnest acti"it)( his achie"e&ents !ere %reat- B) his 8ustice( a !ere #e i%hte#- Ts4e.chan% as*e# Confucius( sa)in%( "In !hat !a) shou # a person in authorit) act in or#er that he &a) con#uct %o"ern&ent proper )$" The Master rep ie#( "Let hi& honor the fi"e e/ce ent( an# ,anish a!a) the four ,a#( thin%s1.then &a) he con#uct %o"ern&ent proper )-" Ts4e.chan% sai#( "3hat are &eant ,) the fi"e e/ce ent thin%s$" The Master sai#( "3hen the person in authorit) is ,eneficent !ithout %reat e/pen#iture1 !hen he a)s tas*s on the peop e !ithout their repinin%1 !hen he pursues !hat he #esires !ithout ,ein% co"etous1 !hen he &aintains a #i%nifie# ease !ithout ,ein% prou#1 !hen he is &a8estic !ithout ,ein% fierce-" Ts4e.chan% sai#( "3hat is &eant ,) ,ein% ,eneficent !ithout %reat

e/pen#iture$" The Master rep ie#( "3hen the person in authorit) &a*es &ore ,eneficia to the peop e the thin%s fro& !hich the) natura ) #eri"e ,enefit1.is not this ,ein% ,eneficent !ithout %reat e/pen#iture$ 3hen he chooses the a,ors !hich are proper( an# &a*es the& a,or on the&( !ho !i repine$ 3hen his #esires are set on ,ene"o ent %o"ern&ent( an# he secures it( !ho !i accuse hi& of co"etousness$ 3hether he has to #o !ith &an) peop e or fe!( or !ith thin%s %reat or s&a ( he #oes not #are to in#icate an) #isrespect1.is not this to &aintain a #i%nifie# ease !ithout an) pri#e$ 2e a#8usts his c othes an# cap( an# thro!s a #i%nit) into his oo*s( so that( thus #i%nifie#( he is oo*e# at !ith a!e1.is not this to ,e &a8estic !ithout ,ein% fierce$" Ts4e.chan% then as*e#( "3hat are &eant ,) the four ,a# thin%s$" The Master sai#( "To put the peop e to #eath !ithout ha"in% instructe# the&1.this is ca e# crue t)- To re'uire fro& the&( su##en )( the fu ta e of !or*( !ithout ha"in% %i"en the& !arnin%1.this is ca e# oppression- To issue or#ers as if !ithout ur%enc)( at first( an#( !hen the ti&e co&es( to insist on the& !ith se"erit)1.this is ca e# in8ur)- An#( %enera )( in the %i"in% pa) or re!ar#s to &en( to #o it in a stin%) !a)1.this is ca e# actin% the part of a &ere officia -" The Master sai#( "3ithout reco%ni4in% the or#inances of 2ea"en( it is i&possi, e to ,e a superior &an- "3ithout an ac'uaintance !ith the ru es of 7ropriet)( it is i&possi, e for the character to ,e esta, ishe#- "3ithout *no!in% the force of !or#s( it is i&possi, e to *no! &en-" T2E EN6