COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS II TEST I

Characteristic Impedance
C
L
Z
O
=
- Coaxial Cable
dielectric the of ty permittivi relative
conductor inner of diameter d
conductor outer of diameter inside D
=
=
=
r
ε
d
D
Z
r
O
log
138
ε
=
- Air Dielectric Parallel Line


D spacingbetween center of conductors
r conductor radius
=
=
r
D
Z
O
log 276 =
1/4 Wave Shorted Stub
1
4 4
g
g f
C
Zo ZoZl v
f
i
i i · · × ·
Velocity Factor and Propagation Velocity
6
. . . ( / )
. ( . )
. . 300 10 /
. tan
p
f
r
v propagation velocity of line m s
v velocity factor decimal fraction
C speed of light m s
dielectric cons t r
·
·
· · ×
·
1
p
f f p f
r
v
v v v f v C
C
i
r
· · · ·

T
v
p
i
·
Response of Line
( 2( ?)
p
L reflected back
T
v
×
·

Gamma and Voltage Reflection
Coefficient

r
v reflected voltage ·

v incident voltage ·
Gamma voltage reflection coefficient I · ·

1
1
r
i
V Zl Zo SWR
V Zl Zo SWR

I · · ·
+ +

r i t r
V V V V Vi · I · +
vfC
L
v
L
T
p
· ·

Length of Line/Wavelength/Phase Shift
6
300 10 /
wavelength
L length
phase shift
C Speed of Light m s
i
¢
·
·
·
· · ×
( )
( / ) 1. 2.
( )
p
p
v
d m
v m s v
t s T f
i
i · · ·
o
3.
360
f
g
v C
v
L
f f
¢
i i · × · ·
1
360
L v
f d
T t
¢
i
· · ·
deg
360
Length of line in rees
L
u
i
· × °
Im int
tan
tan
L
l
pedance looking o line
Z jZo
Z Zo
Zo jZ
u
u
+
·
+
SWR
max
min
1
1
V
SWR
V
+ I
· ·
I

/
/
SWR ZO ZL if ZO ZL
SWR ZL ZO if ZL ZO
· >
· >
max max i r i r
V V V V V V · + ·

Power Reflection

L
P load power ·

r
P power reflected from load ·


i
P incident power at load ·
( )
2 2
1
r i L i
P P P P · I · I

Attenuation(dB)=L Loss(ratio) ×
( )
Voltage(ratio)=antilog
20
Loss dB
cm=m×100
m=cm÷100
Radio-Wave Propagation
- Electric and Magnetic Fields
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS II TEST I

/
/
Z Im
V
I

L impedance of medium in ohms
E electric field strength in v m
H magnetic field strength in A m
pedanceinohms
electromotive forceinvolts
current in apmeres
propagationvelocity in medium
c propaga
v
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
6
0
300 10 /
/
/
tan

r
r
tion velocity in free space
m s
permeability of medium H m
permittivity of medium F m
relative permittivity in medium
dielectric cons t
permittivity of free space
vacuum permittivity
c V E
Z L
I H
µ
v
· ×
·

e ·
·
e ·
·
· · ·
e
- For a lossless medium
L
µ
·
e
Free Space
7
0
12
0
4 10 /
8.854 10 /
377
o
O
o
H m
F m
L
µ r
µ

· ×
e · ×
· · O
e
0
0 0
0
1 377
r
r
o
r r
L
µ µ
µ
e
e · · ·
e e e e
· × ·
e e e
Power Density
R tan
P power in watts
V voltage in volts
resis ce in ohms
·
·
·
2
2 2
2
/
tan
D
t
D D
D
P power density in W m
P total power in watts
r dis ce from antenna in meters
V E
P P P H L
R L
P EH
·
·
·
· · ·
·
Free Space Propagation
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
4
4 4 4
t
D D
t t t
P E
P P
r L
P PL PL E
E E
L r r r r r r
· ·
H
· · ·
2
2
10
2
377 30
4
log
4
T
t t
T
T
eff
R
R
G
R R
T T eff eff
D
eff T
R eff D
P P
E
r r
G gain of Tx antenna
P total Tx power in watts
A effective areaof antennainm
P power delivered to Rxinwatts
G antenna gainas power ratio
anti
P G
EIRP P G A A
P
A P G
P A P
i
r
· ·
H
·
·
·
·
·
·
· · ·
· ·
2 2
2 2 2 2
4 (4 )(4 ) (16 )
T
R T T R T T
G P G G P G
r r r
i i
r r
· ·
H H