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Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach

Introduction
The word “Analytical” means using or skilled in using analysis, where the word Analysis means separating something into its elemental parts or basic principles. In order to develop an “Analytical approach” in Steam Generator’s Operation, one has to always seek the basic principles behind every aspects of Steam Generation. A competent Boiler Operator knows ‘What’ to do to ensure safe and efficient operation of a Steam Generator. A proficient Boiler engineer on the other hand also knows ‘Why’ to do that. During the academic days in the college, an engineer has little or no idea about the field practices in the industry. As a result, they fail to connect the theory they learn during this period with the field engineering aspects and the knowledge acquired by them remain purely academic. When they start their professional career, they learn fresh about the field practices, from their experienced predecessors, who again, have gathered the knowledge through the same process. This type of knowledge helps you during regular operation and also to deal with usual emergencies and problems that are experienced during operation of a steam generating system. But what happens if something goes wrong, which was not previously experienced by either you or your predecessor? All field engineering practices are based on their basic engineering principles, and the difference between ‘theory’ and ‘practical’ information results only due to the practical limitations that deviates the actual from the theoretical value to some extent. But the basic principles remain same. Unless, an engineer is able to connect engineering theory with actual practice, micro analysis of any activity becomes difficult and there would be a departure from the Analytical Approach. In steam generating system operation, development of this approach should begin by first closely understanding the system and breaking it into its elemental parts. We should know the major sub-systems, each component in those subsystems, the basic engineering principles on which those components work, their operating parameters and their significance on their performance and the effect of the performance of each component on the overall system performance. How would one describe the performance of a Steam Generating System? A Steam Generating System performance can be described in two parts. In the first part, it has to extract heat from the fuel and in the second part it has to transfer the extracted heat into water and steam. Therefore to understand the performance, one should have a very clear understanding about the characteristics of Combustion of Fuel and Steam properties first. In order to achieve best performance during combustion, which are the activities that are important and why. Which components are used for these activities and how their performances are affecting the overall combustion performance? We should continuously ask these questions. Again in heat transfer into water and steam, we should know, where and how the heat is being transferred, from where the heat is lost and how much of these losses can be controlled, which are the components that affect this performance and how the performance of each of these components influences the heat transfer performance. In short, we should go on asking these two questions: Why? How? And then perhaps it would help us to take a more qualified decision at times, if we also ask “How much?” 1

India Boiler dot Com
Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach If we understand the system with this approach, then we can handle every kind of situations, even it deviates from the usual practices. In Steam generating system operation, two aspects are important in addition to its performance, and these are “Safety” and “Efficiency”, with safety preceding efficiency in the priority list. If we can take an Analytical Approach towards the operation of this system, then we can take care of both these aspects more appropriately. In this course, our primary objective would be to develop an Analytical Approach towards Steam Generating System. Once we can develop this approach, then it not only going to be useful for safe and efficient operation of this system, but it would also help us in every aspects of engineering through out our career.

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India Boiler dot Com
Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach

Engineering Basics
Units for measurement Physical measurement always requires specification of both a value (i.e., a number representing “how much”) and a unit (i.e., “of what”). Systems of measurement are formal strategies for indexing amounts of specified physical quantities. Unit: To express the magnitude of a physical quantity a standard is chosen which is of the same kind as physical quantity. This standard is taken as reference to measure a physical quantity which is known as unit. Therefore the process of measurement of a physical quantity involves. i) The selection of the unit and ii) Number of times the unit is contained in that physical quantity In general, measure of a physical quantity = numerical value of the quantity X size of its unit Fundamental and derived units: Fundamental units are those units, which can neither be derived from one another, nor can they be further resolved into any other units. The three fundamental units are (i) Mass (ii) Length and (iii) Time Derived units are units of all such physical quantities which can be expressed in terms of the fundamental units of mass, length and time. Ex. unit of area = (metre)2 unit of volume = (metre)3 hence all derived units can be obtained by writing it in terms of fundamental units. System of Units: The common system of units are: (i) CGS system: It was set up in France and is based on centimetre, gram and second as the fundamental units of length, mass and time respectively. It is a metric system of unit (ii) FPS system or British system of units: - It is based on foot, pound and second as the fundamental units of length mass and time. (iii) MKS system: It was also set up in France and is based on metre, kilogram and second as the fundamental units of mass, length and time. SI system of unit: In 1960 The General Conference of Weights and Measures introduced a new system of, units known as SI units. It is based on seven basic and two supplementary units given as: Base Units: Name of the Property Length Mass Time Electric Current Thermodynamic Temperature Amount of Substance Luminous Intensity Unit of Measurement “metre” “kilogram” “second” “ampere” “kelvin” “mole” “candela” Symbol “m” “kg” “s” “A” “K” “mol” “cd”

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81 J 1 kcal = 4.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Supplementary Units: Name of Property Plane angle Solid angle the Unit of Measurement “radian” “steradian” Symbol “rad” “sr” All properties of interest to a Boiler Engineer can be derived from the above Base and Supplementary Units as can be seen from the following: Derived Units: Name of the Property Acceleration Area Density Energy Entropy Specific entropy Force Power (Rate of Work) Pressure Quantity of Heat Stress (Same as Pressure) Velocity Work Moment of force specific energy Unit of Measurement “metre per sec2” “square metre” “kilogram per cubic metre” “joules” “joules per kelvin” joule per kilogram kelvin “newton” “watt” “pascal” “joules” “pascal” “metre per second” “joules” newton meter joule per kilogram Symbol “m/s2” “m2” “kg/m2” “J” = “N.033 kg/ cm2 absolute (ata) 1 mm of water column = 1 kg/ m2 10 m of water column = 1 kg/ cm2 1 kg-m = 9.187 kJ = 2.981 bar.81 W 1 HP (metric) = 75 kg-m/ s = 735.205 lb 1 kgf = 9.m” “Pa” = “N/m2” “m/s” “J” = “N.m” N·m J/kg Some of the useful conversions for SI Units: 1 kg = 2.m” “J/K” J/(kg·K) “N” = “kg.033 kg/ cm2 = 1.969 BTU 1 kcal = 427 kg m (Mechanical work equivalent of heat) 1kg-m/s = 9.75 Watt 1 HP (British) = 33000 ft pound/min = 746 Watt 1 kWh = 3600 kJ = 860 kcal 4 .1 MPa 750 mm of Hg = 1 bar 1 kg/ cm2g = 2.m/s2 “W” “J/s” “Pa” = “N/m2” “J” = “N.013 bar 1 bar = 105 N/ m2 (Pa) = 102 kPa = 0. 1 bar = 1.81 N-m = 9.205 CHU = 3.0197 kg/ cm2 1 atm = 760 mm of Hg = 1.81N (Newton) 1 kg/ cm2 = 0.

4 lb/cft”. Since Specific Gravity is only a comparison of Density of a substance with the Density of water. Unit of volume of any substance is cubic centimeter or cubic meter. measures the amount of matter they contain.7734 m3.012 kilograms of carbon-12.e.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Mass: Mass is a property of physical objects that. Mole: The mole is the amount of substance. kilograms per kilograms (kg/kg). Concentration: Concentration is the amount of a substance contained in a given volume. Pressure: Pressure is defined as ‘Force per Unit Area’. Mole/Volume Moles per litre (mol/L) and moles per cubic centimetre (mol/cc) express concentration in the terms of mole per unit volume (mol/v). pressure = force / area In practice it is expressed or measured in following units: 5 . One kilogram of air at 00 C and under an absolute pressure of 1. The number of moles of a substance in one litre of solution is called the molarity of that solution. The unit of specific volume is m3/kg.. In other words. Specific Gravity is generally used for liquids. L/L. The unit is called the mole (mol). To convert a concentration from v/v to ppm the concentration must be in ml/ml. Density & Specific Gravity: Density of a substance signifies how densely it is packed with mass. and then multiply by 106 to get ppm v/v. and it’s defined as the number of molecules present (6. i. etc. 1 kmol = 103 mol Volume: Volume of gas or any substance is defined as the space. 1 mole of carbon-12 has a mass of 12 grams. ρ = m/v For example water has a Density of “1 gm/cc” or “1000 kg/m3” or “62. which is equal to the mass of the international prototype kilogram. it has no unit and its value remains same irrespective of the Units of Measurement. Parts Per Million (ppm) A part per million is one of a quantity in one million of another quantity. 1 liter = 1000 cm3 =106 mm3 = 10-3 m3 Specific volume: The specific volume of a substance is its volume per unit mass.e kg/m3 it also termed as “Mass density” and denoted by ρ. which it occupies. "Amount of a substance" and "given volume" can take many forms. etc. In the same way w/w concentration can only be converted to ppm using the factor "106" if the concentration is expressed in grams per gram (g/g). Mathematically it is expressed as “mass per unit volume” i.0332 kg/cm2 (760 mm of Hg) has volume of 0. Parts per million is abbreviated to "ppm". The Specific Gravity of a substance is its “density compared with that of water”. roughly speaking.023 x 1023) in 0. Density or Mass density.. The volume is also expressed in litre. The SI unit for mass is the kilogram (kg).

which is generally measured in mm of water or mercury column and the gauges are known as vacuum gauges.cm 1 ata = 1 metric or technical atmosphere (1 kg/cm2 ab. no kinetic energy is lost. Pressure Gauge Reading Absolute Pressure = Atm.332 meter of water. When molecules collide with one another. height of liquid column (Normally water & Mercury) Atmospheric Pressure: The atmosphere. The density of mercury is 13. This is 10. The pressure indicated by the gauge above atmosphere is known as gauge pressure. The five postulates to the Kinetic Theory are as follows: • • • • Gases are composed of molecules whose size is negligible compared to the average distance between them.Vacuum Absolute zero Pressure Thus the Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure + Gauge pressure Or Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure – Vacuum Properties of Gases: The Kinetic Molecular Theory The Kinetic Molecular Theory is the basis of the many properties of gases. Lb/in2 . Thus pressure Gauge measures the pressure with reference to Atmospheric pressure. That is 10332. 32 grams / sq. 1kg/cm2 = 735.2mm of water. Pressure + Gauge Pressure Gauge Pressure Atmospheric Pressure 1. it reads Zero. surrounding the earth.595mm of water column. 1. The forces of attraction or repulsion between two molecules in a gas are very weak or negligible. Kg/cm2 .6mm of Hg = 735.e. 595 = 1033. even though the atmospheric pressure is present.Absolute Pressure Vacuum Gauge Pressure Absolute Pressure = Atm. It is taken as the standard barometric pressure.595 = 10meter of water We know that the atmosphere exerts pressure as mentioned. i.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach N/m2 or Pascal .0332 =735. 6 . 595 grams per cubic centimeter Therefore standard barometric pressure = 76 x 13. Molecules move randomly in straight lines in all directions and at various speeds. cm. Pressure . if we take a pressure gauge in our hand. the collisions are elastic. The pressure indicated by the gauge when the system pressure is less than atmospheric is termed as Vacuum. One Atmospheric pressure is equivalent to 760x13.6 mm of Hg Pressure is also measured in the unit of mm of water column.03322 kg/sq.0332 kg/cm2 Vacuum = Atm. exerts a pressure on its surface equivalent to the weight of air acting over unit area of the earth's surface and it is known as atmospheric pressure. This is also known as a physical atmosphere or barometric atmosphere. the weight of air over a weight of unit area of earth’s surface is equivalent to weight of a column of 76 cm (760 mm) of mercury column (Hg) at 00C. However.6x13. Pressure .) = 760 /1. bar (1 bar=105N/m2). except when they collide. At sea level.

This constant is termed as Universal gas constant. the volume of gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature and inversely proportional to the pressure. provided the temperature remains constant. 7 .3143. absolute pressures and absolute temperatures must be used. V / T =constant Note: Charles's Law is fairly accurate but gases tend to deviate from it at very high and low pressures. NTP NTP stands for Normal Temperature and Pressure. hence its name the combined gas law. kJ/kmol K. For SI system the value of universal gas constant is 8. NTP is 0o Celcius and 1 atmospheric pressure. Universal gas constant: If the molecular mass of any gas is multiplied by its specific gas constant Rs it will be found that the product is the same for all gases.3143 kJ/ kmol K. Mathematically Boyle's law can be expressed as P1V1 = P2V2 Charles's Law Charles's Law can be stated as the volume occupied by any sample of gas at a constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. Sometimes R is called the Characteristic or specific gas constant. Therefore we can write P1V1 / T1 = P2V2 / T2. The ideal gas law can be expressed as PV = mRsT. [It should be noted that in any calculations involving the gas laws. Ideal Gas Law The ideal gas law is a combination of all the gas laws. equal volumes of gas contain equal numbers of moles. In the combined gas law. Thus Ru = MRs = 8. Combined Law The combined gas law is a combination of Boyle's Law and Charles's Law. This can be written as PV / T = constant.] Avogadro's Law: At a given temperature and pressure. Boyle's Law Boyle's Law states the volume of a definite quantity of dry gas is inversely proportional to the pressure. Gases properties can be compared using NTP as a reference. • • • • • P is the absolute pressure in kPa V is the volume in m3 m is the mass of the gas in kg Rs is a constant in kJ/ kg K T is the temperature in Kelvin This equation is known as Characteristic equation of a gas. Where M is the molecular mass of the gas in kg/ kmol.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach • The average kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to the absolute temperature.

e.4 m3 of Hydrogen gas has a mass of 2 kg. the unit of temperature is In FPS system the unit of temperature is degree Centigrade (C) degree. There is one particular temperature at which the molecular random motion of each substance totally stops. By adding 273 to the temperature in degree Centigrade we get the temperature in degrees of the Kelvin scale or 0K. there can be a state when there is absolutely no random motion of the molecules of a substance. In the Fahrenheit Scale the point corresponding to temperature at freezing of water is taken as 32. A temperature reading on one scale can be converted into a reading on the other scale by the following formula: C/100 = (F-32)/180 or C=5/9 (F-32) or F= 1. one is “Fahrenheit” and the other is “Centigrade” or “Celsius”. The absolute temperature is the temperature measured above the point of Absolute Zero. K = C + 273 8 . the decrease in volume per degree Centigrade decrease in temperature is 1/273rd of its initial volume at 00C. Temperature: Temperature is the measure of the relative warmth or coolness of an object. This temperature is called ‘Absolute Zero’ because there can not be a temperature lower than this (since the molecules can not be more stationery than being in no motion at all). pressure remaining constant. Because they are at the same temperature the average kinetic energy of the molecules is the same. This temperature 2730 C below 00 C (or -2720C) is called the Absolute Zero of temperature. Absolute zero is the temperature at which all vibratory. A body that is hotter has its molecules moving more vigorously than that of a body which is colder. As per Avogadro’s Law. A gas on cooling will contract in volume as the temperature falls. Absolute temperature is expressed by the capital latter ‘K’ and the scale using the Absolute Zero is called ‘Kelvin’ Scale.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach For example.8C+32 where. C is temperature in Celsius or Centigrade and F is temperature in Fahrenheit.4 m3 of all other gas will have the corresponding mass of 1 kmol of that gas. The temperature of a substance does not measure its heat content but rather the average kinetic energy of its molecules resulting from their motions. therefore 1 kmol of Hydrogen. Charles found with perfect gases. 22. For measurement of Temperature there are two scales of measurements. when internal energy becomes zero. This point at which water freezes to a solid state is considered as ZERO in Celsius or Centigrade Scale. Again the point of reference of water boiling at atmospheric condition and transforming to vapor stage is taken as 100 in Celsius or Centigrade Scale. Temperature K = Temperature 0C+ 273 i. Absolute temperature scale: We know that temperature is the effect causes by internal energy of a substance due to random motion of molecules of a substance. The arbitrary reference taken is the freezing point of water under atmospheric conditions. translatory and rotational motions of the molecule of a substance is supposed to cease i. Thus.e. It has been found that at NTP. for water boiling point as 212 In MKS systems. the two-pound block has more molecules than the one-pound block and thus has greater heat energy. however. A one-pound block of iron and a two-pound block of iron at the same temperature do not have the same heat content. at NTP 22. the volume of gas will be zero at temperature –2730C. Thus. Fahrenheit (F) In SI system the unit of temperature is degree Celsius (C) 10 Centigrade = 10 Celsius.

PE=mgh R = F + 460 h Gravitational Potential Energy PE=0 9 . hence before it begins to fall it possesses potential energy. one has to apply force or spend energy. Thus. Power exerted = work / time = force x distance / time = force x velocity. the unit for work done is Newton-metre (Nm).m = 9.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Absolute temperature in degree Fahrenheit is known as degree Rankine or 0R and the Absolute Zero in degree Fahrenheit occurs at –4600F. The Force applied to a body multiplied by the distance moved is the amount of work done or amount of energy spent.e. independent of how fast the weight was lifted. In other words Jules/sec = Watt. or energy due to its position relative to earth. a body which is allowed to fall towards earth may be made to do work. [Suppose a pail of water weighing 7 N is carried over a distance of 10 m. Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy. Energy: In mechanics is defined as “capacity of doing work”. Units of Energy and Work are same. The SI Unit for Power is “Watt”. then one might be tempted to say that more ``work'' is done. even though one might get tired of holding the pail after a while. The work done in this case would be the product of the force exerted times the distance covered. The power exerted by a force is defined as change in work done over a period. which is the product of a unit force (one Newton) acting through a 1-metre distance. In order to hold the pail up against gravity a vertical force of 7 N is exerted on the pail. In British Units the Unit of Power is “Horse Power” or “HP”. namely. Potential Energy is possessed by a body due to its position relative to other body or of parts of the same body under the action of a force or forces tending to alter their relative position. which corresponds to a rate of work of 33000 ft-lb/min or 1 British HP = 746 Watts.81 Joules (J) Work can also be measured in foot pounds or Kg metres Power: Suppose a weight is lifted off the floor at a fixed a distance. Now if the same weight is lifted faster that is in lesser period. Energy exists in two forms. But unless and other wise mentioned. and the force exerted does no work. HP should be considered as Metric HP 1 Metric HP = 75 kg m/ s = 735. For example. The motion. This unit of work done is also called Joules (J). is horizontal.81 Nm = 9. Temperature 0R = Temperature 0F + 460 i.] In SI system. namely the part that is effective in causing the motion.75 Watts. Actually the work done in both the cases is same and it is the Power that is different. 1 J = 1 Nm 1 kg. Work: If a mass is to be moved from one place to other. however. Work = Force x distance (traveled in the direction of force) Work only involves the useful part of a force.

m and its kinetic energy would then be 25 kg.E = w.m will be stored in water as kinetic energy. that is not moving.m (Kinetic Energy) = 100 kg. If a body of W kg weight is allowed to fall from an elevation L2 to an elevation L1. In British Units J is 778 ft. the Energy in an Inductor having Inductance of L Henry (and passing an electrical current of I Amps)has a Kinetic Energy equal to ½LI2 Joules. is also kg.m in MKS and Newton metre in SIS.E. and the remainder of 100 kg.lb. 4. The movement of molecules is more in gases than in liquids.187 Kilojoules = 1 Kilocalories & 1 Kilocalories = 427 kg-m 10 . A kilogram of water at rest at a height of 100 metres above level of the sea possesses 100 kg. in order to bring it to rest. In a heat engine the heat produced by combustion of the fuel used is converted into the work done by the engine. When the brakes are applied to the wheels of a moving train. Other forms of energy are also different manifestations of these two forms.m so that total is 75 kg. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat: Heat and Work are mutually convertible from one form into another. In addition of the Internal Kinetic Energy substances also have Internal Potential Energy due to the relative position of their molecules.PE1 = W (L2 – L1) The unit of potential energy is Kilograms meter (MKS) and Newton metre (SI) Kinetic Energy of a body is due to its being in motion with respect to another body. A body of weight ‘w’ kg. Internal Energy: The molecules of all substances are continuously in motion.m to be only 75 kg. Even when a gas is stored in a closed vessel and is stagnant. K. Light etc. but as it descends its potential energy will diminish. Thus Internal Energy is a function of Temperature and its value increases or decreases by adding heat to or subtracting heat from the substance. and under favourable conditions the atoms of the constituents of the coal and atoms of oxygen of the air will rush together and produce heat which may be converted into work. moving with a velocity ‘v’ possesses a certain amount of kinetic energy (KE) with reference to earth gravitational force. Similarly. and in metric units. Thus.m of potential energy and if this water is allowed to fall freely to the level of the sea. are similarly explainable in terms of Potential or Kinetic Energy. v2/2g. Careful experiments have shown that a certain definite number J or foot pound of work is equivalent to one unit of heat. or if the wheels skid the heat is produced at the rubbing surfaces of wheels and rails. When the 1kg of water would have fallen 25 metres its potential energy would be reduced by 25 kg. The unit of K. the Internal Energy. the kinetic energy of the train is converted into heat at the rubbing surfaces of the brake blocks and wheels. for 1 Btu.m (Potential Energy) + 25 kg. the change in potential energy.m of energy. without doing work on the way it will in every position of its fall possess 100 kg. Likewise compressed air possesses potential energy.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach A compressed spiral spring has potential energy because if it is allowed to resume its unstrained form it can be made to do work. The internal energy of substance increases with increases of temperature of substance due to increases of molecular activity. For example Electricity stored in a Capacitor having a Capacitance of C Farads and charged to a Voltage of V Volts is a Potential Energy and its value is ½CV2 Joules. it possesses a considerable amount of internal Kinetic Energy due to motion of its molecules within the limits of its containing vessel. E of a substance may be defined as the algebraic sum of Internal Kinetic Energy and Internal Potential Energy of its molecules.m. The energy stored in a piece of coal is potential energy. ∆PE = PE2 . All other forms of energy such as Magnetic.

wider and thicker (due to thermal expansion). In British System: British Thermal Unit (BTU): The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water through 1°F is defined as a BTU. it is well known that in general the effect of heat on matter is to enlarge it.5oC while maintained at constant pressure of 760mm of hg. the heat energy is used to speed up the internal motion of its molecules and also to provide the work necessary to expend the body.e. 1 Kcal = 2.205 CHU = 3. but in the case of gases it is supposed to be a motion of translation. a more precise definition is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kg of water initially at 14. 11 . The number of kcal required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of gas through 10C under these condition is called the Specific Heat at Constant Volume and is denoted by ‘Cv’. A piece of iron when heated gets longer. whether the heating is at Constant Volume or at Constant Pressure.5oC to 15. It is supposed that a body possessing heat has its particles or molecules in a state of motion.969 BTU The unit for heat in SI system is measured in Joules (J) 1 Kcal = 4187 Joules = 4. As to the character of motion of the molecules it may be imagined to be an oscillatory motion in the case of solids and liquids. In MKS Units: Centigrade Heat Unit (CHU): The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water through 1°C is defined as a CHU. For example.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Heat and Heat Transfer Heat: Heat is believed to be “a mode of motion”. the amount of expansion is very small and the work of expansion is similarly small. just as a crowd of people take up more space when they jostle one another than they do when standing still or when jostling to a less extent. When a gas is heated. Different units of measurement of heat are as given bellow. the rate of motion increasing as the body gets warmer and diminishing as the body cools. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilograms of water through 1°C is defined as one Kilo-Calorie Since the amount of heat required per degree centigrade varies at different points on the temperature scale..187 Kilo Joules Specific Heat of a substance may be defined as the amount of heat that must be supplied to the substance to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance through one degree. Now it is natural to expect that if the molecule of iron have more motion as the iron gets hotter they will require more room and will therefore push one another further apart and consequently cause the whole body to get larger. When a body is heated. Thus gas has a two important types of Specific Heat. namely: (1) (2) Specific Heat at constant volume ( Cv) Specific Heat at constant pressure (Cp) Specific Heat at Constant Volume: Consider 1 kg of gas being heated in a closed vessel so that no expansion of gas is allowed. In a solid or a liquid. It is found that all the phenomenon of Heat may be explained by this theory. expansion is considerably more and values of specific heat will depend on nature of heating process i.

Convection and the Radiation. Radiation: Heat when it travels from source to another substance through an empty space (often imagined as ether) or through vacuum or gas or air in straight lines. Mainly in Superheater. The unit of specific heat in MKS System of units is kcal/kg 0C and in the SI system of units it is kJ/ kg K. This process of heat transfer takes place when the molecules are displaced physically. In the Boiler the heat from tube metal goes to water flowing inside.e. further heat must be added to perform the work of moving the piston through the distance. in addition to the heat required for increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules. the process of heat 12 . HEAT TRANSFER: In Boiler heat energy is released from the combustion of fossil fuels and the heat is transferred to different fluids in the system and a part of it is lost or left out as unutilized. Reheater and Economizer the heat from hot gas is getting transferred to metal outer surface by way of convection process. The heat travels by Conduction from outer surface to inner surface of water tubes and then transfers to water at centre of the tubes and in the drum from the water immediately in contact with inner surface of the tubes by convection. In a metal the heat transfer takes place by passing on heat from particle to particle by contact without any physical movement of the particles themselves. Specific Heat at Constant Pressure: Consider 1 kg of gas being heated in a cylinder fitted with a movable piston which exerts a constant pressure on the gas. Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy of molecules of the gas.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach In this case there is no work due to expansion of gas. Therefore. In Boiler generally the heat transfer takes place in all the three modes of heat transfer process namely Conduction. Heat transfer by convection depends on the specific characteristics of the medium i. becomes less dense and raises up causing movement and allowing the colder and more dense gas or liquid to replace it. becomes less dense and rises up causing movement and allowing the colder and denser gas or liquid to replace it. P is the Absolute Pressure. The value of the specific heat of gas at constant pressure will therefore always be greater than that at constant volume by the amount of expansive work done. Enthalpy (H)or Total Heat or Heat Content: Enthalpy is nothing but total heat energy content in a substance. It is therefore essential to study the general principle of heat transfer for understanding the behaviour of boiler in relation to heat transfer during different conditions of operation. In a Boiler the water tubes are exposed to fire. because the gas is contained in closed vessel and all the heat supplied is used only to increase the Internal Energy i. Similarly when gas or liquid is heated. it expands. It is denoted by ‘H’ and is defined as follows: H = E + (PV/J) kcal Where. without the molecules moving. The Specific Heat at Constant Pressure is denoted by ‘Cp’. Conduction: Conduction is the process of transfer of heat through solids from one part of the body to the other.e. in this case. E is the Internal Energy. by physical contact. but imparting vibration from one molecule to the neighbouring one. V is the Volume in m3 and J = 427 kg-m. Convection: This process can occur only in fluids or gases. When the gas is heated it will expand and move the piston through some distance in this case. The fluid or gas when heated expands. gas or liquid.

The relationship between them is given by Stefan-Boltzman law q = σ S T4 q – rate of heat flow σ – Stefan-Boltzman constant S – surface area of body T – absolute temperature of the emitter For bodies other than black bodies whose emissivity will be less than 1.cal/m2/hr/°C S = Heating surface in m2 t = temperature difference causing heat flow (t1 – t2) in °C l = length or thickness of the plate in cm.cal/m2/hr/°C S = heat transfer surface in m2 ∆t = temperature difference between fluid bulk temperature and solid surface temperature in °C. Radiation: Radiation emitted by a body depends upon its surface area and temperature.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach transfer is called radiation. The heat flow rate q can be expressed as below: q = KS (t1 – t2) / l Where q = rate of heat flow – K. K/l is expressed as conductance and hence l/K is the resistivity. heat will flow from hot side to the cold.cal/m2/hr/°C = 1/R where R is overall resistance Conduction: If a flat plate is heated on one side and cooled on other side.Cal/hr U = Convection film conductance in K. the formula will be changed as q = σ ES T4 where E is emissivity of the body If we consider two parallel planes of infinite size and they are black bodies.Cal/hr S = Surface area involved in the heat transfer in m2 ∆t = Temperature difference causing heat flow in °C U = Overall heat transfer coefficient in K. Convection: Heat transfer by convection between a fluid and a solid such as in a boiler tube is expressed as below: qc = Uc S ∆t . (3) Where qc = rate of heat flow by convection in K. HEAT TRANSFER CALCULATIONS The general equation for heat flow rate by any of the above three modes of heat transfer from one media to other may be written as q = US ∆t Where q = heat flow rate in K. The tube metal surface at the top of the furnace of a Boiler gets heat by way of radiation. then heat transfer from the hot plane (at T1 °K) to the other plane (at T2 °K) is given by the formula q = σ S (T14 – T24) 13 .. We get heat from Sun by radiation. All substances emit heat energy by radiation depending on their temperature.Cal/hr K = Thermal conductivity for 1 cm thickness – K.

14 . But water vapours. carbon dioxide. and calculation of luminous radiation is complex.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach If all the radiation emitted by one does not fall on the other it is essential to introduce an angle factor in the formula In boiler the radiation becomes luminous by entrained particles such as pulverised coal. soot etc. sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide which are part of flue gases in the boiler also absorb and emit. They emit and radiate only in certain wave length bands that lie outside of the visible range and are called as non-luminous gas radiation. The gases such as oxygen and nitrogen absorbs or emit only slight amount of radiation.

This temperature is known as saturation temperature. Even if a single drop remains in water phase. heat required for raising the temperature of 1 kg of water through 10C is 1 kcal. When there is an external pressure in addition to the cohesive force between the atoms. H = mCp∆t [H is heat added in kcal. At such a temperature the matter changes its state from Liquid to Vapour. which is measured relatively from convenient datum condition. or 220.187 kJ / kg K. a threshold state is reached when state of matter changes from Solid to Liquid. when the atoms are ready to move away from each other. m is mass of water in kg. 15 . higher would be the saturation temperature When change of phase takes place between water to steam. Specific heat of water is considered as 1 kcal/ kg 0C or 4. datum point is arbitrarily fixed as the condition of the water at 00C. therefore ∆T = t] The saturation temperature or the boiling point of water is 1000C under atmospheric pressure. Again in a condenser. higher the pressure. It is called sensible heat as heat addition results in increase of temperature of water till it reaches the saturation and temperature and you can sense the increase in heat content. which operates under vacuum. For steam. whatever heat is being added. it would be used in changing phase. Cp is the specific heat of water (1 kcal/ kg 0C) and ∆t is the temperature increase. In a pressurized boiler. it requires even more energy and therefore higher temperature to reach this threshold condition. condensing steam can be as cold as 30 to 35oC. This temperature can go as high as 374. the temperature of water is always more than 1000C as the saturation temperature is higher due to high pressure.140C at pressure 225. At a further higher temperature the atoms and molecules reach a state of vibration when no cohesive forces exist between its atoms or molecules.4 kg/cm2 abs. Depending on temperature. The matter no longer exhibits the property of elasticity and does not resist a change in its shape. Heat energy in water at 00C is measured to be zero. The amount of heat absorbed by one kilogram of water being heated from the freezing point (00C) to the boiling point is known as the Enthalpy of the Saturated Water (sensible heat of water). the enthalpy of water at 00C is measured to be zero.9 bar abs.e. The temperature increases on the basis of the specific heat of water and the heat content of water at any temperature can be calculated with the formula. Thus.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Properties of Steam Specific Heat of water is the amount of heat that must be supplied to water to raise the temperature of unit mass of water through one degree. the inter-atomic distance varies. When the inter-atomic distance is such that force of attraction between two atoms equals force of repulsion. the temperature remains constant at saturation temperature. i. which is known as critical pressure. Effect of Pressure: The atoms and molecules of any matter are in a constant state of random vibrations and the vibrations’ amplitude increases with increase in temperature of the matter. The heat added during this period can not be sensed and hence it is known as Latent heat of evaporation. Therefore. It can start boiling at higher or lower temperature depending on the pressure. Enthalpy is a purely relative quantity.

until it reaches the boiling point at B. the water is called saturated water. As the pressure increase and we go up the curve. Joining these points. will be more at atmospheric pressure and (when the expansion is more). The temperature at point B is known as Saturation temperature. then part of the water would convert into steam.65 kg/ cm2. If it receives less latent heat. At this condition. it is evident that the latent heat of evaporation BC decreases as we go up the curve (as the pressure goes high). At point B. but will become zero (∆V = 0) at critical pressure (when there is no expansion). Therefore the temperature/enthalpy line becomes parallel to X axis and remain so until all water molecules become steam molecules at point C. If we note the specific volume of steam at different pressure from a steam table. Since the addition of latent heat does not result in increase in temperature.032 kg/ cm2. Higher the pressure. the work done due to expansion against pressure (PV). If we take the first plotting. For example. we can consider that this energy is being used to expand the volume. and hence no expansion. the temperature increases following the relation H = mCp∆T. while heat is being added to water from point A. The steam at point C is known as dry saturated steam after it receives complete sensible heat hf and complete latent heat hfg. Now. the density of water and steam becomes equal. but the temperature remains constant at saturation temperature.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach The above diagram is known as temperature enthalpy diagram where the increase in temperature is plotted on the Y axis with addition of heat in the X axis at different pressure conditions. lower the latent heat of evaporation. It is important to note that water starts becoming steam only after it receives the complete sensible heat and becomes dry saturated steam only after receiving the complete latent heat. When further heat is added. it is evident that the latent heat is the largest part of heat towards the base of the curve (corresponding to lower pressure). the temperature again starts rising and we get a plot CD. Therefore steam will have zero latent heat of evaporation at critical pressure. ABCD is the temperature profile for a particular pressure. it is known as wet steam. enthalpy increases and phase transformation starts. The steam at this condition is known as superheated steam. but part will remain as water. it expands 1603 times. we will find that as pressure goes up. the difference in density between water and steam decreases. Again if we refer the temperature-enthalpy curve. At atmospheric pressure of 1. we get a curve like above. AEFG is temperature profile for higher pressure and AHIJ is for even higher pressure. Enthalpy gained hfg is known as latent heat of evaporation. the sensible heat increases and the latent 16 . Enthalpy gained hf is known as sensible heat as we can sense the temperature rise. From the temperature-enthalpy diagram in the previous note. whereas at critical pressure of 225. If further heat is added at this point.

from the steam table. Therefore the total latent heat of the steam is received in the evaporator. the best quality of steam is Dry saturated steam: Steam is preferred as heat carrier for many reasons. but when the absolute pressure increases beyond 92 kg/ cm2.013 bar absolute pressure). the latent heat is received and when the steam leaves the evaporator and goes to super heater. where the latent heat is received in a steam generator. Dryness Fraction of Wet steam: The dryness fraction is the ratio of quantity of dry steam to the total quantity of dry steam and water in suspension. since latent heat is not needed. therefore it expands 1602.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach heat decreases. If ‘x’ is the quantity of dry steam in a wet steam and ‘y’ is the quantity of water in suspension in that steam. the density difference between water and steam decreases. i. the water doesn’t need to be circulated in an evaporator. The quantity of water converting into steam depends on the amount of heat received at this point. At critical pressure and temperature the difference becomes zero. specific volume of saturated liquid at atmospheric pressure (1. it still requires a little amount of sensible heat to reach saturation temperature and start boiling. Steam Volume: If we refer the steam table. It has a very high heat carrying capacity. The temperature rise will again follow the relation H = mCp∆T. it is called superheated steam. it is ensured that the steam becomes completely dry and saturated. 2. the water temperature is always less than the saturation temperature of its corresponding pressure. where the temperature of the steam is raised beyond its saturation temperature. Since the natural circulation is created through thermo-siphon action of water due to the density difference of steam and water. if it receives 50% of the specific enthalpy of evaporation. Super heated steam: When steam is heated further after it reaches dry saturated condition. corresponding fraction of conversion takes place. more heat can be carried by unit quantity of steam than any other media. The latent heat is received by the steam after it reaches the saturation temperature and start boiling. otherwise it would lead to steaming in Economizer.673 m3/ kg. 0.e. then the temperature will not rise until the complete steam becomes dry saturated. In industrial steam generator. Again.5 times. any addition of heat results into phase transformation. Therefore the dryness fraction of wet steam is equal to the fraction of enthalpy of evaporation received by the steam after reaching saturation temperature. unless the steam is superheated to a very high temperature.5 kg of water will convert into steam and remaining would be water. At this point of time. the latent heat is the largest. If it gets a fraction of that heat. at a given temperature. As the pressure increases.e. For example. At this stage (CD). then the dryness fraction = x / (x + y) Once the complete sensible heat is received by the water and it attains saturation temperature.e. For any pressure. Therefore it requires a forced once through circulation. i. i. the latent heat is more than sensible heat.001044 m3/ kg. only 50%. where the Cp of superheated steam can be taken as half of that of water. it is 0. The Approach point (difference between saturation temperature and the economizer outlet temperature) is never kept near zero. In the water stage. If we refer a standard steam table. we will see that up to the absolute pressure of 91 kg/ cm2. Therefore for low and medium pressure superheated steam. The latent heat becomes zero. When the water enters the evaporator. where as the specific volume of steam is 1. the temperature again starts increasing. In the deaerator and the economizer. Whereas. it has the 17 .09 kJ/ kg K For industrial process heating. If the steam coming out of the drum remains wet. at critical pressure there is no natural circulation. the corresponding specific enthalpy of evaporation is the amount of heat which is required converting 1 kg of water into 1 kg of steam at that pressure. the quantity of superheat is always less than sensible of latent heat. it is done by heating the steam coming out of the steam drum further in a ‘superheater’. the sensible heat becomes more than latent heat.

e. At saturation temperature. which is the total amount of heat that went into water while heating it from 0oC to saturated steam at ts – this is known as specific enthalpy of saturated steam and denoted by hg. hg = hf + hfg It also tabulates the specific entropy of water and steam For finding out the enthalpy of steam at different condition. unit is 0C Volume in m3 of that 1 kg of water when it reaches ts – this is known as specific volume of saturated water and denoted by Vf. with dryness fraction X = m x (hf + X x hfg) 4.enthalpy graph and a steam table. Steam Table: Various properties of saturated steam at different conditions are available in tabular form in a steam table. Temperature at which the boiling starts – which is known as saturation temperature and denoted by ts. considering every liquid in this world. unit is kcal/ kg Enthalpy of 1 kg of saturated steam.e. i. unit is kcal/ kg. we again have to refer the temperature. i. Therefore once the steam attains dry and saturated condition. unit is kcal/ kg Enthalpy of evaporation or latent heat required to convert 1 kg of saturated water to 1 kg of saturated steam – this is known specific enthalpy of evaporation and denoted by hfg. non toxic and the raw material. it contains the maximum amount of heat at that temperature. It is a medium which can supply the maximum quantity of heat at a constant temperature. Enthalpy of Saturated steam = m x hg 3. which is the total amount of heat that went into water while heating it from 0oC to ts – this is known as specific enthalpy of saturated water and denoted by hf. Steam tables are prepared both on the basis of pressure and temperature. for example air or oil. This is because of the very high enthalpy of evaporation (latent heat) in steam. It does not need a motive force to travel. In a pressure based steam table. where you go on loading goods without increasing much weight. m = mass of water or steam in kg hf = specific enthalpy of saturated water in kcal/ kg (from the steam table for the corresponding pressure) 18 . Enthalpy of super heated steam = m x (hg + Cp∆t) Where. For example saturated steam can be transported by carbon steel pipes which are less costly than high alloy steel pipes that are required to transport super heated steam. unit is kg/ m3 Enthalpy of 1 kg of saturated water. Enthalpy of Saturated water = m x hf 2. which is only next to ammonia. unit is kg/ m3 Volume in m3 of 1 kg of dry saturated steam after it has received latent heat of evaporation and every water molecule has become steam molecule while the temperature remains constant at ts . It is clean. it does not require a pump or a compressor to move it from one point to other. This unique characteristic make steam the only heating media that can be used in process heating where majority of the chemical processes take place at constant temperature. It is the temperature which governs the cost of transport as weight governs the cost of transport in case of goods. heat can be drawn from dry saturated steam without any drop in temperature till the complete steam becomes hot water.this is known as specific volume of saturated steam and denoted by Vg. drawing heat would invariably result into drop in temperature in relation to H = mCp∆T. water is abundantly available (2/3rd of the earth is covered by water).India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach second highest specific heat. 1. The enthalpy of evaporation is highest amongst all liquids. Enthalpy of wet steam. 1 kg of water at 0oC is heated to saturated steam under different absolute pressure conditions and the following properties are tabulated. It is like a goods carrier. For any other medium. The weight can be compared with temperature in this case.

the saturation temperature and superheated temperature are to be considered in Kelvin since gas law is being used. m = mass of water or steam in kg Vf = Specific volume of saturated water Vg = Specific volume of saturated steam Tsup = Superheated steam temperature in Kelvin Tsat = Saturation temperature in Kelvin The velocity of steam in m/s (V) can be found out if we know the steam discharge in m3/s (Q) and cross sectional area (A) of steam pipe in m2. Volume of saturated water = m x Vf 2.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach hfg = specific enthalpy of evaporation (latent heat) in kcal/ kg hg = specific enthalpy of saturated steam in kcal/ kg (hf + hfg) Cp = specific heat of super heated steam in kcal/ kg oC ∆t = Final temperature of superheated steam – saturation temperature in oC For finding out the volume of steam at different condition. 1. Steam generation in boiler is a constant pressure process. and (Vg x Tsup/Tsat). Therefore. when the steam is dry saturated. we again have to refer the temperature.e. mw x hf1 (at higher pressure) = ms x hg (at atmospheric pressure) + (mw . before referring steam table.ms) x hf2 (at atmospheric pressure). i. i. specific enthalpy of which is hf (kcal/ kg) at corresponding pressure. V1/T1 = V2/T2. Therefore whenever the condensate is coming out of the steam trap. you have to convert it in absolute pressure. 19 . in case of superheated steam at temperature tsup. if the pressure given as gauge pressure.e. XVg in case of wet steam with dryness fraction X. when pressure is constant. We can find out the quantity of flash steam by considering total heat available in the condensate at higher pressure at the upstream of steam trap is equal to the heat available in the flash steam and balance condensate at atmospheric pressure. V = Q/ A When the discharge is given in kg/h. If we refer a steam table. which is known as flash steam. It should be always kept in mind that the pressure column in the steam table refers to absolute pressure and not gauge pressure. steam volume will be X kg and water volume would be (1-X) kg.enthalpy graph and a steam table. this additional heat will convert part of the water into steam. the following things are to be considered. That is why wet steam volume is considered to be only the volume contributed by the steam part.e. 4. we will find the hf at higher pressure is more than the hf at atmospheric pressure (1. If we refer the steam table. Steam from condensate: When condensate passes through a steam trap to atmospheric pressure. i. we will find the volume of (1X) kg of water would be negligible compared to volume of the steam part.032 kg/ cm2). Condensate at the upstream of the steam trap is saturated water at high temperature and pressure. we can convert the same in m3/h. Both the flashed steam and the condensate will be at saturation temperature corresponding to atmospheric pressure. by multiplying it with the specific volume of steam (m3/ kg) corresponding to that pressure.] Where. Volume of saturated steam = m x Vg 3. 100oC. with dryness fraction X = m x X x Vg In 1 kg of wet steam with dryness fraction X. Volume of wet steam. Volume of super heated steam = m x (Vg x Tsup/ Tsat) [Temperature of dry saturated steam will increase when heated further and it’s volume would also increase following the relation of a perfect gas. Vg would be the specific volume.

Power generation cycle: Power is generated by steam with the help of Steam turbines. Entropy of evaporation. δT ∴ δφ= Cp (δT / T) The total increase entropy of water from 0oC to a saturation temperature of T K can be obtained by integrating between temperature limits of 273 and T φ2 . which convert the energy stored in steam into rotational mechanical energy. when multiplied by the absolute temperature. Entropy of Dry Saturated Steam: The entropy φs of dry saturated steam. Entropy of water at boiling temperature Ts is written as φw φw = Cp loge(Ts /T0) = Cp loge(Ts /273) This value can be obtained directly from the steam tables. reckoned from the freezing point of water (00C) is equal to the sum of water entropy (φw) and evaporation entropy (φe) φs = φw + φe = Cp loge(Ts /273) + L / Ts The value of φs may also be obtained directly from the Steam Tables. such as: • Rankine cycle • Reheat cycle • Regenerative cycle The Reheat and Regenerative cycle is a variant of Rankine Cycle. φe = xL / Ts If the steam formed is dry saturated.φ1 = Cp 273∫ T dT/T = Cp {loge(T)}T273 = Cp loge(T /273) Entropy of water at 00C (freezing temperature T0 = 273 K) is taken as zero.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Entropy of Water: It is an important thermodynamic property of a working substance. addition of heat δQ to one kg of water will cause its temperature to rise by δT. which increases with the addition of heat and decreases with its removal. 20 . If the steam formed is wet. the steam undergoes isentropic expansion at various stage of the turbine from high pressure to low pressure. δφ = δQ/T In general. In the steam turbine. δQ = δφ x T or. Entropy of Evaporation (φe): Heat addition during evaporation takes place at constant temperature if pressure is maintained constant. Then δQ = Cp. The following schematic view shows a simplified flow diagram and the process characteristic curve in an entropy/temperature diagram to indicate the thermodynamic evolution of the process (Rankine’s Cycle). gives the heat absorbed or rejected by the working substance.φw may also be obtained from steam table. where Cp= specific heat of water. x=1. Entropy of Superheated Steam: Entropy of Superheated Seam is calculated as follows: φsup = The total entropy of 1 kg of superheated steam reckoned above the freezing temperature of water. The increase or decrease of entropy. These machines are widely used for the generation of electricity in a number of different cycles. then the entropy of evaporation is φe = L / Ts The value of φe = φs . φsup = Cpw loge Ts/ 273 + L / Ts + Cps loge Tsup / TS = φw + φe + Cps loge Tsup / TS = φs + Cps loge Tsup / Ts Cps is the specific heat of superheated steam. having dryness fraction ‘x’.

88. 1 to 2: Isentropic expansion (Steam turbine) 2 to 3: Isobaric heat rejection (Condenser) 3 to 4: Isentropic compression (Pump) 4 to 1: Isobaric heat supply (Boiler) When the line 1-2 drops below the saturation line.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Basic thermodynamic process of a thermal power plant In • • • • the T-S diagram. higher the efficiency. the reheating is essential in high pressure Modern power plants to increases the life of the plant as shown below. There is heavy blade erosion due to the impact of water particles carried with the steam if the expanded exhaust steam is having a lower dryness fraction than that. Higher the degree of superheat. therefore longer the drop 1-2. Again the efficiency of the cycle depends on the maximum expansion of steam in the turbine. the saturation line is reached earlier during isentropic expansion as shown in the T-S diagram below Therefore. steam becomes wet. The inevitable effect of use of higher pressure in modern power plants is that. The dryness fraction of steam coming out of turbine should not fall below 0. 21 . But. longer the drop would be without going below the saturation line. we can not increase the degree of superheat indefinitely due to metallurgical limitation.

dries the steam ( i. Since no work is done during the expansion. no external work is done and if the pipe is well lagged there is no heat transferred. thus getting the maximum output from steam. This heat due to friction. Throttling process occurs when steam passes through a partially open valve. long life of turbine and less handling of fuel and firing equipment Throttling: When steam is forced through a small orifice under pressure. reduced feed pump power. smaller boiler. the enthalpy remains constant.e. There is no change of potential energy. This process is also called constant enthalpy process.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach In this arrangement steam expands from 1-2 in a high pressure turbine and the exhaust steam is again heated from 2-3 by the re-heater and the finally the steam is expanded in a low pressure turbine from 3-4. increases the dryness fraction of wet steam ) and once the steam becomes completely dry it will be superheated by further throttling. At the orifice. eddies are formed which eventually reconvert kinetic energy into heat at the lower pressure. The advantages claimed for the reheat cycle are higher thermal efficiency. During the process of throttling the temperature of the steam is slightly reduced but this is compensated by the heat produced due to the friction offered throttling the steam by the surface of the very small orifice through which the steam has to pass. the steam is said to be throttled. 22 . smaller condenser. So that throttling is always a wasteful operation which lowers the quality of heat.

Lignite: it also contains high percentage of moisture (30 to 45%) but can be dried just by exposing to air. Properties of semi anthracite coal lies between anthracite and bituminous. cost and its efficiency. Coal-D & Coal-E. Therefore it can be used as fuel in pulverized form. The low cost of steam reduces the production cost. Sub-bituminous coal is similar to lignite. Fusion temperature of its ash is around 1093 ºC and the moisture content is very low. The gradation of Indian coal based on its calorific value is as follows: Grade A B C D E F G Calorific Value Range (in kCal/Kg) Exceeding 6200 5600 – 6200 4940 – 5600 4200 – 4940 3360 – 4200 2400 – 3360 1300 – 2400 23 . It is not suitable for boilers as it contains high percentage of moisture. Many times fuels such as Bagasse. Semi-bituminous coal is intermediate between anthracite and bituminous coals in properties and used widely in boilers. It is brown in color and exhibits a woody structure. for example: In Sugar Industry: Bagasse In Rice/Dal Mills: Husk In Solvent Extraction Plants: Shell of seeds Other Agricultural Wastes Peat: It contains high percentage of moisture (90%) and small percentage of volatile matter and carbon. Anthracite and Bituminous. Solid Fuels Coal: Various types of coal are Peat. Coconut shell are cheaply available which gives less steam cost even if the efficiency is low. Coal-B. Some residues can be used as fuel substitutes. The common coals used in Indian industry are bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. The ash content varies from 6 to12%. It contains 6 % moisture when dried. Rice husk. Therefore the selection of fuel is very crucial. It is sun dried to remove the greater part of moisture. commercial classification of coal includes Coal-A. Pulverization of anthracite is difficult and costly. Lignite.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Combustion of Fuel Classification of Fuels Fuels are classified into three main groups: • • • Solid fuels Liquid fuels Gaseous fuels The choice of fuel depends upon its availability. which results in increase in the overall profitability of the enterprise. It has high caking power. Coal-C. Bituminous Coal: It is most popular form of coal used for various purposes. Anthracite Coal: It contains high % of carbon and the percentage of volatile matter is below 8 %. In India.

India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Typical Analysis of Blended Coal (Air Dried basis): Carbon Hydrogen Sulphur Moisture Oxygen Nitrogen Ash GCV VM 31. It has got very little value except for using it as fuel for Boiler. Rice Husk: Husk is a bye-product of agriculture crop and which is the outer covering of rice. Naphtha firing is to be done with utmost care. Similarly. of Bagasse with 54% moisture is about 2222 kcal/kg. Crude oil is taken to refinery where it is refined or distilled. trees and other plant life. Naphtha: Naphtha is a petroleum product. In this process the lighter or thinner oils such as benzene. is also getting solved. gas oil etc.7 and a calorific value of about 11000 kcal/kg air atomization is adopted for firing Naphtha. It is available in considerable quantity from rice mills and is cheap fuel. It has density of about 0. which are used for steam generation in power stations. As coal is. Bagasse contains 30 to 50% wood fibre.V.22 % 6. regarded. Bagasse is bulky tenacious and fibrous. paraffin.75 % 52.08 % Some other solid fuels: Baggasse: Baggasse is the refuse of sugarcane from which the juice is extracted in sugar mills.10 % 2. 01 to 10% sucrose.V. husk is fired straight. It varies considerably in its composition and characteristics according to the part of the world from which it is obtained. For better burning. cotton field wastes etc. also can make good fuel for boilers. During husking operation. husk is separated from rice or ground nuts and hence readily available on site.71 % 0. of husk is about 3055 kcal/kg. The C. problem of disposing it. Crude is a mixture of many constituent oils. preheated air (at 204°C) is used. Naphtha is very costly and availability is very less. Liquid Fuels: The liquid fuel used for firing in boilers is mineral oil obtained from many hundreds of feet beneath the earth’s surface. as it is susceptible for explosions. petrol. It is mainly used in fertilizers as feed stock or in Gas Turbines as a fuel Light diesel oil/High speed diesel oil: It is heavier than Naphtha.37 % 5. It is very light and easily evaporates even in atmospheric conditions. It does not evaporate in atmospheric conditions as Naphtha. As oil comes from the well it is known as crude petroleum or Crude. as having been formed from vegetable matter. But it does not require any preheating since its viscosity is low and is very light and 24 . are successively boiled off and separated. & 40 to 60% moisture. ground nutshells. It is also easy to handle and by burning husk. Mineral Oil is believed to have basically originated from marine life.94 % 0. The heavy residue or so-called black oils are used as fuel oils in boilers. These are the oils.91 % 2852 kcal/ kg 19. The C. In Lancashire or marine boilers. groundnut etc. Some of these oils evaporate at a low temperature and under ordinary atmospheric conditions would evaporate into the air to form an explosive mixture. generally.

In any type of fuel oil. ID Fans runners etc. b. 0.0 0. Because of high cost it is not economical to fire in Boiler on a continuous basis. LSHS (Low Sulfur Heavy Stock) It is a liquid fuel. sulfur (S) is harmful as it combines with moisture & forms sulphurous & sulfuric acids which cause corrosion in the low temperature zone equipment in the boiler mainly. It is not usual practice to fire HSD in boilers.5% by weight. it adversely affects APH tubes. TYPICAL SPECIFICATION OF FUEL OILS Properties Density (Approx. Heavy Furnace oil: HFO is a heavy residual oil.95 LS. But it starts melting and become flowable at 70°C or 75°C and can be easily pumped. d. LSHS solidifies even at 60°C.1 93 72 10. in order to ensure proper firing of oil.8 0. The calorific value of LSHS is about 10000 kcal/kg.600 Upto 0. Hence it requires preheating to ensure its flowability.85–0. c.5 1. f. The tanks are to be insulated. ducts. Ash % Wt. (kCal/kg) Sulphur % Wt. to improve its flowability.V. invariably. Further preheating is required to be done before it is fired in boilers.H.87 66 20 10.500 Upto 4. which is soft and pasty.2 to 1. 0.D. a. HSD is used for firing of igniters. during all the seasons. g/cc at 15°C) Flash Point (°C) Pour Point (°C) G.C. which is very widely used nowadays in many of the high-pressure boilers. Steam tracing or electric heating is required for the lines carrying LSHS.98 L.1 66 18 10.89–0. e. It is difficult to handle.O. Since it is clean and lighter. High speed diesel oil is lighter and cleaner than LDO. As the name indicates the sulfur content of this fuel is very low in the order of 1. When it solidifies it looks like wax.88–0. The viscosity is very high at room temperature conditions. It is exclusively used for surface transport and agricultural purpose.0 0.700 Upto 1. Heavy oil storage tanks are provided with preheating arrangement and the tank heating is done by steam coil heaters to maintain oil temperature around 65 to 70°C.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach flowable even in atmospheric conditions.25 0. It is also not economical since the cost of HSD is more than LDO.0 1.02 25 . Furnace Oil 0.S. LSHS is clean oil but its lubricating properties are poor and hence wear and tear of pump gears is more. MC % Vol. LSHS costs less than the furnace oils and it has got no other usage except burning in a furnace. HFO is cheaper compared to all other petroleum products and is economical for continuous firing in a liquid fuel fired boiler.

butylenes and the isomers of the C4 compounds that can be liquefied by applying moderate pressure. It is always necessary to supply sufficient air for the complete combustion of fuel and so it is necessary in all design of combustion equipment to calculate the mass of air required for the complete combustion of the fuel. propylene.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Gaseous Fuels • LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) • • • • • • Butane Propane Biogas Natural Gas Re-former Gas Producer Gas LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas): It refers to gaseous compounds containing C3 and C4 hydrocarbons i. the carbon content in the fuel becomes carbon dioxide and the hydrogen gets converted to steam (water vapor). It has NCV of 10750 Kcal/Kg. butane. Combustion Efficiency: The term combustion efficiency measures the effectiveness of the combustion reaction. % Carbon dioxide in flue gas x 100 Efficiency = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------% Carbon dioxide in flue gas for Stoichiometric air quantity The inclusion of latent heat in the calculation of the efficiency gives the gross efficiency. It has NCV of 8850 Kcal/Kg.e. methane a small amount of propane. The nitrogen in the fuel remains as it is and is exhausted along with the combustion products. If the air supplied is insufficient then some of the carbon will be burned to carbon monoxide instead carbon dioxide and this will reduce the amount of heat produced during the combustion in addition to the pollution caused by carbon monoxide. Natural gas: It is made up mainly of the paraffin compounds. COMBUSTION Combustion Principles All fuels contain combustible elements such as carbon. which readily combines with oxygen gives heat during combustion. hydrogen. the sulfur content in the fuel becomes Sulphur dioxide. The combustion efficiency can also be expressed in terms of utility of carbon dioxide of the fuel in the following way. Moisture content in the fuel should be low since it yields to in latent heat loss. Factors affecting Combustion 1. Heat released during the combustion Combustion Efficiency = ---------------------------------------------------Heat contained in the fuel. Combustion Products: When fuel is completely burnt. propane. 26 . ethane. Sulphur etc. butane and other light hydrocarbon plus some nitrogen and oxygen..

Generally the air supplied to the combustion chamber is preheated which causes the following effects: a) Saving in fuel Consumption. which actually is a vigorous chemical reaction of primarily Hydrogen and Carbon constituents of fuel. In some fuel. e) Reduction in soot Deposits. when completely burned out to ash. 27 . Whereas NCV (Net Calorific Value) is net of the heat liberated per kilograms or per cubic meter of fuel. etc. We call it burning. during combustion the sulphur converts to sulphur dioxide (SO2) which then converts to SO3 and further combines with water vapor to form sulfuric acid. Considerable fuel saving can be affected by preheating the combustion air with the help of Recuperator and Regenerator. where from it can get required oxygen. which chemically reacts with oxygen and release enormous. When the combustion takes place. GCV (Gross Calorific Value) is the gross or the total heat liberated by one kilogram or one cubic meter of fuel. That is a part of the heat value of the fuel is spent in converting hydrogen into moisture and in evaporating and superheating. like furnace oil. Finally to enable perfect burning. the fuel is to thoroughly get mixed with combustion air. There should be sufficient Time for the combustible matter to react with oxygen and complete the process of chemical reaction of oxidation to take place. Unless the combustion air creates a sort of Turbulence this kind of molecule to molecule mixing can not take place.. coal. The Sulfur content in fuel should be low. For good combustion three entities. We have seen that fuel and oxygen are essentially required for creation of fire. c) Improvement in Combustion d) Reduction in Initial heating time.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach 2. are essential and they are ‘Temperature’. which is also an exothermic reaction Majority of the Fuels consist of Hydrogen gas as one of the constituents. ‘Time’ and ‘Turbulence” as “three Ts” necessary for efficient combustion”. as superheated steam absorbing a part of the heat from the combustion of fuel. the Hydrogen (H2) in fuel burns to form moisture (H2O). it is called the combustion. which causes cold end corrosion. after supply of the enthalpy necessary to vaporize the steam formed by combustion of hydrogen in the fuel. The moisture produced. A good contact between fuel particles and air is also necessary and hence some people consider ‘touch’ (Contact)’ as a fourth ‘T’ necessary for efficient combustion. “Generally fuel loss due to soot is about two times that of scale. evaporates and rises. ‘Time’ and ‘Turbulence’ In order to ignite the fuel. 4. each spelt to begin with a “T”. it is to be heated to a required minimum Temperature. Here the enthalpy referred to is the heat absorbed for the evaporation of dry saturated steam at 288 K. Heat from combustion: We get the heat from fuel by burning them. Two major ingredients of a majority of the fuels are Carbon and Hydrogen. exothermic heat energy. 3. Carbon burns to form Carbon-di-oxide and Hydrogen turns to water on reacting with Oxygen. Sulphur is present in small percentage. This temperature at which the fuel can catch fire is called the Ignition Temperature of the fuel. It is customary to call ‘Temperature’. When fuel burns with bright flame and produces heat. Efficiency increases with lowering in exhaust gas temperature and decreases with increase in air fuel ratio. b) Increase in flame Temperature. It is seen that the soot of 2mm thickness increases the fuel consumption by 32%”. Sulphur also reacts with Oxygen to become Sulphur-di-oxide. And the quantity of heat spent in this process is not available for any other useful purpose.

This we can also consider as 2 x 6. If we consider that C kg is Carbon fraction. total heat evolved will be 8084 kcal. Calorific value of Hydrogen is 28922 kcal/ kg Calorific value of Sulfur is 2224 kcal/ kg Now in fuel. GCV = 8084 C + 28922 {H-O/8} + 2224 S kcal/Kg Why Hydrogen fraction has been taken as H – O/8 kg? O kg is the mass of Oxygen in the fuel.023 x 1026 molecules (2 kmol) of H2 will react with 1 x 6. For Gaseous fuels NCV = GCV − 4. 1 kg of H2 will react with 8 kg of O2 and become 9 kg of water Therefore 1 kg of Oxygen will consume 1/8 kg of Hydrogen For NCV calculation. GCV = Gross Calorific Value NCV = Net Calorific Value in Kcal/Kg H = % of total hydrogen of coal.023 x 1026 molecules (2 kmol) of water Since the mass of kmol of these gases are the molecular masses in kg. H kg is the Hydrogen fraction and S kg is the Sulphur fraction in 1 kg of fuel then. Hydrogen and Sulpur are the three constituents in fuel giving heat. When Oxygen is present in the fuel itself as one of the constituent.5 × H Where.7 × V Where V = Volume % of total hydrogen of gaseous fuel including the hydrogen obtained from other combustible components and also water vapor in gas. including hydrogen of moisture content. Similarly. Calorific value of Carbon is 8084 kcal/ kg That means. GCV is the sum of total heat given by each of these constituents. it will react with Hydrogen and consume part of Hydrogen.023 x 1026 molecules (1 kmol) of O2 and become 2 x 6. Table 1: Calorific value of fuels SR FUEL APPROX HEATING VALUE KCAL/KG Dry state FOSSIL FUELS 1 2 3 4 Coal Coke Charcoal Carbon 4000-7000 6500 7000 8000 28 . If we consider the chemical reaction: 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O Which means 2 molecules of H2 will react with 1 molecule of O2 and become 2 molecules of water. Formulae for calculating NCV of solid and liquid fuels: NCV = GCV − 52. the three constituents are in different fraction. 4 kg of H2 will react with 32 kg of O2 and become 36 kg of water. or.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Since Carbon. when 1 kg of Carbon reacts with Oxygen to become Carbon-di-oxide. the moisture resulted (9H in kg) from the reaction of H2 and O2 and the fraction of moisture already present (Mm in kg) as a constituent of fuel. will take away heat of evaporation at 15oC NCV = GCV – (Mm + 9H) x 589 kcal/ kg Appx. which will not be available during combustion.

67 kg of carbon dioxide.33 kg CO + 2430 kcal i. and the persons responsible Keep proper check on the quantity of Fuel been received Keep a check on the Deviation Report Maintain proper reports of Fuel delivery List down the period and persons responsible for shortages Issue notices and take action against persons and Dept. 1 kg C +2.67 CO2 1 kg of Carbon needs 2.33 kg of oxygen and produces 2. The theoretical amount of air required to achieve complete combustion is known as stoichiometric air.67 kg O2=3. fuel grade is inferior Issue notices to the Fuel purchase Dept. a) Carbon to carbon dioxide (Complete combustion) C+O2=CO2. b) Carbon to carbon monoxide (Incomplete combustion) 2C+O2 = 2CO + 2430 kcal per kg of carbon. One of the most important aspects in combustion of fuel is to achieve complete combustion of the fuel. or. 24 kg C + 32 kg O2 = 56 kg CO or.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Fuel oil Kerosene and diesel Petrol Paraffin Natural gas Coal gas Electrical (Kcal(KW) Bio gas(Kcal/cu mtr) (12 kg of dung produces 1 m3 gas) Table 2: Fuel Handling Considerations FUEL OIL • • • • • • • • • • • • ACTION REQUIRED AND CARE TO BE TAKEN Keep proper check on the grade of Fuel been received Do regular testing of Fuel in lab Maintain record of. 1 kg of carbon will require 1. we first need to go through various chemical reactions that are taking place during combustion. To calculate the amount of this air. releasing the total heat value of these constituents. 1 kg C+1. which means 12 kg C + 32 kg O2 = 44 kg CO2. H2O and SO2 respectively. or. and more importantly evolves only 2430 kcal per kg of carbon burnt.33 kg of CO. c) Hydrogen to Water 29 . Complete combustion is achieved when all molecules of C. responsible for shortages and spillage Warning to Contractor Warning to Driver Avoid contact of Fuel with water and keep the joints sealed 9800 10000 10800 10500 8600 4000 860 4700-6000 Calculation of Air: Stoichiometric combustion of a fuel is defined as the process of complete combustion to the products of combustion with evolution of heat.e. during which period. H2 and S in fuel get fully oxidized and become CO2.67 kg of oxygen to produce 3.33 kg O2 = 2.

Thus the theoretical minimum air required for complete combustion can be found from this formula. which is defined as the percentage of air required in excess of the theoretical minimum air for complete combustion. This leads to the Excess Air factor. Therefore after complete combustion. it will add up to your stack loss. The theoretically exact amount of oxygen required can be calculated with the help of Dulong’s combustion equations. 1 kg of S needs 1 kg of O2 and produces 2 kg of SO2. Relation between volume and mass: One very important aspect of combustion one needs to understand is the relation between mass of constituents in the fuel and air and the volume of constituents in the flue gas. It should be always kept in mind that while 30 . Calculation of Excess Air: To calculate heat loss with dry flue gas through stack. you are sure to lose because of incomplete combustion. if you provide more air than what is needed. But the assumption that the air or oxygen just equal to the theoretical amount will lead to Stoichiometric combustion presupposes ideal conditions. we need to know the mass of dry flue gas. H and S would be fully oxidized evolving maximum heat.e. or. Here the quantity of Oxygen which is already present in the fuel will not be required to be taken from atmospheric air. H kg of Hydrogen. we do not get an idea about the percentage excess air.67C + 8H + S – O) kg per kg of fuel. Now if we consider 1 kg of fuel with C kg of Carbon. or. Since we do not want incomplete combustion and resulting CO loss in flue gas. These may lead to some confusion in correlating the combustion constituents (in fuel and air) with the combustion product (flue gas). we are adding adequate excess air. Conversion from volumetric to mass basis composition always helps to understand such relation. For example. The theoretical air and the excess air are also considered on mass basis. If you provide less than optimum excess air. which states Ta = (2. which is the largest as we will see during performance analysis of boiler and furnace. Flue gas Composition: It has been seen from the above discussion that an adequate supply of oxygen is essential for complete combustion. You should note that the amount of Oxygen coming with the excess air will not be physically consumed but it would ensure that all molecules of C. If the combustion is complete then and then only maximum heat is available from a given fuel. amount of Oxygen required for complete combustion of this fuel would be (2. But again.67C + 8H + S – O) x 100/ 23 kg per kg of fuel. which is also known as the Dulong’s Formula. The quantity of Excess Air is one of the most important aspects in optimizing the combustion efficiency. In practice air or oxygen in excess of the theoretical amount has to be supplied to approach conditions of Stoichiometry.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O. Whereas the flue gas analysis is done on volumetric basis. Quantity of Oxygen available in atmospheric air is considered to be 23% by mass and remaining 77% by mass of Nitrogen. The ultimate analysis of fuel gives you the fuel composition on mass basis. when someone measures percentage of Oxygen or CO2 in the flue gas. 1 kg H2 + 8 kg O2 = 9 kg H2O d) Sulphur to Sulphur di-oxide S + O2 = SO2 32 kg S + 32 kg O2 = 64 kg SO2 1 kg S + 1 kg O2 = 2 kg SO2 i. the same amount of Oxygen would be present in the flue gas as free Oxygen. 4 kg H2 + 32 kg O2 = 36 kg H2O. S kg of Sulphur and O kg of Oxygen.

there is one kmol of CO2 in the flue gas. The combustion efficiency will increase with increased excess air. An optimal content of CO2 after combustion is approximately 12-13% for bituminous coal. and approximately 13 .11% for natural gas.23 x mass of excess air 31 . until the heat loss in the excess air is larger than the heat provided by more efficient combustion. we can find out the mass of dry flue gas. If there is no Sulphur in the fuel.67 x mass of Carbon from fuel analysis O2 from excess air = 0.14% for light oils. (CO2%)t = kmol of C/ (kmol of N2 + kmol of C) kmol of C = mass of Carbon per kg of fuel/ 12 (molecular mass of Carbon) kmol of N2 = 0. we can calculate and adjust the excess air and therefore control the mass of dry flue gas. From the CO2% monitored in the flue gas. we can see that for every kmol of Carbon. Considering no Sulphur in fuel.77 x mass of actual air Nitrogen from fuel = mass of N2 from fuel analysis CO2 from combustion of fuel = 3. excess air also increases the mass of dry flue gas and therefore contributes to the major heat loss. 10 . we have to consider complete combustion is taking place with the theoretical air only. and (CO2%)a is the % actual CO2 on dry volume basis in the flue gas In order to find out the theoretical CO2. our primary responsibility is to ensure that optimum air is supplied for the combustion. The optimum excess air level should be worked out by keeping the sum of loss due to incomplete combustion and dry flue gas loss to a minimum. Excess air control can be done by monitoring O2. We know that the mass of theoretical air can be calculated from the Dulong’s Formula: (2. from the reaction C + O2 = CO2.77 x mass of theoretical air / 28 (molecular mass of Nitrogen) + Mass of Nitrogen per kg of fuel/ 28 (in case of Nitrogen in fuel analysis) After we calculate % Excess air supplied (EA) as shown above. then excess air can be found out from CO2% from the following relation: % Excess air supplied (EA) = 7900 x [(CO2%)t . We have seen in the combustion chapter that if excess air percentage and fuel analysis is known. we have to first calculate mass of Actual Air = (1 + EA/100) x Theoretical Air. % theoretical CO2 on dry volume basis. Carbon dioxide content in the flue gas is an important indication of the combustion efficiency and we are controlling combustion by monitoring CO2 percentage in the flue gas.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach countering CO loss.O) x 100/ 23 Now the dry flue gas would consist of: Nitrogen from the actual air + Nitrogen from fuel + CO2 from combustion of fuel + O2 from excess air Nitrogen from the actual air = 0.(CO2%)a] / (CO2%)a x [100 (CO2%)t ] Here (CO2%)t is the % theoretical CO2 on dry volume basis in the flue gas. and the chemical analysis of the fuel. As an energy manager. the total dry flue gas consists of only N2 from theoretical air and CO2 from the Carbon in fuel Again.67C + 8H + S . CO2 and when large quantity of fuel is used then CO.

Combustion Control Combustion control satisfies the firing rate demand by supplying both air and fuel at the optimum air/fuel ratio.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach In case of Sulphur present in the flue gas. The heat loss in the flue gases is minimum for a certain excess air factor for each fuel. 32 . It is quite handy and simple to operate. For values greater than this it is more because of larger flux of the flue gases. though fairly accurate. More fuel must be burned to meet the firing rate demand. A similar apparatus for measuring oxygen using a solution of alkaline pyrogallol is also available. Fig. more fuel is required in order to satisfy the energy requirement. then not all fuel is completely burned.O2) The recommended excess air for various fuels is shown below: Table 2: Recommended Excess Air FUEL OIL COAL NATURAL GAS DRY BAGASS E WET BAGASS E Flue gas analysis: While selecting sample points for flue gas analysis. If insufficient air is present. 4 illustrates this for a boiler. Take care that the atmospheric air does not enter in the sample collecting bag while taking the sample Remove air present in the pipe by pumping before actually taking the sample Excess Air Recommended 15% 25% 10% 30% 45% The portable analyzer uses the chemical absorption method. Again. The Orsat apparatus. Modern control systems monitor fuel and air flow and insure that sufficient air is always present. A sample of flue gases is sucked or aspirated through a filter into the analyzer containing caustic soda solution. Both of these conditions result in reduced boiler efficiency. it may auto-ignite resulting in an explosion. energy is lost heating the excess. is bulky and needs a skilled operator. The boiler efficiency is maximum within small excess air factor. For values of x less than this the loss is more due to incomplete combustion. take care of the following points: • • • • • • Choose a point close to the furnace exit Avoid sampling at points of air infiltration Avoid sampling at dead pockets like bends or immediately downstream of dampers Use the same point where exit temperature in measured for heat balance calculations. A fuel rich combustion mixture is a hazardous condition. If it suddenly mixes with a stream of fresh air. If excess air is present. The change in volume is directly read off on a calibrated scale in terms of percentages of carbon dioxide. we need to calculate the mass of excess air from % of O2 in the flue gas from the following relation: % Excess air supplied (EA) = (O2 x 100) / (21 .

the so-called "combustion triangles" can be used to check whether the flue gas still contains unburned gases. drawn from the left bottom to the right top. The combustion triangle according to Bunte serves here as an example: the Bunte triangle is described in a square with lateral lengths of 21 divisions. The diagonal of this square. O2 and possibly CO. always occur in a defined ratio which can be calculated by the combustion equation. 33 . SO2.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Total heat Loss High Stack Loss Max. one attains the line of complete combustion for that fuel. For monitoring the combustion process it is therefore sufficient to monitor either the CO2 or the O2 concentration. The CO2+SO2+O2 content is plotted over the horizontal axis. If one draws a horizontal line through the point of the maximum CO2 content of a fuel and connects the point of intersection of this horizontal line and the diagonal with the right-hand bottom corner of the square. the CO2+SO2 content over the vertical axis. The lines of the complete combustion of various fuels are plotted in the Bunte triangle. If both values are measured. Efficiency Com bust ion Unburrned Fuel Total Air in percentage Theoretical Quantity Combustion triangles The concentrations of CO2. is the CO2max line and forms together with the horizontal and vertical axes the so-called "Bunte triangle". which are measured in the waste gas.

India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach 20 18 16 14 12 10 lignite hard coal CO2 + SO2 O2 CO2 + SO2 heavy fuel oil natural gas Ruhr gas 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 CO2 + SO2 + O2 Combustion triangle according to Bunte The following values are attained as a result in the example of lignite: • • • The measured CO2 value is 13%.8 % . 34 . the combustion triangle can not be applied due to the different CO2max values of the fuels. A value of 19. this is due to a measuring error.8 % The point for CO2 + SO2 + O2 is exactly on the line marking the complete combustion for lignite. If this point is on the left of this line. If this point is on the right of the line. In case of combined-fuel combustion. the flue gas contains unburned gases. Dew point If a fuel contains sulfur (S). However.8 % for CO2+SO2+O2 has been determined by means of the Orsat apparatus. Although this is just a very small SO3 portion. The advantage of the combustion triangle is that it allows easy checking of the correctness of combustion control during operation without.13 % = 6. a part of the sulfur combines with the free oxygen of the excess air into sulfur trioxide (SO3). this sulfur reacts with the oxygen of the air and forms sulfur dioxide (SO2). sulfuric acid in vapor state emerges from SO3 together with the water vapor in the flue gas at temperatures of approximately 500 ºC. This sulfuric acid can already reach the saturation limit at approximately 250 ºC. The O2 content is 19.

network measurement should be carried out at least every now and then to adjust the sampling point of the measuring probe of the continuously connected measuring instrument as exactly as possible to a mean value so that no flue gas streak is caught which would cause a distortion of measuring results. however. It is therefore important to keep air and feedwater inlet temperatures as high as possible.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach If the flue gas is further cooled down or hits against a colder heating surface. the acid dew point can already be at temperatures of 130 ºC – 150 ºC. here. this might be mistaken as an exceedingly high excess air ratio. Particularly during start-up and shutdown operations of the plant. the so-called "acid dew point". The combustion is monitored by means of measuring instruments which establish the O2 and/or CO2 contents of the flue gases. Flue gas monitoring Incomplete combustion can easily be recognized by the dark-colored smoke plume of the chimney. so that heating surfaces or walls are corroded by acid. For this. the sulfuric acid starts condensing at a certain temperature. in contrast. In case of the usual water vapor concentrations in flue gas. Apart from the acid dew point. The unburned combustible gases CO + H occurring in case of air shortage are also measured. The CO2 content decreases if CO forms. is unambiguous. the small measuring range of the O2 measuring instrument must be designed for the small amounts of excess air of modern furnaces and is often not sufficient during start-up operation. Especially at the air heater a certain amount of inleaking air cannot be avoided for design reasons so that the measurement of the flue gas composition for monitoring the combustion control has to be made upstream of the air heater. especially at the "cold" sections of feedwater and air heaters. In case of sulfur oil firing. O2 measurement. the water dew point is approximately 60 ºC. This is the temperature at which the condensation of water contained in flue gas starts. Inleaking air deteriorates the boiler efficiency and distorts the measuring result. there is the danger of temperatures falling below the dew point. This process is referred to as "low temperature corrosion". the dew point of sulfurous acid (H2SO3) differs only little from that. there is also the so-called water dew point of the flue gases. 35 .

Heat is transferred from inside the tube to water outside the tube. one need to ensure maximum extraction of heat from the fuel and then transfer maximum extracted heat to water and steam without causing any accident. Boiler is a closed vessel. which generates steam under pressure. When it comes to heat transfer. generating steam under pressure is something critical. one should transfer large quantity of heat into water. Again for power generation. heating is done at various temperatures and not just at 100oC. In a Fire Tube Boiler. etc. which are used Boiler? to boil water to steam is also a boiler? By definition. or a tea kettle. Heat generated by Nuclear Fission is also used these days. Above this limits. for various processes. Fire Tube Boiler 36 . A boiler’s primary job is to produce steam at required pressure and temperature. Does that mean that a kitchen bowl. water tube boilers are more economical. either from combustion of fuel or some other source like waste heat from an exothermic chemical process. One is the Fire tube Boiler and the other is the Water tube Boiler. As most of the boiler use the heat produced by combustion of fuel to generate steam. Fire tube boiler is usually preferred where the steam pressure required is less than about 30 kg/cm2(g) and steaming rate is lesser than 30 t/hr. boilers are classified as two types. it is also potentially dangerous equipment. To produce large quantity of steam. steam is being used most extensively. The steam is generated by evaporating water with the heat available. The primary requirement of an industrial boiler is to generate steam in large quantities. We know that being a closed vessel. Based on the heat transfer mode. In industry. from process heating to power generation.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Steam Generating System In industrial heating. which makes a boiler different than a tea kettle above. the hot flue gas passes through the tubes and water remain outside the tube. we can say that In order to achieve optimized Boiler performance. We know from the property of steam that the temperature of steam varies with the pressure under which the steam is being generated. nothing can match steam. Since it is generating steam under pressure. The equipment used for generating steam is called a Boiler. one needs pressurized steam to expand in the turbine. It is primarily this need of accommodating more and more heat transfer area in a limited space that has initiated the design advancement of a boiler. To achieve that one would also need more surface area through which heat is to be transferred from heat source (usually hot flue gas from combustion of fuel) to water.

Water Tube Boiler If we take a complete steam generating system and break it into various sub systems. which is being circulated back to the system.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach In a Water Tube Boiler. For this purpose let us take a steam generating system of a Power Plant. where capacity rages from 30 to 650 t/hr. 37 . normally. Where large quantity of steam is required. Feed water is added as make up water to the condensate. In power plants. Feed Water System: Properly treated Feed Water first comes to equipment known as Deaerator. water circulates through tubes and heat source is outside. Let us follow the water route while it is being converted into steam while passing through various components of a steam generating system and thereby go though various sub-systems. Heat is transferred from outside the tube to water inside the tube. which we sometime call Pegging Steam. which is comprised of most of the sub-systems. Deaeration is done by heating up the water by auxiliary steam. high pressure water-tube type boilers are used. at high pressure – Water Tube type Boiler is preferred. Flexibility in design is more but requires stringent water quality control since water side cleaning is a complicated and time taking process. where dissolved Oxygen gets removed. having pressure & temperature up to 160 kg/ cm2(g) and 540 0C respectively. we can have a better understanding of the overall system.

These gases together with noncondensing vapour are vented into the atmosphere through a vent valve or pass into a vent condenser where the steam is condensed and the gases are vented. This can be understood from the figure below. The heat received by feed water in the Deaerator is part of the sensible heat received in the cycle. From the Deaerator. coming out of the vent to ensure that the Deaerator is always remain filled with steam. Therefore a lot of sensible energy is still required by the water before it reaches the saturation temperature and evaporation would start. 38 . It is important to maintain a continuous stream of steam. horizontal trays arranged one above the other.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach The deaerator column is a cylindrical vessel provided with hollow (a) Perforated. This would in turn ensure that the partial pressure of O2 is least inside the Deaerator and therefore reducing the solubility of O2 in water further. which we can compare with a temperature enthalpy curve. Feedwater enters the deaerator from the top and is evenly distributed. So it is first taken inside the flue gas path where the gas is about to be released in the atmosphere through chimney at a high temperature (and therefore having a lot of heat energy) to increase the feed water temperature in an Economizer. But at this point the temperature of the water is much less than saturation temperature. The water circulates usually due to thermo-siphon action and known as natural circulation. by means of the distributing device. (c) Steam distributor at the bottom. Now the heated feed water enters the Evaporator through steam drum. which pumps the feed water at high pressure into th Evaporator (Circulating water & steam system). the feed water goes to the Boiler Feed Pump. into the perforated trays fitted at the bottom. (b) Water distribution device at the top. The trays or the spray nozzle atomises the water and with the pegging seam the water gets heated up to a temperature close to its boiling point and the gases dissolved in it are transferred to the gas phase. The Deaerator is usually placed at an elevation to ensure required NPSH for the BFW pump. where water will be circulated while getting evaporated.

is further brought back to the boiler section. Before it enters the furnace. otherwise.e. If we refer the steam table. however. which is done by steam or air atomizer. which has to be brought from the place it is stored (Fuel system. coal has to be ground into fine talcum powder consistency and therefore crusher and pulverizing mills are used. In the furnace. For gaseous fuel. the temperature of steam is raised by further heating. In some power plants. It will not be incorrect if we say that maximum heat input is taking place in the Evaporator section since it is getting the latent heat. whereas the down comer contains denser water. This is because the condenser operates under vacuum to extract maximum work output from the turbine. The first thing the furnace would need is the fuel. which is called forced or assisted circulation. For liquid fuel system. or where the density difference is less due to high pressure (at 175 bar pressure and above. the water receives the remaining amount of sensible heat and total latent heat of evaporation and finally steam leaves the Evaporator from the steam drum and enters the (Steam system) Superheater section. it is still required to be brought inside the furnace. In the Evaporator section. In the superheater. In some evaporator system. where the geometry does not allow the natural circulation. where steaming takes place and therefore riser contains mixture of water and steam. The air is one thing. the exhaust steam (which is partially wet now) goes to the Condenser. When we are discussing fired boilers. which is not shown in the above system diagram). which is placed before the final superheater. where multiple pressure turbine section is available. the heat source is combustion of fuel. fuel requires air and ignition temperature for combustion. Some liquid fuels require certain temperature to retain proper viscosity and therefore suitable heater would be there. liquid or gaseous type and the combustion takes place in an enclosed section known as the furnace. unless. the fuel should be atomized (broken into fine particles to increase surface area). the circulation is maintained with a pump. It would be interesting to know that the steam enters the condenser usually at temperature of 40 to 45oC (cold steam). Once combustion takes place. we can confirm this fact. such preparations are not required and only the pressure is to be maintained. the fuel might require some preparation. the expanded team.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Heat from the hot flue gas is received by the riser. However. where the latent heat is removed by cooling water circulation and the condensed water (condensate) is circulated back (Condensate System) to the Deaerator with the help of condensate extraction pump. remaining water would first get converted into steam and then only the temperature would rise. The steam should be completely dry and saturated before it enters superheater. The draught system is generally of three types: 39 . From the final turbine stage. the furnace gets filled with the product of combustion. which is at lower pressure and temperature. The fuel can be of solid. The final temperature is usually controlled by water spraying through attemperator. Due to the density difference in the two columns. For example. of course the pressure is very high. A number of water separators are used in the steam drum to ensure that. This part is known as Reheater and steam gets further superheated in this section before it enters the MP or LP stage of the turbine. which expands in the turbine section and rotates the turbine blade. instead of raising the temperature of steam beyond saturation temperature in the superheater. which is available in the nature for free. The system which handles the air and flue gas is called Draught System. flue gas and this flue gas again is required to be taken out of the system to allow entry of further air. i. steam and water density difference is not sufficient to induce natural circulation). in Pulverized coal fired boiler in the thermal power plant. The superheated steam then goes to the turbine. circulation takes place in the evaporator.

while gradually getting cooled. Boilers and IBR: As per the Indian Boiler Act & Regulations (IBR).75 liters or more in which water is converted into steam for external use. under pressurized condition. During manufacture and erection the CIB inspects various stages and finally issues manufacturing certificates in statutory formats and if any owner of a boiler intends to run it. we are using a Balanced Draught. 1923 is enacted by the parliament and administered by the all State Governments through Chief Inspector of Boilers. The State Directorate of Chief Inspector of Boilers also governs the quality and capability of personnel handling jobs of manufacturing. The hot flue gas leaves the furnace and passes through various sections of Superheater. he has to apply to the CIB with manufacturing certificates for registration of the same. which in turn pushes the flue gas inside the furnace till it is taken out of the system through the chimney. the exhaust flue gas is taken out of the system by the ID fan and discharged into the atmosphere through a chimney. where the air is pushed inside the furnace by the FD fan. where the air is heated by using the residual heat of the flue gas remaining after it passes the economizer. Central Boiler Board is a central authority. which formulates and amends the regulations governing boilers to keep pace with technological advancement and oversees that the stipulated rules framed by the different State Governments and regulations under IBR are strictly followed by all concerned authorities. operation and maintenance. a boiler may be defined as a closed vessel with a capacity of 22. After the preheater. Vacuum created by the ID fan sucks in Atmospheric air into the furnace for the combustion. maintenance and operating. Induced Draught: Where the flue gas from the furnace is sucked and taken out of the system through the chimney. after combustion takes place. After Air Preheater. However. to create the required draught pressure. tremendous amount of heat is being released. But due to the high temperature of flue gas exiting from the chimney. as the subject "Boiler" comes under the concurrent list of the constitution of India. The Indian Boilers Act. Economizer and Air Pre-heater. in every state. Welders deployed in manufacture and maintenance and repairs of pressure vessels are also covered under such rules. The heated combustion air increases the combustion efficiency and also further reduces the exit gas temperature. the furnace pressure is maintained a little on the negative side.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Forced Draught: Where the air is being pushed into the furnace with the help of a fan known as FD fan. The schematic diagram may not represent it properly. which uses the chimney height and higher temperature of the flue gas getting released from the chimney. But before it goes to the furnace. In the system schematic shown here. Reheater. 40 . In this system. heated air is taken inside the furnace. For boiler under use. The State Level Regulatory Bodies under the Chief Inspector of Boilers. The state Chief Inspector of Boilers is authorized to conduct regular examinations for testing and certifying candidates working on boiler or a pressure vessel. However this code is no way bears any guidelines for efficiency. CIB will inspect it once in a year in normal condition. but some of the superheater and reheater sections are kept in the furnace to take advantage of the radiation heat transfer. Inside the furnace. are solely responsible for implementation of various regulations of the Indian Boiler Regulation (IBR) concerning all types of boilers for their manufacture. in emergency the frequency of inspections may increase. which is located before the furnace. There is of course the Natural Draught system. The term ‘boiler’ includes all such mountings fitted to the vessel. It pushed the air. heat loss is staggering. IBR is an Indian regulatory code governing the construction and operation of Boilers to ensure safety for prevention of loss of lives and properties. the air is first taken inside the flue gas path through an Air Pre-heater. MCR and other operational parameters. which remain wholly or partly under pressure when steam is shut off. erection. after the Economizer and Air pre-heater in the flue gas system. Balanced Draught: Both FD and ID fans are used in this system. The fan used in this system is called ID fan and it is located just before the chimney.

Of course there were limitations to pressure or diameter (3.5 kg/ cm2 and 250 NB). Now it is revised to “punishable with imprisonment which may extend to two years or with fine which may extends to one lakh rupees or with both. 2007 Some of the significant Changes: The definition of “boilers”: In new act it is a pressure vessel in which steam is generated for use external to itself by application of heat which is wholly or partly under pressure when steam is shut off but does not include a pressure vessel : i) with capacity less than 25 litres (such capacity measured from the feed check valve to main steam stop valve) ii) with less than one kilogram per centimeter square design gauge pressure and working pressure. like gas turbine exhaust.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach THE INDIAN BOILERS (AMENDMENT) ACT. Now it will vary from 12 months to 48 months depending upon various factors to be outlined by the Indian Boiler Regulation. Till now the certified period to use the boilers was for twelve months whatever may be the size and running condition of boilers. In section 25 for offence of tempering registration mark. Stricter penal measures: The new act has introduced heavy penalty for various offences For running of boilers without certificate there was a fine of five hundred rupees earlier. The main function of the HRSG is to serve as the link between two different thermodynamic cycles. it means any pipe through which steam passes. Introduction of third party inspecting bodies besides Boiler Directorate: i) Competent Person ii) Competent Authority iii) Inspecting Authority Periodicity of certificate issued to boiler users after carrying out statutory inspection. the fine may extends to one lakh rupees Technological Development in Boilers: Heat Recovery Steam Generator in Power Plant: The HRSG [Heat Recovery Steam Generator] is a system that generates steam from a primary source of heat. These are: The gas turbine cycle (Brayton) and The water steam cycle (Rankine). or iii) in which water is heated below one hundred degree centigrade. 41 . In new act. The definition of “Steam Pipe”: In old act it is a pipe line through which steam passes from boiler to a prime mover or other user or both. now it has become one lakh rupees. The pressure and diameter limitation will be there. or the waste Incinerators etc. These two cycles conform what is called a combined cycle. In section 24 for other penalties like a) Failing to engrave the registration number b) Illegal repairs c) Fails to report accident d) Tempering with safety valves e) Allowing any person to go inside boiler without effective disconnection In old act it was a fine of five hundred rupees.

New HRSG designs also are required to match each incremental jump in gas-turbine size as combined cycle units grow larger and larger. stack gas temperature. most of the HRSGs for large combined cycle power plants are designed for triple pressure reheat steam systems to maximized efficiency. the gas turbine exhaust inlet gas temperature to the HRSGs is very low. This temperature will guarantee that no steaming will occur in the economizer section. approach temperature difference. The pinch point is the difference between the gas temperature leaving the evaporator and the saturation temperature. while approach point is the difference between the water temperature leaving the economizer and saturation temperature. 42 .580 oC. Pinch is used in sizing the heat transfer surface area of the HRSG. With single pressure or even multiple pressure HRSGs. increased thermal efficiency of a combined-cycle plant by nearly four percentage points. There are a few reasons for this. where the inlet gas temperatures are very high namely adiabatic combustion temperatures of the fuel fired (1600-1800oC). reheat steam temperature. Today. and yielded approximately one more percentage point gain for the overall cycle. it could be very small due to the low inlet gas temperature. superheated steam temperature. A good approach point is between 10°C-15°C. Later designs has gone one step further. This creates a problem. Importance of Pinch Point and Approach Point in HRSG Unlike conventional steam generators. etc. Perhaps the most important development in HRSG design is the move from single to dual-pressure steam production. This change.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach To efficiently mate the Rankine steam cycle with high-temperature gas turbines. from dual to triple-pressure steam production. It is desirable to make the pinch point as small as possible with out making the cost of the HRSG too high. while in HRSGs. an option to improve energy recovery is to use lower pinch and approach points. Approach point is used in the sizing of the Economizer. Hence gas/steam profiles cannot be easily predicted. on the order of 500 . the highest pressure level. HRSGs are developed to operate at substantially higher flue-gas temperatures. minimum temperature difference (pinch point). which enabled lower stack temperatures and thus greater recovery of thermal energy from the gas turbine exhaust. such as the low ratio of gas/steam and capacity of heat sink in the form of economizer. This in turn affects the energy absorbed in economizer and hence the HRSG exit gas temperature. Pinch and approach points are to a great extent dependent on the inlet gas temperature and whether the evaporator is bare or finned. A lot of energy is transferred to the steam before the flue gases enter the economizer. We cannot arbitrarily assume an exit gas temperature to determine the steam flow. A Typical exhaust gas/steam cycle temperature profile "Q-T diagram" for three-pressure system is given below indicating Gas turbine exhaust gas temperature.

These variants define the type of HRSG and the variant is determined by a specific aspect of the HRSG operation. Forced.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Heat Transfer and Tube Finning The temperature differential between the flue gas.m-2. The overall pressure drop across the whole HRSG should not be much more than 25 mbar. This compares with peak heat transfer rates in pulverized boilers which can be well over 200 kW. Water side and steam side coefficients are much better as will seen in the Table below. tubes must be of small diameter. Typical HRSG Heat Transfer Coefficients Section of Flue Gas Water in Water in HP Steam HRSG Economiser Evaporator 500 2500-10000 1000 Heat Transfer 50 Coefficient (W. with tight spacings and be of the finned type to provide sufficient heat transfer area. Given such poor flue gas side heat transfer rates. as at the beginning of an HP evaporator. For example with a 100ºC difference the flue gas. High efficiency finning is desirable as this reduces the size of the HRSG. the actual heat transfer rate will not be much more than 5-10 kW.m-2.Natural. Dual or Triple pressure levels 43 . is very poor.K-1) It follows from this that tube wall temperatures tend to run quite close to the water and steam side temperatures. is expansion differences leading to thermal fatigue.m-2. where different types of materials are employed. The only section of the HRSG which might not use finned tubes is the HP superheater where there might be a possibility of oxidation of the finning. steam and water. These are as below: • Horizontal or Vertical design • • • Circulation . the heat transfer rates are very modest. assisted Circulation or once through Supplementary fired. Classification of HRSG There are a few variants to the basic design of the HRSG. especially around the back end of the evaporators. A potential problem with finning. Fin material with a high conductivity is needed. otherwise gas turbine output will suffer. and Auxiliary fired. Fin shape and pitch are also critical due to the need to prevent excessive pressure drops through the system. Even when temperature differentials are at their highest. Single. The situation is compounded by the poor heat transfer coefficient on the flue gas side.

cleaning of downstream fouled surfaces has to be carried out carefully. CO Catalysts. which have originally been developed in Europe. In the Horizontal design the exhaust hot gases from the primary heat source flow in a horizontal direction over the exchanger tubes. not to poison the catalyst. Horizontal vs Vertical HRSG (some of the important comparisons) Surface Area for equal Output Plot Plan Area for equal Output Emission control Horizontal HRSG Similar. Though both designs work equally effectively.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Horizontal or Vertical design The vertical or the Horizontal design is basically the particular manufacturer's design feature. In a vertical design the gases flow in a vertical direction [bottom to top] over the exchanger tubes. light enclosure Header and surface inspection carried out accessing through manholes without requirement for additional auxiliaries 44 . and if supplementary firing systems. are required Requires more HRSG length Vertical HRSG Base Base Supplementary Firing HRSG enclosure/Boiler house Regular Inspections Readily installed in the HRSG inlet duct or within the boiler surface area Free standing. except the re-heater and super heater section which might require slightly more heating surface area mainly due to less advantageous flue gas flow distribution with regard to temperatures and mass flow Up to 30% more. offer a smaller footprint and are less vulnerable to thermal cycling problems than the horizontal designs commonly applied and originated in North America. difficult to install within the boiler surface area Attached to and supported by the HRSG structure. Vertical designs. certain countries have preference for one over the above. etc. SCR’s. mainly due to the opening angle of the inlet duct and the stack. self supporting enclosure Headers and surfaces not easy to access Requires more HRSG height. Readily installed in the HRSG inlet duct.

India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Circulation As the HRSG exchanger tubes are constantly exposed to the hot gases from the primary heat source. It normally includes a drum. 45 . This can be Natural. It normally includes a drum. These days there are vertical HRSGs with natural circulation also. The Assisted Circulation Similar to forced circulation The circulation arises from the work done by a water circulation pump that is only in service during the start-up of the HRSB. Forced Circulation: Forced Circulation The circulation arises from the work done by a water circulation pump. Assisted or Once through flow. Applies normally for vertical HRSB types. Natural Circulation: Natural Circulation The circulation arises from the density difference between water and steam. In the vertical HRSG design where the exchanger tubes are horizontal. Hence there is need to keep the water circulating all the time through the various exchangers. Forced. often forced circulation is deployed. the horizontal HRSGs with vertical exchanger tubes deploy natural circulation as the norm. On the other hand. the tubes cannot be dry at anytime.

In a conventional steam generator. to suit a specific plant requirement. the fired unit is more efficient for the following reasons: Addition of auxiliary fuel reduces the effective excess air in the exhaust gases. the heat losses are more and thus efficiency is reduced. This is due to the increased ratio of steam/gas. The pressure and flow values are dictated by the downstream equipment's requirement. Single. the HRSG efficiency is defined as: E= (energy to steam/water/fluids)/[exhaust gas flow x enthalpy + fuel input on LHV basis] Compared to an unfired HRSG. Dual or Triple pressure levels HRSGs. The fuel utilizes only the excess oxygen in the turbine exhaust.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach It normally includes a drum. Per ASME Power Test Code 4. as no air is added. while in a HRSG. while the steam generation increases due to auxiliary firing. Supplementary-fired. The increased water flow through the economizer (with gas flow remaining same) can pull the gas temperature further down due to the increased duty. Auxiliary firing will be required if the HRSG is to produce steam for the plant even when the primary heat source is not available. It is therefore prudent to use duct firing as Supplementary firing instead of auxiliary firing only to augment power generation at the time of need. The Once Through Flow The circulation arises from the weight force of the water entering the boiler at a very high point. There is no recirculation taking place in the evaporator. may have single or multiple pressure levels. It normally has no drum. There are obvious differences in HRSGs from a coal fired or oil fired steam plant. the gas/steam ratio is nearly constant. In the supplementary fired HRSG heat from the primary source and from the burner are always available. But in practice. With increased steam generation. usually the exhaust gas temperature decreases in a single pressure system. Radiation heat pick up in the HRSG designed to utilize low grade heat is poor and thus contributes to the decrease of the overall efficiency of the power plant. The HRSG does not have 46 . where with increase in excess air. then supplementary firing is required in the HRSG using some burner system. exhaust gas flow remains the same. it has been found that the heat rate increases with auxiliary firing.4. This is opposite to what happens in a steam generator. and Auxilliary fired If the heat from the primary source is not adequate to meet the specific plant requirements.

and the bulk of the heat uptake occurs at around the boiling point. IP and LP economizers. at an even lower pressure. although there are HP. that to attain the highest practicable efficiencies. which dominates the HRSG design. the super critical pressure boilers are of once through. basically because much of the heat uptake happens at the evaporator due to the higher requirement of latent heat. down stream of the high pressure steam. In other words. Also. economizers and superheaters in the HRSG. These differences can be traced back to heat transfer consideration. the water side has to be raised to a very high temperature – to the extent of 300 – 320oC. For an HRSG equipped with a superheater and a reheater these days. can also be raised using the last vestige of heat in the flue gases. In addition some superheating of the LP steam is done with the aim of matching the temperature of the “cold” steam from the HP or IP turbine.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach a furnace and all the heat coming from a Gas Turbine exhaust. in a HRSG that produced steam at just one very high pressure. which could be transferred from the flue gases. There are also separate sets of HP. to make use of a steam temperature of the order of 500oC or more. In a triple pressure HRSG. Steam temperatures of most HRSG units lie in the range of 480 to 530oC. which is very suitable for driving turbo generators. As the boiling point of water at this sort of pressure is in the range of 140ºC-180ºC low temperature heat in the flue gases can be picked up quite easily. an IP and an LP set. This problem is overcome by installing a further set of evaporators. an HP set. somewhere between 4 and 10 bar. the steam must be expanded through an adequate pressure ratio. in an HRSG. about half of the available heat in the flue gas would be lost up the stack. the IP turbine. A super critical boiler is one. In order to achieve these two objectives. dry superheated steam is produced. It is then possible to merge the steam from these two different systems and put them to the LP turbine. where all the evaporation takes place at one very high pressure. is as compressed as water and at a temperature of 3740 C. namely the necessity to reduce emission of CO2 (Green House Gas) and ever increasing cost of fuel have always attracted the attention of the designer. this requires an adequate steam pressure into the turbine. Given that the flue gas entering an HRSG is around 600ºC. 47 . the pressure is more than 120 bar. IP and LP steam turbines. of the type used on conventional pulverized fuel plant. This would simply raise the water temperature at the inlet to the economizers. To summarise in a modern HRSG steam would be raised at three different pressures with separate evaporator and pumping circuits for each. this would mean that the temperature of the flue gas going up the stack would be just over 300ºC. the designers have taken steps to increase the thermal efficiency & power cycle by adopting the usage of Super Critical Pressure steam. This additional set produces steam at a much lower pressure. and would reduce the amount of heat. In an conventional fired boiler. Since the saturation temperature increases with the increase of pressure. are provided with only pre-heater and super heaters and there is no boiler drum. Since the pressure in condenser is more or less fixed. water does not require any latent heat to become vapour from fluid. Steam. At this critical pressure. This is in complete contrast to a pulverized fuel steam plant. as in a pulverized fuel boiler. the turbine entry temperature needs to be as high as possible. which means steam. which operates above the critical steam pressure of 229 kg/cm2(g) at 3740 C. the superheater is located after the evaporator. and in the superheater and reheater region. using steam extracted from the turbines are not used on HRSG systems. for deaeration. the evaporators are located at downstream of superheater and reheater. Super Critical Boiler: Two factors. there are actually three sets of evaporators. or if the plant is fitted with a reheater. temperatures run between 800 to 1400oC. When such substance is heated above the critical temperature. all the evaporation takes place at just one very high pressure. It is a truism for both gas and steam turbines. Where in conventional boiler. steam and water are at the same density. Generating steam at this pressure has a huge impact on HRSG design. the actual value being that which corresponds to the exit pressure from the HP turbine. Another difference is that feedheaters. forced circulation type. The temperature in the furnace of a conventional coal or oil fired steam plant is around 2000oC. In super critical boiler.

C). 48 . This.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach The Advantages of Super Critical Boiler over Sub Critical Boiler: a) The heat transfer rate is very high. the heat transfer co-efficient in sub-critical boiler is 400 kcal/m2. This is achieved by extracting heat from the bed through heat transfer tubes immersed in the bed.hr. while that in super-critical boiler is 50000 kcal/m2. as well as through walls of the bed. The beginning: 0ne afternoon more than a decade ago. that is. d) The overall operation is very easy. a British engineer named Douglas Elliott tapped a bit of coal.hr. c) Due to absence of steam-water mixture (no two-phase effect). With further increase in the velocity. Fluidized Bed Combustion: When air or gas is passed through an inert bed of solid particles such as sand or crushed refractories supported on a fine mesh or grid the air will initially seek a path of least resistance. into a tin can mounted on the wall. is fluidized bed combustion (or FBC) While it is essential that the temperature of the bed should be at least equal to ignition temperature of coal.C. steam efficiency of power plant can be as high as about 40 to 42%. ground to crumbs in a kitchen blender. the fuel will turn rapidly and the bed attains a uniform temperature due to effective mixing. there is very less erosion and corrosion. at a casual glance. The integration of the fluidized bed combustion process with a boiler results in a system that has several advantages. Under such conditions. it must not be allowed to approach the adiabatic combustion temperature (1600-1700ºC) to avoid melting of the ash. If the bed material in fluidized state is heated to the ignition temperature of the fuel and fuel is injected continuously into the bed. Below the can was an ordinary small open fireplace – ordinary. b) By using super critical boiler. and pass upwards through the bed. the air starts bubbling through the bed and the particle attains a state of high turbulence. Hence air velocity is maintained between minimum fluidizing velocity and particle entrainment velocity. the bed assumes the appearance of a fluid and exhibits the properties associated with a fluid and hence the name ‘FLUIDISED BED’. (Typically. The combustion is carried out essentially at a temperature below ash fusion temp. in short. If the air velocity is too high the bed particles are entrained in the air stream and are lost. e) The turbo generator connected to super critical boiler can easily attain peak-loads.

Operational Advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustion Boilers. capacities tended to be relatively modest with many BFBC units being built in the range 3-40 MWth. most continue to fall in the small-to-medium capacity range. The overall capacity of a site depends almost entirely on the various end uses. As the coal trickled out of the can onto the glowing bed below. by the early 1990s. The capacity of bubbling-bed installations during the past three decades has varied significantly. Like any combustion system. including units that fire biomass and wastes in conjunction with. During the 1970s several engineering companies embarked on the development of CFBC technology. for a variety of applications. China claimed to have more than 2000 bubbling fluidized beds in operation and. Work is being carried out by several organisations with a view to developing a successful commercial-scale process. operating CFBC units range from a few MWth to 250MWe. the technology has yet to be demonstrated at a significant scale.hot bed of sand gently undulated like simmering lava. delivering much more warmth than its size suggested. For instance. England. or instead of. however. The Technology Development: FBC in its various forms offers a technology that can be designed to burn a variety of fuels. a red. produce steam and/or hot water. striking demonstration of a concept called fluidized bed combustion. but the little fireplace glowed fiercely. the end product of FBC is heat. To date. There are two main derivatives of the technology. at Aston University in Birmingham. Some say that FBC will transform the use of humanity's oldest technology – fire. coal wastes. Finland and Thailand. reflecting a diversity of end uses. the situation with CFBC plant has mirrored that of bubbling-bed installations in that the capacity range produced by the major manufacturers has been very wide. reflecting the usefulness of the technology for the environmentally acceptable disposal of such materials. CFBC technology was developed further and commercial acceptability was achieved with remarkable rapidity. installations may generate electricity. However. FBC boilers can burn low-grade fuels. everything from high-sulfur coal to rice hulls. It is claimed that PCFBC technology could offer significant advantages over the present atmospheric pressure systems. there is a potential alternative in the form of PCFBC. a trend that largely continues. Unlike other systems. or both. In terms of individual plant capacity.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach For instead of burning coals. coal. biomass and other feedstocks. Technology variants were introduced by a number of commercial organisations and CFBC has become established as a versatile technology that can be designed to burn a range of coals. with a relatively small number in the range 150-280 MWth. building on the concept of earlier bubbling bed combustion. the majority of plants were of the small-to-medium scale. It burned only about two pounds of coal an hour. India had around 200 in use. A number of more recent units have fallen in the range 30-100MWth. Although some large coal-fired retrofit demonstration units have been built and operated successfully. In both cases. The original development of BFBC was for coal-fired power generation. there has been some shift from coal firing to use of alternative fuels such as petroleum coke and/or other waste-derived fuels. was no mere conversation piece. Although PFBC based on bubbling-bed technology currently predominates. efficiently and in an environmentally acceptable manner. The fireplace. During subsequent years. an FBC system can use soaking wet coal mixed with rock. it has been shown that the technology is better suited to smaller industrial applications. which can generate hot water or steam or run turbines to produce electricity. Thus. namely bubbling (BFBC) and circulating (CFBC) and both of these can be either atmospheric or pressurized in operation. While a small number of large capacity plant have been built in Japan. each crumb exploded into flame with a pop and a blue-white flare. It was a simple. Following are the main advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustion Boilers: a) Low NOx emission due to low temperature combustion (800-900ºC) NOx formation is avoided and adding limestone for high Sulphur fuels such as Lignites. around the same time. In the early 1980s. Peats and High 49 . Recently. Suitably designed.

Rated parameters are obtained faster and the time taken from the instant of lighting up is quite less. b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) Prevention of vitrification of ash particles causing them to be less than ash from fire or p. Unlike Pulverized Fuel Fired Boilers. Low cost of steam generation. husk saw dust or washery middling.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Sulphur Coal arrests SOx. depending on the mode of operation of the fluidized bed. use of low cost fuel. Compact design due to high heat transfer rate over a small heat transfer area immersed in bed. Less of maintenance due to absence of moving parts. no flame supporting and stabilizing firing of Secondary Fuel such as Oil is required. Reduction in Boiler efficiency with reduction in boiler load is much lesser as compared with other type of boilers.f. Wide Turn-down Ratio of 4 to 1 is achievable. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed boilers can be of two types: (a) Bubbling Fluidized bed combustors (BFBC) (b) Circulating Fluidized bed combustors (CFBC) A distinction can also be made on the basis of fluidizing velocity of air. High availability and reliability with poor grade coal. High efficiency (85-86%). Low operation & maintenance cost. These are: (a) Atmospheric Fluidized Bed (AFB) boilers and (b) Pressurized Fluidized Bed (PFB) boilers. Thermally homogenous combustion. boilers. Boiler can be comfortably operated at low loads without any support fuel due to segmental air box and fuel combustion bed. u) Classification of fluidized-bed boiler : Fluidized-bed boilers can be categorized into two main groups. Bottom feeding system helps in ensuring uniform bed temperature and high efficiency even when the content of fines in the coal is very high. hence lower potential for local hot or cold spots. 50 . due to which rated steam conditions are maintained down to very low loads and response to load variations is fast. less maintenance cost. expensive downstream scrubbing equipments are not necessary. No flame monitoring system being necessary for monitoring the flame of boiler furnace. Boiler start up (cold start)is fast. and negligible oil consumption reduce the cost of steam generation considerably. Fluidized Bed Combustion Boilers can be designed to burn Waste Fuels such as bagasse. Minimal Instruments & Controls required. which is the fundamental distinguishing feature of fluidized-bed-combustion units. Thus. Hot start is faster due to heat retention in bed. Soot blowers are not required as it has minimum touching and slagging potential Operation is simple and generally there is lesser danger of explosion. Coal quality much inferior to the quality envisaged during design and wide fluctuation in quality can often be accommodated without sacrificing the generation or efficiency.

The core of the BFBC installation comprises the combustion chamber.3-2mm. this process being known as BFBC. Any further increase in the gas flow rate does not significantly affect the bed pressure drop. Hot gases from a furnace are usually used for process drying applications. the bed maintains a well-defined upper surface. or if the ash is friable. they become defluidized or slumped. and settle down onto the supporting base plate. When the pressure drop across the bed particles equals the weight per unit area of the bed. many forms of start-up system have evolved. much as boiling water appears. BFBC boilers utilise various systems to remove excess bed material. with air bubbles passing through the bed bursting at the surface. depending on the particular design. This equipment can comprise a fully automated classifier system that extracts coarse particles from the bed and returns remaining useful bed material to the combustion chamber. In the case of a BFBC boiler. the bed initially remains static but the pressure drop across it increases in proportion to the increasing gas flow rate. as the weight of the bed particles opposes the rising fluidizing air. The grain size of the inert bed material falls generally within the range 0. In a BFBC system. such that it is substantially elutriated within the emergent flue gases. i. In this state the bed particles can transfer heat at very high rates from burning fuel to cooler surroundings. as an anti-erosion measure. especially one that leaves behind hard particles of ash. such tubes and walls form a part of the boiler construction. with the size of particles normally considered for BFBC applications. If the ash particles are a suitable size they will fluidize and will eventually replace the original inert particles. termed the air distributor. However. some of the ash remains in the bed. a light fuel oil can be used for the ‘over-bed’ method. At start-up.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach BFBC When a packed bed of small particles is subjected to an upward gas flow. the bed is fluidized although the particles remain in relatively close contact and are not carried upwards to any significant degree. by the opposing effects of the heat input from the burning fuel and outgoing heat in the flue gases. This plate both supports the static particles and also evenly distributes the fluidizing air across the whole base area of the particle containment.e. When BFBC is used for applications other than as a boiler. gas flow in excess of the minimum will. and heat transferred from the bed particles to water-cooled tubing and/or containment walls. At a fluidization velocity several times the minimum. The bed is then considered to be at minimum (or incipient) fluidization. In order to cater for various start-up requirements. Combustion of fuel fed into the combustion chamber takes place primarily in the bubbling bed of sand or other inert material. this generally features water-cooled walls and bottom section. the emergent flue gases are constrained to flow through or across conventional heat transfer surfaces so that they are cooled to below 200ºC before they leave the boiler and flow to atmosphere through the plant chimney. the fuel ash may be either insignificant or become degraded by the action of the fluidized bed. and stabilized. Excess fuel ash may need to be removed in order to maintain the designed bed depth. If the upward air flow is turned off. result in the formation of bubbles. the particles become static. such as a hot gas furnace or incinerator. successfully retain sulphur dioxide (SO2). For boiler systems. in the case of limestone or dolomite. there are no such water-cooled surfaces. and burns by virtue of the oxygen within the fluidizing air and the temperature of the surrounding particles. the upward and sideways coalescing movements of the bubbles provide intense agitation and mixing of the bed particles. The bottom section may be fully lined with refractory. the bed particles need to be controlled in the temperature range 800-900ºC. Thus. the height when fluidized may be between 300mm and 1m. Alternatively. In the case of a boiler or a waste/bio-fuel to energy plant. Within the system. In order to burn the fuel efficiently and. During normal operation this temperature is achieved. when a high-ash fuel is burned. hence the bed temperature is stabilised by passing excess air through the bed. Bed particles are free to move around. one of the most widely applied methods being the use of gas or oil burners preheating the ambient fluidising air and so preheating the bed particles. or simply a 51 . Alternatively. the bed becomes suspended. the fuel is delivered into or onto the fluidized bed of inert particles. as may the lower portion of the water wall panelling. Fuel can be fed into and burned in the bubbling bed. the bed particles have to be raised to a suitable ignition temperature for the intended fuel. the only significant pressure difference is the drop from the air distributor in the base to the top of the bed. When the fuel being burned has only a low ash content.

compared with earlier units. The main environmental issues that require consideration with BFBC operations may vary but will include some or all of the following: oxides of nitrogen (NOx: NO+NO2). BFBC has several advantages. although latterly there has been a growing tendency to use other fuels. there is often a tendency for first-generation plant to be less effective and more troublesome than later developments. CFBC Circulating fluidized beds are a development of bubbling-bed technology. when appropriate. The primary air can represent a varying percentage of the total air requirement. nitrous oxide (N2O). Secondary air is introduced at several levels above the bed. conventional oil and/or gas burners can be installed in the freeboard of the furnace walls. fired on coal alone. full boiler output to be achieved with different types of fuels. However. to reduce NOx levels. As this occurs. dioxins and furans. With a bubbling bed. some types of municipal solid waste and refuse-derived fuel) and low volatile fuels (including anthracite and petroleum coke). BFBC technology is well suited to smaller industrial applications as well as to the combustion of waste materials. As with many technological developments. and the amount of fuel burnt within the bed and the freeboard. pollutant emissions can be controlled by a variety of means. and generate lower emission levels. the air entrains with it a percentage of the solid particles from the bed. SO2. if the velocity of the fluidizing air is increased above a defined level. However. there is no need for in-bed tubing to be utilized for heat transfer purposes. many BFBC combustors remain in use worldwide. BFBC plant continues to find wide ranging adoption in a number of important industrial areas. the temperature. Further developments have introduced second generation BFBC. entrained particles are carried upwards away from the bed surface and the distinct surface layer that characterized the bubbling bed operating at lower air velocities disappears. Where low-grade fuels such as high-moisture-content sludges are used. characterized by such features as: Highly-staged combustion air. Depending on the particular application/situation. Where low-heating-value fuels are used. Velocity within the furnace is also controlled by air staging. Since primary air velocity is kept low (~1m/s).g. control of particulates is necessary and. BFBC plant can have lower capital and maintenance costs. The adoption of air staging. BFBC systems are often encountered as retrofit replacements for older. As with the latter. at an improved overall efficiency. either alone or co-fired with coal. less efficient facilities. carbon monoxide (CO). BFBC often has increased ability to burn a wider range of fuel types. control of heavy metal release may be required. As well as in new applications. rather than progressing upwards in the air flow. Compared with the latter. especially in situations where other indigenous fuels are lacking. high-ash fuels (e. when operating correctly. Because of the low fluidizing velocities generally adopted and the low suspension density above the bed surface. Practical experience over the past three decades confirms that BFBC technology can be well suited to the utilization of ‘difficult’ fuels such as high-moisture fuels (e. Although BFBC technology has faced increasing competition from CFBC in recent years. Coal has long been an important fuel source. This makes it possible to regulate the locations where combustion takes place within the furnace. This was the case with BFBC technology and some early units were characterized by problems such as erosion of inbed tubing and heat absorption surfaces. In addition. air is blown through the bed. For instance. Simplified turn-down operations. it has maintained an important position in the market. this ensures that the bulk of the fuel enters the bed. some specific to FBC technology and others that are essentially the same as those used in conventional combustion plant. depending on the fuel types and the application. However.g. providing the balance of the combustion air. Thus. The combustion chamber is then filled with a turbulent cloud of particles that no 52 . wastes and sludges). allowing. combustion efficiency is heavily dependent on maintaining intimate contact between the fuel particles and the heat transfer medium.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach type of bed drain chute. There is no need for partial bed slumping. the majority of these particles fall back into the bed. where replacing some stoker and grate-fired plant. BFBC plant can generate a range of pollutants.

However. However. combustion in the lower part of the bed is reducing. Sorbent is usually added to the system in order to control SO2 emissions. In a simple bubbling bed. A circulating fluidized bed can be utilized to sustain combustion in a similar manner to a bubbling bed. they can be fed directly into a gas turbine. such as a cyclone or labyrinth separator. CFBC units. The ability to capture elutriated solids and recirculate them to the combustion chamber is an inherent feature of CFBC design. The distribution between hot solids and recycled cooled solids keeps the combustion chamber temperature at the desired value. a system under pressure. achieving acceptable overall environmental performance in practice. The high degree of fuel flexibility that characterises many designs of CFBC often allows a plant operator to select fuels on the basis of what may be currently available at an economic price and. There is a requirement to feed fuel into. PFBC With bubbling-bed PFBC. the one major advantage that PFBC has is that the hot combustion gases leave the combustor under pressure. Most major suppliers have manufactured CFBC units that have been capable of operating with the major classes of fuel types. whatever their origin. the bed solids may be heated to incandescence and fuel fed into the combustion chamber where it burns in the fluidizing air. generally include some or all of the following elements: A furnace/combustion chamber in which the coal or other fuel is injected (often with limestone) and fluidized together with part of the recycled solids.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach longer remain in close contact with each other. A solids separation system.up to 99%. the combustion process takes place within a pressure vessel and occurs at a pressure higher than atmospheric. Many CFBC units have proved to be capable of achieving relatively low levels of the primary pollutants NOx. a premium fuel may be co-fired with a low-grade feedstock such as paper mill or oil refinery wastes. as for BFBC. to produce a fuel blend that combines several such elements. CO and particulates. and remove ash from. this would constitute a significant disadvantage. The ability of CFBC systems to operate on a wide range of fuel types has been confirmed through extensive operational experience. Additional combustion air is injected as secondary air at an appropriate point above the grid plate. This means that fuels ranging from anthracites to wood can be burned in appropriately designed CFBC systems at high combustion efficiencies . and solids passing through the system can be retained using conventional particulate control systems. 53 . Compared with competing systems. thus limiting the risk of nitrogen oxide (NO) formation. SO2. Often. In this respect. It enables most of the solids leaving the chamber to be collected and re-injected into the system. CFBC systems have an inherent advantage in that they are designed to increase solids residence times by allowing for recirculation of particles into and through the high-temperature combustion zones. solids collection in a CFBC system is different from techniques used in BFBC units in that the solids loading in the gas emerging from the combustion chamber is far higher and the hot solids themselves constitute a major heat transfer mechanism. Thus. this phenomenon can be harnessed usefully by arranging for the burning particles to be recovered from the air flow and fed back into the lower part of the combustion chamber. The turbulent contact between the fuel particles present and the bed solids stabilizes the overall temperature. there are many others that regularly co-fire mixtures of fuels. As a result. Although many CFBC units currently in commercial operation utilize a single fuel feedstock. allowing only a very small fraction of the ash produced to be carried by the discharged flue gas. Approximately 50% of the combustion air is introduced below the grid plate. and various arrangements have required development to meet these needs. An external heat exchanger. This phenomenon has been addressed in a variety of ways by the different CFBC technology developers. This may be fed by fluidized solids from the bottom of the cyclone that are cooled before being fed back into the furnace or other part of the solids recycle loop. installed at the combustion chamber outlet in the high-temperature gases (~750-950ºC). NOx levels are minimized by careful bed temperature control and other means. the emerging solids carry with them a significant portion of the heat released during combustion in the combustion chamber. This system is known as CFBC. where appropriate. has often required considerable development effort by system developers. However. Where this pressure can be maintained and the gases have been cleaned.

Although PFBC based on bubbling-bed technology currently predominates. in the form of PCFBC. an alternative.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Other significant advantages include PFBC’s fuel flexibility. its modularity and its suitability for retrofit applications. PCFBC systems are some way behind bubbling-bed based systems in terms of their overall development and commercialization. once developed further. is also the focus of significant development efforts. as with bubbling-bed technology. 54 . PCFBC systems. It is expected that. will have the potential to achieve very low levels of pollutants and high process efficiencies.

will not give designed performance for desired life. h) Easy availability of operating instructions. Like any pressure vessel. boilers represent potential risks to personnel and property. Over the years the importance of the boiler has been realised and personnel operating this plant now need a high standard of skill and knowledge. b. protections and interlocks. auxiliary power consumption and coal consumption. The objectives of Operation Management: Following should be the objectives of Operation Management: a. j) Good house keeping. maintenance & efficiency management. Operation of plant and accessories at optimum efficiencies in sustained manner. operating personnel changes and new concepts of how to treat recognized symptoms of trouble. manuals and other literature to operating engineers and staff. c. This is mainly because major portions of the operating costs are incurred in the boiler plant. governmental jurisdictions have set forth rules for steam boiler operation and preventive maintenance. In short even the best made boiler. l) Proper training & awareness program. b) Daily coordination meeting with Head of department to discuss: • Operational events and daily plan • Analysis of abnormal events and remedial measures. and most. The engineers and boiler operators should be familiar with these rules specifically applying to their local situation. i) Efficient up keep of instruments. A major responsibility of the operator is to keep the boilers in good operating condition. Operation of plant at minimum dematerialized water makeup. Operation of units at minimum partial loading and maximum availability. The primary concern in the operation of steam boilers. engineering societies. the cost of which has increased considerably. 55 . Key Operation Areas: There are eight primary areas of the boiler itself that should be examined or inspected regularly. In the interest of safety. Efficient Control of Water Chemistry. consumption.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Operation Overview Introduction: Not many years ago boiler house was getting very little importance and was usually tucked away in some remote corner. g) Analysis of outages / categorizations. annunciations. f) Feed back to / from other plants. which can be saved. Every kJ of heat. important. lowers the cost and increases the efficiency of the station. d) Minimum forced tripping e) Tripping Committee for analysis of cause. manufacturers. Good operating practices result in the maximum reliability and efficiency. e. operating requirements. Boiler operation often varies with the age and design of equipment. Practices adopted for achieving the above objectives are as follows: a) Systematic monitoring and reporting systems for operation. d. if not operated properly. auto loops. k) Good working environment. regardless of pressure or type. is safety. c) Merit order rating • Continuous monitoring of important operational parameters having cost implications. A boiler consumes a huge quantity of fuel. Operation of units at rated parameters. To compile a detailed list of duties and responsibilities for personnel operating a boiler is difficult.

Soot in the breeching is a fire hazard and can cause severe combustion-related problems. Flue gas temperature: Flue gas temperature is a good indicator of boiler efficiency changes. Treatment programs are designed around the quality and quantity of raw water makeup and system design. The condition could change the pressure withholding capabilities of the vessel. must be removed because they affect the heat transfer capabilities of the pressure vessel. affecting proper operation of equipment that uses steam. Carryover also raises the moisture content in the steam. Sludge buildup leads to problems ranging from poor fuel-to-steam efficiency to pressure vessel damage. Boiler blow-down: Steam boilers should be blown down daily to maintain recommended dissolved solids levels and to remove sludge and sediment. If the boiler remains on all the time. Once a year. The low-water cutoff also should the removed and cleaned every six months. the operating pressure should be tested by bringing the relief valve to its setting. steel in the pressure vessel could overheat. The temperature should be recorded regularly and compared to those of a clean boiler under the same operating conditions. refractory should be inspected twice a year. which cause sludge or sediment in the boiler. The gauge glass should he observed and marked at the exact point at which the low water cutoff shuts down the boiler. Valves should pop and reseat according to the valve stamping. Water treatment: Proper water treatment prolongs boiler life and ensures safe and reliable operation. As a rule of thumb a 40-deg F rise in temperature reduces boiler efficiency 1%. This action keeps the column and piping connections clean and free of sediment or sludge. Waterside and fireside surfaces: Waterside and fireside surfaces should be inspected and cleaned annually. A visual inspection provides an early warning that the vessel needs repair or water treatment or that combustion needs adjustment. Inspecting and cleaning water-column connections should receive special attention. refractory should be inspected more often. A qualified water management consultant should direct them. Insufficient water causes pressure vessel damage or failure.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Water level: The most important maintenance inspection is to check the boiler water level daily. Hot spots on the steel that the refractory protects indicate refractory or gasket failure. At a minimum. The test verifies operation of the low-water cutoff under operating conditions. valves. A rise in flue gas temperature usually indicates dirt on the fireside of the boiler or scale on the waterside. Water column blow-down: Water columns on steam boilers should be blown down once each shift or at a minimum once a day. If a hot 56 . The low-water cutoff should be checked once a week by shutting off the feed water pump and letting the water evaporate under normal steam conditions at low fire. They are the last line of defense for protecting the pressure vessel from overpressure. As the boiler takes on makeup water the solids concentration builds up. It also helps maintain proper burner flame patterns and performance. For example. Safety valves: Safety valves are the most important safety devices on the boiler. Other factors also affect flue gas temperature. Accurately determining the affect on efficiency requires that the firing rate and operating pressure be the same. Heating and cooling refractory a lot shortens its life considerably. Solids accumulate in either dissolved or suspended form. a rise in stack temperature may indicate a baffle or seal in one of the boiler's passes has failed. The cost of fireside cleaning should be compared to those of lower operating efficiencies to determine the minimum temperature rise at which the fireside should be cleaned. If the boiler cycles more frequently or is turned on and off daily. necessitating vessel repair or replacement. Unless they are controlled dissolved solids promote carryover of water with the steam causing water hammer and damaging piping. or other equipment. The water column also must he kept clean to ensure the water level in the gauge glass accurately represents the water level in the boiler. The gauge glass connected to the water column are the only means of visually verifying boiler water level. Suspended solids. Refractory: Refractory protects steel not in direct contact with the water from overheating. It cracks and eventually fails.

It must be observed that the baffles are in position and not dislodged. rate of evaporation.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach spot is found. indirect water level indicator may not be relied upon. 6. After 1000 hours of service. The records for boiler performance must show the time. 8. at frequent intervals. Until normal working conditions are reached. until the boiler steams steadily. When raising steam in a cold boiler as the automatic controls are not available for service. Follow-up all flanged joints of steam piping. they should not be neglected either. The boiler may then be put into service as directed by the manufacturers. Preferably for a few hours the boiler should carry about 20 to 25 percent of full load until combustion conditions are stabilized. water level must be regularly observed through the water gauges directly fitted on the boiler. automatic feed water regulators etc. After a new boiler is put in service in the manner stated above and after 300 working hours the boiler should be shut down for routine inspection. Start-up Operation: After a boiler is has been properly cleaned and it has been ascertained that all debris is removed it is advisable to take the following steps for start-up of the boiler. 15. the boiler must be manually operated until it carries certain pressure and then automatic devices may be cut in after ensuring that they are all tested and reliable. No reliance should be placed on low water alarms. 5. the boiler manufacturer’s instructions must be adhered to: 1. Soot blowers must be examined for accuracy of travel. Water must be filled just over the bottom nut of the gauge glass to allow for expansion of water when heated. 19. 14. Internal baffles in drums should be dismantled and internal inspection should be carried out to detect the presence of oil sludge etc. 7. rate of feed flow. Fuel firing equipments must be examined that they do not bind or touch anywhere and that they are free to take up the expansion. It must be determined that all mountings and fittings are in position and the auxiliaries are in good working order. 13. draught readings at boiler economiser 57 . 10. However. Reliance must not be placed on automatic controls during critical stages of lighting up and bringing boiler on the line. steam temperature at the inlet and outlet of superheater. feed water inlet and outlet temperatures. 9. During the period of raising steam. or any other abnormality. man and mud hole covers must be fitted in position. When the pressure in the boiler is about 50 psig (3. the cause should be determined and repaired immediately to prevent the steel from failing. 11. 12. 16. which are expected to be generally in line with those recommended by the boiler manufacturer. the drains on stop valves should be opened after which the by pass or equalizer valve must be opened first and then the main stop valve opened only thereafter. It is to be ensured that no men are in the boiler. 3. Proper records of all operations and inspections should be maintained. Good Practices for Normal Operation of Boilers: a. undue leakages from pump glands. 2. 18. All valves must be examined if they operate smoothly. 4. 17. Check if dampers are free to move and operating gear devices are in good order. the same exercise as mentioned above should be repeated. However.5 kg/cm2) below the range pressure. boiler pressure. A tool should preferably be passed through the tube lengths specially those in radiant zone to ascertain that the passages are clean. Strict manual check-up and vigilance must be maintained. Brickwork must be examined and attended to where necessary.

e.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach and air heater exit. It means that incomplete combustion of Carbon resulting in formation of CO results in loss of 2430 kcal/kg out of available 8084 kcal/kg (meaning thereby that around 30% of available Calorific Value goes waste. c. Practical Hints for Successful Boiler Operation: a. bearing temperature of fans. chemical dozing. d. Calorific value of CO is 2430 kcal/kg and that of C is 8084 kcal/kg. d. e. The principal aim of a boiler operator is to operate a boiler safely as nearly as possible under design parameters as regards evaporation. rate of consumption of fuel. occurrence of water shortage in boiler. b. g. or increased O2 level. Continuous supervision of boilers by the boiler house personnel is necessary and the personnel to attend a boiler are not allowed to leave the post for more than a few minutes at a time. final temperature and produce steam of required quantity and quality at lowest practical cost. In power stations and large industrial complex the load could be fairly constant for several hours and the fluctuations could be anticipated with regular frequency and approximate time of incidence. quantity of raw water used. Excess air is the cause of all ills and reduces efficiency. It is detectable by reduced CO2 level. c. pumps and other auxiliaries attended to. Hence large boilers should not be operated at very low loads. instruments should be checked for accuracy against standard apparatus. gas temperature at entry and exit of economiser. current reading of forced secondary and induced draught fans. High capacity of a boiler may operate very uneconomically at low loads. If the burner is oversized the flame may be carried away from the confines of the furnace overheating the tube ends in the reversing chamber of a smoke tube boiler. air and gas temperature at entry and exit of air heater. Some of ideal conditions are under the control of boiler operators and other fall within the jurisdiction of steam users and other authorities. If inaccuracy of the instrument is suspected they must be inspected and calibrated. condition of feed water. and safety devices. testing of alarms. in general. speed of the fan if variable type. The target must be 13 to 14% CO2 and no CO. The boiler house records hourly or per shift must be examined every day by the plant engineer and any departure from routine or significant event recorded like flue gas explosion or shortage of water in a boiler must be investigated and set right. h. blow down water column on each boiler after operating all the cocks and observe that the water smartly returns back in the glass. CO2 and O2 readings. concentration of solids in water. steam pressure. After a boiler is in regular use exposed flanges should be lagged. He should peruse the remarks column of the logbook if any abnormal condition had occurred in the last shift. f. To derate a boiler and to work it at turn down ratio the burner nozzle size is required to be reduced and an air blower of a smaller capacity provided to prevent excess air to ensure complete combustion. frequency of blow down period. 58 . f. In case of rolling mills. The burner assembly must be cleaned periodically and a consistent flame configuration maintained. feed water regulators. The steam demand depends upon nature of plant using steam. frequency of soot blowing. remote water level indicators and low water alarms inspected and adjusted and dowelling of all motors and bearings of fans. and which will prevent frequent on and off operation of a boiler which would create thermal shocks due to which the tube ends in the hot zone may leak. water temperature at entry and exit of economiser. steel plants electric traction etc. Therefore for his personal comforts facilities must be provided in the boiler house. An operator must observe the water level in the gauge glass. i. He should check the pressure in the gauge if it is within the operating limits. load is subjected to violent fluctuations depending upon the particular period of the day. g. leakages from valves and frequency of ash removal and name of persons responsible for boiler operation. Thus maintaining high CO2 level at the chimney base cannot be overemphasized. b.

If the load is below 30 to 40 percent of rating 5 percent decrease in efficiency may be expected. low steam pressure can lower the superheat temperature. discharge of safety valves. which normally subsides when a boiler steams steadily. deposits of soot. stabilize operating conditions of the boiler and maintain maximum state of reliability. During any emergency it is the duty of a boiler operator to minimize damage. The final steam temperature will be high when a boiler is initially lighted up on account of excess heat generated in the furnace to warm up the brickwork. However attempt to constantly follow erratic changes of load by boiler operators by constantly adjusting firing condition is not a good practice. variations in feed water temperature should be avoided and feed water admitted at an even rate. 5. Low feed temperature. Incorrect feed temperature. Basically for load fluctuations instead of depending upon the storage capacity and competence of a boiler operator initial selection of the boiler. Variations of output will affect the steam pressure. certain degree of flexibility is provided to control within the limits the rate of combustion by additional supply of fuel and air. Peak efficiency could be obtained in the range of 60 to 90 percent of rating. For basic load changes concerned authorities have to decide on following factors: Accuracy of prediction of maximum steam demand. To avoid thermal stresses. numbers of boilers in service. suitable size of furnace volume and firing equipment commensurate with available fuel need attention. large bank of fire is built up and preparation could be made in advance for increase or decrease in load. change of load variations. soot blowing. Water content of a boiler is a useful storage of heat and a boiler having large water content will act as a steam accumulator and store and liberate heat in excess of the mean rate of generation corresponding to fuel consumption. Sudden increase of forced draught air may by radiation temporarily raise the steam temperature. 2. 8. ash and other products of combustion. immediate control could be established within the range of operation of the supply source burner regulation. 7. excess air supplied to furnace. fouled economiser and rear pass of boiler. 1. Where load is likely to fluctuate. low steam pressure. fouled tubes in radiant heat zone. It should be the aim of a boiler operator to maintain boiler working pressure at the designed value which is achieved by balancing heat liberated in furnace and steam released from the boiler. fouling of superheater tubes and discharge of steam from safety valve may cause variations in final steam temperature. on superheater elements. moisture in steam. In automatic stoker firing.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach The boiler operator must get acquainted with the periodic variations of load and anticipate intermittent fluctuations and get ready to combat the load variations. In oil gas and pulverized coal firing. delayed combustion etc. 6. which should be suitable within the range of efficient performance of steam users. the design of the boiler must be such that it is capable of adjusting itself certain sporadic changes in load. changes in calorific value of fuel and intermittent feeding. fouled economiser. 59 . When increased steam demand is expected. can raise super heater temperature. excess air supply. flexibility of combustion equipment and boilers. boilers on constant load and stand by units banked to meet fluctuations. automatic control regulation. The response to load variations depends upon method of firing fuel. Besides the load fluctuations affecting the pressure in a boiler. structure casing etc. 3. certain other factors also cause variations in pressure which could be due to sudden changes in feed water temperature. Feed check valve should not be fully open or fully closed when a boiler is generating steam and this is the function of automatic feed water regulator. Changes of characteristics of fuel could effect distribution of heat and require adjustment to draught control air distribution and CO2. 4. moisture carried by steam. delayed combustion. Deposit of ash soot etc.

the boiler must be placed under hand feed control and the automatic feed water regulator by passed. If a boiler tube bursts or heavy leakages noticed. 11. If a water gauge glass bursts watch should be kept on the other gauge glass and in the meantime a new glass fitted with care. increase traveling grate to maximum speed after cutting out coal feeds draw ashes and fire from the hopper as fast as it is discharged. stop induced draught fan and try to locate the faults and then blow down water. IV. Do not continue to feed water if the cause is due to low water or if the steam leak is so large that water level cannot be maintained in the gauge glass. which are in fact series of small puffs. In major flarebacks or flue gas explosions. Light the burner by torches and never attempt to light a burner from hot brick wall. close the boiler stop valve. The rate of firing should be reduced or the burners extinguished as the case may be and maximum induced draught capacity employed to minimize steam leakage into boiler room. XII. adjust or stop feed pump to prevent high water in the boiler. If the brickwork is saturated with moisture it may have to be dried out after the boiler is repaired. VI. purge furnace and setting of unburned oil and gases. 10. Inspect other tubes for evidence of erosion by escaping steam or distortion due to heat. XI. XIII. II. lift safety valves to relieve steam pressure. If adequate air is not supplied it may lead to major flarebacks. V. XIV. Inform the Government Boiler Inspector about the incident and after his inspection any damage to brickwork or any other structure should be repaired as suggested by him and then the boiler put into service. When the pressure has dropped to less than 50 psig so that there is not much danger of steam blowing in the boiler room. But if the droplets of 60 . 12. Oil burners must be shutoff. By merely looking at the gauge glass it is often difficult to distinguish low or high water casualties. shut off oil. Inform the Boiler Inspector concerned within 24 hours of the mishap and do not clean the boiler or carry out any requirement as the evidence of the cause of accident will be destroyed unless suggested by the Inspector after the boiler is inspected by him and cleaned subsequently. Always stand clear when lighting a burner to avoid injury in case a puff occurs. Water in a boiler is normally maintained at about mid level of a gauge glass. if fire is not extinguished the burner need not be cut out but it must be ascertained if any damage is caused. VII. When the boiler pressure has fallen below the range pressure and fires are out. If the water goes out of sight at the top nut of the gauge glass. A boiler must be cut out of service unless there is some reliable indication of working water level. VIII. To control casualty. speed up fans to clear the furnace and flue passages of unburnt oil and gases. Steps should be taken to reduce load and boiler taken out of service. Panting of a boiler is caused due to inadequate air supply. If water goes out of sight at bottom nut of the glass low water casualty should be deemed to have occurred. high water casualty should be deemed to have occurred. If burners accidentally get extinguished. the following is advisable: IX. as the glass looks the same when empty or full. close all dampers including forced and secondary ones. close the main stop valve. During any casualty it is advisable to put the boiler under manual control and observe the water gauge glass fitted directly on the boiler and which if not visible from firing floor level a man should be directed to stand near the gauge to give indication about the water level in the boiler. Check spring tension of the burner shut off and solenoid valves. To obviate flarebacks do not allow oil to accumulate in furnace. X. continue feeding the boiler by fully opening the feed check valve until the boiler is cooled. Further desirable steps are: I. In minor flarebacks or puffs.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach 9. III.

The emphasis falls on the equipment and not the equipment's function in the overall system. combustion equipments. If water has entered fuel oil indicated by sputtering of the oil burner and if action is not taken immediately loss of fire. allow boiler to cool slowly and open superheater drains. informs the Boiler Inspector and get the boiler repaired as recommended by him. XV. Oil entering a boiler is very dangerous as it causes serious damage to boiler components on which it settles. close stop valve. choked burners and flarebacks may occur. Unburnt fuel from ash hoppers and in case where pulverized fuel is used from burner pipes and other places where fuel settles must be removed. close the feed check valve and never attempt to restore the water level. as its pressure is nil. the boiler should be taken on hand control. fuel.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach condensation are found tricking down from inside of glass. XVI. feed temperature very high for which the pump is not designed or feed by gravity to suction side of the pump is low. bulging and other defects. Failure of feed pump could be attributed to malfunctioning of constant pressure governor. In which case an operator must observe that the boilers in service are not robbed of their legitimate share of water or an accident due to shortness of water may be expected. XXII. When filling an empty boiler in a battery with those in service large quantity of water will flow in it. lift safety valves by hand to relieve the pressure. If oil is found in oil heater drains. When power is restored. pump discharge may be low for the boiler in service. XXIII. a boiler may explode causing serious damage to life. XVIII. close induced draught control damper and start forced draught fan and then other auxiliaries in turn and built load at minimum rate of evaporation consistent with stable combustion conditions. Practical Aspects of Operation: All too often. If by accident water is fed in idle boilers. limb and property. feed and other auxiliaries fails. inspect the boiler if any damage is caused due to low water. expansion of boiler components checked they are not fouled and load may be increased by increments and boiler placed on automatic control and then full load taken. XX. XIX. the system is overlooked. XXVI. faulty pump clearance and malfunctioning or improper setting of the speed limiting governor and no water in the feed tank. If a common pump is used for boilers in battery. If power supply to fans. To clear the doubts water gauge glasses must be tested. XXV. XXI. Auxiliary driving motors and gears should be reset in normal starting position so that they may start under minimum load condition. After trying the water gauges if the water level in a boiler is found low. XVII. The main induced draught damper should be opened sufficiently wide to obviate pressure in the furnace with consequent emission of smoke and forced draught dampers closed. XXIV. Low water level in a boiler is to be considered as a most serious lapse on the part of an operator as it damages the boiler and it is his main duty to maintain water level under any circumstances. An effective maintenance program must be based on an understanding of the entire system and the function of each 61 . check if feed check valve opening of the boiler concerned is adequate to admit water. shut off fire. If a feed pump fails to deliver water in a boiler start stand by feed pump. If even the other pump cannot maintain the water level repeat the process as mentioned in case of low water in a boiler. secure the fans. After the boiler is cooled. leakage of tubes is certain and the heater must be stopped immediately drain water diverted and a stand by heater started. air or vapour bound condition. when a boiler problem occurs. Too much diversification of a boiler operator’s duties may cause low water in a boiler if too much reliance is placed on automatic appliances besides distortion. it is an indication of empty glass and absence of them indicates that the glass is full.

noise. boiler efficiency. heating value. Whether safety. vibration. Changes in flame shape. Boiler water supply/return temperatures: On hot water systems. Makeup water use: Records of the amount of makeup water used help determine the presence of leaks or losses in the system. or. Maintaining steady excess air levels with oxygen trim system helps ensure optimum efficiency at all times. and the like is a cost-effective way to detect system operational changes. for example. always scavenge the entire fire side of a boiler at an air flow not less than 50% percent of the normal full load air flow for a sufficient period and displace furnace volume three 62 . boiler-related problems. Visually inspecting combustion is the easiest way to detect changes that affect safety and efficiency. Low excess air levels result in incomplete combustion. and wasted fuel. High excess air levels raise stack temperatures and reduce boiler efficiency. cost. A leaky check valve on a standby pump or a worn pump impeller may cause a pressure drop. or viscosity Linkage movement dirty or worn nozzle Dirty or distorted diffuser dirty fan Dirt on the boiler fireside Furnace refractory damage. Changes in feed water temperature are indicative of a problem in the deaerator. Even if a flame appears to be good. Boiler Operation must focus on ‘prevention’ to be an effective tool. tightening connections repairs a small leak. Fuel Burning Poor combustion is unsafe and costly. and sound are among early indicators of potential combustion-related problems. reliable operation. Changes may be due to: • • • • • • Large fluctuations in ambient temperatures Changes in fuel temperature. loss in efficiency. most commonly. and unusual conditions: Checking for leaks. vibration. noise. sealing surfaces usually are worn and major repairs are needed. Leaks. The data provide a means for evaluating boiler operation trends that affect efficiency. and maintenance planning. color. combustion efficiency is verifiable only with a flue gas analyzer. dirty lowdown heat recovery exchanger. a change in efficiency. potential pump seal damage. pressure. Steam pressure: Steam pressure operating set points usually are based on system design and type of steam use. For example. They also assist in developing a more effective chemical treatment program. Pressure changes are typically caused by problems with control settings. or all of these motivates such program. downtime. soot blowing. supply and return temperatures to the boiler are a means for evaluating the system's effect on the boiler and vice versa. By the time a leak becomes large. therefore. High temperature differentials caused by excessive load or a control malfunction could cause thermal shock and subsequently pressure vessel damage. Visual combustion inspection should be compared to flame characteristics observed at similar firing rates with efficient combustion. impact burner performance (see table). Before initially lighting any type of fuel and before re-lighting what has been extinguished due to some cause.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach piece of equipment. Feed water pressure/temperature: Changes in feed water pressure affect the system's ability to maintain proper boiler water levels. changes in steam demand. dirty economizer. Excessive water use indicates a change in system operation and. Changes in combustion air temperature and barometric pressure. it is the best means of preventing common. or excessive or insufficient condensate returns. The following data should be recorded. it should be checked with an analyzer and adjusted once a month. Operating conditions: Operating parameters of the boiler room system should be recorded daily. burner operation. The desired operating temperature set point and temperature differential across the boiler should be evaluated against the system design to determine if a potential problem exists. However. Only an understanding of the system provides the means for preventing the causes of system-related problems and reducing the time spent on the symptoms.

Do not use excessively volatile material. transportation. In any case the period of purging combustible gases should not be less than five minutes. coal handling operation & due to rain. ignite fuel and cut down to safe operating value. If the minimum stable firing rate is too high to meet the steam demand. which may be a nuisance to the surrounding locality. and the resultant incomplete combustion will give rise to black smoke and fly ash etc. Invariably light each burner with a hand torch or special ignition equipment. 63 . hoppers. Worn out parts must be replaced in good time to ensure efficient operation.Due to physical composition & hygroscopic characteristics. do not reduce the firing rate but have recourse to intermittent firing at the minimum rate. Failure to observe the above precaution may lead to flareback or explosion.. 4) Interruption in coal flow due to wet coal Unloading rate of wagon.15 % on account of heat loss due to evaporation & superheating during combustion. and one-half of the fuel barred over to one side. Avoid firing at very high rates. feed the fuel little and often and make use of over fire air carefully to prevent the formation of smoke. The clinker. 1) 1% moisture reduce gross C. Establish a proper airflow through the furnace. Red-hot fuel should then be barred over to the freshly fired fuel. When fuel is hand fired. by about 1 %. ashes etc. which would form an explosive mixture. 3) Wet coal reduces generation & results in to high fuel oil & auxiliary consumption. as damage is likely to occur to the boilers. The burner register should be throttled to improve flame stability. and then the process repeated for cleaning the other side of the fire.V. Do not operate the boiler at excessively low rates as incomplete combustion and offensive smoke may result. which may block the free flow of fuel and air to furnace. may then be removed after which green fuel is fired on the bare bars. Open fuel feed to a steady minimum rate. a good bed of hot fuel should be allowed to build up. so as to prevent any abrasive action on tubes. After the fuel is charged.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach times by fresh air. Pulverised Fuel Clean the burner of fuel incrustation. Before cleaning the fire. 2) 1% moisture reduce the efficiency of boiler by 0. Pulverizing fuel equipment should be inspected for wear and tear. This will ensure that all combustible gases are removed from the boiler setting. Coal hang up in chutes. IMPORTANTCE OF COAL QUALITY ON BOILER OPERATION Effect of Moisture on Coal: Type of moisture a) Inherent moisture . admit overtire air and then reduce it progressively. b) Free (surface) moisture .moisture added during mining.. Solid Fuel Ignite fuel with live coals from the adjacent furnace or use light combustibles such as wood or rags. Check the burner box to ensure that all tube protector blocks are in place.

• Tripping of unit on flame failure. Volatile matter in coal is important factor for selecting coal for use in boiler. G = 13 + 6. • Higher F. Power consumption for pulverization. 1% increase in moisture in coal increases coal consumption by 1. Low V. Moisture in coal added to increased freight charge to utilities / boards. Output from coal mill reduce 3 to 4 % for every 1 % increase in moisture over 10%. 2) Covering coal hoppers for stock feeding with coal heaps.low flue gas exit temp. Furnace temp. 5) Providing sufficient number of pocking holes to clear chockage from hopper and bunker. (16 to 17 %) • Poor flame stability. content.93 W 64 . Design of burners. Flame size depend on V. 6) Cleaning of pipe between bunker to variator & variator to mill by water jetting. 7) Use of polymer lines in transfer points.M. The following measures can be taken to improve performance due to wet coal: 1) Covering of coal stock by preparing sheds for rainy seasons.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Feeding rate of bunker. vibration trays. feeding rate to boiler. flue gas or steam coils to heat up the wet coal to reduce moisture content. combustion efficiency & fuel oil consumption. cause corrosion problem in the second pass of boiler.23 %.O. Range from 20 to 100 for most of coal. 3) Rubber lining on driving pulley & proper tension of conveyor belt to avoid slippage of conveyor belts.M. HARDGROOVE GRINDABILITY INDEX : HGI of coal represents its easiness towards pulverization.M. chutes.less than 20 % is called low volatile content. EFFECT OF VOLATILE CONTENT : Indian Coal : 16 to 30 % . Frequent chockage of granulator / crusher. High ash content results in low effective V. Measure of increase in surface produced by application of standard amount of work. reduces . 4) Use hot air. combustion chamber of boiler. Use stainless steel lining on coal bunker bottom. 8) Increase inclination of bunker. content. consumption. 5) 6) 7) 8) Excess moisture in coal adversely affect handling operation from wagons.

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Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Where W = grams of coal passing through 200 mesh sieve after 50 grams of coal size 16 30 mesh grind in standard mill for 60 revolutions. High value of HGI represents soft & easily grindable coal. Low value of HGI represents harder coal, more power consumption, wear & tear of mill components. Average value for Indian coal used for power station is 50 to 60.

HEATING VALUE OR CALORIFIC VALUE OF COAL: Calorific value of coal represents the amount of heat recovered per unit of coal when the product of combustion are cooled to its initial temp. of air fuel. Coal grade for Indian coal based on useful heat value is as follows GRADES A B C D E F G USEFUL HEAT VALUE Kcal / Kg. 6205 & above 5605 – 6200 4995 - 5600 4205 - 4990 3365 - 4200 2405 - 3360 1305 - 2400

Coal pricing board has fixed up an arbitrary formula for fixing price of high moisture coal. Hu = 8900-138 (A + M) Where A & M represents Ash & Moisture at 60 % & 40 °C. EFFECT OF COAL SIZE: Coal received from collieries is steam / rom. Coal. Design of granulator / crusher to accept coal size up to 200 mm. Output from tippler reduced. Increase in F.O. consumption. SLAGGING OF ASH : Slagging & fouling are important characteristics from the view of boiler operation. Slagging is the deposition of ash in molten / semi molten state on surface of boiler. Fouling is the deposition of ash along the boiler path which reduces the heat transfer. Coal with ash fusion temperature less than 1150 oC has more problem of furnace slagging. ASH CONTENT: The amount of ash content can effect 1) Furnace slagging. 2) Fouling of heat transfer surfaces like superheater, reheater, economiser, air preheater. 3) Amount of unburnt carbon loss. 4) Influence the size of ash handling system. 5) Quantity of ash to be disposed off. 6) Soot blowing system operation cycle. 7) ESP performance. PROBLEMS DUE TO METALLIC SCRAP, STONES AND SHALES IN THE COAL: Large size of stones, shells, mine scrap, big iron lump received along with coal. Damage to conveyor belt, crusher (Granulator) R.C. Feeder, Mill components. 65

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Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach (a) Output of coal handling plant - Mill and tripping & excessive oil support. To separate out iron from coal various type of magnetic equipments are used. i) Suspended magnet. ii) Magnetic pulley. iii) Cross belt magnet. To remove Non-Ferrous metal content in coal & Non-magnetic crusher ring metal picks up at the conveyor belts after crushers (granulators) may be provided. Metal detector - Bypass valve arrangement.

(b) (c)

USE OF IMPORTED COAL With the liberalized policy of the Government and reduced customs duty, the usage of imported coal has become an attractive proposition for many plants, especially coastal ones as the cost per unit heat value has become comparable to Indigenous coal. Of course with high heat value and low ash content imported coal is a better proposition. The study of usage of Imported coal in ‘Indian Power Industry’ may be analyzed for suitability. (a) in the existing plants (b) in the future plants

COAL QUALITY REQUIREMENT INDICES IN ADVANCED COUNTRIES Coal Property Excellent Good Fair-poor Coal Combustibility Fuel Ratio (FC/VM) < 2.0 2.0 - 2.5 > 2.5 Gross CV > 6000 6000-5500 < 5500 Volatile matter % > 25.0 25.0 - 20.0 < 20.0 Slagging Ash fusion temp ( deg. C) > 1250 > 1250 < 1250 (Oxidizing) Slagging Factor < 2.0 2.0 - 2.6 > 2.6 (base/acid) x S Base/acid < 0.4 0.4 - 0.5 > 0.5 Fouling Fouling Factor < 0.5 0.5 - 1.0 > 1.0 (base/acid) x Na2O Grindability Hardgrove grindability (HGI) Index > 45 45 - 40 < 40

COAL BLENDING Blending of imported coal with the indigenous coal may be considered. The performance of the blended coal cannot be entirely predicted by the arithmetical proportioning of the properties of the make up coal. The blending is a specialized, scientific technique. So the combustion and the fireside performance of coal obtained by blending cannot be predicted without the knowledge of the intricacies of the coal blending technology. Improper blending can be very harmful and may lead to slagging and frequent problems in the boiler resulting in more down time of boiler and consequently reduced PLF. Possibly in the depth study in blending may become useful in the usage of imported coal in the existing boilers. Fouling & Slagging: What is Slagging and fouling? • It is melting or fusing of ash at very high temperature • It is sticky and clings to heating surface in bulk, preventing heat transfer • When molten slag cools and solidifies, becomes rock hard 66

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Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach • When ash melts to glassy, sintering, cementing property it forms a hard layer and foul the metal surface

Why slagging take place? • More the iron, calcium and sodium in ash, more the slagging • Quartz and kaolinite Siliceous matters in ash cause slagging and fouling • Slagging occurs, when ash is subjected to its fusion temperature • Slagging take place on surfaces exposed to high radiant heat flux and gas temperature • Slagging process hastens, when fuel is starving for oxygen • Under Sizing of furnace may cause slagging and fouling • Fusing of ash take place, If furnace temperature exceeds Initial Deformation range of ash • Reducing atmosphere lowers the Initial Deformation Temperature • Ferrous iron content (Fe2) increases and act as catalyst in substantially lowering IDT of ash • When ratio of SiO2 to total oxides is high, slagging is less. At < 0.6 slagging high • Delay in evacuation of bottom ash, results in build up of slag • Design features of boiler furnace and bottom hopper When • • • When • • • percentage 3 to 8 8 to 15 15 to 23 Iron Oxide - Fe2O3 in Ash by weight is: -- Non- slagging -- Slagging to some extent -- High slagging property

slagging index of Ash is in the range of: 1230 to 1340 deg C -- Medium slagging property 1050 to 1230 deg C -- High slagging property < 1050 deg C -- Severe slagging property

Slagging Index Fs = (4 IDT + HT)/ 5 IDT – Initial Deformation Temperature HT – Hemisphere Temperature Effects of Slagging Heat transfer is drastically affected Corrosion due to bonded ash deposit lumps fallout to slag bath may cause accidents -• Splashing of hot water in and around • Occasionally resulting in back fire, causing fire accidents • May cause damage to bottom hopper structures When slag bridges over hopper, build up will be very fast Very difficult to break and dislodging. To avoid slagging: • Maintain optimum excess air and avoid reducing atmosphere • Furnace design should be suitable to as fired fuel • Design fuel firing equipment / coal Burners • Bottom ash evacuation to be done regularly • Change in fuel sourcing SECONDARY OIL CONSUMPTION • No of trips / startups

67

Keep the flame sensing devices clean and healthy so that this does not be a reason for a wrong indication of flame instability. from burners. make use of an electric heater or any other heating device. or ensure safe operation.e. remove torch. If the start up is done in a systematic and prepared way the time required to synchronize the unit and raise to stable load will be very less. low volatile coal the turndown available may be less leading to oil support even at say 60 % load because of unstable flame. After igniting oil. Once the unit is lighted up coal mill have to be put in to service as quickly as possible. With certain types of coal i. A number of boilers are equipped with fully automatic burner controls. Lighting up the unit and waiting for the system to get ready is one of the reasons for high oil consumption. if any. As an ignition support. Switch on oil and light one burner with a torch or other ignition contrivance by placing the torch near and just under the burner tip. leading to oil support. Analysis of the causes of the trip should give indication to repeated trips which can be avoided by taking suitable action. Do not allow oil to impinge excessively on brickwork or parts of the boiler. c) d) e) Oil Firing Inspect and clean oil strainer. Do not attempt to light a burner from a hot furnace refractory. Reasons For Higher Oil Consumption. Continues oil support is one of the reasons for high oil consumption. the air register should be opened immediately to prevent incomplete combustion. Never throttle any oil valve beyond the least pressure serving any group of burners. Start up purpose. Always use a torch or other ignition device for lighting burners. Avoid operation at overrated capacity. Operating the unit at a fairly high load will help in removing oil support .. This means the oil required will be very much less. and furnace floor. Check draft and ascertain that the furnace is properly ventilated as stated above.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach • • • • • • • • Startup Time Bringing pulverizers quickly Systematic Startups Ignition Support Unit loads Low volatile coals Air distribution Flame sensing devices. Stand clear of burners to avoid injury in case of back firing. If the oil spray does not ignite immediately i. or if the torch extinguishes before oil is lighted. 1. All system should be ready prior to startup. Whenever automatic controls fail due to some 68 .e. a) b) Since oil is used for start up purpose the no of start ups / Trips directly increases or decreases the oil consumption. OPTIMASTION OF OIL CONSUMPTION One area in which energy conservationists very much worried is the oil consumption. If steam is not available to preheat oil. Oil is mainly used for. shut off oil and ventilate the lighting procedure. Such controls incorporate many safety features. boiler fronts. Make sure that there is an excessive draft before lighting additional burners. five seconds after the valve is opened. burner tips and check and adjust air registers and oil valves. or from an adjacent operating burner. 2. Remove spilled oil. since this will increase fouling of boiler and superheater surfaces.

corrosion and erosion. the attendant must switch over to manual control. The concentration of Asphaltanes gets varied if they are not in proper suspension. It is generally suggested to install 40 mesh size filter at Storage tank.O. Automatic controls are not automatic in maintenance. De-shape the nozzle and quality of combustion deteriorates. To eliminate the problem following remedial measures are suggested 1] Removal of Water from Storage Tank every day: It is necessary to drain water from the bottom drain valve of the F. Hard particles if not filtered properly. The forward pressure should not be maintained below 22 Kg /cm². This is not directly contributing to the Soot Formation but. clearance. it occupies about 1500 to 1600 times more Volume. Followings affect the cycle efficiency directly. • SH outlet pressure. If we don’t replace the Nozzle then quality of combustion becomes poor and there are chances of Soot Formation. 7] Quality of nozzle: It has been observed that many times due to non arability of genuine nozzles. if Water is not removed from the Oil before it is taken to the Day Tank. 80 mesh size filter at Day tank and 120 mesh filter before Burner. When Water becomes Steam. is if attributed to the fuel is generally due to chemical instability in carbon molecules such as Asphaltnes. deformation. it will be carried over to Burner Nozzle. 69 . An attendant must study carefully. There are certain key parameters that directly affect the cycle efficiency.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach reason. and their upkeep must be carefully attended to. Of these some are dependent on the boiler capability to generate these parameters. It cannot be overemphasized that automatic controls are not a complete substitute for supervision. A large increase in wearing ring clearance is the cause for inefficiency and the manufacturer’s instructions must be followed for replacements Now-a-days in oil firing there is a major problem of soot formation. • RH outlet temperature. it damages the profile of Nozzle and Nozzle replacement comes often. Similar nozzle available in the market is fitted which attributes to soot formation MAJOR PARAMETERS / FACTORS AFFECTING BOILER PERFROMANCE Modern thermal power systems mainly use the Rankine cycle. storage tank every day. The limit of such Asphaltanes should be around 4% 5] Oil Temperature: It is suggested by HPCL to maintain temperature close to 120°C in winter and 115° C in summer. it deteriorates the quality of combustion. 4] Furnace oil parameter: Furnace oil is to be checked for i) Asphaltnes content ii) Carbon residue iii) Ash content iv) Moisture v) Viscosity at 50°C Soot formation. and that vigilance according to the conditions of working must be regarded as a pertinent rudiment of operation. 3] Installation proper filters in the line. 6] Oil pressure: The burner which we are having is pressure jet type and oil pressure plays an important role in atomizing the FO. Bi-annual cleaning is recommended. The oil pump must be dismantled and the components checked for wear and tear. automatic controls as well as manual functions. 2] Cleaning of Storage Tank once in 6 months Furnace Oil contains hard particles (Sediments) which settle over a period at the bottom and when it goes to the system. • SH outlet temperature. • RH pressure drop.

Also silica levels may also force to operate at low pressures. etc may be the reasons for temperature. Blow down Auxiliary Steam The turbine throttle pressure is the factor that affects the cycle efficiency. The most efficient way is to use steam tapped of from the turbine extractions. 70 .e. For example: a Tube mill consumes more than double the power of a bowl mill. One reason for high RH inlet temperature is the passing of HP bypass valves. So the basic pattern nature of the power consumption pattern is decided by the selection of the equipment. These four equipment constitute the bulk of the auxiliary power consumed in a boiler. AUXILIARY POWER REQUIRED FOR BOILER OPERATION For the coal to burn sufficient air is required. These fans consume power. Similarly for evacuating the gases ID fans are required. These two factors directly effect the peak point of the Rankine cycle. Since it is comparatively much less these are generally not considered. To that extent the extraction from HP turbine reduces leading to lower cycle efficiency. steam should be switched over to turbine extraction. a low Higher reheat pressure drop reduces the pressure to the IP / LP turbine inlet thereby reducing the cycle efficiency. This water bypasses the HP heaters. Proper maintenance of water regimes and close look at the water parameters can help in reducing this loss. a radial fans consume more power than axial fans. the boiler is not able to generate the required pressure then SH outlet pressure becomes a limitation in cycle efficiency. In most of the new power stations SH spray is taken from the feed pump discharge. Since this is basically decided by the design of the reheater. ineffective burner tilt. Blowdown quantity is a direct loss of energy. Once the unit has reached stable load this aux. How to reduce this power and factors that cause increase in power is discussed here below. Power is consumed for other minor equipment’s also. Apart from this for grinding the coal considerable amount of power is required. This air is supplied by the PA and FD fans. Auxiliary steam is required for various purposes in an unit. In most systems the RH spray is taken from Feed pump. Maintaining RH outlet temperature at the rated value can reduce spray. system operator’s control on this is not very much. Leaking spray water lines .India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach • • • • RH spray SH spray. Normally problems with safety valves may be reason for operating at low pressure. Saving in auxiliary power is a direct saving in the energy output of the plant. If the SH outlet pressure goes below the optimum throttle pressure i. If the RH inlet temperature is high then spray will be required for maintaining the RH outlet temperature. hydraulic couplings consumes less power than direct couplings. The power consumption basically depends on the type of auxiliary used. Since this water directly goes into the reheater this bypasses the high pressure circuit this directly reduces the cycle efficiency. variable speed drives consumes much less power than ordinary drives.

1. The basic method is to calculate the weight of gas entering and leaving AH. Set all the seals to the correct clearances. Replace all damaged seals. 3. Again since CO2 measurement 71 . Since this is very tedious an approximate equation based on CO2 is used. This will affect the power consumption in all the three fans. From the operation point of view the main factor for leakage is the operation at higher PA header pressure. least one week Following activities in such shut down can help to reduce AH leakage considerably. Keep the PA header pressure as low as possible. So any reduction in AH leakage gives you a considerable saving in auxiliary power.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING AUXILIARY POWER ID FANS • Air heater leakage • Gas temperature • Duct leakages • Excess air • Load/ plant heat rate • Draught loss • Air heater choking FD FANS • Air heater leakage • Wind box pressure • Excess air • Load / plant heat rate • Pressure loss • Air heater choking • Scaph choking PA FANS • Air heater leakage • PA header pressure • Mill air flow • Pressure loss • Air heater choking MILL • • • • • • • Coal quantity. Gross calorific value Load / plant heat rate Coal moisture Hard Groove Index of coal Coal fineness Mill condition Air heater leakage One of the biggest problems of having a regenerative AH is the leakage. 2. For properly attending to the seals of an air heater you may require at shutdown. Repair all static seals.

Mill Air Flow: Higher mill air flow than necessary will load the PA fans more . thereby increasing the power consumption. A booming but varying sound. Gas Temperature: Higher gas temperature means the ID fans has to handle higher volume of flow and increased pressure drop .) and ID fan because of increased AH For maintaining the optimum PA header pressure. This increases the power requirement of both FD and ID fans. Higher PA header pressure operation: PA header pressure is maintained at particular level to facilitate transport of pulverized coal. But if you maintain a higher PA header than necessary it will 1. This leads to increased power requirement in all the fans. These leakages also mainly effect on ID fan power consumption. Cleaning or replacement of the baskets has to be done in this case. This also leads to increase in power consumption. A simple walk down check-list can identify many of the leakages. This leads to increase in power requirement in both FD & ID fans. hoppers etc. Choking results in increased pressure drops in flue gas. Air heater Choking: In many plants it is seen that if proper care is taken not especially while cleaning the heater there is a good chance of AH choking. This could lead to higher power of FD fans. Plant Heat Rate: A higher plant heat rate means that for the same MW output more coal has to be fired . which means higher amount of air is required and higher amount of gases are produced. In some of the units choking of steam coil AH’s were also noticed.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach is also difficult the equation based on O2 is also used. Fluctuation in AH current. Mill Power: Mill power is dependent on the following: 1. COAL QUANTITY: 72 . This is the primary requirement . Similarly running more number of mills will also increase PA fan power even though there is a corresponding decrease in FD fan power. For normal purpose this gives a fairly accurate results. Other areas of leakage’s are generally seen in ESP manholes. The chance of all the baskets getting choked are rare. leading to more PA fan power. primary air and secondary air circuits. 3. If a particular section gets choked this can be easily identified by 1. Fluctuation in furnace draft 2. Excess Air: Excess air increases the quantity of total flue gases. In most cases this can be attended during a short shutdown. Even if one mill is bad it will call for a higher PA header pressure operation. The Frequency of this fluctuations is the same as the AH rpm. Duct and ESP leakage: Heavy leakages are noticed in many units mainly because of erosion of duct parts. it will be required to maintain all the mills in good condition. Indirectly increase the power of PA fan leakage(Since air to gas DP is high. Directly increase the power of PA fan 2.

73 .t load Pumps liable for accumulation of air to be vented regularly as trapped air increases the power.r. lubrication & cooling Operating the unit at rated capacity Running the unit at rated power factor or improved power factor. This can be also taken as an indication for preventive maintenance. This is mainly due to the condition of the drives. Proper alignment. Monthly targets to be fixed/ energy audits for auxiliary consumption. Appropriate control of water chemistry for reduction in make-up water. Controlling radiation /leakage & unaccounted losses Microprocessor controlled ESP for energy saving & emission control. This increases the power consumption. Revamping & minor changes if required. Proper layout & location (near load center) Use of energy efficient motors. Mill power increases with the quantity of coal ground.with minimum possible speed w. OPTIMIZATION OF AUX. 4. COAL FINENESS: If the classifier vanes are set to grind a higher fineness. it means that the recirculation of coal is more in the mill. COAL HGI: The grindability of coal is determined by the grindability index.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Lower CV of coal means higher quantity of coal to be ground. By proper measurement and adjustment of fineness this power can be controlled. More coal is ground again and again. the 3. transformers & other equipments. VFD . Voltage should be constant. Tighter process & combustion control. 2. POWER CONSUMPTION 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) No second auxiliary in service without adequate load requirement Appropriate numbers of mills in operation. MILL CONDITION: In many cases it has been seen that two mills taking the same coal load operates at different power levels. the coal is softer and easy to grind. Softer coal require less power. Higher number.

Ls = Enthalpy of evaporation of 1 kg of steam at 100oC (2257 kJ). Equivalent Evaporation F&A 1000C: Equivalent evaporation can be calculated as under. and me = equivalent evaporation in kg of water from and at 100oC per kg of fuel burnt. If we take two Steam generating systems. one needs to ensure maximum extraction of heat from the fuel and then transfer maximum extracted heat to water and steam without causing any accident. be it a different design consideration. and temperature and dryness of steam produced. me = ma (H-h) / Ls = ma (H-h) / 2257 74 . one with a capacity of 700 TPH steam at 510oC superheat and 110 bar pressure and another with a capacity of 8 TPH saturated steam at 12 bar pressure. Approach towards economic optimization naturally differs from system to system. Steam generating system efficiency to the greater extent depends on the skill of designing but there is no fundamental reason for any difference in efficiency between a high pressure and low pressure boiler. to provide common basis for comparing the evaporative capacity of boilers working under different conditions. Then. the fundamental for heat utilization remains same. Large boilers generally would be expected to be more efficient particularly due to design improvements. The standard conditions adopted are: feed water supplied to the boiler at 100o C and converted in to dry saturated steam at 100o C and the working pressure 1. In order to achieve economic optimization in Boiler operation. The amount of steam generated by the boiler in kilograms per hour at the observed pressure and temperature. Under these conditions. which is the enthalpy of evaporations of steam at 100o C.01325 bar (atmospheric pressure at mean sea level). different fuels or different operating conditions. the evaporation of 1 kg of water at 100o C requires 2257 kJ to be converted into dry saturated steam at 100o C. Not all boilers are created equal – each boiler system has its own specific characteristics. h = Enthalpy of 1 kg of feed water entering the boiler in kJ. The Evaporation Ratio or the Actual Evaporation (ma) is expressed in terms of kilograms of steam generated per kilogram of fuel used. a given evaporation will represent different amounts of heat utilized by the boiler. Evaporation Ratio = (total evaporation per hour) / (fuel used per hour) But the amount of water evaporated by a boiler is not a sufficiently definite measure of its performance because under different conditions as to temperature of feed water. evaporation ratio) H = Enthalpy of 1 kg of steam produced under actual working condition in kJ. or. ma is the kg of steam generated per kg or sm3 of fuel (Steam to Fuel ratio. it is necessary that the water be supposed to be evaporated under some standard conditions. Suppose. Steam generating system performance: The purpose of a steam boiler is to evaporate water by heat obtained by the combustion of fuel and the amount of water evaporated is therefore one of the quantities to be considered in dealing with the performance of a steam boiler.e.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Efficiency of Steam Generating System Introduction: Steam generating system efficiency is defined as the heat added to the working fluid expressed as a percentage of the heat in the fuel being burnt. quality of steam and feed water temperature is called Total Evaporation. But the good thing is “Every Boiler operates under the same fundamental thermodynamic principles”. Therefore. i.

L2%. we are considering ma. For this. A part of it will come out with steam (as output) and others as various heat losses. Direct Method 2. the above efficiency calculation method can give us a quick way to assess performance. For that. or efficiency on LCV. but it does not offer us much parameters to control or improve the performance as an energy manager. the fuel consumption decreases and therefore ma increases. We know efficiency is output/ input. if ‘h’ increases. i. the most important thing is to accurately measure the steam flow. in the input. for liquid and gaseous fuel. which is nothing but the CV of fuel. Then we need to find out how much heat is being transferred into 1 kg of water and steam. Input in case of boiler is the heat energy going inside with the fuel. Fuel flow measurement is one of the most important factors in assessing the performance of a boiler. but we know that economizer increases the efficiency. then efficiency = 100 – (L1 + L2 + …). Out put is the heat energy that could be transferred into water and steam. However. Boiler efficiency can be calculated in two methods: 1. This is calculated from the specific enthalpy of the final steam coming out of the boiler and deducting the specific enthalpy of feed water going into the boiler (that is the amount of heat transferred inside the boiler). we have to consider the heat going inside with 1 kg or 1 sm3 of fuel. If the actual boiler efficiency is 80%.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach The job of a boiler is to transfer the heat of the fuel into water and steam.8%. efficiency decreases. the indirect method can be more effective Indirect Method: We know that what amount of energy is going inside the boiler must come out. CV of fuel also creates some confusion. Therefore Boiler efficiency = ma x (H – h)/ CV One question comes to mind is that when we have an economizer. If we take CV of fuel as 100% and then calculate various losses as percentage of CV as L1%. In absence of steam flow measurement. 2.e. output over input: Input heat energy can be calculated once we know the CV of the fuel and the rate of fuel consumed by the boiler. we can also consider the water flow. i. efficiency on GCV. Accuracy in assessment increases.Economizer inlet or outlet? It should be noted that feed water enthalpy should be considered at economizer outlet. which the kg of steam generated per kg of fuel. What we need to keep in mind that when we are using economizer. The more it can transfer. One can easily guess which efficiency would be referred by the manufacturer and which one should be considered by the user. which enthalpy should we consider as feed water enthalpy . The biggest advantage is that in this method we are identifying and measuring the losses. For example a 1% error in measurement accuracy would result into 1% error in efficiency in the direct method. If we can control these losses. we can measure quite accurately. It is obvious that efficiency on LCV would be always more than on GCV as the denominator (heat input) is less in the former.e. first we have to find out the evaporation ratio. Indirect Method Direct Method. Therefore instead of measuring the heat out put in steam. how much steam is generated per kg or sm3 of fuel. Apparently in the above equation. as accurate measurement becomes practically difficult. then 1% error on the higher side would make it 80. Therefore out put is found out by ma x (H – h) Since in the output. etc. Which one to consider – GCV or LCV? This can be covered if we indicate CV with efficiency. In finding out efficiency in direct method. more efficient the boiler is. which is at higher temperature. Now if we are in operation. What is the advantage in this method? 1.. what we get is the output. Whereas 75 . performance and efficiency would naturally improve. if we measure the total heat losses and deduct it from the input. For solid fuel this part gets tricky.

That is why Tsat is taken as Ta. The actual job of an energy manager is to cut down the losses which can be controlled. the latent heat of vapourization is considered to be 584 kcal/ kg. 9 kg of moisture is formed. 76 . 2.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach in indirect method.01) = 80. This part of the heat loss can not be controlled by us unless we choose a fuel with less hydrogen. Again Specific heat of superheated steam varies with pressure. Since vapor present in the flue gas is at partial pressure (partial pressure of water vapour = total pressure x number of moles of water vapour/ total number of moles of mixture of all gases in the flue gas). Again the steam is formed at a partial pressure. at which the saturation temperature is about 25oC. Temperature of flue gas going out of the Chimney Ta = Ambient temperature If we can control is the mass of flue gas and the exit gas temperature. we do not have much control. this loss is further specified as A. where H is the mass of hydrogen per kg of fuel. This is by far the largest heat loss (nearly 50 – 60% of the total heat loss) and can be controlled to some extent. At the partial pressure of vapour Cp is to be considered as 0. we can identify Tg as Tsup and Ta as Tsat.23 kcal/ kg oC Tg = Exit gas temperature. but then it is already in our priority list to lower the heat loss with dry flue gas. Heat lost with vapour: This is another loss though chimney and on some part we do not have any control. Various losses in a boiler: Heat is lost through various avenues in a boiler. we can lower this loss to a large extent. considered as 0. and C. Per kg of vapour this heat is considered as Cp x (Tg . Now this moisture would first evaporate after taking the latent heat from the flue gas. if there is 1% error in measurement accuracy of the losses. flue gas to a high temperature and then letting it go through the chimney.Ta).Ta)} kcal/ kg of fuel. the efficiency becomes 100 – (20 – 20 x . 1. Moisture takes away heat from the flue gas and leave with the flue gas as superheated steam at the exit gas temperature. the surrounding gas is at Tg.45 x (Tg . To appreciate the loss one should imagine that we are getting the air and fuel for combustion at ambient temperature and then heating up the product of combustion. which is closer to actual. But then hydrogen contributes maximum in the heat value of fuel and therefore this loss becomes insignificant compared to that. After becoming steam. to maintain thermal equilibrium vapour would also get superheated up to that temperature. We can only control the superheat by lowering the flue gas exit temperature. And the heat lost with dry flue gas per kg of fuel burnt = mg x Cg x (Tg . Heat loss due to moisture present in fuel. or nearly ambient. first we need to know from where the heat is lost and how much. It increases with the increase of pressure and decreases with the increase of degree of superheat. This loss is due the presence of moisture in the flue gas. Some are controllable and on some. i.45 kcal/ kg oC] Therefore the loss is calculated as 9H x {584 + 0.45 kcal/ kg oC [We need some explanation here. Heat lost with dry flue gas through chimney (L1): Heat is lost through chimney of a boiler in many ways. Since moisture can be present in flue gas from different sources.2%. To do that. this would further take away some heat to become superheated steam at a temperature equal to the exit gas temperature. Heat loss due to moisture formed by combustion of Hydrogen in fuel (L2): We have seen in the combustion chapter that from combustion of every kg of hydrogen. Heat loss due to moisture formed by combustion of Hydrogen in fuel B. From our knowledge of steam properties.e. Heat loss due to moisture present in combustion air A. The mass of flue gas per kg of fuel would depend on how much air we are using.Ta) mg = mass of dry flue gas per kg of fuel Cg = specific heat of flue gas. Here Cp of superheated steam is taken as 0. Since at the chimney exit.

relative humidity. Once we know the mass of vapour per kg of ambient air from the chart. Heat loss due to moisture present in fuel (L3): When the fuel is having moisture content. Typical values of mass of vapour that air contains are given below: DryBulb Temp °C 20 20 30 40 Wet Bulb Temp °C 20 14 22 30 Relative Humidity (%) 100 50 50 50 Kilogram water per Kilogram dry air (Humidity Factor) 0. we can control this loss. If we can control the moisture content in the fuel. and enthalpy Locating air properties on a psychrometric chart Psychrometric charts are available in various pressure and temperature ranges.Ta)} kcal/ kg of fuel. humidity ratio. when it is coming out of the chimney with the flue gas. The heat loss would depend on the mass of vapour present in atmospheric air. which is termed as humidity.45 x (Tg .024 77 . or Humidity Ratio. or Absolute Humidity. C. Figure above is for standard atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 30o to 120 oF.014 0.008 0. where Mw is the mass of moisture per kg of fuel. specific volume. total mass of vapour inside the boiler per kg of fuel can be calculated as.016 0.Ta)} kcal/ kg of fuel. Air conditions can be quickly characterized by using a special graph called a psychrometric chart. the same amount of moisture again would take away heat in the same fashion as the moisture formed by combustion of hydrogen. where Ma is the mass of actual air per kg of fuel and FH is the humidity factor. Properties on the chart include dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. This water vapour present at the ambient temperature Ta would become superheated at the exit gas temperature Tg. or Humidity Factor. Heat loss due to moisture present in combustion air (L4): Combustion air taken from the atmosphere contains some water vapour. dew point temperature. This loss is calculated as Mw x {584 + 0. expressed in kg of water vapour per kg of dry air. Therefore heat loss = Ma x FH x 0.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach B.45 x (Tg .

it means we are having an improper combustion and total heat value of the un-burnt carbon is lost. Wind velocity in m/ s Surface area of boiler AB in m2 From the above formula. we need to measure percentage volume of CO and CO2 in flue gas and the mass of Carbon in fuel.9) / 68.9] To use this formula we need to know Surface Absolute Temperature Ts in K.Ta)1.100 x (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 + L5 + L6 + L7)/ CV Here CV (GCV or LCV) is taken as 100% input and all the losses are considered on basis of percentage of CV. mass of CO can be calculated by multiplying Carbon mass with proportionate volume of CO. Most coal fired boilers have specified air heater gas outlet temperature of the order of 130ºC being the minimum practical temperature which is consistent with minimizing air heater corrosion (higher than acid dew point).55)4] + 1. In this case the ash collected as bottom ash or fly ash would have some heat value depending on the un-burnt percentage in them. We have to calculate total heat loss in kcal / hour.55)4 . Operational Factors: The losses over which the operator can exert a control are dry flue gas loss.% excess air and gas temperature at air heater outlet Carbon in ash loss . The loss can be calculated as Mash x GCV of ash.957 x (Ts . part of Carbon gets partially oxidized resulting CO in flue gas and a large part of the heat value of Carbon is carried away by the CO without getting released. carbon in ash loss and incomplete combustion (combustible in gas loss). because of partial pressure.% excess air and p. Heat Loss LR in W/ m2 = 0.(Ta / 55.86 We can find out the percentage loss per kg of fuel from fuel firing rate now. fineness Combustible in gas loss – excess air The boiler operation should be aimed at reducing the sum of above losses. Dry flue gas loss . So MCO = {CO% / (CO% + CO2%)} x C This loss is most definitely controllable by using adequate air for combustion. Heat lost due to un-burnt (L6): When we find un-burnt carbon in the fly ash or bottom ash. by LR x AB x 3600 (second to hour)/ 4. A high air heater gas outlet temperature reduces boiler efficiency drastically. 4. It is important to remember that dew point for water vapour is not 100ºC but lower than this.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach 3. the indirect method of calculating efficiency would be this way Efficiency = 100% . Heat value of CO is considered to be 5744 kcal/ kg Heat loss would depend on the mass of CO in the flue gas generated per kg of fuel. Ambient Absolute Temperature Ta in K. 78 . i. We can control this loss by ensuring proper combustion characteristics. Heat loss is calculated as MCO x 5744 kcal/ kg of fuel To find out the mass of CO in flue gas.25 x √[(196.f.187 x 10-3 (J to kcal) = LR x AB x 0. J/ s per m2 area. Energy managers however can use the following empirical formula to calculate the loss. where Mash is the mass of ash collected per kg of fuel burnt. After calculating all losses. 5. Heat Lost due to radiation and convection (L7): This loss is difficult to calculate and can be controlled to some extent with proper insulation.e. Since the total mass of Carbon is converted into CO and CO2. (A 22ºC rise in air heater gas outlet temperature reduces boiler efficiency by 1%). the heat loss is calculated in W/ m2.85 Va + 68. Heat Lost due to incomplete combustion (L5): We have seen in the Combustion chapter that if we use inadequate air for combustion. The final gas temperature should be above flue gas dew point.548 x [(Ts / 55.

the less blow down would be required.India Boiler dot Com Improving Performance & Reliability of Boiler – Analytical approach Boiler operation should be aimed at minimizing the causes of high gas exit temperature which could be due to: • Lack of soot blowing • Deposits on boiler heat transfer surface • High excess air • Low final feed temperature • Incorrect S/Air to P/Air ratio Blow Down Losses: Though blow down losses are not considered while calculating the boiler efficiency. it definitely adds up to the losses of valuable energy. The only way to control this loss is to adopt a good feed water treatment. The blow down rate can be calculated as Blow Down % age = % age Make up x Feed Water TDS/ Boiler Water TDS If there is no flush steam recovery system then the loss comes to Bw x (hg – h) kJ per hour Where. Since TDS in boiler water limits the % blow down in a boiler. the less TDS enters the boiler with the feed water. h = Enthalpy of 1 kg of feed water entering the boiler in kJ 79 . Bw = Blow down quantity in kg/ hr hg = Enthalpy of 1 kg of saturated steam produced under actual working condition in kJ.