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Human Skeletal Anatomy 23/01/2008 12:47:00

Anatomical Position
• Superior/cranial
o Towards the head
• Inferior/caudal
o Lower, tail end
• Medial
o Any point closest to the midline
o The pinky finger is more medial than the index finger
• Lateral
o Away from the midline
Anatomical Directions
• Anterior/ventral
o The front of the body
• Posterior/dorsal
o The back of the body
• Proximal
o Closer to the trunk, to the main body
• Distal
o Farther away from the main part of the body
o The hand is distal compared to the forearms
Anatomical Planes
• Sagittal/Median
o Right and left halves
• Coronal/Frontal
o Front and back
• Transverse
o Top and bottom
Frankfurt Horizontal
• Plane defined by 3 points on the skull
o Lower border of left eye (orbitale)
o Top of right and left ear openings (porion)
The Skeleton
• Cranial
o Cranium and Mandible
• Postcranial
o All bones below the skull
• Axial Skeleton
o Skull, vertebrae, sacrum, sternum, ribs
• Appendicular Skeleton
o Upper limb, lower lib, shoulder girdle, os coxae
o Everything attached to the trunk of the body
Skull Terminology
• Skull
o The whole head with the mandible
o 22 bones
 8 paired
 6 single
• Cranium
o Everything except the mandible
• Calotte
o Just the top of the end
 Like a skull cap
Bones of the Skull
• Frontal
o Entire forehead and top of the eyes
• Zygomatic (paired)
o The cheek bones
• Maxilla (paired)
o Upper jaw. Most of the mid-facial region, and holds the upper
• Mandible
o Lower jaw
• Nasal (paired)
o Two small bones on the nose
• Parietal (paired)
o Upper back side of the head
• Temporal (paired)
o The bones that attached the mandible. It is located by the
• Occipital
o Lower Back of the skull
Landmarks of the skull
• Supraorbital ridges
o Above the eyes
• Eye orbits
• Mental foramina
o On the mandible
• External Auditory Meatus (EAM)
o The ear cavity
• Mastoid Process
o Right behind the ear. Lots of muscles attched there
• Zygomatic arch
o The cheek bones attaching to the temporal bones
• Alveolar process
o Where the teeth sit on the bones
• Occipital condyles
o Attach the head to the spinal column
• Foramen magnum
o “big hole”
o spinal cord goes through here
Major Sutures
• Anywhere two bones of the skull meet
o Immovable joints
• Coronal
o Joins the frontal and the parietal
• Temporal
o Temporal and the parietal
• Lambdoid
o Two parietal bones and the occipital bone
• Sagittal
o Where the two parietal bones meet
Parts of the Thorax
• Sternum
o Breast bone
• Ribs
o 12 ribs
• Vertebrae
The Vertebral Column
• Cervical (7)
o Neck vertebrae
• Thoracic (12)
o Middle part of the vertebrae
o If a rib is attached to it then 99% of the time it is a thoracic
• Lumbar (5)
o The most severe bend and where most of the body is going to
be supported
• Sacral (5)
o 5, however, they are fused
o the back part of the pelvis
o attaches your upper body to the lower body
• Coccygeal (3-5)
o Tail vertebrae
o Usually fused
Cervical Vertebrae

• C1: atlas

o Holds the skull

o Allows to nod our heads front and back

• C2: Axis
o Allows the head to turn side to side

Thoracic Vertabrae

• Costal Facet

o The part where the rib attaches

Lumbar Vertebrae

• Lower back


• Composed of 3 skeletal elements

• 2 os coax

o hips

• 1 sacrum

Ox Coxa

• Composed of 3 bones

o Fused in adults

o The ilium

 The bony part of the hips that you can feel

o Ischium

 The part that you are sitting on
o Pubis

 In the front of the body and the two pubis bones
connect at a joint

Upper Limb

• Clavicle

o Collar bone

• Scapula

o Shoulder blade

• Humerus

o The upper part of the arm

o The arm bone

• Forearm

o Made up of two bones

 Radius

 Farther away from the body

 Ulna

 Closer from the body

• Hand

Upper Limb: Terminology
• Shoulder girdle

o Clavicle and scapula

• Arm

o Shoulder to elbow

• Forearm

o Elbow to wrist

• Hand

Hand and wrist

• Manual phalanges

o Fingers

• Metacarpals

o The bones on the hand itself

• Carpals

o The wrist bones

Upper Limb: Joints

• Shoulder

o Clavicle, scapula, and Humerus

• Elbow
o Humerus, radius and ulna

• Wrist

o Radius, ulna, carpals

• Knuckles

o Phalanges

Lower Limb

• Os Coxa

o Part of the pelvic girdle

• Femur

o Largest leg bone

• Patella

o Knee cap

o Help the knee and ligaments bend better

• Tibia

o The sheen

• Fibula

o Kind of does not do much

• Foot
Lower Limb Terminology

• Pelvic girdle

o Os coxae and sacrum

• Thigh

o Hip to knee

o femur

• Leg

o Knee to ankle

o Tibia and fibula

• Foot


• Pedal phalanges

o Toes

• Metatarsals

o The large part of the foot

• Tarsals

Lower Limb Joints

• Hip
o Os coxae and femur

• Knee

o Femur, tibia, patella

• Ankle

o Tarsals, tibia

Hip Joint

• Acetabulum of pelvis and femur

The Dentition

• Forensic Odontology

• Tooth Anatomy

• Primary Dentition

• Secondary Dentition

Tooth Anatomy

• Located in the alveolus

o The root is located in the socket

• The part you see in your mouth is the crown

o Covered in enamel

o Survive fires, can leaves impresions
• Root

o Made up of dentin

o There are also ligaments that attach the dentin to the socket

• Parts of the Tooth

o Crown

o Root

o Pulp

 Has a lot of nervous tissue and good for DNA

Tooth Types

• Incisor

o Front teeth, four on the top, four on the bottom

• Canine

o Sharp teeth on the sides

• Premolar

o 2 on each side, top and bottom

o help in crushing and tearing food

• Molar

o 3 molars.
• Maxillary teeth are the top teeth

• Mandibular teeth are the lower teeth

Juvenile Dentition

• 20 teeth

• insisors

o 2

• canines

o 1

• molars

• NO premolars

Adult Dentition

• 32 teeth

• 4 quadrants

• in each quadrant

o 2 incisors

o 1 canine

o 2 premolars

o 3 molars
23/01/2008 12:47:00
23/01/2008 12:47:00