RTV 3007

Historical Bases

From Wireless to Broadcasting
19th Century Wired Communication

Morse

From Wireless to Broadcasting
19th Century Wired Communication

Alexander Graham Bell

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From Wireless to Broadcasting
19th Century Wired Communication Weaknesses of Wired Communication

From Wireless to Broadcasting
19th Century Wired Communication Weaknesses of Wired Communication
Construction

From Wireless to Broadcasting
19th Century Wired Communication Weaknesses of Wired Communication
Construction Maintenance

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From Wireless to Broadcasting
Development of Wireless
Maxwell

From Wireless to Broadcasting
Development of Wireless
Maxwell Hertz

From Wireless to Broadcasting
Development of Wireless
Maxwell Hertz Marconi

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From Wireless to Broadcasting
Development of Wireless
Maxwell Hertz Marconi Tuning in: DeForest and the Audion

From Wireless to Broadcasting
Development of Wireless
Maxwell Hertz Marconi Tuning in: DeForest and the Audion Beyond telegraphy: telephone transmissions
Fessenden

From Wireless to Broadcasting
Development of Wireless
Maritime Influences
Naval Commercial

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From Wireless to Broadcasting
Development of Wireless
Legal/Regulatory
Maritime Disasters and the Berlin Conference Titanic *

From Wireless to Broadcasting
Development of Wireless
Big Business: Westinghouse, GE, AT&T, Marconi

From Wireless to Broadcasting
Development of Wireless
Big Business: Westinghouse, GE, AT&T, Marconi World War I (1914-1918)
Training Radio Operators Cross-licensing

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From Wireless to Broadcasting
The Creation of RCA
Fear of Foreign Control US Navy Leadership Participants: Navy, GE, AT&T, Westinghouse

From Wireless to Broadcasting
RCA Agreement
AT&T--Transmitters AT&T T itt GE/Westinghouse--Receivers RCA--Marketing

Broadcasting!
Frank Conrad and KDKA

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Broadcasting!
The Rapid Growth of Radio Broadcasting
How Much Why
Why Operate a Station? Why Buy a Radio Receiver?

Broadcasting!
Getting Programs: Networks
Early Ad Hoc Networks y WEAF-WMAF--The Rise of the Telephone Group The Radio Group--Technically Challenged

Broadcasting!
How to Pay the Bills?
The Radio Group: Indirect Support The Telephone Group: “Toll” Broadcasting

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The Rise of Modern Broadcasting: The Networks
AT&T Bows Out Internal Questions Government Concerns

The Rise of Modern Broadcasting: The Networks
The AT&T--RCA Agreement
AT&T L Leaves B d ti Broadcasting AT&T Gives up Monopoly Claim WEAF Sold to RCA AT&T Controls Network Relay System

The Rise of Modern Broadcasting: The Networks
The National Broadcasting Company First Company Established to Operate Network Controlled Two Networks:
Telephone Group-->NBC Red-->NBC-->NBC Television Radio Group-->NBC Blue-->ABC-->ABC/Capital Cities--> Disney/ABC

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The Rise of Modern Broadcasting: The Networks
A few words about David Sarnoff

The Rise of Modern Broadcasting: The Networks
Origins of CBS
Arthur Judson--United Independent Broadcasters Investment by Columbia Phonograph Columbia Drops Out William Paley Buys Columbia

The Rise of Modern Broadcasting: Regulation
Radio Act of 1912
Radio as Point-to-Point Service Regulatory Authority to Secretary of Commerce
Set Frequencies and Hours of Operation Had to Issue License on Application

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The Rise of Modern Broadcasting: Regulation
Regulation After KDKA Chaos
More Stations than Frequencies Some Stations Ignored Rules Some With Bad Equipment

The Rise of Modern Broadcasting: Regulation
Regulation After KDKA Solutions?
National Radio Conferences Unwillingness of Congress to Act Zenith Decision

The Rise of Modern Broadcasting: Regulation
The Radio Act of 1927 Established Federal Radio Commission Gave FRC Authority to Determine Licensees Placed Emphasis on Local Stations

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The Rise of Modern Broadcasting: Regulation
The Radio Act of 1927
Provided Stability for Evolving Medium Provisions Folded into Communications Act of 1934

Sixty Years of Stability (1927-1987)
Programming Forms Network/Affiliate Relationships Regulation

Broadcasting Dominates News & Entertainment

Sixty Years of Stability
Disruptions
Press/Radio War

NBC Break-up/Network Restrictions

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The Rise of Modern Broadcasting: The Networks
The National Broadcasting Company First Company Established to Operate Network Controlled Two Networks:
Telephone Group-->NBC Red-->NBC-->NBC Television Radio Group-->NBC Blue-->ABC-->ABC/Capital Cities--> Disney/ABC

Sixty Years of Stability
Disruptions
The Rise of TV
Technical Developments The TV Freezes 6th Report and Order Rapid Adoption by Households Color UHF

Sixty Years of Stability
Disruptions
The Rise of TV
Technical Developments
RCA’s electronic lab used Zworykin’s (elecronic scansion & inconoscope) & Farnsworth (image dissector camera) inventions in 1920s RCA first experimental TV station W2XF in 1936 RCA demonstrates TV 1939 Worlds Fair in NYC National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) adopts picture format in 1941

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Sixty Years of Stability
Disruptions
The Rise of TV
The TV Freezes
1942 TV WWII wartime stoppage on licensing new stations and building TV sets After war in 1947 TV explodes --- FCC can’t handle all license requests and freezes TV again

Sixty Years of Stability
Disruptions
The Rise of TV
6th Report and Order
FCC issues Sixth Report & Order in 1952 that ends TV freezes and establishes channel allotment plan, including VHF (2-13) and UHF (14-83) bands

Rapid Adoption by Households
1948 200,000 TV sets 1955 32.5 million TV sets (65% of all homes)

Sixty Years of Stability
Disruptions
The Rise of TV
Color
Early NTSC standard black & white FCC replaced CBS mechanical standard (1950) with RCA’s electronic standard in 1953 Color doesn’t take off until mid 1960s (in 1/3 of all TV homes by 1969)

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Sixty Years of Stability
Disruptions
The Rise of TV
UHF
Established in Sixth Report & Order (1952) Band not included on many early TV sets because most early stations were all network affiliates (NBC, CBS, ABC, DuMont) in VHF band FCC implemented All Channel Receiver Act in 1964

Sixty Years of Stability
Disruptions

Radio’s Reaction to TV
New Radio Program Form Decline and Resurgence of Radio Networks Rise of FM and Decline of AM

Sixty Years of Stability
Disruptions Scandals McCarthyism Payola Quiz Shows

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Sixty Years of Stability
Disruptions
Rise of Participating Sponsorship (1950s ( to present)

Prime Time Access Rule (PTAR) in 1971

The World Turns Upside Down
Slicing the Audience into Smaller Pieces
Cable, Home Video, Home Satellite Indies, New Networks (Broadcast)
Fox (1986) UPN (1995) , WB (1995) CW replaces UPN & WB in 2006 MyNetwork Launched 2006

The World Turns Upside Down
Satellites Cut the Umbilical Slicing the A di Sli i h Audience i into Smaller Pieces
Cable, Home Video, Home Satellite Indies, New Networks

Higher Costs/Reduced Ad Revenue (Broadcast networks & stations)

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The World Turns Upside Down
Deregulation (began in 1980s, continues today) Liberalized Station Ownership Limits
In 1984 possible for one company to own 12 TV, 12 FM & 12 p p y , AM radio stations

Easing of Anti-trafficking Rules (1982)
No longer have a station three years before selling

Ownership Changes
Captial Cities buys ABC (1985) RCA (including NBC) acquired by GE (1986) Westinghouse buys CBS & Disney buys ABC (1995)

The World Turns Upside Down
At The Turn of the New Century Further Consolidation
Telecommunications Act of 1996 reduces ownership limits p Viacom buys CBS (2000)
CBS split from Viacom (2005)

AOL merges with Time Warner (2001) Comcast acquires AT&T Broadband (2002) News Corp acquires DirecTV (2004) NBC merges with Universal (2004)

The World Turns Upside Down
At The Turn of the New Century Further Consolidation Experiments with Program Strategies & Formats The Digital Broadcast Conversion
Will Review Digital TV in Technology Section

The Rise of the Internet & WWW

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Cable Television
Accidental Invention The 1950s: What Is This? Early 1960s: Regulation Begins Late 1960s/Early 1970s: Blue Sky
The TV of Abundance 3d Report and Order

Cable Television
Mid-1970s: Cloudy Skies
Reality and Recession Gerald Levin and Ted Turner Save Cable

Cable Television
Late-1970s/Early 1980s
Franchise Wars MSO Consolidation Rise of New Networks (via satellite)
ESPN (1979), CNN (1980), MTV (1981)

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Cable Television
Mid-1980s/Early 1990s Cable Act of 1984 and Deregulation Growing Subscriber Base/Faster Growing Revenue The Decline of Pay Services The Rise of Basic Programming

Cable Television
The 1990s Re-regulation: The Cable Act of 1992
Rate Regulation Retransmission Consent/Must Carry Level Field for Competitive Technologies

Cable Television
The 1990s Stagnation and Erosion of the Customer Base New Competition and Demands Increasing Channel Capacity Internet Services and “Cable Modems” Digitizing systems to offer more services Digital Must-Carry concerns

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Cable Television
The 1990s Telecommunication Act of 1996 Rate Deregulation Removal of Telephone/Cable Entry Barriers Cross-Ownership Regulations Loosened

Cable Television
DBS Primary Competitor since early 1990s
Lacks local stations in some small markets Doesn’t have facilities to provide broadband, high-speed Internet (must rely on marketing arrangement with telephone company to offer DSL)

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Cable Television
Cable Today
Most systems upgraded to Hybrid Fiber Coax and provide/bundle: Digital and analog cable television High-speed Internet access Voice-over-Internet Telephony (VoIP) Some Four-play: Marketing partners offer wireless

Pushing HD cable programming Developing Interactive television (e.g. PVR/DVR)

Cable Television
Telephone companies as an emerging competitor
VoIP offered by cable is cheaper than typical telephone company offerings Fiber to the curb would allow phone companies to offer more speed and capacity, including the ability to offer subscription based video services to compete with cable Verizon already offering video in Texas

Evolution of Satellite Services
Arthur Clarke and the invention of Communication Satellites Early efforts
Echo Early Bird

Comsat and Intelsat

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Evolution of Satellite Services
Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) Begin in early 1990s
Hughes/Hubbard (DirecTV/USSB) Dish Network (Echo Star)

Evolution of Satellite Services
Why current DBS services succeeded
Programming availability Digital compression provides more capacity Outsourcing
Marketing Technology Customer billing

Evolution of the Internet
Question posed in 1963 by RAND, a cold war think tank. “How could the U.S. communicate after a nuclear attack?

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Internet Evolution
Answer The communication network would require: The intelligence to reside in the endpoints Any endpoint could talk to any other endpoint Network Routing be self-healing after attack No centralized control Messages divided into packets that could take any number of paths from source to destination

Internet Evolution
Internet began as ARPANET in the late 1960s, run by Dept. of Defense Development of TCP/IP Protocols in mid 1970s, incorporated into ARPANET in 1983 NSF supports TCP/IP in CSNET in early 1980s ARPANET and CSNET merge in 1980s

Internet Evolution
NSF subsidizes NSFNET backbone and regional networks in 1986 NSF Phases out federal support for Internet backbone in 1992-95 Internet commercialized in mid 1990s

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The World Wide Web
Created by Tim Berners-Lee in 1991 at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) Portion of the Internet that utilizes a software program (browser) to display Webpages Browser development: Mosaic in 1993; Netscape Navigator popularized in mid 90s

Internet in Context
Internet is convergence Unique Multi-modal capabilities and userdriven qualities compared to p q p previous telecommunication technologies Many predict shared protocol of the Internet is platform of the future EPIC 2015 Video : What will the future Internet behold?

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