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ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER
EFFECT OF TUMBLING TIME, INJECTION RATE AND K-CARRAGEENAN ADDITION ON PROCESSING, TEXTURAL AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF PORK BICEPS FEMORIS MUSCLE
LIVIA PATRAŞCUa*, IRINA DOBREa, and PETRU ALEXEa
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, Dunărea de Jos University of Galati, 111, Domnească Street, 800201, Romania.
Corresponding author. Tel.:+40743261889; e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received on 17th April 2013 Revised on 26 th May 2013
The effect of tumbling time (0-9 hours), injection rate (20-50%) and kcarrageenan addition (0.25 - 0.5%) on quality characteristics of cooked pork Biceps femoris muscle have been studied. Properties of injected and tumbled meat samples were determined by measuring processing characteristics (tumbling yield, cooking yield and expressible moisture), color (L*, a*, b*, Hue angle and Chroma) and texture (firmness, toughness, adhesiveness, work of adhesion and fracturability). Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h led to better hydration properties and increased the cooking yield for all samples, both with 0.25% and 0.5% of k-carrageenan addition. It also decreased the firmness and toughness of the evaluated samples. Biceps femoris samples containing a higher level of k-carrageenan were tenderer than those containing less polysaccharide. Neither injection rate nor tumbling time affected the color components of the analyzed samples. Keywords: Biceps femoris, tumbling time, injection rate, k-carragenan, cooking yield, texture, color
Introduction Meat is a basic food for human nutrition, being the main source of protein for the human body. Meat handling and processing directly affect product quality and consumers’ health. Nowadays we have, on the one hand, producers who with different recipes and various technologies aim at increasing as much as possible the weight of meat in a less processing time, and on the other hand consumers who demand quality products, containing as much meat as possible at acceptable prices. Water is the major compound of meat (about 70 g/100 g for lean meat) and the ability of a product to retain the natural and added water is very important from the economical point of view. It was estimated that over 50% of processed pork has
. Normally. in ―ham-like‖ products.and 3.. 1993. thickening and gelling capacities. In these products. Hsu and Chung (2001) stated that adding up to 2% k-carrageenan increased cooking yield hardness and other textural parameters for low-fat emulsified meatballs. 2003).25%. 2005).. Thus. Κ-carrageenan is a linear sulphated polysaccharide extracted from red seaweeds. Karlson et al. the entire technological process significantly affects the final product. / AUDJG – Food Technology 37(1) 69-84 unacceptable water loss (Kauffman et al. 2005). 2005. 2000). (1995) stated that many workers observed that slaughtered muscles vary in texture and in structure. carrageenan’s success is achieved by its low viscosity when dispersed in brine. In order to retain as much added water as possible during cooking. Stetzer & McKeith. yield.. different types of muscles gained different degrees of tenderness after the same treatment (Lachowicz et al.... sodium lactate. For whole muscle products. texture and appearance of the finished products (Chin et al. Its idealized structure is a repeating disaccharide sequence of β-D-galactopyranose4-sulphate residues linked 1. Tumbling process favorably influenced rehydration process for saltcured cod ( Bjorkevoll et al. Tomšic. Pătraşcu et al. 2008). Besides.. 2003). Verbeken et al. hydration during heat treatment and jellifying during cooling (Pietrasik. to contribute to desirable binding characteristics. (2002) found that adding carrageenan to smoked pork loin in low concentrations (0. 2003). 2000). sodium chloride. k-carrageenan is used to improve water retention. .4% and 0. and modified starch are common ingredients to meet the functional needs (Xiong. Ivanovic et al. texture and juiciness (Imeson. 1998. restructured or whole meat products. (2005) reported that including tumbling in the meat processing resulted in a more uniform distribution of the brine and a more homogeneous cured color distribution. hydrolyzed soy or whey proteins... & Jarmoluk.55%) reduced significantly mass losses during thermal treatment and increased product firmness. Also small injection rates were studied in most existent surveys (10-18%) while in industry quantities over 50% injection rates are used. This phenomenon was observed by other researches too (Payne et al. (2005) observed that k-carrageenan addition up to 2% led to an increase of water holding capacity of meat gels. 2004). For instance. polysaccharide gums. Hullberg et al. Perez-Mateos et al.4. but even minor changes in the process can result in changes in the quality of the finished product (Hullberg et al. increasing water holding capacity is different from the restructured meat products. (Wang et al.. 1998). Wiklund et al. Furthermore. 1992.70 L. 1992.6-anhydro-α-D-galactopyranose residues linked through positions 1. It was also reported to favor hydration properties and thermal stability of pork gels (Pitrasik. Shackelford et al. Often injection is followed by tumbling in order to achieve a better hydration and to ensure formation of binding material. 0. sodium phosphates.3. It is widely used in the food industry due to its water-binding. Polysaccharides or hydrocolloids derived from a variety of plants and microorganisms are used extensively as ingredients in a number of ground. proper waterbinding compounds must be added to the injectable brine. 2003)..
Leon et al. 2004). 2004. the drum contents were supplemented each time with ballistic gel cuts sealed in polyethylene bags in order to avoid interactions with meat. Every time muscles were sliced into pieces of 100 g chops per loin. Du & Sun. Cooking procedure After each hour of tumbling. Tumbling The tumbling process was conducted in a laboratory small capacity tumbler (Reveo Marivac..1kg. 2004. color had been analyzed using this technique (Papadakis et al. marked with cotton fiber of different colors for differentiation and weighted (obtaining the raw weight)..5°C per min from 20°C ± 2°C to 75°C until the internal . 2010. three samples were collected for analyses (two for heat treatment and one for other analyses). Pătraşcu et al.. For many surveys. 2010). Color is also a major factor of meat aspect. O'Sullivan et al. For this. Samples were tumbled intermittently (20 min on.. Mendoza. 2005. 2008. The initial medium pH of raw meat was 6. Recently. Pedreschi et al. WNB-45. Yam & Papadakis. injection rates and tumbling time on pork Biceps femoris technological and sensory characteristics. They have the advantage over ordinary colorimeters to analyze each image pixel individually. the effect of different percent of brine with polysaccharide addition combined with tumbling time on technological. 2003.5kg±0. To counteract a substantial reduction of the total ham weight in the drum because of sampling. Muscles were collected from both sides of pork carcass. sealed in plastic bags and handled in refrigeration conditions at +4˚C.. while being inexpensive (Brosnan & Sun. After that samples were immersed in a water bath (MEMMERT. 2004. 2006. Pedreschi et al.. Samples were processed within maximum two hours after collecting.. over a 6. Materials and methods Sample preparation Raw material The pork Biceps femoris muscle analyzed in the present study is a large muscle localized on the lateral part of the ham. In order to perform heat treatment. / AUDJG – Food Technology 37(1) 69-84 71 The primordial factor that determines the consumers’ choice is the product appearance.07. 10 min of). textural and color parameters of processed meat was analyzed. After every hour of tumbling. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of k-carrageenan addition. Larrain et al.L. 2004. 2000. objective evaluation of color for different foods was performed using computer programs. Laurent et al. Valous et al..12 ± 0. at 4°C for 9 h summarizing a total of 5040 rotations. USA) at a vacuum of 85 MPa with a drum speed of 14 rpm.month period. Germany) gradually increasing water temperature by ~1. The fresh Biceps femoris muscles were removed from pork carcasses 24 hours after slaughtering. samples were placed in glass containers (one sample per container). Every muscle had a medium weight of 2. samples were collected from the drum and weighed (obtaining the green meat weight).
299 1.79 0.0499 1. 40% and 50% in regard to the initial weight) so that in finished product the following quantities could be found: 1.0499 1.79 7.2998 5.37 2.89 0.2998 5.fagro. depending on the type of brine used (with k-carrageenan 0.96 0.09 84.299 1. After heat treatment.499 Additive in product Salt Phosphate Sugar Nitrite Water kcarrageenan Tumbling and cooking yield The brine absorption was calculated as the ratio of green meat weight to raw meat weight using the following equation (Pietrasik and Shand.0 Injection rate.299 0.015% sodium nitrite.5 kg k-carrageenan/100kg meat 20 10.79 1.0649 87.749 0.05249 89.798 6.5% of k-carrageenan (Table 1).499 1.8749 0.% 20 30 40 50 10.798 6.8% salt. 0. Pătraşcu et al.79 0.31 3.39 1. water and k-carrageenan.0449 91. sugar.72 L.79 1.166 1. sodium tripolyphosphate. sodium nitrite.89 0.79 1.3% sugar and 0.25 and 0. 30%.0499 0. In order to determine the additive quantity in brine the following formula was used (www.89 0. 0.25% or 0.299 0.25 kg k-carrageenan/100kg meat Injection rate. The ingredients were added in different proportions.01 1.0649 88.09 81.89 0.05249 90. 2004): Tumbling yield (%) green weight 100 raw weight (2) .0449 91.3% sodium tripolyphosphate. % 30 40 50 7.pdf): % additive in brine % additive wanted (100 % injection ) % injection (1) Table1. 0. / AUDJG – Food Technology 37(1) 69-84 temperature of the sample reached 72°C. measured with a thermocouple. The brine was manually injected into the samples with a one needle syringe. Brine recipes for different injection rates Brine recipe for samples with 0.5 kg/100 kg meat) and percentage of injected brine (20%.749 Brine recipe for samples with 0.79 1. the samples were cooled down in running water to about 20°C and weighed (obtaining the cooked weight).edu.7 0. Methods Brine injection Brine used for injection contained sodium chloride.uy /~alimentos/ cursos/ prod_carnicos/ Unidad%204/ Chacinados%20 Salados.25 1.083 1.453 1.0499 0.39 1.
a* and b* color parameters (CIE. The illuminating bulbs and the camera were placed in a wooden box whose interior walls were painted black to minimize background light. . L*. Illumination was achieved with two Philips Natural Daylight fluorescent bulb lights with a color temperature of 6400 K. according to Leon et al. without compression. (2006).0. 1976) were obtained using the Photoshop software (v6. The camera used had a resolution of 7 megapixels. Color measurement Images of cooked samples (cross section) were taken by a digital camera with a proper lighting system according to the method described by Papadakis et al. The camera flash setup was off.. toughness as the area under the upper curve defined as material's ability to absorb the energy and to deform plastic without fracture (Larson. fracturability as the force when appears the first significant break in the curve representing the different particles` tendency for binding together (Maeda et al. obtaining a final picture/image of 336×334 pixels. The angle between light source and camera lens was set to 45˚. The technical parameters of the apparatus were: Compression Test Mode. 2006) using the following equation: Cooking yield (%) cooked weight 100 raw weight (3) Expressible moisture (EM) Green meat samples weighing 3. without zoom. 2001). The focal distance was set to ~ 10 cm. Every picture was cut off from sides to center to eliminate any yellowish sides of the image. (2000). JPEG format. The images were taken at a resolution of 3072×2304 pixels. the negative area representing the work needed to overcome the attractive forces between the surfaces of the sample and the food. Expressible moisture was calculated as the percentage of moisture lost during centrifugation as described by Pietrasik & Shand (2004). 2002). Test Speed of 1... The cooked samples were sheared perpendicular to the fiber direction with a shear attachment. Pătraşcu et al.L. Samples were cut in cuboids with side dimension of 2 cm. and a color index (Ra) close to 95%. 2010). / AUDJG – Food Technology 37(1) 69-84 73 The cooking yield was calculated in relation to the raw meat weight (Drummond & Sun. also known as the Warner-Bratzler shear force (Pietrasik. adhesiveness as the maximum negative force and the work of adhesion.0±0. % EM initial weight final weight 100 initial weight (4) Textural properties The textural characteristics of samples were analyzed using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyzer (Stable Micro Systems).5g were placed in centrifuge tubes fitted with thimbles of filter paper and centrifuged at 604 g for 20 min at 4°C using a Refrigerated Centrifuge TGL-16M.5 mm/s. Maximum force recorded during the test was reported as firmness. After that pictures were processed using Microsoft Office software in JPEG format.
The software uses a scale.05) on cooking yield values of Biceps femoris cuts . CA). (1999). it was observed that for 20% and 30% injection rates values were significantly different (p<0. to characterize lightness.. Silva et al. Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h in this case led to significant differences in tumbling yield.74 L. L* is the luminance or lightness component. For 50% injection rate neither tumbling time. (2011) also reported that the yield of beef Biceps femoris steaks immediately after tumbling was influenced by the tumbling time. ranging from 0 to 255. hue angle (C°) was calculated as: tan (b*/a*). and b (Lazaridou. the weight loss being bigger for samples tumbled less.5 % k-carrageenan did not lead to significant increases in tumbling yield (p>0. Positive effects of increased tumbling times on brine absorption have also been observed in chicken fillets by Xiong & Kupski. San Jose.05) both for tumbling yield and for polysaccharide quantity used.. Cooking yield Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h and growing the quantity of injected brine had a significant influence (p<0.05). When comparing values of tumbling yield for the two k-carrageenan rates used in this study. The coefficients were taken from Image/Histogram by previously setting in the lab color mode. nor k-carrageenan quantity influenced tumbling yield (p>0..05) samples’ green weight. This leads to the idea that using little quantities of k-carrageenan can be effective when referring to tumbling yield only for injection rates that do not exceed 30%.05). When using 40% injection rate 0. Results and discussion Processing characteristics of Biceps femoris muscle Tumbling yield The data presented in Figure 1 demonstrate that increasing tumbling time up to 9 h and varying the brine rate injected into the samples significantly affected (p<0. a* and b* are the two chromatic components. 2004).05). To convert these parameters to L*. Statistical analysis The statistical analysis. from two replicates. 2008). was performed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. a*. whereas chroma (D) was calculated as: (Sawyer et al. Pătraşcu et al.. as well as the values of a. consisting on the Single factor ANOVA test (α = 0. which range from -120 to +120 (a* from green (-a*) to red (+a*) and b* from blue (-b*) to yellow (+b*)). / AUDJG – Food Technology 37(1) 69-84 Adobe Systems Inc. and b* the following formulas were used: L* = (L/250)×100 (5) a* = (a×240/255)–120 (6) b* = (b×240/255)–120 (7) -1 Additionally. However the weight gain of all samples after tumbling was roughly with 10% less than the injected one for all four injected rates. et al. which ranges from 0 to 100.
0. (2010) also reported that for a better retention of brine level injected into the meat it should be supplemented with other additives to ensure a better water holding capacity.6%.5% kcarrageenan Increases in the cooking yield values when using little proportions of kcarrageenan (0.55%) into brine were obtained by Ivanovic (2002). The influence of tumbling time. Theno et al.L. Pătraşcu et al.1% and 3. et al. Walsh et al... Tumbling times applied in different surveys varied from 30 min (Ockerman et al. Motycka & Bechtel (1983) also reported that pork Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris muscles presented an increased cooking yield after mechanical treatment by 2. / AUDJG – Food Technology 37(1) 69-84 75 (Figure 2).25% k-carrageenan. . 1981) of mechanical treatment and only after a minimum of 6 h of tumbling were reported increases in meat cooking yields (Krause et al.25-0. 1978) to 20 h (Gillett. An important factor that increases the cooking yield of meat reported in earlier studies is a prolonged massaging / tumbling time that is believed to improve the salt migration into the meat. 1978.. Figure 1. 1978). injection rate and k-carrageenan addition on the tumbling yield of Biceps femoris samples: 0... respectively.
compared to those with 0. values remaining around 115%. farther increasing tumbling time had no effect on cooking yield of the samples. Particular case represented samples injected with 50% of brine containing 0.5% kcarrageenan Expressible moisture Water holding capacity of all samples was influenced both by injection rate and tumbling time. they did not exceed 120%. This leads to conclude that using little quantities of k-carrageenan (0. Figure 2. / AUDJG – Food Technology 37(1) 69-84 Although cooking yield values increased after 9 h of tumbling for all four injected rates used regardless the type of brine injected into the meat.76 L. 0.25 kg/100 kg meat) is insufficient when 50% of injection rate is desired.25% k-carrageenan. The influence of tumbling time. It was observed that increasing the amount of brine injected led to an increase of water expelled quantities during centrifugation of tumbled samples . Meat samples containing 0. in spite that the statistical differences were insignificant (p>0.25% k-carrageenan.25% k-carrageenan. After six hours of tumbling. Pătraşcu et al.05). injection rate and k-carrageenan addition on the cooking yield of Biceps femoris samples: 0.5% k-carrageenan resulted in slightly higher values of cooking yield.
25% k-carrageenan Injection rate.29 9.12 13.74 14.21 13.. an increase of salted meat hydration and binding capacities leads to an extension of the filaments network so that a larger amount of water could be retained.51 11.45 21.98 17. p columns<0.5% k-carrageenan Injection rate.38 11. Akse et al. 2004).52 14.37 12.31 18.83 18.53 16.01 20.68 16. According to Xiong et al.96 prows <0.68 9.16 12.29 13.L.40 18..90 14.60 14. (1993) reported that ―salting-in‖ effect of the muscle occurs at lower salt concentrations (50 g/L) and ―salting-off‖ effect is observed at larger salt concentrations (90-100 g/L). Results showed that the matrix formed in the muscular network of Biceps femoris samples after a longer tumbling time had a better water holding capacity in regard to injection rate.74 10.86 18.38 11. EM%. (2000) study. For samples injected with 50% brine for both types of brine used. expressible moisture values for most of the samples were higher which explains lower cooking yield values. which also implies a stronger water-salt connection so that the proteins are dehydrated afterwards. & Okubanjo. This behavior was similar for both types of brine used in the study. / AUDJG – Food Technology 37(1) 69-84 77 (p<0. Pietrasik. .05.04 10.50 21.33 20.41 15.85 11.08 21. Basically a higher quantity of liquid resulted in a ―dilution‖ of myofibrillar proteins solubilized due to the effect of salt on myofilaments so that the meat-brine matrix could not be formed inside muscle.21 15.77 18.01 16.42 11.76 11.05).83 12.26 15.05.05 24.36 22.17 17.36 10. 0. 0.02 13. The influence of tumbling time and injection rate on the expressible moisture of Biceps femoris samples containing 0.05.45 23.97 14. A longer tumbling time had a benefic effect on water holding capacity of the samples. % 20 30 40 50 19.81 13.60 prows <0.76 13.25% and 0.63 23.05).13 15. EM%.36 18.46 11.14 10.19 13.53 16.45 12.34 19.05.30 13.01 16.10 10. 1999. Pătraşcu et al. The effect of tumbling time on water holding capacity from this study resulted in accordance with previous published reports in which extended tumbling time has been described as a factor that improved the water binding characteristics of cooked meats (Dzudie.00 12. as seen in Table 2.5% of k-carrageenan. p columns<0. Tumbling time.67 12.23 13. Table 2.54 15.88 14.46 25.39 18. h 1h 2h 3h 4h 5h 6h 7h 8h 9h P value The decreased values in the expressible moisture can be attributed to the lateral expansion of the myofibrils together with the protein solubility. % 20 30 40 50 22.17 13.19 12.99 25.16 14. After 9 h of tumbling expressible moisture values visibly decreased (p<0.86 12.
so that muscular fibers could keep the ability of staying united regardless the amount of brine injected. significantly lowered (p<0. / AUDJG – Food Technology 37(1) 69-84 Textural properties Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h as well as the level of injected brine resulted in decrease of firmness for all samples (p<0.5% kcarrageenan presented significantly different values (p<0.25% and by 0.05) firmness and toughness values for samples injected with brine containing k-carrageenan (0. As in the case of samples with 0.5% k-carrageenan).05) for both brine types used. Pătraşcu et al.05) regarding the firmness and toughness. Sparado & Keeton (1996) stated that poor cohesiveness means poor binding characteristics of the particles. Cooked Biceps femoris cuts tumbled for 9 h needed less shearing force compared to samples tumbled for one hour (Table 3). less force being necessary for cutting the meat. More k-carrageenan addition (0. Also.5% versus 0. Similar to samples containing 0.25% k-carrageenan showed grater values for firmness.25% and 0.78 L. Fracturability is included as a secondary parameter together with chewiness and gumminess in cohesiveness (Ahamed. muscle samples containing 0. That is because meat does not have the property of being actually crumbly.25% k-carrageenan.5 kg/100 kg meat). compared to samples injected with the same quantity of brine containing more k-carrageenan (0. 2007). At low injection rates (20% and 30%).25%) decreased the firmness of Biceps femoris samples. increasing the quantity of injected brine led to a decrease in firmness values for both types of brine (by 0. as well as the calculated Hue angle (C˚) and Chroma (D) for pork Biceps femoris samples injected under different experimental conditions. It is worth mentioning that a greater quantity of kcarrageenan provides tenderer meats in a shorter tumbling time.5 kg/100 kg meat). but for some samples it could not be measured. Fracturability values were close to those of firmness in the entire study. Adhesiveness and work of adhesion did not show to be influenced by the degree of injection and by the quantity of added polysaccharide.25% k-carrageenan. but did not affect adhesiveness and work of adhesion of the samples. Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h. the dropping of these parameters was also determined by the time of mechanical treatment. Results showed that a prolonged mechanical treatment lowered the forces of attraction between particles. those with 0. Color Table 4 displays the obtained instrumental color parameters such as: lightness (L*). However increasing tumbling time up to 9 h determined a drop of the particles` bonding tendencies. defined as the intermolecular attraction by which the elements of a body are held together. after one hour of tumbling. redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). .
52 4.0 51.35 2. % 20 30 40 50 82.37 7.63 5.52 38. kg force Injection rate.13 4. p columns<0.27 48.41 52.2 80.72 4. p columns>0.40 49. pcolumns<0.09 4. pcolumns<0.22 4.24 6.18 73.87 6.91 3.08 2. The influence of tumbling time and injection rate on the textural characteristics of cooked Biceps femoris samples containing 0. pcolumns<0.80 4.30 6.46 7.98 5.2 45 56 37 51 28 19 34 23 34 100 75 115 66 80 100 113 35 60 38 58 41 32 67 10 52 27 33 15 44 28 09 37 27 42 10 23 18 29 12 17 10 09 17 09 12 71 63 88 42 68 32 67 34 30 22 13 27 15 35 03 23 14 14 06 18 08 01 12 08 20 01 08 7.77 2.23 2.05 33 09 39 28 07 08 06 09 11 10 11 14 19 14 5 8 7 12 9 17 10 4 2 8 5 9 7 6.79 5.62 48.74 6.55 7.43 35.67 4.63 65.1 2 3 Firmness. % 20 30 40 50 Sample Tumbling time.9 79.04 35.80 3.3 38.66 7.71 3.42 53.49 6.51 4.06 3.15 76.70 6.2 44.14 4.25% and 0.73 47. kg force×s (×10-2) Injection rate.6 70.88 7.51 75.31 3.9 53.82 52.49 2.39 4.05.08 5.25 3.49 4.94 63.05 4 79 .33 3.05.01 5. % 20 30 40 50 8.90 47.13 7.73 33.4 41 44.02 66.07 50.88 3.54 5.30 6.38 5.76 1. / AUDJG – Food Technology 37(1) 69-84 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 P value Prows <0.31 5.05.76 3. kg force (×10-2) Fracturability.72 7.23 4.24 0.32 5.12 3.06 NI 3.43 3.88 8.53 49.83 3.05 6.90 NI 3.02 43. % 20 30 40 50 6.72 36.38 3.58 3.7 73.43 3.05 35 11 11 17 14 43 13 07 07 Prows >0.59 3.42 3.68 34.56 4.9 53.39 2.16 4.61 60.10 40.05.87 5.33 63.5 66.75 6.68 3.8 72.4 72.63 7.13 3.40 Prows >0.59 4. p columns<0.53 4.51 83.98 4.83 L.75 5.4 51.5 51.9 37.51 5.96 3.90 2. % 20 30 40 50 0.25 3. p columns<0.29 4.05 Prows <0.74 86 35 38 53 45 40 29 43 23 78 20 65 57 17 20 23 23 29 24 33 35 40 37 13 26 18 27 25 43 24 13 05 20 16 23 21 Prows <0.56 3.24 7.44 4. h Adhesiveness.58 70.41 4.5 % k-carrageenan 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 P value Prows <0.73 6.03 NI NI 6.86 5.76 4.9 29.66 3.64 NI 1.06 5.48 50.35 3.37 4.89 5.26 4.06 7.05 7.84 NI 3.18 6.48 4.37 59.68 4.2 47. kg force×s Injection rate.99 3.50 2.05.63 6.96 42.52 4.6 40.54 NI 3.75 Injection rate.05.25 % k-carrageenan 8.05.9 63.37 6.6 76.1 60.05 Prows <0.05 Prows >0.09 4.16 Table 3. pcolumns<0.6 61.59 7.15 5.84 42.6 89.5 42.86 5.10 8. Pătraşcu et al. p columns<0.40 71.05.15 39. kg force Injection rate.49 4.55 5.20 2.39 3.96 NI NI 8.24 5.9 78.05.2 53 51 57 49.80 70.05 Prows >0.5% of k-carrageenan Toughness.28 5.3 46 51.73 3.1 45.12 3.53 3.06 3.50 3.36 5.61 3.56 3.44 5.25 3.7 67.49 2.35 Work of adhesion.66 3.88 41.
5% versus 0. b* component ones increased.583 p<0. being yet very far from it. values were in the red-yellow quadrant (+a*. .98 6. No significant differences between tumbling times (5 min and 25 min) in color were found by Moon et al.05 Chroma 12. Hue angle departed little from red tone (0°) if considering color distribution. Hence the values have been centralized... color components being sensible only to phosphate concentrations. More k-carrageenan addition (0. and a single average of all data for each type of brine used. after reading CIELAB parameters resulted that neither tumbling time. When a* component values decreased. was displayed in order to evaluate the chromatic changes obtained after kcarrageenan addition in different proportions (Table 4). 0.05 p-value When comparing the brine types used between them. toward orange (30°).94 p>0. Hayes et al. chroma (D) and hue angle (C°) values varied slightly after 0.5% k-carrageenan L* 52. greater quantities of it (0.25% k-carrageenan to 51. / AUDJG – Food Technology 37(1) 69-84 For every type of brine used. 2006).4%) improving meat appearance. (2007) declared that vacuum-tumbling had no positive or negative effects on color of dry cured beef.80 L. from 52. in both concentrations.25% k-carrageenan 0. 6%.75%) had no effect on the L*-value of the restructured pork treated under pressure. Regarding a* and b*color components. Similar to a*and b* color components.25%) determined a significant drop in meat lightness (p<0.45 p>0. Hong. L* values decreased with increasing the polysaccharide proportion. The influence of tumbling time and injection rate on color characteristics of pork Biceps femoris samples containing 0. (2007). Pătraşcu et al. reported that the addition of k-carrageenan (0.5% of k-carrageenan addition.5% of k-carrageenan Brine type 0. respectively.. reported no differences in color components for two pump rates (12 and 18%) used in the survey.05).05) of the processed meat (data not shown). nor quantity of brine injected into the sample determined significant changes in color (p>0.5%.29 51. Table 4. et al. +b*) and there was found an inverse proportionality between them.. K-carrageenan addition. and 0. did not interfere in the chromatic distribution of samples color. resulting that meat was more bright than dark.95 p>0. (2005).25%.25% and 0.8 at 0.05) regarding some color components. there were recorded significant changes (p<0. However L* values were above 50. Baublits et al.80 p< 0. (2008).82 9.633 0.14 11.5% k-carrageenan.29 at 0.05 b* 6. Neither consumers have detected differences in color for pork loin muscle injected with 0%.05 Hue angle 0. and 12% brine (Baublis.05 a* 9.
Muscular fiber network kept its structure regardless of brine quantity used for injection. (1993). Meat Science. more k-carrageenan addition led to a decrease of samples’ lightness and color saturation (Chroma). (2004). & Lamkey. J. but a prolonged tumbling time caused partial structure disintegration by decreasing the attraction and adhesion forces. 61(1). Bjørkevoll. However. & Solberg... Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h and growing the brine percent injected into the muscles positively influenced the weight gain of pork Biceps femoris samples after tumbling and cooking process. H. (2004). R. W. 230−249... Feasibility of water immersion cooking of beef joints: Effect on product quality and yield. Akse. D. Baublits. S. Rehydration of salt-cured cod using injection and tumbling technologies. Baublits. sensory descriptive and consumer-rated characteristics.5% of k-carrageenan into the meat-brine system did not lead to further increase of tumbling or cooking yield in relation to samples with less polysacharide in the system. B. R.. M. 15(5). F.. 801-807. B. 264–276.. 71. T. T. Recent developments in the applications of image processing techniques for food quality evaluation. 37. less force being necessary for muscle shearing.. E. R. Pătraşcu et al.L. T. Keeton. Mehaffey. Brosnan. Effect of different binders on the quality of enrobed buffalo meat cutlets and their shelf life at refrigeration storage (4 ± 1°C). (2004). & Sun. & Sun. 289-294. at two different pump rates on beef Biceps femoris instrumental color characteristics. A.. References Ahamed. S.. W. B. & Sun. Sawyer. & Kondaiah. J. without affecting the other color components. A. . 741-750.. Pohlman. Improving quality inspection of food products by computer vision — a review. (2006). Norway: Fiskeriforskning. & Johnson. 72. Journal of Food Science. Z. Trends in Food Science and Technology. (1998)... T.. textural and microstructural properties of low-fat bologna (model system) with a konjac blend. Du. Thomas. Meat Science. 451–459. Meat Science. D. & Saha. J. T... Chin. T. Gundersen. A. Adding 0.. An increase in k-carrageenan addition determined a decrease of samples firmness. C. N.-F. M. K.. Journal of Food Engineering. M. (2005). Functional. T. / AUDJG – Food Technology 37(1) 69-84 81 Conclusions Water holding capacity of Biceps femoris samples after tumbling process was positively influenced both by injection rate and tumbling time.. J. Tromso.. Pump rate and cooked temperature effects on pork loin instrumental. Saltfisk: saltmodning.. Ofstad. 3−16.. 925-931. 77. regardless of the type of brine used for injection. L. 63. Pork Biceps femoris color components were not affected by the injection rates or the tumbling time. Meullenet. W. Brown Jr. D. 75. (2007).(10). Effects of enhancement with varying phosphate types and concentrations. Olsen J. W. Food Research International. L. utproving av analysemeetoder. Lauritzen. R. Sathu. Olsen R. K. Drummond. J. misfarget salfisk.. (2006). V. T. L. R. Longnecker. Anjaneyulu.. I. Journal of Food Engineering.
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