This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
to as contingency planning). The evolution of business continuity management from Disaster Recovery (DR) to Business Continuity Planning (BCP) to BC different definitions being !roffered over time. BCM "erbane (#$%$) states that& BC has become established as a formalised structure and has led to many
e'!ression of an organi(ation)s crisis management values and !ractices with standards develo!ed in the early #$$$s. BC focuses on assuring continuous business !rocesses and !lays a is also an on*going
!rominent !art in the organi(ations ability to recover after disru!tion. BC
!rocess and !lanning for it includes reviewing DR& business recovery& business resum!tion and contingency !lanning. The com!rehensive and on*going nature of BC included as !art of any BC definition. should therefore be
Research conducted by +lliott& ,wart( and "erbane (#$%$) suggests ado!ting a crisis management a!!roach to BC . They suggest e'!anding the !rocess of BC to include the
social elements that are often !art of a disru!tive event and maintain that organi(ations often !lay a role in causing failures themselves. They also note the im!ortant role that an organi(ation)s managers !lay in BC & the fact that interru!tions im!act on the many sta-eholders in an organi(ation and that if managed !ro!erly incidents do not necessarily
ervice offers an alternate ris. The ITI.)& IT . The Basel committee on ban-ing su!ervision& ta-ing a financial and business focus& define BC as/ 01 whole*of*business a!!roach that includes !olicies& standards& and !rocedures for ensuring that s!ecified o!erations can be maintained or recovered in a timely fashion in the event of a disru!tion. 5ltimately the most com!rehensive definition of BC which aligns with the current BCI definition and includes the multi!le elements covered by the earlier definitions !osed by .u!ervision& #$$3& !.management view of BC saying that it is the business !rocess res!onsible for managing ris-s to the business and that it !rotects the interests of -ey sta-eholders& organi(ational re!utation& brand and value creating activities. The ITI.management initiative. definition as ITI. is mainly a technology focused !rocess.%) The BCI note that BC BC and ris.2 (Basel Committee on Ban-ing .inevitably lead to a crisis. anagement framewor- The Information Technology Infrastructure . It is interesting to note the business focus of the ITI. definition further shifts the focus of BC away from technology and on to the business and its sta-eholders.management sit side by side and that the main ob4ective of is to allow organi(ations manage their business under adverse conditions by im!lementing and crisis management !lans in collaboration resilience strategies& recovery ob4ectives& BC with& or as a -ey com!onent of& an integrated ris.ibrary (ITI. This means that the wider su!!ly chain and all an organi(ations sta-eholders both internal and e'ternal need to be covered in a BC definition. definition also notes that BC hel!s reduce ris-s to an acce!table level.
academics& is that !ut forward by the standard British . This is then used as the benchmar.2 (B.I) which states that BC is/ 01 holistic management !rocess that identifies !otential threats to an organi(ation and the im!acts to business o!erations that those threats& if reali(ed& might cause& and which !rovides a framewor. The Literary Framework The framewor.against which the research can measure the e'ecution of BC in large organi(ations. BC as noted by "erbane (#$%$) which began as an 1nglo*centric& information technology focused activity has become a !rocess that has now become an e'!ectation rather than lu'ury.I #$$3& !.for building organi(ational resilience with the ca!ability for an effective res!onse that safeguards the interests of its -ey sta-eholders& re!utation& brand& and value*creating activities.%) This definition notably recognises that BC is a !art of building based a!!roach to disru!tive events and it enca!sulates the main elements of earlier definitions such as resuming business after a disru!tive event& the survival of the mission critical elements of the business& the ability to !re!are for disru!tive events& the continuous nature of BC & testing6rehearsing BC & the internal6e'ternal nature of events and the com!etitive advantages gained as a whole. 1 -ey aim of the literature review is to identify and discuss what has been !ro!osed as constituting good !ractice in terms of BC . .tandards Institute (B.around which the literature is reviewed is drawn from the BC lifecycle.
eow (#$$:) advocates that this is achieved not 4ust by using business models to illustrate the returns on shareholder value& citing statistics on the number of com!anies without . If the board does not !lay an active !art in BC & sustaining a !rogramme will be difficult. obstacle to the !rogramme)s success. 1s noted by .BCM Programme Management Programme management is central to the BC • • • • !rocess and includes/ +nsuring !artici!ation of to! management7 1ssigning res!onsibilities (8overnance)7 Im!lementing business continuity in the organi(ation7 The on*going management of business continuity. . Participation of Top Management 9hen reviewing the body of literature it is evident that the !artici!ation of senior management is crucial to the success of BC . 9ithout it the BC It is the res!onsibility of the board of directors to review the business continuity !rogramme annually according to .och (#$$<).eow (#$$:) !oints out that not getting to! management buy in and commitment to starting and sustaining a BC !rogramme in an organi(ation can be an !rogramme will almost certainly fail.eow (#$$:)& selling BC im!ortant. The literature identifies the need to strategically sell BC to senior e'ecutives by showing them to senior e'ecutives is its im!ortance to the organi(ation. Directors have a fiduciary duty to !rotect cor!orate assets and safeguard the long*term survival of the organi(ation. .
These need to be borne in mind when trying to get the re?uired !ositive management res!onse regarding any BC initiative. . The BC to be delivered by a credible communicator. The BC !ractitioner therefore needs to find out what are the !riorities of senior management> 9hat sta-es do they have in su!!orting or not su!!orting BC > 9hat motivates them> "ow can these !riorities be leveraged> De 9aal (#$$3)& !oints out that disasters that resonate in the moral imagination elicit res!onses. .uch a!!roaches often fail to motivate senior e'ecutives into engaging with BC .business continuity !lans (BCPs) that failed after a disaster event and !roviding case studies of !ast incidents& as these tend to be generic and su!erficial. message and trying to illicit the re?uired senior management res!onse& it In delivering the BC is im!ortant to note that most !eo!le are influenced more by one clear& vivid !ersonal e'am!le than by an abundance of statistical data according to 1ranson (%:::). message needs yers (#$$3) also advocates that the !erson with .indstedt (#$$=) !oints out that e'ecutives cannot be e'!ected to su!!ort a BC !rogramme if they consider it as sim!ly !art of another function of the business& li-e ris. To attract the attention of senior e'ecutives& .management. De 9aal (#$$3) notes that there are four !olitical com!onents of disaster !revention/ the visibility of the disaster7 the !olitical salience of the disaster7 the constituencies affected and involved in the res!onse7 and the availability of technologies for effective res!onse.eow (#$$:) advises that where !ossible the BC leader needs to ma-e the case for BC by !resenting it in the right management conte't that has direct relevance to the senior e'ecutives !ersonally.oo-ing further towards raising senior management awareness of im!ortance of BC & .
Involvement in BC !rogrammes on an on*going basis should therefore be a normal !art of senior management)s role as it would with o!erational ris. It is noteworthy that the em!hasis is on an individual with the a!!ro!riate seniority and authority and that a team rather than one individual . 1ll levels of the organi(ation should be involved in the im!lementation of BC .management for instance. Assigning Responsibilities (Governance) 9hen assigning res!onsibilities for the BC !rogramme the literature clearly states that those res!onsible need to have the re?uired levels of authority and seniority in order to ma-e the !rogramme successful& res!onsibility should not be given to a member of the IT team as the danger will be that BC will be loo-ed on as an IT initiative by the rest of the organi(ation. !rogramme after gaining management a!!roval and bac-ing The ne't im!ortant ste! in the BC is to ma-e sure that the !rogramme res!onsibilities are correctly assigned to the relevant grou!s and individuals.nowledge of senior management !riorities and issues will enable the BC bac-ing for the BC !ractitioner to get the re?uired !rogramme in order for it to be established on a firm footing.BC res!onsibility needs to ensure BC is !ositioned correctly which means !ositioning and selling senior management on a cor!orate contingency !lanning !olicy and strategy& and documenting this !olicy and strategy in writing before any other activities are underta-en in the !rogramme !rocess. . It is im!erative that an organi(ation should a!!oint someone with the a!!ro!riate seniority& authority and s-ills to be accountable for its im!lementation and should a!!oint a team or grou! to im!lement and maintain the BC !rogramme.
1ronson (%:::) also recognises that one of the most crucial ste!s when assigning res!onsibilities for a BC !rogramme is that the correct !erson with the re?uired levels of authority is chosen to head u! the !rogramme.is res!onsible for im!lementing and maintaining the !lan. Implementing Business Continuity in the rgani!ation has been identified the im!lementation of the . +lliott& . To enable the BC !rogrammes success it is crucial that res!onsibilities are not s!lit across to many grou!s or de!artments but are focused in the a!!ro!riate areas.wart( and "erbane (#$%$) warn that the BC !ro4ect an IT management role should not be given to an IT s!ecialist either as this then ma-es BC issue and not a business wide issue and advise that the board a!!oint a business continuity steering grou! to su!!ort the BC !ro4ect manager in order to drive the !rocess at local or de!artmental level.that something will fall through the crac-s according to 1d-ins& Thornton and Bla-e (#$$:). The steering grou! should include senior and influential staff from different business units or de!artments and acts as a conduit between o!erative level em!loyees and any central BC team. @rgani(ations still tend to s!lit BC res!onsibilities between o!erations& security& IT& management& and other de!artments& thereby increasing the ris. @nce the correct res!onsibility for BC !rogramme is the ne't logical ste!. The involvement of em!loyees in the BC should be achieved through selected re!resentatives from across the organi(ation by function or location to hel! im!lement the BC !rogramme and advocates that BC roles& accountabilities& res!onsibilities and authorities should be integrated into 4ob descri!tions and s-ill sets. To reinforce these res!onsibilities they must be included in the a!!raisal and reward system of the organi(ation.
Regardless of the BC (%::#) notes that the resulting BC !lan formation !rocess used& 8inn !lan needs to be modular in design so that it can be easily u!dated and bro-en down into readable sections as not all disasters will be ma4or ones. +lliott& . 1!!ro!riate BC management must ensure that the BC !lan is -e!t as a living document. n"going Management of Business Continuity 1s evidenced from the literature on a regular basis senior management should communicate the im!ortance of the BC !rogramme to the whole organi(ation and a!!ro!riate sta-eholders in training should ta-e !lace for all staff and senior should ensure that order to -ee! it in focus. @nce the BC !lan is in !lace the issue of its ongoing management needs to be addressed.The activities which need to be underta-en when im!lementing the BC !rogramme or indeed any !rogramme in an organi(ation include the design& building& and im!lementation of the !rogramme.wart( and "erbane (#$%$) refer to the continuity management !rocess as having four distinct !hases namely& initiation& !lanning for business continuity& im!lementation and o!erational management.according to "owe (#$$A). "owe (#$$A) maintains that a BC !ro4ect can be bro-en down into three !hases& information !ro4ect and on an on* gathering& !lan develo!ment and the transformation !hase where the BCP !ro4ect becomes an ongoing cor!orate*wide !rocess. Designing and building BC !lans& and -ee!ing them u!dated in a large organi(ation can be a daunting tas. Barnes (#$$%) identifies the main !hases as being& !ro4ect foundation& business assessment& strategy selection& !lan develo!ment& testing and maintenance. BC . "e advocates that !ro!er !ro4ect re!orting relationshi!s are used throughout the initial BC going basis to ensure the !rocess is integrated into cor!orate !rocesses.should be used to ensure the !rogramme is effective. The literature states that a !ro!er !ro4ect management framewor.
.ello (#$$:) states that most definitions of culture em!hasi(e that culture re!resents a high*level& sum*total of attitudes& beliefs& norms& and behaviours.2 . 1t each stage of the BC organi(ation)s BC !rocess& o!!ortunities e'ist to introduce and enhance an culture to ensure this ha!!ens. In these terms& culture s!ecifies 0how things woraround here.systems and !lans are u!dated whenever there is a significant change in the organi(ation)s environment& !ersonnel& !rocesses or technology. 1ccording to Bra(eau (#$$=)& everyone within an organi(ation must embrace BC effective. 1s noted by +lliott& .ello (#$$:)& that there are often both e'!licit (what the organi(ation says it is about) and im!licit (inferences& often unwritten that the . #n$erstan$ing rgani!ational Culture 9hen embedding BC into the organi(ations culture it is hel!ful to have an understanding from general management literature of what is meant by organi(ational culture. BC !lans also need to be u!dated when an e'ercise or incident highlights deficiencies. In order to ensure that BC is -e!t u! to date it is crucial that it is embedded into the for it to be is a !art of sound organi(ations culture beginning at the to! of the organi(ation and wor-ing its way down through it using continual communication so that it will become !art of the way that an organi(ation is managed.ello (#$$:) identifies that there has always been a bit of a 0chic-en*and egg2 !roblem with culture and its measurement which comes first& the behaviours and attitudes& or the culture> It is im!ortant to ac-nowledge as outlined by .wart( and "erbane (#$%$)& effective BC management !ractice and not a bolt on !rocess.
itroff& Pauchant& Binny and Pearson (%:=:) as cited by +lliott& . .em!loyees draw from their e'!erience in the organi(ation) cultures evident and in o!eration in organi(ations. "aving all of the above BC !rogramme elements in . Culture an$ BCM 9hen viewing culture from a BC !ers!ective& Rossing (#$$A) states that culture is !resent in !rocess the culture all stages of the !rocess.BC elements will most li-ely be missing. 1 strong BC li-ely reflect that the BC culture will more than !rogramme has strong senior management su!!ort and therefore culture these visible investments in maintaining high levels of resilience.heffi (#$$A) states that when creating a culture of resiliency within an organi(ation where em!loyees are able to res!ond ?uic-ly to incidents using familiar tools& which creates a model that lends itself to the re?uired fle'ibility& the right cor!orate culture& 0a shared !assion to be successful2 is a crucial ingredient in creating resilient enter!rises. 1lesi (#$$=) stresses that when creating a culture of resiliency7 accountability needs to be co*located with authority and BC com!onents should be integrated into day*to*day o!erations. +mbedding BC into the organi(ational culture therefore re?uires an awareness of the wider e'isting organi(ational culture and must be underta-en carefully in order for it to become internali(ed by em!loyees for the future. The organi(ation must be !re!ared to im!rovise.wart( and "erbane (#$%$) suggest that an organi(ations culture is the set of Cunwritten rules) that govern Cacce!table behaviour) within and outside the organi(ation. 9hen auditing6reviewing an organi(ation)s BC that develo!s over time should be ta-en into account. 9ith a wea. It is im!ortant to ma-e every em!loyee !art of a !lan& and ma-e the !lan accessible to them.
wart( and "erbane (#$$#) ma-e reference to the fact that more attention has often been directed to the !lanning dimension of the BC !rocess than that of im!lementation& both in !ractice and in various !ublications. . 1s organi(ations face constant change as a result of today)s business environment& the BC management strategy needs to be fle'ible enough to be able to -ee! !ace with this challenge. The BC !rogramme therefore needs to be !art of the organi(ational C !rogramme in order for it to be -e!t current.4aergaard (#$$:) outlines that when it comes to organi(ational change and maintaining BCP)s& organi(ations face a dilemma when they engage in strategy ma-ing& because they must reconcile the constant tension between continuity and change. . +lliott& . Re?uirements and recovery times are not constant and must be maintained via a BC & C !rocess. The literature notes that it is im!ortant that in any BC !rocess !lans are -e!t u!dated as the organi(ation evolves over time through a change management (C ) !rocess. 1rmit (#$$A) refers to this noting that !lans reflect the business re?uirements at that time. Commenting on the C of the BC !rogramme& +lliott& .!lace should lead to the organi(ations BC !rogramme being com!rehensive and functional from its ince!tion and throughout the lifetime of the organi(ation.wart( and "erbane (#$%$) state that generic change management strategies should be used to ensure effective BC im!lementation. BCM an$ Change Management It is vital that BC !lans are constantly maintained& 8allagher (#$$D) warns that if BC !lans are not -e!t u! to date following organi(ational changes they will become irrelevant.
dis!lays a hierarchy of the functions (from to! to bottom) and the tem!oral nature of each (from left to right).facilitated the identification and logical grou!ing of candidate com!etencies for clarity of !resentation and survey structure.set forth by Eohn R. .everal candidate framewor-s were identified and are described in the review of literature. This framewor. It is !resented as a model for a com!rehensive and integrated BC !rogram (Bigure %).for an enter!rise wide BC !rogram.("arrald %::=) which served as the unifying model for the structure of Bederal +mergency anagement 1gency "igher +ducation Pro4ect anagement (. .haw %:::). "arrald& were synthesi(ed into a single framewor. Bor the !ur!ose 5niversity level course Business and Industry Crisis of this research study& several framewor-s& !rimarily the framewor.under which s!ecific functional com!etencies were identified and analy(ed. The develo!ment of such a framewor.Con e!t"a# Framework A F"n tiona# Framework $or an Enter!ri%e Wi&e BCM Program 1 logical starting !oint for identifying !rogram and function s!ecific com!etencies is a functional framewor. The most useful to this research study was the 0Crisis anagement and Business Continuity2 framewor.
for a functionally integrated business crisis and continuity management has been identified in the literature review. . "arrald)s %::= !a!er& A Strategic Framework for Corporate Crisis Management.uch a framewor. .Framework% o$ BCM Prior to the !ublication of Eohn R. no overall gra!hic framewor.could be e?ually valuable for BCC and is viewed as a logical starting !oint for visuali(ing the su!!orting functions and identifying and grou!ing !rogram integration of enter!rise wide BCC and function s!ecific com!etencies.
& Bla-e& .. . . 1 content analysis investigating relationshi!s between communication and business continuity !lanning. (#$$:).& F Thornton& T. The Journal of Business Communication& (D).Fig"re 2 Com!rehen%i'e Emergen y Management Framework Re$eren e% 1d-ins& 8. E..
+lliott& D.& F . Journal Of Business Continuity & mergency !lanning& "(D)& #%<*##$. #ssue 1. BCP Plan Testing #$% "iles& 1. (%:::). +lliott& D.ettlements.econd +dition& +ngland/ Eohn 9iley F . and "erbane& B.". P+ .tates of 1merica/ 9. +lliott& D.wart(& +. .wart(& +.for International . +lliott& D. Business continuity management% a crisis management approach.ondon/ Routledge. .#$$=-+ "olistic Protection+ Canadian 5nderwriter.wit(erland/ Ban.& . Business continuity management% a crisis management approach (#nd ed. (#$$%). Breeman and Com!any. .& F . Co'e of practice. Bra(eau. Gew Hor-& GH/ Routledge. (#$$=). Barnes& E. #$$A. . (#$%$). . C.ol+ /0.td& !!.u!ervision (#$$3). (#$$3). (#$$3). Basel& .wart(& +. Business Continuity Management 6 A crisis management approach& . 1ronson& +.ondon/ Routledge. A gui'e to (usiness continuity planning.ondon/ Routledge. The Social Animal& 9orth !ublishers& 5nited . (#$$#).wart(& +. pp+ "2)+ "3+ Business continuity management+ !art 4. Basel Committee on Ban-ing . (ed) The &an'(ook Of Business Continuity Management& . Journal Of #nternational Affairs& 05(#)& %#:*%<:.). Chichester/ Eohn 9iley. &igh)le*el principles for (usiness continuity. 1rmit& T. Building enter!rise*wide resilience by integrating business continuity ca!ability into day*to*day business culture and technology.ondon/ British . (#$$#). de 9aal& 1.1lesi& P. Towards 1 Com!arative Political +thnogra!hy @f Disaster Prevention.& F "erbane& B. Business continuity management% a crisis management approach. .tandards Institution.& #$$#.D#D*DD=.ons .
@'ford& +ngland/ +lsevier 1dvanced Technology. ". (%::=). (%::#). .indstedt& D.% !!I$*3:. "iles.& F Pauchant& T.8allagher& . I. #nd ed.. ):=) Proceedings. 9est . :A=*%$$# "iles& 1.#$$:). "obo-en& G. <%& !art %%& !!. 8inn& R. "erbane& B.+ ./ 9iley. (%:=:).E. J!ro8ect #nitiation an' Management+9 #n The :efiniti*e &an'(ook of Business Continuity Management& edited by 1. The 'efiniti*e han'(ook of (usiness continuity management (#nd ed. E+ . 8rounding the disci!line of business continuity !lanning/ 9hat needs to be done to ta-e it forward> Journal of (usiness continuity & emergency planning& "(#)& %:A*#$I. (#$$=). .ondon/ Prentice "all6Binancial Times.).)"2+ <8aergaar'& 1.1.D: Go. ("77.afety F "ygiene Gews. Do (some) organi(ations cause anagement Conference %::= (TI+ . an' reco*ering from 'isaster. (#$$D). "ow to assess your culture+ Industrial . #<*#I. Business "istory& I# (3) !!. itroff& I.ello. A Strategic Framework for Corporate Crisis Management+ The International +mergency 9ashington& DC. Business continuity management% how to protect your company from 'anger. (#$%$) The evolution of business continuity management/ 1 historical review of !ractices and drivers.. ("775) JOrgani=ational i'entity an' strategyJ& #nternational Stu'ies of Management an' Organi=ation& Kol.usse' . "77/.). "arrald& Eohn R. &owe& J.& Pearson& C. Communications $ews& Kol. <och& >. Best !ractices in Business Continuity. sur*i*ing. D.& Binney& . crisis*!re!ared organi(ations. Continuity planning% pre*enting. (#$$A). .2-. their own crises> The cultural !rofiles of crisis*!rone vs.
Rossing& T./ 9iley.E. Journal Of Business Continuity & mergency !lanning& 1(D)& #$%*#$=..!ringer./ IT Press. Gew Hor-& G. "obo-en& G.ite and Program Roll @ut. . . (#$$<). G. 9ashington& DC.). yers& .. (#$$:). The resilient enterprise% o*ercoming *ulnera(ility for competiti*e a'*antage (#nd ed.H. . Springer han'(ook of acoustics.haw& 8regory.eow& . Personal notes from the Ready. 8aining senior e'ecutive commitment to business continuity/ otivators and reinforcers.heffi& H. D.. Business continuity strategies% protecting against unplanne' 'isasters (Drd ed. (#$$A).Organi=ation & n*ironment. .). Gational Chamber of Commerce. (#$$A). . (#$$3)./ . Cambridge& ass.gov& Ready Business Internet .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.