IIW 2012 Houdremont Lecture


Carl D. Lundin Professor of Metallurgy Director of Materials Joining Research The University of Tennessee lundin@utk.edu Abstract
This lecture sets forth some of procedures and characterizations for the material and welding considerations that must precede any run, repair/refurbish or replace decisions. The scenarios presented represent actual and successful undertakings to assess the materials and welding aspects of life extension. The situations discussed embody pressure vessel, structural and high temperature piping examples. Each of these three determinations resulted in successful repairs because the materials and welding knowledge bases were judiciously applied and the economics of downtime and/or replacement concerns were extremely favorable. The examples presented justify that in the initial stages of life extension considerations the material and welding considerations must be paramount.


Herr Doctor Professor Edouard Houdremont was a man who was on the forefront of the metallurgical sciences in the early part of the 20th century. His dedicated work in the metallurgical development of steels positioned him as a driving force for new and resource-saving alloys. In his later works he distinguished himself as an individual in welding metallurgy and was very active in the IIW. Unfortunately, in 1958 he died at age 62 and left a place in the IIW which could not readily be filled. He is remembered for his scientific as well as cultural legacies. It is with great humility and tribute that I present this 2012 Houdremont lecture in commemoration of this outstanding and time-honored welding metallurgist, Professor Houdremont.

Continued usage, repair or replacement of pressure vessels and structures as related to life extension must begin with detailed and specific knowledge of the metallurgical / material condition of the pressure vessel or structure. This type of complete engineering assessment of existing structures must be conducted before any run, repair or replacement decisions can be made. Thus, obtaining information for a material condition assessment is the first step leading to decisions as to which components can be continued in service, which should be repaired or upgraded and which must be


replaced. Only with detailed material degradation information at hand can the economic considerations related to enhanced lifetime or any potential operational limitations of equipment be addressed. In addition, to best assess and define the avenues required for optimum use of the existing structural components and which materials should and can be repaired or must be replaced, a full failure analysis or the determination of the material degradation mode must be carried out. These important activities have been seriously addressed in the past 25 years as safety, economic and environmental conditions have become the paramount driving forces. Furthermore, significant progress in the understanding of the various degradation processes coupled with failure risk assessments involving the probability of failure together with the consequences of failure have been evolving. Many of these considerations will be addressed during the Plenary Sessions at the opening of this 2012 IIW International Conference. This lecture / paper will present several examples of successful life extensions involving structural, pressure vessel and piping applications for which a dedicated metallurgical condition assessment / failure analysis was conducted prior to the successful refurbishment and life extension, within the economic constraints, were successfully conducted. Personal involvement in the following situations forms the basis of the lecture for the three situations described herein.


Situation 1. Restoration of a Fire Damaged 2-1/4Cr-1Mo Hot Separator Vessel
This example describes the diagnostic evaluation and repair of a Q & T stainless steel weld overlaid 2-1/4Cr-1Mo pressure vessel that was damaged in an external fire. The important considerations were a careful review of vessel history and the conduct of a through diagnostic evaluation, which included a significant metallurgical characterization of the various components of the vessel and a repair plan to place the repaired vessel in compliance with ASME Section VIII Div. 2. These determinations were needed to define the repair methods necessary to restore the vessel to a condition required for continued operation. As a result of the external fire the Q & T Hot Separator Vessel suffered substantial metallurgical damage. Portions of the vessel reached high temperatures (at or above the AC3 temperature) and were cooled at either slow rates in air or rapidly cooled by the water used to put out the fire, thus changing the vessel’s mechanical properties. The vessel is shown schematically in Figure 1 as having a diameter of 7ft (2.1m) and a length of 24ft (7.3m) with 3” (75mm) thick heads and a shell thickness of 5” (125mm). The vessel is internally overlaid with 309 stainless steel. The maximum design pressure is 2425 psi (16720 kPa) at a temperature of 810°F (432°C). After the fire, the vessel was


transported to a heavy vessel fabrication facility to effect the repairs. The original vessel manufacturing characteristics, heat treatment and welding procedures were determined to form the initial basis for repair. A preliminary on-site investigation revealed the major areas of concern as to the damage and dimensional distortions. Both soft zones and hard zones were found on the outer surfaces of the shell, nozzles and heads. The major concerns involved the soft (< 155 HB {75 ksi}) and hard zones (>160 HB {> 80 ksi}) necessary for PWHT response and the maintaining of a suitable weld overlay condition. To this end, a complete survey of the vessel surface hardness was conducted and as a result of these hardness tests 20 boat samples were extracted. These boat samples provided information on the depth of hardness deviations and samples for evaluation of the microstructures responsible for these hardness differences as well as samples to verify any restoring heat treatments and the response to PWHT. The results from the diagnostic evaluations showed that the fire affected the shell rings and the N2 nozzle (see Figure 1) of the vessel. The test results also showed that the required material properties could not be restored by PWHT alone. The tests on the boat samples also indicated that the shell sections would require re-austenitization, water quenching and tempering. It was also determined that after the re-heat treatment the material could sustain 11 hours of


In addition. Subsequent to welding. A disassembly plan (see Figure 2) for the vessel was devised and the shell rings and nozzle N2 were cut apart for the Q & T treatment followed by re-welding and PWHT. the weld overlay was found to retain suitable properties and it would not disbond subsequent to the Q & T treatment and PWHTs. together with a justification of properties in the as-is condition for some structures and components and that the repaired vessel would be in complete Code compliance and exhibit a justifiable fitness for service. A dual layer 309 weld overlay repair method was chosen so as to limit the ferrite content to < 10%. an ISR was conducted and a full code required NDE was conducted. Both SMAW and SAW processes were selected to match the original toughness requirements both with and without step cooling. The vessel was shortened by 7” (178mm) to provide material for determination of the properties subsequent to heat treatment. The skirt stub was unaffected. The fire did not affect the top and bottom heads and there was sufficient latitude for PWHT to place the heads in Class 1 condition (design calculations showed that Class 1 properties were suitable for continued operation). Table 1 summarizes the required actions 6 . The N2 nozzle would require the same heat treatments to restore it to the original condition.PWHT and that provided sufficient time for 2 final PWHTs. The diagnostic work led directly to a detailed repair plan.

Furthermore. This repair demonstrates a logical sequence for engineering evaluation. The sequence of events. was supplied to the owner together with a revised Manufacturers Design Report. 29-54 of March 2010. To this end. It is recommended that repair plans with the detail described herein be used as a model for vessel repair and restoration.for the repair plan and Figure 3 shows the vessel after repairs were completed. the reader is directed to a full discussion of all of the procedures and techniques employed in this successful repair in Welding Research Council Bulletin #525. 7 . Ancillary to the conduct of the repair. the use of boat samples and test material for evaluation of the fire damaged vessel and the subsequent verification of PWHT’d microstructure and properties clearly demonstrated that the vessel could be restored to exhibit the required mechanical properties. pp. it was demonstrated that GMAW welds (with the proper carbon content) could be Q & T and PWHT’d and still meet the code requirements. diagnostic testing and repair of vessels constructed of quenched and tempered Cr-Mo material. with NBIC approval. A complete documentation of the repair. it was shown that the overlay could be retained without disbonding or degradation. The entire repair and certification took slightly less than 3 months to complete.

Repair Plan Required Actions for SA387 Gr. Cl. 22. 8 .Table 1. 2 Pressure Vessel.

Figure 1. 22. 2 Pressure Vessel. 9 . Sketch of SA387 Gr. Cl.

Sk ketch of SA3 387 Gr.Figure 2. 22. 2 Pressu ure Vessel Disassembl led for Q&T Heat Treatm ment. 10 . Cl.

Figure 3. 11 . Photograph of the Repaired Vessel during Hydrotest.

The liquid steel reaches temperatures of 2700°F (1480°C). The oxygen and furnace charge creates an exothermic reaction wherein the temperature is raised and carbon content is lowered.515 MPa and tensile 100105ksi. The process introduces oxygen to a scrap and Blast Furnace charge of liquid iron in addition to slagging ingredients. BOF vessels have been traditionally manufactured from steel similar to A516/515-70 consisting of a cylindrical vessel with a semi-conical top and a hemispherical bottom.Situation 2. The vessel is refractory lined with a basic firebrick. a high strength copper precipitation strengthened steel (min. When the clean steel is ready. A Class 3. Repair and Life Extension of a Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Vessel This example describes the rejuvenation of a cracked 200 ton BOF vessel such that its repaired condition exceeded the new condition and in doing so extended the useful life of the vessel..690-725MPa) so as to produce a vessel that would be 12 . yield 75ksi. The owner elected to fabricate the steel BOF vessel from ASTM A736 Gr. into ladles for further processing and the remaining slag is poured from the opposite side of the BOF to discharge the spent slag. phosphorus and other impurities thereby creating steel from the scrap and Blast Furnace iron.. The slagging ingredients remove sulfur. it is poured from the BOF through a tap-hole nozzle beneath the slag.

Two BOF vessels so designed were field assembled in 1988. The shell and cone are 3” (75mm) thick.1m]) long) around the circumference centered above the tap nozzle. The crack initiated in the coarse-grained region of the HAZ of the knuckle (cylinder-to-cone) weld and propagated along the fusion line (in the coarse-grained region). as shown in the upper inset macrograph in Figure 1. weld base metal HAZ partial thickness cracking was apparent completely around the tap nozzle. One vessel was placed into service in December 1988 and this vessel failed by a through thickness crack at the lower edge of the cone-to-cylinder weld in April 1989 after 1. The crack surface morphology is shown in Figure 2 and it is characterized by an intergranular (“rock candy”) appearance.899 heats of steel had been produced. Additionally. The sample from which this macrograph was obtained is near the end of the through-wall crack. The through thickness crack was about 180° (approximately 20 feet [6. Partial through-wall cracking was found in the same seam 180° away from the tap nozzle site. in the HAZ of the cylindrical section circumferential weld and in the brick support bar attachment welds with the same crack path (coarse-grained base metal HAZ) as shown in the lower inset in Figure 1. until it moved into the weld deposit because of the groove geometry and change in the stress state as it propagated.superior to the traditional A516/515-70 type material. No cracking was found in the 13 . A schematic section of the cylindrical vessel is shown in Figure 1.

wherein the coarse-grained region was overlapped and obliterated by a subsequent weld pass fine-grained HAZ region were not sensitive to reheat cracking. in this time frame. The studies also showed that the fine-grained HAZ was not sensitive to reheat cracking and that thermal histories in the HAZ. Note the coarse-grained base metal HAZ tests show essentially “zero” ductility. The testing also found that a slight decrease in the coarse-grained region sensitivity was imparted by a 1300°F (706°C) PWHT (see Figure 3b). C-Ring Reheat Cracking Test. Y-Groove Test. Spiral Notch Test and PREVEW Test. ASTM A710 Grade A CL 3 (structural specification for the Cu precipitation strengthened steel). Fortuitously. The two Gleeble assessments shown in Figures 3a & 3b reveal the relative sensitivities of the various regions in the weld HAZ.vertical weld seam HAZ’s or the bottom hemispherical head to cylinder weld. The fracture morphology of the coarse-grained base metal HAZ tested samples is shown in Figure 4 which is identical to the crack surfaces of the actual vessel cracks (see Figure 2). All of these tests revealed that the grain-coarsened region of the HAZ was extremely sensitive to reheat cracking during PWHT. the University of Tennessee Welding Research Group was conducting reheat cracking evaluations of a sister material. These studies utilized several reheat cracking tests: Gleeble Stress Rupture Test. it is rather unequivocal that the vessel-cracking 14 . Thus.

thus. The closure weld was made and a PWHT of 1325°F (720°C) was applied to the entire vessel. The electrode size and heat input were restricted. The repair of the vessels was undertaken by using a “belt and suspenders” approach wherein several mitigating welding and PWHT approaches were employed. The preheat was raised to 350°F (177°C). Furthermore. the reheat cracking phenomenon is known to be related to temperature in a “C” curve manner. The special half-bead buttering / overlay of the weld toe regions was adopted so as to eliminate the coarse-grained region at the surface in the HAZ and provide for weld toe 15 . As shown in Figure 5. if the time is longer than for the PWHT exposure. however no records were available for cylinder and cone temperatures during vessel operation. This type of weld face overlay was also applied to the surface of the vessel where the support brackets were to be attached (Figure 6).phenomenon was indeed reheat cracking. which causes cracking in short times at 1050°F. were rewelded by using a half-bead layering technique on the groove faces followed by a PWHT of the layered groove faces at 1300°F (706°C). all butt welds. the “C” curve is bound to be intersected (cracking) at supposed lower vessel operating temperatures as time at the vessel operating temperatures is accumulated. One might argue that the supposed shell and cone temperatures were not in the range of PWHT temperatures. especially the through-wall cracked knuckle weld.

The additional PWHT of the cylinder-to-cylinder circumferential weld was not conducted as it was felt that the overlaying (grain refinement method) was sufficient.regions that could be blend ground to eliminate all surface related discontinuities or stress raisers. the entire joint was given a 1300°F PWHT to desensitize any remaining coarse-grained regions under the overlay. weld heat input and preheat were specifically aimed at eliminating the base metal coarse-grained HAZ region “altogether” {to the maximum extent possible} and thus to eliminate the most important microstructural condition—coarse grains that are primarily the microstructural feature responsible for reheat cracking and to replace them with a fine-grained microstructure which is virtually immune to reheat cracking. stringer beading. after the buttering of the weld faces and plate surface layering. The repair and upgrading of the welded joints in two BOF vessels constructed from A736 Grade A Class 3 Cu precipitation strengthened HSLA steel was successfully accomplished by employing all of the mitigating techniques necessary to preclude in-service cracking in the coarsegrained weld base metal HAZ.) As a further step. for the cylinder-to-cone knuckle weld. 16 . NDE subsequent to completion of the weld seams revealed no weld discontinuities. (At this point it is worthwhile to note that the objective for the controlled deposition layering of the groove faces was not simply for a “tempering effect” but the electrode sizes.

Lundin.” Proceedings of the International Welding Conference (IWC-87). 1.S. Lundin and R. 3. Cosponsored by Microalloying International and 17 . New Delhi India. pp. Lundin. pp. "PWHT/Reheat/Stress Rupture Cracking and Heat Affected Zone Toughness in Cu-Precipitation Hardenable SteelASTM A710. To the authors knowledge these vessels are still in-service some 22 years after the initial repair and upgrade. December 1989. Gill. “Postweld Heat Treatment Cracking in HSLA Steels. Chen. Menon and Z.P.” Carl D. 2. The author wishes to direct the reader to the following publications which address the technical aspects of the behavior of the Cu precipitation strengthened high strength low alloy steels in regard to reheat cracking. Indian Institute of Welding." Carl D. 10971111. Jan 12-14. and Qualification of Microalloyed (HSLA) Steel Weldments. 22-30. Carl D. Welding. Khan and T. 1987. R. Welding Research Council Bulletin 349. 1987. K. “Postweld Heat Treatment Cracking in High Strength Low Alloy Steels.Repair of the cracked vessel and a rework of the unused vessel were completed in the spring and summer of 1989 and the active vessel was placed back into service. Proceedings of International Conference on The Metallurgy. Menon.

February. 250-275. 18 . 1996. 16-26. Welding Research Council Bulletin 412. “Challenges and Solutions in Repair Welding for Power and Process Plants” June 1996. Texas. Houston.American Welding Society. pp. “Overview of Results from PVRC Program on HalfBead/Temper-Bead/Controlled Deposition Techniques for Improvement of Fabrication and Service Performance”. San Diego. November 6-8. pp. 4. PVRC/EWI Weld Repair Technology Workshop. Lundin. 1990. Carl D.

. In nsets det tail Crack king Locati ions in th he Cone-t to-Cylind der Weld a and Cylin nder-toCylind der Weld. 19 . Schem matic Dia agram of the t BOF vessel.Figure 1.

20 .Figure 2. Fracture Surface Morphology of Cracked Cone-to-Cylinder Weld (Coarse-grained Base Metal HAZ).

Reheat Cracking Susceptibility of the Simulated CGHAZ of A 710 steel as affected by HAZ Thermal Exposure and Subsequent PWHT. A Cl. Gleeble Stress Rupture Behavior of A 710 Gr.Figure 3a. Figure 3b. 3 as a function of HAZ regions and PWHT Temperatures. 21 .

22 .Figure 4. Fracture Surface Morphology of Gleeble Treated Coarsegrained Base Metal HAZ.

Figure 5. Controlled Dep position Overlay O for Butt Weld Groo ove Face e and Plate Surfa ace. 23 .

24 .Figure 6. Pad-ty ype Controlled De eposition Overlay for Attac chments.

This would not only solve the time constraints of obtaining the replacement piping but the rejuvenated (re-welded) piping system would be a more economical alternative.Situation 3. A utility was experiencing weld related steam leaks in its main steam piping. The reason for the leaks was evaluated by a variety of NDE techniques and a metallurgical failure analysis was conducted to define the condition of the other field and shop welds remaining in the main steam-piping network. In the considerations for replacement of the entire main steam piping system it was determined that the delivery time for new piping was excessive and thus an additional investigation was needed to determine the remaining life (long term creep performance) of the piping base metal. If the piping base metal remaining life was considered to be adequate (essentially undamaged by time-temperature-stress exposure) only the welds would need to be replaced. Thus. a corporate welding engineer was assigned the task of planning for piping replacement. the remaining uncracked welds would be considered to be in continued jeopardy. 25 . Evaluation of a Methodology for In situ Replacement of Welds in a Utility Main Steam Piping System. After the cracked welds were repaired. The metallurgical investigation revealed that only the main steam shop welds (submerged-arc welds) were in a cracked or seriously creep-damaged condition.

It is to be noted that the oxygen content of the weld deposit is in the order of 1000 ppm. The Cryo-Cracking fractography presented in Figure 5 is in the region of the tip of the crack shown in Figures 3 and 4 26 . This high oxygen level indicates a corresponding high inclusion content in the weld deposit (weld pool formed spherical Mn-Silicates). 1. The general macroscopic appearance of the cracks is shown in Figures 1 & 2. The cracks formed in the weld deposit along the weld fusionline. This type of cracking has been previously found in many High Energy Piping SAW welds wherein the flux utilized for weld deposition was of an acid type and the welding procedures created a condition where numerous inclusions were caused to be situated along the weld fusion-line.000 hours at 1005°F (542°C) at the time the steam leaks were discovered and the welds were metallurgically characterized. The cracks initiated below the weld surface and propagated toward both the ID and OD surfaces by the development of creep cavities at weld deposit inclusions and subsequent cavity link-up and cracking along the weld deposit grain boundaries (see Figure 3 and Figures 4 a. c).2.3 The chemical analyses of the ex-service weld deposit and base metal are presented in Table 1.The generating station main steam piping (1-1/4Cr– 1/2Mo) had been in operation at 2650 psig (18271kPa) for 218. b. The welds that leaked were shop welds made with the SAW process (no SMAW field welds were damaged).

This base metal pup-section was utilized in the characterization of the creep life of the base metal as well as for the development of the optimum welding procedure for replacement welds. together with PWHT heat treatments of the ex-service base metal.and clearly reveals the presence of the grain boundary cavities that ultimately led to micro-cracking and then to macro-cracks which eventually led to steam leakage. Ex-service base metal creep specimen blanks were extracted from the pup-section in both the longitudinal and tangential directions in the pipe. are shown in Figure 6. The cross weld samples were of the “Jumbo” type” (gage sections of 1” × 2-3/8”…25mm x 60mm) so as to account for any local microstructural effects present in the weld/HAZ/pipe material. a pup-section was removed from the main steam piping. Figure 6 shows the behavior of the main steam piping base metal in contrast to the 27 . The maximum test times were on the order of 1600 hours and the specimens were run to establish the steady state creep rates. In order to determine if the simple replacement of the SAW shop welds would suffice to place the system into a “like new” condition. The specimens were not continued to failure but were terminated after the steady state creep rate was defined.7ksi) used for the creep assessment were chosen to be as near as possible to the operating conditions of the piping. The ex-service base metal creep test results. The temperature and stress (1100°F and 7.

which were PWHT’d and 28 . Weld Deposit.1 (Power Piping code) and also meeting the SFA filler metal requirements contained therein. This indicates that the ex-service base metal is virtually equivalent to “new” annealed base metal. The PWHT was chosen to be sub-critical and at temperatures and times in accordance with ASME B31. the program was continued to develop a welding procedure that would provide equivalent creep behavior for the Base Metal. Considering this result. undertook to evaluate several 1-1/4Cr–1/2Mo weld deposits after various PWHTs. It is clear that the ex-service base metal straddles the mean curve and the base metal given additional PWHT’s is between the minimum and mean of DS 50.1-1/4Cr–1/2Mo annealed base metal mean and minimum curves from ASTM DS 50. The University of Tennessee (UTK). and HAZ of properly PWHT’d replacement welds in the main steam line.1. 4 The ordinate in is stress on a log scale and the abscissa is the Larson Miller Parameter (LMP) incorporating the steady state creep rate. Several filler metals and PWHT procedures were studied with bead-on-plate weld pads. The GTAW process was chosen since it would produce the cleanest weld deposit (low oxygen content) and it could be automated for optimum control during weld deposition. in conjunction with the utility. The filler metal composition for evaluation was chosen to be of the B2 composition and in accordance with ASME B31.

The temperatures for PWHT evaluations were chosen to range from 1250° to 1350°F at a time of 8 hours. The hardness distribution obtained with this welding procedure is shown in Figure 9 for the as-welded 29 . In addition. in turn. This aspect of PWHT has its basis in the consideration that there may be minor creep differentials in the weldment (across the weld fusion-line) which could result in triaxial stress “hot spots” which. Photographs of the in-progress weldment are shown in Figure 7. The PWHT chosen for the optimum GTAW weld was 1275°F for 8 hours as this sufficiently reduces the hardness differentials and does not introduce “elephant grains” and soft spots in the weld deposit. The welding procedure involved 29 layers with 205 passes at energy inputs between 23–42 kJ/in (average 33 kJ/in) necessary to fill the single “V” groove.evaluated by microstructural examination and hardness surveys. The primary consideration in regard to PWHT was to obtain hardness in the weld deposit and HAZ that was similar to the hardness in the ex-service base metal. A macrograph of the weld is shown in Figure 8. could reduce creep performance. A major field weld organization was selected to develop the automatic CW-GTAW procedure and to produce a full size weldment using the main steam ex-service base metal.065 to 0. The finished weld was PWHT’d at 1275°F for 8 hours. a weld deposit with the order of 0.085% carbon was selected so that the weld deposit creep performance would be similar to the base material.

the tests were not continued to failure but were terminated after a definitive steady state creep rate was obtained. Note that the 1275°F-8 hour PWHT provides Weld Deposit/HAZ/Base Metal hardnesses which are similar. 30 . The creep rates and corresponding LarsonMiller Parameters are presented in Figure 13 as was the case for the base metal (see Fig 6) and this clearly shows that all samples from the New Weld lie above the minimum ASTM DS 50 curve. The maximum test times were on the order of 15.log r)×10-3.7ksi in accordance with the initial evaluation of the ex-service base metal. As with the ex-service base metal tests. The completed weldment was sectioned to provide Jumbo cross-weld and all-weld deposit creep samples as shown in Figures 11 and 12. During testing.condition and in Figure 10 for the PWHT condition. Creep testing was performed at a temperature of 1100°F and a stress of 7.000 hours. this procedure produces a PWHT’d weld with the intended hardness distribution across the weld fusion-line designed to optimize weldment creep performance. the temperature was increased from 1100°F to 1120°F for some of the samples so as to obtain additional steady state creep rates from the same samples. where “r” is the steady state creep rate in percent per hour) for each sample. Thus. The steady state creep rates were used to calculate the Larson-Miller Creep Rate parameter (P = T(20 .

4. 2. The creep rate performance of the ex-service base metal lies near or above the mean curve of ASTM DS 50. which is at the desired level.This behavior indicates that the welding procedure and PWHT chosen for the New Weld produced a weldment with creep performance similar to the ex-service base metal. (b) The weld deposit oxygen content is 10ppm which is at a low level for the deposited weld metal and reflects that the inclusion content is low. Conclusions 1. This is attributed to the weld filler wire chemistry and the inert gas shielding in the CW-GTAW process.084%. The creep rate performance of ex-service base material PWHT’d at 1225°F for 8 hours falls above the ASTM DS 50 minimum curve. The New Weld fabricated using ex-service main steam piping base material met the desired characteristics for optimization of creep performance: (a) The carbon content of the weld deposit was 0. 3. The creep performance of the ex-service base metal of the main steam piping is equivalent to “new” 1-1/4Cr–1/2Mo material as revealed by creep rate determinations using Jumbo creep samples. The ductility of the base metal in the creep rate tested samples is considered equivalent to new 1-1/4Cr–1/2Mo base metal. 31 .

using Jumbo samples removed from the New Weld made to the strict tenets of the newly designed WPS. reveals that the entire weldment is in a condition equivalent to a pre-service weldment made with new base metal. This could 32 . HAZ. 5. using the WPS developed in this investigation. 6. (a) The Larson-Miller creep rate characterization of the all weld metal samples (weld deposit) lies at or above the minimum curve of the data compilation in ASTM DS 50 for annealed 1-1/4Cr–1/2Mo material. and base metal PWHT’d to the 1275°F-8 hour requirement of the WPS were similar and no peaks were noted. The creep rate performance.(c) The hardnesses of the weld deposit. in-place. This PWHT’d hardness distribution not only reflects the 1275°F-8 hour PWHT but also the effects of the small overlapping passes in the weld deposit. The main steam line can be renewed (placed in a “like-new” condition) by simply replacing the circumferential SAW weld deposits and associated HAZ’s and re-welding. (b) The creep rate performance places the cross-weld and base metal test samples at or above the minimum curve from ASTM DS 50 for 1-1/4Cr–1/2Mo annealed material. The hardness distribution from the weld deposit across the fusion line into the HAZ and base metal reveals a shallow slope with the hardness in the weld deposit at 200 HV and that of the base material at 160 HV.

The groove angle and root gap could be reduced for new fabrications (the wide weld root gap and greater groove angle were only selected for the in situ replacement of the exservice welds because the removal of the weld and HAZ in the ex-service weldments would result in greater weld root gaps and larger areas to fill). which would improve costs.result in a more economical upgrading of the main steam piping system. Therefore. Closure While this investigation was concerned with ex-service steam line replacement/reconstitution. most likely. the power piping industry should take note of this welding procedure as being a very well characterized procedure which has. a greater level of creep definition and welding related metallurgical characterization than any other welding procedure yet developed. 33 . the weld procedure developed could be used in completely new installations of Cr-Mo piping with minor modifications.

PA. Prager. 1998. Evaluation of the Elevated Temperature Tensile and CreepRupture Properties of 1/2Cr–1/2Mo. G. G. C. 1998. Paris. July 26-30. G. C. 1Cr–1/2Mo and 11/4Cr–1/2Mo-Si Steels. “The Effect of Submerged-Arc Welding and PWHT on Creep Damage Occurrence in Long-Seam Welded Cr-Mo High Energy Piping. April 15-17. 34 . and M.” Proceedings of The International Conference on Creep and Fatigue Crack Growth at High Temperatures. California.” Proceedings of The International Conference on Advanced Heat Resistant Steels for Power Generation. 3. France. San Sebastian. pp. Zhou. 2. Zhou. 380. ASTM. “Failure Modes of Welded Steam Piping. and M. “Cryo-Cracking: A New Technique for Creep Damage Assessment in High Temperature Components. 4.” Proceedings of The Annual PVP Conference. Lundin and G. ASTM Data Series Publication DS 50. Vol. S1-6. April 27-29. Zhou. San Diego. Lundin. Lundin. Spain. Philadelphia. Prager. C. 1998. V. Smith.References 1.

Summary The above described situations detail the type of evaluations needed to ensure valid material condition-based Run-Repair-Replace decisions. These tenets must be addressed before rational procedures can be devised to extend life of components and complete fabrications. 35 .

29 0. Chemical Composition of Ex-Service Base Metal and Weld Deposit (wt%).100 Base Metal 0.017 0.35 - 36 .11 1.010 0.009 0.65 ASME SFA-5.003 0.Table 1.60 0.75 0.10 0.0-1.20 0.50 0.002 0.76 0.006 0.65 0.82 0.029 0.15 0.15 1.05-0.009 0.010 0.004 0.10 1.002 0.60 0.009 0.010 0.004 0.04 0.18 0.00-1.089 0.80 1.01 0.11 0.03 0.40-0.014 0.007 0.008 0.003 0.008 0.005 ASME SA335 Grade P11 0.23 .44-0.004 0.001 0.43 0.89 0.20 0.50-1.025 0.0 1.003 0.54 0.025 0.007 0.30-0. SAW Filler 0.009 0.010 0.001 0. Elements C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo V Nb Ti Co Cu Al B W Sn Sb As Zr N+ O+ Weld Deposit 0.002 0.

Figure 1. 37 . Macrograph showing a Singular Fusion-Line Crack in An Ex-Service Weld.

Macrograph showing Dual Fusion-Line Cracking in an Ex-Service Weld. 38 .Figure 2.

Macrograph of an Ex-Service Cracked Weld showing the Crack Tip Region examined and shown in Figure 4. 39 .Crack Tip Figure 3.

(a) 100x (b) 400x Figure 4. (a) 100x (b) 400x (c) 1000x. Typical Cracking in the Weld Deposit along the Fusion-Line at the Crack Tip indicated in Figure 3. 40 .

Typical Cracking in the Fusion Zone along the FusionLine at the Crack Tip indicated in Figure 3. (a) 100x (b) 400x (c) 1000x. 41 .Cavitated grain boundaries (c) 1000x Figure 4. cont.

Figure 5. Morphology of the Cryo-Cracked sample surface at the Crack Tip shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4. 42 .

Figure 6. Creep Rate test results from Base Metal (Ex-Service and PWHTs) compared with Mean and Minimum Curves from ASTM DS 50. 43 . Note that all points lie above the Minimum curve.

44 . Fabrication of Full-size New Weldment (a) in-progress (b) nearly completed.(a) (b) Figure 7.

Figure 8. Macrograph showing the Cross-section of the New Weld. 45 .

5 -1.9 -0.As Welded Hardness Traverse 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 Hardness (HV-300) Weld Deposit HAZ Base Metal Weld HAZ Base Metal -1.9 1.5 1.6 -0.8 2.2 -0.3 0. Hardness Distributions for the New Weld in the As-welded Condition. 46 .New Weld .2 1.1 Distance (mm) Figure 9.6 0.3 0 0.

6 -0. 47 . and Base Metal.8 2.5 -1. As desired.9 1.New Weld .2 1.6 0.PWHT Hardness Traverse 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 Hardness (HV-300g) Weld Deposit HAZ Base Metal Weld Haz Base -1. HAZ. Hardness Distributions for the New Weld after PWHT for 8 hr at 1275°F. the PWHT significantly reduced the Hardness Differential between the Weld Deposit.2 -0.5 1.3 0.3 0 0.9 -0.1 Distance (mm) Figure 10.

Macrographs of New Weld creep samples prior to testing. these samples were extracted from the face and root of the weld and had gage sections of 1-3/8” × 1/4”. 48 .Figure 11.

this was a “Jumbo” cross-weld sample with a gage section of 1” × 2-3/8”.Figure 12. 49 . Macrograph of New Weld creep sample prior to testing.

Note that all points lie above the Minimum curve. Creep Rate test results for the New Weld compared with Mean and Minimum curves from ASTM DS 50.Figure 13. 50 .

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