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GLOSSARY

OF

TERIS

USED

IN

%VELL

LOGGIiG

By
R. E. SHERIFF

Reprintedfrom
GEOPHYSICS

VOL. 35, No. 6, December, 1.970

Society of Exploration
P.O. Box 3098

Geophysicists

Tulsa, Oklahoma 74]35

GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 35, NO. 6 (DECEMBER

1970), P. 1116-113% 15 FIGS

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GLOSSARY OF T/F!$

USED IN WELL LOGGING-t'

ROBERT

E.

SHERIFF*

The "Glossary of Terms Used in Geophysical Exploration" publishedin Geophysics in February 1968 met with some justified criticism becauseof the emphasison seismicexplorationfor oil. The Addendum published in April 1969 attempted to restore balanceas far as mineral explorationwas concerned. But onemajor area of geophysics had sti!l been slighted:that of well logging. This present addendum is intended to complete our coverageof geophysical exploration
terms.

A revision of the "Glossaryof Terms Used in Geophysical Exploration" is now underway and it is intendedthat this "Glossaryof Terms Used in
Well Logging" should be included as an integral part of the revision. The present publication is made, therefore,in the samesense as the previous publications:as a semifinaldraft of the entriesaccessiblefor proofreadingby a much wider group of knowledgeablegeophysiciststhan we could otherwise reach. Comments, corrections, or disagreements are invited, so that they may receive
consideration before the revision is finalized.

Well loggingtechnology has seenrapid development in the last few years with the advent of several types of acoustic and radioactive logging methodsand other new loggingtools. Computers are beginningto have an impact on this field by making readily available, from combinationsof logs, information which previously could be extracted only by tedious methods. The author believes that a "geophysicist" should be conversantwith aspectsperipheral to his central concern and central application, and that a geophysical interpretation ought to be consistent with all available data of all kinds, not merely with that portion of the data in which the

Readerswill note that someentriesappearboth in the previousglossaryand in the present one with somewhat different specializedmeanings, depending on the area in which the word is used. Because suchdifferences involve vocabularyoutside of well loggingusage,it did not seem appropriate to includethem here. The forthcoming revisionwill attempt to clarify such differences. Groundruleshave beenessentially the sameas those laid down for the precedinggeophysical glossary: 1. An equal sign indicatesthat what follows is an equivalent. Logsindicated as beingequiv-

interpreter specializes. Sonic logginginformation is vital to seismic interpretation and density logginginformationto gravity interpretation.But vital also are measurementsof other physical propertieswith which an interpretationought to be consistent, just as a seismic interpretation oughtto be consistent with gravity and magnetic observations. In a rapidly changing field such as ours,the boundaries betweenareasof specilization
must be crossed more and more often as we ad-

alent, however,may not be identical (e.g., neutronlifetime log and thermal decaytime
log).
2. A colon indicates that what follows is a defi-

nition or explanation. 3. Wordsunderlined with a singleline are listed


themselves and should be referred to in order

to complete the defintion.

4. Wordshavebeendefined astheyareactually
used.

vanceinto the future. Hence it seems appropriate to present a "Glossary of Terms Used in Well Logging."
? Manuscriptreceived by the Editor June 8, 1970.

5. The numbering of differentmeanings does


not indicate preference as to usage.

6. Whereseveral termsare essentially equiva-

* ChevronOil Company,Houston,Texas.

Copyright () 1970by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rightsreserved


1116

Glossary of Terms Used in Well Logging

1117

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lent, the principal entry is that most used, even where this gives preference to a trade name over a generic name. Trade names are included where they are in general use. Such entries begin with a

Oil Company, Jackson,Mississippi; Mr. E. E. Finklea of Schlumberger Limited, Ridgefield,Connecticut; Mr. Noel Frost of the Birdwell Division

lower caseletter wheretheir usage is for the class of devices; although the namefor a specific loggingtool may begin with a capital.
An attempt has been made to include trademark registration where 17 was aware of
such. Neither inclusion nor exclusion should

of SSC, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Dr. D. W. Hilchie of Dresser Atlas, Houston, Texas; Mr. John I. Myung of the Birdwell Division of SSC, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Mr. R. A. Robertson of Standard Oil Companyof California, San Francisco;Mr. Terry Walker of Welex, Houston, Texas; and Mr. J. E. Walstromof StandardOil Companyof California,
San Francisco. I also want to thank the Chevron

imply any judgments about the merits of specific devices. I wish to expressmy appreciationto the companiesand peoplewho have helped me, including
some whose names I do not know. I want to

Oil Companyand the StandardOil Company of California for permission to publishthis glossary. I again remind you that I do not regard this draft as final and invite suggestions for corrections,additions,or revisions.
R. E. Sheriff

thank especially' Mr. G. W. Burns of Chevron

Fro.

1. Idealized

acoustic wave train.

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1118

BEFORE

SQUEEZE

,diP*

Sheriff

AFTER

SQUEEZE

FIc. 2. Microseismogram log usedas cementbond log. CourtesyWelex.


I,,,

Gossary of Terms Used in Well Logging

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MUDCAKE

Fr:... (a) Schematicof compensated density log sonde. (b) Compensated density log. Courtesy Schlumberger.

O rn

TRUE DIP ANGLE

INTERVAL

IDEPTH I

TRUE

DRIFT

DIRECTION
OF HOLE

Fro. 4. () Dipmeter log. (b) Calculateddipmeter log (tadpole plot). CourtesySchlumberger.

1120

Sheriff

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SPOHTANEOUS POTEHTIAI
mllllval,i

1E$ I $ T I V I TY
ohms,.m'/m

//

OSCILLATOR

,/ HOUSING

AMPLIFIER
AND

RECEIVER

/ COIL

AMPLIFIER

RECEIVER
GROUND
FOUCAULT CURRENT I TTER

LOOP

ION

T RANSM

OSCILLATOR COIL

IITRANSMITTER ::R
a b

Fro. 5. (a) Schematicof two-coil inductionsonde.(b) Dual induction--laterolog. CourtesySchlurnberger.

Glossary of Terms Used in We Logging

1121

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? oo.....

oRADIAL

..

FOR MATION WATER )__! .......... ........................

I
I

i
i

iRADIAL DISTANCE
i

DISTRIBUTION

OF

FLUIDS

ABOUT

BOREHOLE

I
i i
I

i
I I
I

I
I I
i

i
I I
I

I
i

1
I

Rxo r ....

i
I

I
i

Rt

Rrnc I" -If


Rm
RADIAL
I

I
I
I

I
I
i
I

1
I
ABOUT BOREHOLE
I

II
II

DISTRIBUTION
!1 i

OF RESISTIVITY
I i

I
I

ii
11LI
itz
!1

i
i
i

I
I

I
I

I
I

i1 i
11 :::) I
II I

I
I I
I

MUD ; CAKE I
I

-I . iNVADED I I ZONE
I

I 1

UNCONTAMINATED
ZONE

Fro. 6. Invaded zone. Courtesy Schlumberger.

1122

Sheriff

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LXTEROLOG
CONDUCTIVITY 400 200

.:_:::::.=5:::::

Fro. 7. (a) Schematic of laterolog7 showing currentflow lines.(b) Laterolog with hybrid scale.
Courtesy Schlumberger.

GJossa':y of Tea'msUsed in Well Logging

1123

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RESISTIVITY
ohml - m/m

RESISTIVITY
ohml - ml/m

Fro. 8. Microlog and microcaliper log (on left), nd microlaterolog (on right). Courtesy Schlumberger.

io
cro Nm.mal 2"

I0

MICROCALIPER

ORRELATioN ..... CUEVE

COUNTS PER MINUTE


..........

....

SIGMA
. _..

...................................

POROSITY

Per

Cent

Fro. 10. Neutron lifetime log. Courtesy Dresser Atlas.

Fzo. 9. Movable oil plot. Courtesy Schlumberger.

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1124

GENERATOR

a
METER
160

NEUTRON

Sheriff

GENERATOR

b
ME TE R

CING

Glossaryof Terms Usedin We Logging

1425

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14'iC;. 1l. (a) Neutron log. (b) Sidexvall neutronlog. Courtesy Schlumberger.

CALIPER
HOLE DIAM.

BHC

SONIC

LOG

2 SPAN

iNCHES

At u SEC/FT.
!oo 7o 40

,.

Ri

LOWER TRANSMITTE/
1/////////
a b

!3. (a) Schema'it BHC sonic log sonde. (b) Sonic log. Courtesy Sclllumberger.

12. Basicelectric1o arrangements' (a) Normal configuration. (b) Lateral configuration.


Courtesy Schlumberger.

1126 S.R
o rnv

Sheriff RESISTIVITY
0 SHORT
0 LONG

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NORMAL
NORMAL

!0
I0

--

I+

SAND-LINE

F'm. 14. SP log in a sand shale serieswith fresh mud in borehole. Courtesy Schlumberger.

J SHALE

?AS,E -LINEI
,

i!'i
'
?

,,

Gossay of Terms [Jsed in We Logging

1127

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MICROSECOND----.>
1000
1500

BOUNDARY.WAVE

'

SHEAR

WAVE

Fro. 15. Three-dimensional velocity log. CourtesyBirdwell Division of SSC.

1128

Sheriff

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a9.stial.l_o.o_: (1) a generic term for well logs


which display an aspect of acoustic wave propa-

gation.

tinuous velocity log), the traveltime of the compressional wave between two points is mea-

In some acoustical

logs

(soni,

con

sured perpendicular to the buddn sured parallel to the bedding.

sured.

tude of part of the wave train is measured. Still other acoustical logs (character log, three

In others (amp_l. itud.e... ].,o.), the ampli-

a__nn_o_U]_u.s: (1) That space between a drill ;i:, and the formations through which the returr,]ng olling fluid (mud) returns to the surfcu. 2) Tne
space between tubing and casing or between casing and formation. (3) A low resistance ring seinetimes produced by invasion processes in hydrocarbon-bearing beds. Because of their greater
hydrocarbons are displaced
invaded zone than

l,display VDL log, microseismogram log, signature o most of the v&avetrain in wiggle or variable density form. Still others (cement
bond log, fracture log) are characterized the objective of the measurements rather
their form. Borehole televiewer is

by than

mobility,
beyond

farther

the

conductive

forma-

an acous-

tion

water.

See Figure

6.

tical

log also--pically,
Specifically,
emission

a sonic log_,
which results
by a

I==UJ.___.._..t,: (l) A unit of counting rate for the


g9m_9-r.
and low radioactivity

wave:
from

'

: elastic
of

the

the wave train


an acoustical

wave : seismic wave - sonic


pulse

The difference

sections

between t))e hgh


in the API cali-

sonic logging sonde. This wave train is detected by one or more nearby detectors and various asThe wave train

bration pit is defined as 200 API units. (2) The reading in the Indiana limestone portion of the API calibration pit (which has 19 percent porosity
as

pects of it are measured (see acoustical io_9).


is a composite of various

and is
lOO0 API

saturated
units.

wit

fresh

water)

is

defined

modes

of energy transfer. The first arrival usually results from compressional (P or longitudinal)
waves travelling in the formation; h inverse of its velocity is measured by the sonic 1o. A second arrival is sometimes iden"Ffied as shear (S) wave travel in the formation, sometimes as

LS,....i]:
an electrical log,

The resistivity
which differs
zone,

recurdd
from the
influence

by
of

true

resistivity
ence of adjacent

of the formation
invaded

because of the pres-

mud column, beds, etc.

Rayleigh arrivals (not Rayleigh waves as used in seismology). Compressional waves travelling through t13e mud usually have relatively high frequency content. One or more modes of high amplitude, low frequency tube waves or Stonetey
waves are usually
Figure t.

) A
tween

fo rm 1ai:
the formation

Empirical
resistivity

relationships
factor F (some-

times

written

FR), porosity

water

saturation

S w, and resistivities
F

in clean granular rocks.

a very distinct

arrival.

See

F : R0/R w= a c-m,
R0/R t : S w,
where m = porosity exponent tor, which varies or cementation facbetween 1.5 and 3,

CtJv_o__t]o.n_ 19: Awe. loqing techniqeUe in -E5 -ormation is ll irrad ated with n utrons
that transmute whose radiation some nuclei into radioisotopes is measured after a time lag.

of

: acoustic velocity
a substance to enter into

log = sonic log.

= proportionality
0.6 to 1.5,

constant

varying

from

(t_G__JYj=JL (electrochemical):

The relative
a reaction.
found

tendency
When

the shales adjacent to a reservoir are perfect cationic membranes and the permeable bed is clean.
the electrochemical SP can be from the ac-

R0 : resistivity of the formation when 100 percent saturated with formation water,

R w = formation water resistivity,

tivities (equiValent concentrations of dissolved salts) of the formation water and mud fittrate.

R t : true formation resistivity,


n : saturation exponent; often n = 2.

j=p : ratio ofp.s_eudostatic SP to static ( S__P S : ). The


_.D.._l_._.__9.q,:_ h of theamplitude a portion of t A e borehole acoustic lo w ve used in acoustic of
logging, See cement bond log and fracture log, measured. (2) "Microscopic anisotropy" is a variation of a property of a formation measured perpendicular to the bedding from that measured parallel to the bedding because plate-like mineral grains and interstices tend to orient themselves parallel to the sedimentation. (3) "Macroscopic anisotropy" is a variation due to the volume over which a measurement is made, including
beds whose properties differ appreciably.

"ArchiJ'sLaw" assumes that m: 2 anda = 1


The Humble formula
2.15 and a = 0.65.

is

the special

case where m =

j gg'n lJa bow spring orlever connected a sonde which presses against the o ore.,_ ._: olhe Variation of a phYnsical depending orientation ale g whic roperty it is hole wall to centralize the tool, to push the
tool to the opposite side of the borehole,

to hold a sensor pad to the borehole wall. To prepare a perforating gun for firing.

or (2)

.azro:::plo
or drift

: _a_dole plot:
data.

A display

of dipmeter

.thin (4)

The resistivity anisotropy coefficient square root of the ratio of the resistivity

is the mea-

- ture cross-section.

= lO-

cm: A unit for measuring.c-

Gossary of Terms Used in Wet Logging

1t29

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ease-line
shale
occur

silift:
base line
when waters

A change i. the icat_or.


on the
of

it
are

the

SP curve.
when the

A $hkft
sllnities

differerst

,G.,aQ$_U_. e._C, rQ_S -__s _6_]0.: ( 1 ) "A t omi c c a pt u r e c r o s s -'-- for neutrons is the effective area within which a neutron has to pass in order to be
captured bilistic
of the

separated
fect

by shale

beds %.,'hlch do not

act

as per-

cationic

membranes,

formation

water salinity changes or when the resistivity


depth in the borehole.

',vithin a permeable bed, of the mud changes ,zith

by an atomic nucleus. value dependent on the


particle as well as the

It is a probanature and energy


nature of the

capturing

nucleus.

Atomic

capture

cross-section

: borehole

compensated
a Dresser

sonic
Atlas

log.

See com-

is often measured in Darns (1 barn : 10-cm), (2) "Macroscopic capture cross-section" is the
effective cross-sectional area per unit volume of material for capture of neutrons; hence, it depends on the number of atoms present as well
as their atomic capture cross-sections. The

pensated lo.
BHC Acoustilog

BHCis a Schlumberger
traderlame.

B....H_= : bottom hole temperature.


B__H._T_] : borehole televiewer.

unit of measure for 7] s cme/cm or reciprocal cm (cm'); :C is often measured in "capture units"

.b._!..]_n__.z..A?: A portion of a formation in which a logging tool response is too low; also called
"shadow zone." A blind zone occurs because of

r units." 1 c.u. : ]O'cm TM . ith 3)The -ate "sigma of absorption of therma neutrons a
velocity v is tqus

the finite size or configuration of tha logging tool. For the lateral curve, a blind zone (ab-

=Fture un. = c.u. = s.u. = sigma unit = lO'cm - .


A unit
section.

of measure

of macroscopic

capture

cross-

normally

low reading)

is recorded

when a bed
laterolog, sidewall microlaterolog, sonic, density, and neutron logs which includes a secondarz

which is highly resistive compared to the overlying and underlying formations is present between current and measuring electrodes.
b__f_ehf_e_6_ii:
cause of the size hole or sometimes

A distortion
and the influence invaded

of

a well
the

log
bore-

be-

]'9]ltFndex

curve and a movable oil

1ot.

of zone.

.9=,,,,0_,._C]-!..r. a t_.r: A m ag ne t i c o r sc r a t c he r
device for locating casing collars, whict are used for correlating collars with other logs and hic. h often serve as reference depths in subsequent completion operations.

borehole

1o__.9_ = wel 1 1og.


A well log sys-

b. ou%e_b_9_]e !;..e]_?__v_i_ewec : seisviewer'

tem wherein a pulsed,


amplitude of the tube (television ing a picture of fractures, rugs,
mark.

narrow acoustic

(sonar)

beam scans the borenole wall in a tight helix as the tool moves up the borehole. A display of the

c..a_t_i.=_nJ,,,...,m_,mb.e: A me mb r a n wh i c h p e r mi t s t h e passage of cations but not of artions. Shale

reflected wave on a cathode ray screen) is photographed yieldthe borehole wall, revealing etc. BHTV is a Mobil Oil tradecomand

ac:s as such a membrane, allowing 5odium ions Co pass but not chloride ions. Important in generating the electrochemical SP.

,.% : cement bond lo.


= continuous
formula.

dmeter.
The exponent m in the rchie

b_o._.n.d. wat_e/_: Water absorbed in or chemically bined with shales, gypsum, or other material
which
tions.

rti_a._G.,.E.:

is

not

free

to

flow

under

natural

condi-

nt= b_r_i_d/: The insulation-covered lower the cable to which the logging tool
nected.

bo_n_d ..]._:
the acoustic

A wel I log of the amol i rude


wave which indi.cates tne degree

portion of is con-

of

_b_J_ktc k _e_]_E.6_t_r__4__ : Lu_a rd el ec trodes.


b_u]]_t: cores. butl;or[: (t) A device for obtaining sidewall (2) A device for e.r__ati_. The small
sonde.

of bonding of the cement to the pipe. If the casing is poorly cemented, energy travel through the casing at the fast speed of acoustic waves in steel is strong and little energy travels in the formation; if the casinq is well cemented, the casing signal nearly disappears and the formation signal is strong. The log may consents the amplitude of a portion of the longitudinal acoustic wave train or (2) a display
of the acoustic wave train such as the charac-

sist of (1) an ltude_l

(CBL) which repre-

circular

electrode

on a micro-

resistivity

ter log, acoustic

three-D, signature

microseismogram, VDL, or log. See Figure 2.

_81ib_ati:
before
logs.

and/or

after

Calibration

a log run and attached

test

records run

c.ba.

: signature

log:

A display

of the

to the

acoustic wave train to the similar sort

cal.j_er Awell log which measures di........ =m'e"e r,lo: -open hoe caliper logging too ole s some
times have 1, 2, 3, or 4 arms. Also called

density gram, or VDL log.

in wiggle form, as opposed of display in variable form in the three-D lo, microseismo-

1,

See also sonic and cement bond l o.

1o,

fracture

section gage. See Figures 8 and 13. Tools for studying the corrosion of casing or tubing
use many "fingers."

.G.hl_oni_ne : A log based on the counting rate of capture gamma rays produced by capture of thermal neutrons by chlorine in the formation. By limiting the count to a certain energy range, the tool

30

Sheriff

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is

made

more

sensitive

to

chlorine

and

rela-

continuous

velocity

log strong
to the

= sonic

long_.

tively insensitive to formation porosity. The chlorine log is now essentially replaced by the neutron lifetime loq and thermal decay time log.

cvcleskip.:
arrival
the

In acoustic
is sometimes
closest

or sonic

logging

the firs1
trigger
but not

enough to
transmitter

receiver

cbro_at:

See

arion

gas chromatograph.

J_et_: Containing no appreciable amount of clay or shale. Applied to sandstones and carbonates. Compa re _! _tj L.

;_O_l]_dc__]_D: : ccollar

locator.

.c_O_l_p_a_j_on c_,_r_e_.LJD_: An empirical correction applied to porosity derived from the sonic log in
uncompacted formations such as sands at shallow

the farthest receiver, which may then be triggered by a later cycle resulting in an erroneously high transit time. This situation is called "cycle skipping." Its onset is characterized by an abrupt deflection corresponding to an added cycle of travel between receivers. "Short cycle skipping" where the near receiver is triggered a cycle too late can also occur, resulting in an abnormally short traveltime.

depths or formations under sures. Undercompaction is mally low sonic velocities

abnormally high presindicated by abnorin adjacent shales.

A unit

of permeability;

the permeability

.cm_.__n__s t_e: Awel 11 og madte a sonde designed to correct out unwan ed with effects. The
compensated density log (FDC) uses the signal
correct for the from a secondary detector to effect of mud cake and small

irregularities in the borehole wall. The compensated sonic log (BHC) uses a special arrangement of the transto correct
size and sonde

which will allow a flow of one milliliter per second of fluid of one centipoise viscosity through one square centimeter under a pressure gradient of one atmosphere per centimeter. The commonly used unit is the millidarcy or 1/1000 darcy.

_DarcJL_s law'
rate q.
kA

A relationship

for the fluid

flow

ducers
hole

for

irregularities
tilt.

in

bore-

QJ]_cLc_t_i_v_i: The ability of a material to conduct electrical current. See m. ho per meter. Conductivity is the reciprocal of resistivity.

q --- --x '


where k : permeability, A : cross-sectional = viscosity, ,p = pressure differential the thickness, x. area, across

,ojl_n___te__%_ej: (1) Water trapped in sediments at


the time of deposition. (2)
wall.

Formation

water.

.d9...si]_ = densi.
Atl as tradename.

Densilog

is a Dresser

_ec_t.OL:
against
Bi rdwel

A microloE
borehole

in which the sonde is held


Welex tradename.

the

.dei_...t._.. :

A well

log which records the forma-

n_g9_u_s ._e ]_zJ___y. _ : son i c l og.


1 trademark.

CVL i s a
are analyzed

gamma-ray source

_Q..e _n_a_l:

Cores from boreholes

for porosity, permeability, fluid content and identification, lithology, and structure (fractures, cross bedding, etc.). Results are often illustrated on a log or coregraph on which porosity, permeability, water saturation, oil saturation, and lithology are graphed against
depth.

so shielded that it records backscattered gamma rays from the formation. This secondary radiation depends on the density of electrons, which is roughly proportional to the bulk density. The source and detector are on a skid

tion density. Th logging tool consists ofa e.g., Cs?) and a detector

which

is

pressed

against

the borehole

wall.

The

compensated density

logging

tool

(FDC) includes

._r_:

See core analysis.

a secondary detector which responds more to the mud cake and small borehole irregularities; the response of the second detector is used to correct the readings of the main detector. Density is related to porosity by the equation

c.q._=__5_l.,._i_g_ez: device using bades which cuts aA triangular corediamondt-edged abou one inc on
a side
of a

and up to three
borehole.

feet

long from the

side

q = Pma ' Pl og,


PmaPf

smooth

c r_r:
in
ferent wells.
which

(1) The determination


position
Similarities
serve as markers

of equivalence
in difof char. acter
one well to

stratigraphic

of

formations
in the
from

where Pma is the densityof the rock matrix, Plog


is the density recordedon the log, and pf is the
density of the fprmation fluid. Sometimes called gamma-gamma qg. Compare nuclear cement log and

well
tures

togs and the occurrence

of distinctive
either in the

feasame

the next are used.


wel 1 1 ogs and other
well or in different

(2)

The matching of different

hotS.

See Figure

3.

wel I data
wells.

a__tur

.rossplotz:

A graph to determine

the relationship

between two different measurements. A crossplot of porosity measured from a sonic log against porosity from a density log, for example, is used to show secondary porosity effects.

rect for measuring conditions which differ from standard. Such curves, for example, might correct for differences in temperature, hole diameter, mud type, adjacent beds, invasion, etc.

curve:

Graphs which allow one to cor-

de?thof

..nvasio...n.: See invaded zone.

cr__c9_Sse icLi_O_: See cpture

cross-section.

ep.th of investJ.gation:

The radius about a logging

Gossay of Tems Used n Wel Logging

13

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sonde within which material nificantly to the readings

contributes sigfrom the sonde.

of the hole. The tape is the log. Welex tradename.

played

back to obtain

._.d_e_t.i: A borehole log plotted at a scale larger than conventional (1 inch per 100 ft);
specifically,
inches per

dual inducti'
of two

induction

curves

An induction
with

different

log consisting
deoths

of

an electric
100 ft.

log at a scale

of 5

investigation. Usually run with a focused resistivity device with a shallow depth of investigation, such as a shallow laterolog.

eLi:
See drift,
tradename.

Departure of a borehole from vertical.


directional survey_and rectify.

= deep well
temperature

thermometer:

A sonde for recording

logs,

_d_iP_.og = dieter.

Diplog is a Dresser Atlas

.c[!'._p____..: (1) A well

log from which formation dip

magnitude and azimuth can be determined. The resistivity dipmeter includes three or four microresistivity readings made using sensors distributed in azimuth about the logging sonde and a reading of the azimuth of one of these; a reading of the hole deviation or drift angle and its bearing; and one or two caliper measurements. The microresistivity curves are
correlated to determine the differences in

_5?c.n_t.e '._:
against
elastic
sonic

A device which presses a sonde


borehole wall.
wave = seismic wave =

the
wave.

w__a_v_e. = acoustic

e e]_e_l;ric_al_ 10: trical logs.

A generic term including all Compare electrical surve_..

elec-

depth of bedding markers on.different sides the hole. (2) Other types of dipmeter use
three SP curves, three wall scratchers, etc.

of

e]_e_c]ric 1%=
which
is

: electrolog:
consists
Atlas

A borehole log
logs.

usually

of SP and two or more

and long lateral


a Dresser

resistivity

logs, such as ort


resistivity
tradename.

and long normal


Electrolog

(3)
lated stick

A log showing the formation

dips

calcuplot or

from the above, such as a tadpole plot. See Figure 4 and HDT.
and

e_]eCrochem:

dire_ti_o]
azimuth

sur_e:

inclination

Measurements of drift,
of a borehole

with

the

The component of the SP comprised of the sum of the liquid-junction potential and the shale potential, both of which are

the

determined
formation

by the ratio
water to that

of the activits.
of the mud filtrate.

of the

vertical.
times

A directional
measurements are

survey
made at

is

often

made
levels

as part of a dipmeter survey or sometimes as a continuous log with a poteclinometer. Somediscrete

The liquid

junction

potential

is produced in

with

a photoclinometer.

the formation at the contact between the invasion filtrate and the formation water as a result of the differences in ion diffusion rates from the more concentrated to the more dilute

dir_fw = shaly:

shale dispersed in the interstices. Such shale lowers the permeability and effective porosity and affects the readings of many types of logs.

Containing appreciable

amount of

mobility
tential

solution ("concentration cell"). The negatively charged chloride ions have greater than the positive sodium ions and an excess negative charge tends to cross the boundary, resulting in an emf. The shale poresults because the shale bed acts as

down. hole_____ground: A long electrode often attached to the logging cable some distance (perhaps 100
ft) above an electrical just below the casing, logging sonde or hung used as the reference
electrode at of bad SP interfacilities or electrode instead of a reference the surface, Used in the case ference from electrical surface
tell uric currents.

a cationic membrane permitting the sodium cations to flow through it but not the chloride anions. The liquid junction potential and

shale potential

are additive.

See also SS_____.P.

elect__r_ k_c__ ?._Lte__.nij...a_..] : streaming potential = ----ectrofiltration potential: A component of the


SP produced as a result of movement of the inva-

__.f.t_:
the

The attitude
axis

of
and

a borehole.
the vertical;

The drif

-fon fluid

through the mud cake.

Variations

in

angle or hole deviation


borehole

is the angle

between
the drift

azimuth through

is the angle the borehole

between a vertical and north.

plane

?i]]ing___bak: An increase in the penetration speed of the drill bit caused by a change in
formation,
a porous

ion concentration produced by the processes which generate the electrochemical SP tend to be swept along by the movement of the invading fluid and this flow of charge results i n the el ectrokinetic potential. The electrokinetic potenti al i s usual 1 y cons i dered smal 1 compared to the electrochemical SP and is often neglected when estimating formation water resistivity from
the SP.

often
zone.

indicative

of

penetration

into

elecron.__denit:

See density

1og.

!]...ling
a unit

%jm]_O:
thickness

of

A record of he time to drill


formation.

mp:_h_o_],l: A borehole which is filled


or gas.

with air

d__i._]__l_p_i_p_e Awell obtained from a logging lo_: instrument wog ic hwich as a is self-contained
recording mechanism. The log consists of an SP and short and long normals. The tool is lowered through the drill pipe and the flexible electrode assembly is pumped through a port in the bit. The log is recorded by a tape recorder within the tool during the process of coming out

e__:

A s ne

1og.
See neutron loq.
survey.

e=oo_ithe_r_m .1.n:
E..S : electrical

1132

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F__&_] : formation

anal sis lo . densi., loci.

as measured by the nu___clear m_ a neti.


gives a low FFI.

Gas

F_D_C. = compensated formation F : formation densi.

_f__%h_: Very low in dissolved salts.


,used comparatively
with

with

respect

to normal
water"

Sometimes
sea

F_F__= = free
if l_,?,

fluid

index:

See also nuclear magnetism

water (which is 35,000 parts of dissolved salts per million), sometimes used comparing formation
water mud flitrate. "Fresh has less

than
= mud cake.

2000

ppm dissolved

salts.

]_a_t-__t_o_j=n=q=: A maximumbeyond which values are


not recorded, Loss of sensitivity due to

satura-

1]ion of

some part

of

the

measuring

system.
of through
it is

q:NN===__,:
m._=.r__]g: radioactivity,
reflects shale

See de ns__i_ty.
A well log uhich records the natural (1) In sediments the log mainly
content because minerals contain-

].O].e_.r A device which measures the flow fluid. Sometimes the flowmeter is lowered
the flow stream in a borehole; sometimes

set in one spot with


s u v.. Z.

a packer.
ion

See inner

ing

radioactive

isotopes

(the

most common of

which is potassium)
See format
See invaded

tend to concentrate

in clays

imZ,:
,.[_:

tester.

and shales. Volcanic ash, qranite wash, and some salt deposits may also give significant gamma-ray readings. The log often functions
as a substitute for the SP for correlation

l_!d

zone.

__e__.....,].,.: Often refers to la[erolo or guard log. Sometimes refers [o induction lo.

purposes in cased holes, in nonconductive muds in open holes, and for thick carbonate intervals.

See Figures
tion for

3, 7, and ll,
minerals.

(2)

Used in explora-

radioactive

"'--
sity

-''stivity

an app rent porolog and either sonic or

based on induction

9,.g$__e_t_tF_i_r.._ajf_,G$_o_r_: The geometry dependent

weight-

density log dta.


_r$__J.,a_v t i,_o:
the

Also called Rwa analysis log.


T h e a na 1y s i s a nd i nt e r -

ing factor for determining how the conductivities of each medium in the vicinity of a sonde affect the apparent conductivity measurement, especially used with the induction log.

pretation
in terms

of v'"'i-'i--log data,
of nature are to of

drillstem
the formations if

tests,
and

etc.

$r.]!j__qz.a_qetn: A device for determining the density of the wellbore fluid by measuring the
pressure on two bellows tical pressure gradient. and therefore the ver-

their
tion

fluid
evaluation

content.

The

objectives

of

forma-

ascertain

commerci-

ally productive hydrocarbons are present and the best means for their recovery and to derive lithology and other information on formation characteristics for use in further exploration.
_o0_ = F: The
it

8_,njs_l_m: A combination of logs or a computation procedure for calculating the depth of


invasion
and

and the

resistivity
zones,

of
based

both

invaded
in-

uncontaminated

on a dual

ratio
is

of

the

resis-

tivity
the

of a formation
water with which

to the resistivity
saturated.

of
While

duction laterolog laterolog.

and a proximity

log or micro-

formation

factor

is,

strictly

speaking,

de-

fined

only for clean brine-saturated

sands (for

which it is nearly independent of the fluid resistivity), it is often used without this restriction. Apparent formation factor is a function of porosity, pore structure and size distribution, and clay content. See Archie's
formu 1 a.

,.q,cJ.__e.]_co.J...e = bucking electrodes:


from which current flows so that the

Electrodes
current

flow from a measuring electrode the formation. See laterolog.

is

focused

into

...d__j_=.. : laterolo uard electrodes.

: focused log:

Log made with

.[mimo_$__Le_:

A tool

run on a wireline

obtain samples of formation flow, and shut-in pressures

to fluid. Hydrostatic, are recorded,

_: _e]o:
tude tool zone
the

See microlaterolo,

Welex tradename.

= high resolution

dipmeter:

A dipmeter

which

A well log of the cumulative ampliof the wave arrivals from a sonic logging during a certain gate time. A fracture attenuaCes the acoustic energy and delays
arrival of the shear wave.

records four high resolution micrOresirstivity curves and has an additional electrode on one pad which yields another curve at displaced depth. The displaced depth curve is used to correct for
variations in sonde velocity.

.Ce,.fluid id = FFI: The percent of the bulk volume occupied by fluids which are free to flow

h,i.b _reso]_u=tioo];_b__m_e: A small-diameter fastresponse thermometer for logging open or cased

boreholes with a temperature resolution of 0.5F.

_h_ot wi]_e_: A device used to detect hydrocarn gases returned to the surface by the drilling mud. Basically a Wheatstone bridge, two

Glossary of Terms Used in Wel Logging

1133

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arms of which are kept at a high temperature. Hydrocarbon gases become oxidized as they pass over one arm, which increases its temperature,

the pressure
that of the

of

the mud is
fluids.

kept
A

great,'r
"rilud

.han
cke"

formation

changes its resistance, and unbalances the bridge. The hot wire analyzer response is sometimes plotted as a well log.

builds on the formatinn wall, flow of mud fluid (Flitrate)


rion.
"flushed

limitin d furIFr into th furmais


,:f all

Directly
zone"

behind

:he mud ca'e


al,,ot

iFom ,lcn

Humbl_e.fo_rmula: A special
applicable in granular

form of Archio's
(sucrosic)--6's:

formula,

formation water and most of the h'/drecarbc, ns have been displaced by filate. ThL, invasion process alters the distribution of resis-

F = 0.62
where
is
ure

F = formation
with

factor

and = porosity.

tivities and other pro,,Jerties and tensefluently the value which logs read. The "depth of vasion" is the equivalent depth in an delzed

modl rather
which
of

than tt]e maximum depth reached by


In oil-bearing intervals,
f<:rma!:ien

.,b__ri__....]_e: A scale
linear
7.

used with
for

laterclogs
reciprocal

filtrte.
trate

the

fli-

resistivity

1o,; resistivities

may [ush

a bank

of

ware, ahead

and linear

with

conductivity

(the

resistivity)
=h===ro e:
response ume filled

for high resistivities.


Hydrogen per unit
in fresh
mainly

See Figvolume comlog


index.

of it to lJroduce a relatively "annulus" w)lich is especially

low resistivity important witt

deep iFesigating

induction logs. See Figure


at

pared with

that

water.

Neutron

pore v'"Tume occupied by water in a reservoir

depends with

on hydrogen

!_L.d_...r...,.0_._..a_r__b_0n s__Lturai_o_9_: Fraction


hydrocarbons.

of the pore vol-

maximum hydrocarbon saturation. It represents water trapped by adhering to rock surfaces, trapped in smaller pore spaces and narrow interstices: etc., which has not been displaced by hydrocarbons. Irreducible water saturation is
an equilibrium situation. It differs from "residual water saturation," the value measured by core analysis, because of filtrate invasion and the gas expansion ttat occurs when
the core is removed to the surface. froIll the bottom of the hole

S.

IEL = induction

electrical

survey:

A bore-

hole log which usually includes SP, 16 inch nor____-_ a m 1, and deep-investigation induction loq._.s.
]LL_d = deep i nvesti gati on i nducti on 1 oq.. I_L_nl : medium investigation induction loq.

inclin_or_t_e_.r.: A device for measuring hole inclination and azimuth. See directional survez.

l__a__te_r.9]_: A resistivity
and an electrode
tential trodes,

log.

A constant
while

current
the po-

is passed between an electrode


on the

surface

A on the bridle

.n___G_ti_n__ An electrical conductivity/resis'i---il : log based on e 1 ectromagnetic induc


tion
flow

difference is measured across two elecM and N, located on the sonde; see

principles.
of constant
the in

A high-frequency
intensity
This

alternating
current
current"

current

induces
"Foucault

Figure 12.
current
feet

The MN distance is slnall compared


the distance
A "short lateral"

formation.

to the "spacing,"
electrode

between the
between
sometimes

and the midpoint

flowing inthe formation "geround 1o" causes


an alternating magnetic fi ld whic reduces a current in a receiving coil. The receiving coil
current is nearly proportional to the conductivity of the formation. Induction sondes may have several transmitting and receiving coils to produce a highly focused log. An induction

the potential

8 inches.

electrodes,

typically

about 18

uses a spacing of 6 to 9 feet. are interchanged


trodes are above

The potential elec-

electrodes are usually below tte current electrode but on the reciprocal sonde the functions

so that
the

the potential
electrode.

log can be recorded where the borehole


conductive or muds or gas. nonconductive, See Figure 5. as in oil

fluid
base

is

current

lateroloq.
i ntersti ces or

= guard

log : focused

log:

A resis-

?]_L,..s,_t_j.._tJ_a.l__,L.,L_: Water

i n the

pore spaces in a formation.


in;_[?j__..t_si: The traveltime of a com-

pressional
tance, P-wave usually

sonic -eismic) wave over a unit dis-

hence proportional to the reciprocal of velocity. Measured in the sonic log, in microseconds per foot.

tivity log made with a sonde that is focused by use of guard or bucking electrode arrangements, which force the "surveying current" to flow nearly at right angles to the logging sonde. One type uses three electrodes and guard electrodes. In the lateroleg-7, sufficient current is fed into the bucking electrodes, A and A, above and below the current
electrode so that the current from the current

i nt r i ns_r m a 1 n__e__u_t_Q_n__d_e_C___. _te__: The t r ue decay time of the formation as opposed to the measured decay time which is sub3ect to hole and
diffusion effects. See neutron lifetime loq.

electrode

A flows

out

nearly

in the

a sheet bucking
condition
current

at elecexists.
elec-

right angles lustration).


and 1.1' are
trode currents
electrodes

to the sonde (grey Sensing electrodes


used :o adjust
until
and

area in ilM, Mz', M,

this
below

flow
the

inva.ded zone: The portion about a wellbore into which drilling fluid has penetrated, displacing
some of the formation fluids. This nvasion

The lateroleg-3
above

and guard
trademark,

log use long bucking


Lateroleg is a

trode.

See Fiqures

7 and 5.

takes

place

in porous permeable zones because

Schlumburqer tent-':

l_iu i dZu_nc_jt ion_=_==p_Q_$]t i]_a_!_ = 1i quid boundary poSee el ectrochemi cal SP,

1134

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lttle

s_la

= small

slam.

about a borehole, recorded with electrodes on a


pad pressed against the borehole wall. See
sometimes interpreted from

]_j.']_h_Q]: A log showing lithology as a function of depth in a borehole. Sometimes a strip__


lo__0_9. based on samples,
borehole logs, other

microlo.g. and microlaterolo 9. microse___im_o_cLr_am ]qL : variable density log :


three-D lo: See Figure 2.

See we!l

log.

m..ini].:

See microlog_. Dresser Atlas tradename.

lo.j. normal: A normal resistivity log made with the A and M electrodes in the sonde (usually)
64 inches apart.

_mmho : mil!imho:

1/1000 of a mho, the reciprocal

A unit of electrical

of ohm.

conduction,

Izo=v_o_ble_l .. : MOP: A well log calculated from other logs on which three "porosity" curves are plotted: "total porosity," qt, such as is derived

__: Subscript used with log terms to indicate values appropriate to the rock matrix.

from the sonic log; "apparent water-filled sity" derived from a deep investigation tivity device such as the microlaterolog.
between the first two curves

tivity evice SUCh asthe!aerolog; and "apseparation inci-

pororesis-

_.r_oic .i_Q_=: Resistivity perpendicular to the bedding which differs froin resistivity parallel to the bedding because of the inclusion of interbeds of markedly different resistivity. __= millidarcy
: Subscript
values for the

zparent water fialled porosity of theflusheid one" xo from shallow investigation res sThe
cares the volume fraction of hydrocarbons in the noninvaded zone and the separation between the last two curves indicates the volume fracresidual

= 1/1000
used with

darcy.
log terms to indicate

tion of movable oil.


9.

hydrocarbons cake:
as

The remainder represents


left in the invaded The residue
the mud loses

zone. on

mud filtrate.

See Figure

ll.r.hrOr:r,,,per.:r.t_=_r - lOO0 mmho per meter:


conductivity,
material rance of

A unit
of a

of

m__u_d___c_a_ke : filter
the borehole wall

deposited
filtrate

being

the

conductivity

a meter c ube of which offers a resisone ohm t o current flow between op-

into porous, permeable formations. generally has very low permeability


tends to formation. retard See further invaded loss zone. of fluid

The mud cake and hence


to the

pos ire

faces.

Rec iprocal

of ohm-meter.

.j,c. ro nv..e_. e ' ......... )]i n


microlateroloe.

See microlo.
: min ifocused

mud._.cu: A container
tivity.

used to measure mud resis-

log = FoRxo = t-- .' A microresistivity log of the !aterolog type wit h a bucking electrode and two monitor electrodes arranged concentrically on a pad which is pressed against the formation
so that the curren

ELUJL.f._i_]_C2Lt_: Fluid which enters permeable formations from the mud, leaving a mud cake on the
borehole wall. See also invaded zone.

flow

is

concentrated

into

is of a small volume of formation in front of the pad. For the proximity log the electrodes are mounted on a wider pad and the focusing is such that

gradually flaring tube. Since the spacing small, the log responds to the resistivity

=:
sures
ditions.

A 1og made with a mi crol oc) sonde with


the measuring pad
resistivity of the

the arms collapsed so that is not pressed against the

borehole wall. Meamud at in-hole con-

thicker
mark.

8.

Micro!aterolog

mud cakes have less effect.

is a Schlumberger trade-

See Figure

j:

fluid
fluids

(or mud) and cuttings


which have entered

Analysis of samples of the drilling


to detect
the mud from the

signs of
forma-

icrolo_ : contact log : minilog: A type of microresistivity log using three button electrodes spaced in a line one inch apart and located on
a pad which is
wall. The lower

tions. Hydrocarbons may be evidenced rescence, by chromatographic analysis,


or cut. Plots of such data often

by fluogas, and
a

pressed

against
is

the borehole
the A current

other ways. The mud is also monitored for salinity and viscosity to indicate water loss
include

electrode

electrode. The potential of the upper electrode with respect to a reference electrode on the
surface gives a 2 inch micronormal and the dif-

sample

log and a drill

time
of

curve.

):jp.]
to

. .......

_t.ool: A device
the direction

run in a borehole
the borehole at

ference between the two upper electrodes gives a 1 inch microinverse (lateral type measure-

measure

several

levels,

See directional

survey.

ment).
ciably
the

smaller

Because the mud cake usual ly has appreresistivity


will

than the formation,


less than the

microinverse

read

micro-

normal

when mud cake is

present.

This

dif-

ference

(called

"separation")

indicates

a perre-

neutro.Q lifetime
time log.
cross-section.

!og:

Similar

in use to the decay


neutron
neutron

meable formation. A caliper log is usually corded at the same time. Microlog is a Schlumberger trademark. See Figure 8.

A well
which

log of thermal
A Van de Graaff

capture
genera-

tor
of
time

in the sonde periodically


neutrons
intervals

releases
formation
burst,

a burst
and begin
measure-

enter

the

.m_cronormal:

See microlog.

to lose energy in collisions.


after a neutron

At two discrete

micm. oresisti.vitv lo): Awell log to m-easur6 he-Fs'ivity of the f esigned ushed zone

ments are made of the gamma rays which result from the capture of neutrons by nuclei in the
thermal decay time log, whereas measurements are

Gossay of Tems Jsed n We Logging

35

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made

of

the

thermal

neutrons

in

the

neutron

lifetime log. the reciprocal


unit
lation

The quantity plotted is sometimes of the percentage which decay per


called the thermal decay time ;

is a part. decays very

The sgnal from rapidly because

the uorehole fluid of disseminated iron

(from steel faces


ciable

worn from drill

pipe and bits);

by

of

time,

sometimes,
to

the
fall

time
to

for

the
value,

thermal
called

neutron
the

popu-

slightly delaying the time hole signal is minimized.


response. Thus the

of measuring tie Fluids bound to sur-

half

neutron

(as the water in shales)


FFI

do not give appreindicates the free

I i fetime

cross-section 7., whichis derivable fro t-h e foregoing (2 = 4.55/ : 3.!5/L). Thermal neutrons are
captured mainly by the chlorine present and hence this log responds to the amount of salt in formation waters. Hydrocarbons result in longer decay times than salt water. Log readings are porosity dependent and sensitive to clay content and permeability changes. This log is used in cased holes where resistivity logs cannot be run or to monitor reservoir changes to optimize production. It resembles a resistivity log with which it is generally corre!atable. Dresser Atlas trademark. See Figure 10.
neutron lost: A well log of hydrogen density. Fast

L; sometimes

the

macroscopic

cap_ture

fluid

(the

hydrogen in free
Gas gives

fluid

hydrocarbons
because of

and water).

a low reading

its low hydrogen density. Sometimes thermal relaxation time, the rate of polarization buildup as a function of polarizing time, is measured to distinguish between water and oil.

T='meter, being th i
cube which offers a resistance

vity of a meter
of one ohm to the

neemitted by a source in the tool are slowed to thermal speed by collisions with (mainly) hydrogen atoms. The thermal neutrons are then captured by atomic nuclei of the surrounding mate-

flow of current between rocal of mho per meter.

opposite

faces.

Recip-

rial

(mainly chlorine
log

atoms) at which time a


is given off. the capture

characteristic The neutron

gamma ray of capture detector may record

[a__d_ = sidewall
arm which

pad:

A footing
against the

on the end of an
borehole wall.

presses

gammarays (n -y), thermal neutrons (n - n), or epithermal neutrons (those just above thermal speed). A low hydrogen density indicates low liquid-filled porosity. Porosity calculated from
the neutron
tion matrix

_pt.j ti?_._.n___qas__c. h__r_o_m_a_t9_q=r_r .a .h_: A de v i ce f or q ua n t i tative analysis of hydrocarboq constituents. A fixed quantity of sample is carried ,;ith a stream of sweep gas through a partition column packed with an inert sol i d coated with a nonvolatile organic liquid. The lighter fractions
traverse the column faster than the heavier

log is affected
and by the

somewhat by the formaof gas. Neutron

presence

logs are used in crossplots to detect gas and determi ne 1 i thol ogy. Neutron 1 ogs are sometimes scaled in API units, sometimes in porosity units assuming a limestone matrix. See also sidewall neutron log. The neutron log can be recorded in cased hol es See Figure 11.

fractions ately at
can be

so that the components aF,?ear separthe column exit, where their amounts

measured.

NML = nuclear magnetism log.


[Lp_r_lsa.L:A resistivity well log in which a constant current is passed between a current electrode in the sonde and one at the surface (electrodes A and B) while the potential difference is measured
between another electrode in the sonde and a

_.._ r_fo_cat!:
a formation formation

so into

Opening holes through casing and into


that the fluids borehole. can flow from the

r:
formation

A measure of the ea3e with which a


permits a fluid to flow tirough it.

Measured in millidarcy

(1/1000

darcy)

units.

reference

electrode
is

at the
for
used

surface
normal.
the

(electrodes
A spacing
normal

M
of
and

and N).
about

The "spacing"

is the distance
the
for short

between the
See

A and M electrodes
16 inches

ph_h_O_t_oclin.me__Jze. J?_: A well loggin device '-p-h'o-togr'aphiCally records the ngle andwhich azimuth
of borehole deviation from the vertical. Com-

64 inches for the medium or long Figures 12 and 14.

normal.

pare potecIinometer.

...o_t_o____9: A wel 1 1og oi scattered

gamma rays,
sonde and in the

)l_..ql ear cemen%I oR: A wel 1 1og of scattered gamma rays, differing from the density loll in that the gamma-ray source and detector are so spaced as to
be sensitive

nulus. fluids

to the density of material in the anUsed for distinguishing between cement and behind casing. Can be run in empty hole.

differing from a densit1o in that tile is not pressed against the borehole wall hence is especially sensitive to changes hole diameter or density of the fluid in
borehole.

Ur__l_aroj_ejLim ].O.q = NML - free

'V-611 'i6-'-hihS dependent on the alignment of


the magnetic momentof protons (hydrogen nuclei)
with an impressed magnetic fi el d. Protons tend to align themselves with the magnetic field and when it i s removed they precess i n the earth ' s magnetic field and gradually return to their original state. The proton precession produces a radiofrequency signal whose amplitude is measured as the free fluid index (FFI). The rate of decay of the precession signal depends on interactions with neighboring atoms and hence
on the nature of the molecule of which the proton

fluid

log'

__: Often
lp...

indicated y th symbo . Porosity is determined from sonic loqs using the [,]zllie rela-

Pore volume eruni volume offormation.


sti{-i'"6-g"S--by assumi -l-q-{i onSee movableoil
the sedimen's have been com-

tionship, from densit----i-og3_, from ntltron lo9_[,

oresi
.

ship such as Archie's formula.


remaining after

"Primaryporosity" refers to the porosity


"Secondary porosity"

of subsequen: chemical action or flow of waters

pacted but without considering changesbecause

through the sediments.

is the additional porosity created by such chemical changes, especially fissures, frac-

Downloaded 02/17/14 to 199.6.131.16. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

tures, solution vugs, and porosity created by dolomitization. "Effective porosity" is the porosity available to free fluids, excluding unconnected porosity and space occupied by
bouncJ :ate' and disseminated shale.

_r_l_d_ioa..c__i_l=q::A well log of natL, ral or induced radiation. Usually refers to qamma ra_y_ 1_o but sometimes also 'a a dens., neutron l, neutron lifetime 1o, or other types of logs,

,:-o.qi
ferent

overlay:
logs

?orosity
on top

values

based on dif-

jc,a:

plotted

of each other.

acous

tic

,ave.

A surface

wave in a borehole.

See

.?tectinneter: and direc'ion


during
resistor

a log
arm

A device for measuring the angle of borehole deviation continuously run. A pendulum moves a variable
so tat the resistance so that a2imuth, is a measure resisrun

ytp_..._sp.: A sonde witn the current and measuring trodes interchanged. See lateral.

.e.,:
drill fluid

(1) The core recovered compared to the


(2) The fluid in the drillpipe on a
stem test which did not produce enough to fill the pipe and flow at the surface.

cf

the

angle

with

the

vertical

and a compass
another Often

amount cut.

needle tanc

moves another arm is a measure of te

i'

dipmeters.

Con,pare otoclinometer.

_:
which

To adjust
makes them

a borehole
di ffi cult to

log for
correl

true
ate

ver-

J.! = pars

per million.

tical depth. Logs in slant holes are usually recorded in distance measured along the hole,
with

.howing ,'Lffective porosity and the percent q of the total porosity occupied by clay. Low clay content and high fluid-filled porosity suggest good permeability.

other logs which intersect ferently. Also sometimes for formation dip.

the formations difused for correcting

]LO....dJt.j...,9_]],: A well

log run in a production

or

injection well. Small diameter sondes are used so that they can be lowered through 2 inch ID tubing. Devices include continuous flowmeter, packer flot,meter, gradiomanometer, manometer, densimeter, watercutmeter, thermometer,

_.f_n_: An increase in resistivity ing as the upper (A) electrode of a lateral sonde (see Figure 12) passes a thin highresistivity formation. of hole deviation _elat[e b9__ i: Azimuth respect to the reference

read-

on the meter (such as the No. 1 electrode).

with sonde

radioactive per, casing

tracer collar

tools, through-tubing calilocator, and fluid sampler.

_t.i.:

The ability

of a porous

j::=:
trademark.

A microresistivity

log similar

to

the microIaterolo cake ticknesses.

but less sensitive to mud "Proximity" is a Schlumberger

gn=j)o.?_:ometE=___,jja] fac?_,_O:A coefficient


estimating the response of a resistivity

used for
mea-

medium to permit fluid flow through it when there are two or three phases present in the pore space. The relative permeability is the ratio of the permeability for a given phase compared with the permeabi 1 i ty when only that one phase is present and depends on the fraction of the pore space occupied by that phase. Since the various phases inhibit the flow of each other, the sum of the relative permeabilities of all phases present is always less than unity.

surzment R a at different
N,here Rxo = flushed
contaminated geometrical
sand. Static

invasion depths:
Rt : un-

sti
of a material

= specific
which

resistance:
resists the

The property
flow of elec-

R a : RxoJ + Rt(1 - j),


zone resistivity,
zone resistivity, factor, a function
SP refers to

tri

cal

current.

See ohm meter.

The

reciprocal

and J = pseudoof invasion depth.

of resistivity is conductivity. )arent resistivitz.

See also

e..EdOS]_O:.],_c_. = PSP:
. : porosity unit

The "static

a clean

SP"of
sand.

a shaly

re_3_.t]]

= Ro/Rt:

The ratio
water.

of the reSee

sistivity of a formation bearing hydrocarbons to the resistivity it would have if 100 percent saturated with Archie' s formulas. formation

= 1 percent

porosity.

j.l: and induction


:q=: The fraction persed shale. of total porosity occupied by disSee _rodu__cibili_t.y_.inde___Zx.
other
cubic
wall.

their readings from 10 to 100 ft of material about the sonde. Microresistivity...].O_9..s on the
hand derive
inches of

lo

S. ee normal, lateral, late, M 'siEi-''-" logs derive


their readings
near the

from

a few

material

borehole

_a.j_O...t]_V.__tn.ac._e_r__],_: A 1og i nvo1v i ng t he de tection water of radioactive or oil to detect materials movement dissolved of fluids. in A

.sit:
readings
ity.

Irregularity
of logging

of a borehole
tools which

wall.

The
be held

have to

slug of radioactive material might be injected into the fluid and movement of the slug monitored to detect casing lea';<s or points of fluid entry or exit; or points where fluid enters formations might be shown by residual radioacti vi ty at those 1 evel s,

in contact with the hole wall (such as density and microresistivity logs) are affected by rugos-

sal_n_t:

Refers to total

salts

in solution

Gossary of Terms Used in Well Logging

1137

Downloaded 02/17/14 to 199.6.131.16. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

(sodium, potassium,

chloride,

sulfate,
shale

etc.)
or
from

of thick

shales

on the gamma ray

log.

_$_a.,d count:
---permeable
other of
meabl e

(1) The total


section
zones.

effective
Often

thickness of
streaks

shale.p..ot_en._ti.Ll:

A part

of the electrochemical

SP.

excluding

impermeable
zones.

determined

electrical
separate

logs (SP or microlog).


permeable

(2) The number


by imper-

h_s_b_a]_ines__. _ : The content of shale (or clay)


resistivity conduction measurements because electrical

in a

sands separated

dominantly nonshale formation. The degree to which ion exchange processes contribute to
in shales is an ion exchange process whereby electrons move between exchange sites on the surface of clay particles. See dirt/.
See acoustic wave.

-thimum
water
drill

sand line:(1) Alinethat can berawn through deflections for thic , clean sands
on an SP log in a section where the formation
is of constant salinity. See SP and

often

Figure 14. (2) A wire line on a driTTing rig


used to run or recover
exponent: SR:
just

tools

inside

the

_s_b_e_r wave:

pipe.

_s.ho.r];o_mal:
with the

A n_.orm_.9_at - resistivity
M electrodes in the

log made
sonde about

A and

saturation sawtooth
fresh

See Archie's permeable

formula. salt
tends

16 inches
shoulder bed

apart.
effect : adjacent bed effect: Effect

When a very

water
to ac-

sand containing
mud filtrate,

a shaly
the

streak
filtrate

is invaded by
streak, setting

cumulate
to develop

below

the

shaly

up an electrochemical
a sawtooth

cell

which causes the SP

appearance.

5_C]3_m.d ''
indicates
tance from the

A polar plot
dip or drift
origin indicates

where the angle


and the disthe dip or

of adjacent beds on a log reading. For example, high resistivity beds adjacent to a low resistivity bed may result in more current flowing in the low resistivity bed than if the high resistivity bed were not present, thus changing the apparent resistivity of the low resistivity
bed.

direction

drift magnitude. In the "modified Schmidt diagram" used for plotting low dips, zero dip is on the outside and dips become larger toward
the diagram center.

&ddeall_:
a wire
drical

A formation
tool
is fired into

sample obtained
a hollow
the

with
and

line
bullet

from which

cylinThe to

formation

5_e.c..ondary_ porosity.:
alteration of the

Porosity
formation

resulting
such as

from the
by frac-

retrieved by cable attached to the bullet. type of bullet and size of charge is varied optimize recovery in different formations.

tures,
ti on,

vugs,
etc.

solution

channels,

dolomitiza-

$.i.dewall_ neutron

the borehole
cake to

lo__9_. made witha si which is pressed


wal 1 and may cut
borehole

lo

- SNP'

An epithermal

neutron
is a

into

the mud
SNP

minimize

effects.

secondary porosit_v 'n]_o_d_e = SPI:


secondary porosity,
values cu ated in

calculated
with

A measure of the
from sonic log
density or

Schl urnberger trademark.

See Figure

11.

conjunction

either

sonic

from a densit f (or neutron log and calneutron log values. qD is theorosity

log, SPI is sometimes defined as (D - sonic),


usually as (1 -sonic/dD).

is the porosity

calculated

from a sonic

sidertall pad: A measuring device which is pressed against the side of a borehole, such as used with microresistivity logs, density logs, many radioactivity logs, etc. idewall., samoler: 'i dbwall c e' A wireline device for taking

.%e__.O gaLL_q9. : ..a. 1i per 1og.


Seivie
trademark.

: borehole

televiewer.

Birdwell

siema uni : capture unit:


._.

A unit

of measure of

capture

cross-secti

on.

self-.Dotentia_l_ : spontaneous potential

= SP.

e_B_a.ratiQQ: (1) A difference


two curves resistivity on a log. readings

(2) The difference in from two tools which have

in reading between (see Figures


which
more perare

en= of the d""f'rection of a boreho e at a particular depth. See directional survey.

single.hot tool: A device to obtaln one measureskin e..ffec...t.: (1) The tendency of alternating
currents to flow near the surface of a con-

different
5 and 8).
becomes

depths of investigation
Low resistivity
thicker where formations

mud cake, resistivity


than be lower

ductor. magnetic

(2) The propagation of an electrowave through a conductive formation

meable,
shallow

cause the apparent


measurement to

of a
that of

a deeper measurement, a situation called "positive separation." See also movable oil
plot_.
shadow zone: See blind zone.

results in a phase shift which shows up as a reduction in apparent conductivity. In induction logging in high conductivity formations,
a correction is made for this effect.

o:
(1) A line drawn through the
of imper-

See cycle s:kip.

_shale base line_'

m l__sl__5.]_.: A log combination and computation procedure for calculating the resistivity of

minimum dctions

characteristic

meable shales on an SP log (see Figure 14),


their formation waters. (2) The characteristic

which

is used as the reference in making measurements to determine the characteristics of sands and

the invaded zones, the true resistivity, the diameter of invasion, and the water saturation based on a dual induction-laterolog and a

porosity

log of some type,

often

a sonic

log.

SNP= sidewall neutron (porosity)

lo_9.. .

1138

She,iff

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:
sequence.

A poorly

consolidated

sand-shale

;Pred. ucti on _ fa_ctor


j
would

The

ratio

of

actual

SP

to

,t_iC_t__9__k = sedimentary rock: Usedto distinguish between mining (hardrock) and petroleum (softrock) objectives. &Jzz]_d_:A logging

= tatic
be

recorded

self

The maximum SP that potential: when the sonde passes -Fom a

ehole

acti vi ty,

to record resistivity,

tool

such as is lowered

or other types of 1ogs.

sonic, radio-

into

position well ins idea very thick, porous, permeable, clean sand to a point well within thick shale The electrochemical SSP (the
el ectroki neti c SP

is often

neglected)

is

approximately

giv en by:

(transit

= acoustic velocity

log = continuous
waves over .a unit

SSP = -K log

velocity log:

time) for acoustic

A well log of the travel,time

lO[aw/amf] '
between activity equation can be

measured i n microseconds per foot.


relations

distance, and hence-"h-e're-ciprocal of the longitudinal wave (P-wave)velocity. Usually Especial ly

are theactivity. of theformawhere a and . Betion wa:er anmmfu d filtra{ e, eSpectively


cause of the inverse relationship and equivalent resistivity, this
written:

used forhPOrosity by te l_. W ip. Thedetermination interval transit ime is


integrated

down the borehole to give the total

traveltime.
averaging

two transmitters

For the compensated sonic log,


are pulsed alternately;
tends to cancel

SSP :-KlOglo IRmfe/Rwe).


For NaCl mudsthat are not too saline, Rmf e : Rmf;
for other muds an activity made. In these equations, T = Fahrenheit temperature. correction should be K = 60 + 0.133 T, where

the measurements

errors

due to sonde tilt

or changes in hole

size.

character lOcL, cement bondlo..q., and-ractureloq.


See Figure 13.

See also c cl,

three-D 1,

the-wall

the borehole.
this separation.

(2)

device

or pro-

of a movable electrode in the borehole and a fixed reference electrode at the surface. The SP results from electrochemical SP and electro-

well log of the difference betweenthe potential

: spontaneous potential

: self potential:

ducing

satic

SP = SS_.__P = static

self

potential.
results a line 1 onto dip in segments.

to shale. In impermeable shales, the SP is fairly constant at the "shale base line" value

kinetic potentia which' a'e--prn t at the inter;face between permeable beds and adjacent
(se Fiqure 14). In ermeable formations
depends on the contrast

st.ckplQ: where the according a vertical this plane

A presentation of dipmeter well bore is represented by to the projection of the wel plane and the components of are indicated by short line

the deflection

between

$:t.oe]e_v..a..:

See acoustic

wave.

the ion content of the formation water and the drilling fluid, the clay content, the bed
etc.

s_te_amng potentia.l:
str!p:]:O:

See electrokinetic
in colors

potential.
and symbols)

thickness, invasion and bed boundary effects,


In thick, permeable, clean nons hale

A record (often

formations, containing

"sand line" value, which will change if the

the SP has the fairly

constant

of the lithology penetrated cating also shows and tests


measuring capture

by a borehole, indiof oil, gas, etc..

will

formation water disseminated salinity clay chanle s le In , t snd e P


not reach the sand line and a pseudoSP value will
with

= sigma unit = .c..apture unit:


cross-section.

A unit

for

static

posi've with respect to the shale base line in


sands filled
hole fluid.

be recorded.
fresher
SSP.

The SP is

fluids

than the bore-

vnet: that

A combination of data elements such more information is apparent from the comthan from the elements treated inde-

See also

bination

pendently.
trademark.

Synergetic

Log is a Schlumberger

J;L: The separation of certain electrodes or sensors on logging sondes. In nuclear devices usually the distance from the source to the detector. See Figures 3 and 12. See a 1so

J;Jld.p.].e::.p!__o.t : arrow plot:

A plot

of dipmeter or

_&J3: The separation of certain sensors on logas spacing is the distance from transmitter to

ging sondes. On the sonic sonde, span is the distance between two receivers of a pair where-

the ndP6-'-nt of the corresponding receiver pair. See Figure 13.

drift results where the dip angle is plotted versus depth as the displacement of a dot. A line segment points from the dot in the direction of dip using the usual map convention of north being up. See Figure 4.

tel, eviewer:

See borehole

televiewer.

s_D_an ad.iustment: tA calculation ofof a log W''dha'e rsul ed row heuse a which different from the one actually used.
sp_inner. survej:
specified levels

A log of the rate of flow of


in the wellbore. See flowmeter.

fluid in the wellbore, casing, or tubing at


- self potential = SP.

.._kp__Cjl_tu re l og: A w "'m de wi ''h- a-fe s i s t a nce th rmometer (thermistor). Used for locating t he top of cement behind casing (because the setting of cement i s exothermic and hence r aises temperature), interval s which are prod uci ng gas (because the the borehole expansion of gas as i t enters

ell log e of temperature, often

soontan.e.ou.s. potential

Glossary of Terms Used in Well Logging

1139

Downloaded 02/17/14 to 199.6.131.16. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

lowers the temperature), fluid flows (particularly

and the location behind casing).

of The

y_._is:gosi.i__: Resistance ofa fluid toflow; (stressi (rate of shear .


water saturation = Sw: Fraction of the pore volume
filled with formation water. See Archie's
formulas.

differential temperature log records the difference between two thermometers usually about 6 ft apart and is especially sensitive to very small changes in temperature gradient.

.%enl; old:
resulting

from c_..__skip_ or tool

Sudden deflections

of a sonic log
sticking.
''

thmer.].Oeu_o_: A neutron whose motion energy


corresponds to ambient temperatures; neutrons with mean energies of the order of 0.025 electron volts.

water
from

cut:
a well.

The volume fraction

of water

produced

_well !___ = borehole log:


physical
in a borehole.

measurements as a function
Distinction is

A record of one or more


of depth
sometimes made

_il]jlt.]... deca _...:

DT is a Schlumberger

trademark.

See neutron lifetime

1o.

between a log as an entire record which may contain curves showing several measurements and
the individual curves themselves, which are also

_ii_hmlr_:
log.

See nuclear magnetism

called logs. (1) Wireline logs are recorded by means of sondes carrying sensors which are
lowered into the hole by a cable. Examples

hjxptro_pi__c: A property of gels which allows


them to become liquid when agitated. muds are often thixotropic.

Drilling

include logs which record electrical measurements (SP, resistivity, etc.), acoustic measurements (sonic, three-D, etc.), nuclear measurements (natural radioactivity, neutron

1;hree-D loQ = microseismogram log = variable density log' A display of the seismic or
acoustic wave train received a short distance

-3 to fl) from a sonic wave transmitter. See also character log., cement bond lo, and sonic lo__.. Birdwell tradename. See Figure 15.
:
ime

Having very

1 ow permeabi 1 i ty.
over which readings are

logs, etc.), and miscellaneous measurements (hole size, temperature, etc.). (2) Other types of well logs are made of data collected at the surface; examples are core logs, drilling time logs, etc. (3) Still other logs show quantities calculated from other measurements; examples are movable oil plots, synergetic
logs, etc.

con_stLD_iL: A time

averaged to remove statistical


as with nuclear log readings.
sonde.

fluctuations,

wi_r__elin:
is lowered

Well
into

log recorded
hole

by a sonde which

the

by a cable.

W l=!Ree ]Jtt_jo.nh:
calculating
times:

porosity

An empirical expression for


qbfrom sonic log transit

transit

time:
wave

The traveltime
over one-ft

of

a compressional
See sonic

acoustic

distance.

1.

At - Atma
are concentric about the current so that the current flow is concen-

um?.e[:
trated

electrodes electrode

A microlateroloq,

in which the guard


flares out.

qb : &tf - Ztma'
where /t : observed interval transit tie,
5tf = transit time in the pore fluid, and Atma= transit time in the rock matrix This

in a tube which

gradually

relation works well in cleanconsolidated


with uniformly distributed pores.

formations

ltralq..g.l=p],,].9
600, or 1000 ft. sured resistivities ties calculated

long normal borehole log mounted on a 5000-ft bridle. The A to M spacings can be made 75,

= ULSEL: A modified
150,

reflect the secondary porosity; and in unconsolidated formations, this relationship may

In vuggy formations,

the sonic log may not

Differences between the meaand anticipated resistivifrom conventional resistivity


the distance to a salt

overestimate porosity. In such cases the formula may be empirically modified to give
better values.

logs indicate
Used to
flank.

define

nearby resistivity

anomalies.
dome

x__o_: Subscript used with log terms to indicate


values appropriate
cent to the

to the flushed zone adja-

borehole.

.v_riab!e. de.nsit...v loe : microseismogram

log = three-

log"' = V'D k 1g,"


VDL lo: = three-D log: Schlumberger trademark.

l.ocimeter_:
a fl owmeter.

A device which measures fluid

flow;

.vi__..[scomet_ezi: A device for measuring visc.o..sity.


Also called viscosimeter.