PROBSTHAIN'S ORIENTAL SERIES.
VOL. VII.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY

A . GREAT RUSSELL ST. '. 1914.BRIEF HISTORY OF EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY BY DAISETZ TEITARO SUZUKI LECTURER IN THE IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY. . TOKYO AUTHOR OF "OUTLINES OF MAHAYANA BUDDHISM.. & CO." ETC. W.C. PROBSTHAIN 41. LONDON.

ARY MAY ^ ^ ' ' & .UEF.

1913. TOKYO. If this first humble attempt to expound. Since the last political revolution. December.PREFACE THE contents in of this book were originally published The Monist (1907-1908) as three separate articles. will contribute somewhat to the interpretation of this long-misunderstood nation. so that they will be more accessible to the general public. some of the fundamental features of their thought. . Wishing to collect them in a compact form. the present writer has revised the text thoroughly and added considerable matter in an effort to make it more illuminating. which were manifested during the Ante-Ch'in period. the present work may be said to have partially attained its purpose. China has become the cynosure of all the world. DAISETZ TEITARO SUZUKI. more or less systematically. unfortunately. But. there are only a few scholars who really understand its people and their ways of thinking.

.

78 * . the Fundamental Virtue - Eeverence and Sincerity- Self. PHILOSOPHY 1. - - - v i INTRODUCTION - II. 3. ETHICS 1.- 92 101 CEREMONIALISM - .Inspection - 56 - 59 64 71 71 2. 4. 2. - CONFUCIANISM (a) (b) (c) - - 49 51 Jen. The Wu Wei (6) Anarchism HEDONISM (a) - . (d) Mencius ETHICS OF TAOISM - . 18 25 MONISM - TRANSCENDENTALISM PANTHEISTIC MYSTICISM - - 34 41 47 III. 4. 5. 5.CONTENTS I' AGE PREFACE I. .. -84 - UTILITARIANISM - '. OR YIN AND YANG POSITIVISM - - . RELIGION - 112 155 183 NOTES INDEX - .. - - 3. - - 13 14 DUALISM. .. - - - - - . IV.

.

The " Shu Ching.A BRIEF HISTORY OF EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY INTRODUCTION A TOLERABLY authentic history of Chinese civilization dates back as early as three thousand years before the Christian era." 3 Five Kings 2 one of the oldest books extant in China. is still prevalent at the present day. in But the real awakening of philosophical inquiry China must be said to be in the time when the first Chou dynasty (1122-255 B. which. shedding light on the early Chinese conception of Nature. when the Three Eulers 1 and the began to govern well -settled communities along the Yellow River. contains among others some important documents issued by Yao and Shun.C. with only slight modifications. though the Chinese intellect must have 1 . in imperial reigns flourished the twenty-fourth furnish documents century before us with some interesting religious material.) symptoms of decline that is. began to show in the seventh century before Christ.4 whose presumably Those Christ.

its as the Ante-Ch'in period. whereby the in- . it in If. 6 led by Lao-tze and Confucius. continued most brilliantly to illumine. and because it was suddenly cut short B.2 A BRIEF HISTORY OF been active for a long time prior to this. later on. But after this intellectual life. it by the Ch'in dynasty (221-206 is commonly known may ing. there set in a time for induration. for some hundred years. lost to busy itself with at this awakening stage of national The universe was yet new to the which was able to find problems to thinking mind. into the field. and odours greet him on all sides. covering about four hundred years. found " Yi " their way in some of the Ching Appendices and in Lao-tze's " Tao Te Ching. the early stage of Chinese It was as though one walked in springthe confinement of a long. the results of which. with wheresoever its attention was directed grapple it was so plastic. but range of intellectual activities was never surpassed any other period.). . however imperfect and fragmentary. Thus. where flowers of various hues philosophy. which sometimes turned to sheer wantonness. it gained in pre- sadly in freedom. The Chinese mind have developed later a higher power of reason- and made a deeper study of consciousness . It had many problems cision.. was one of the most glorious periods in the whole history of Chinese civilization.C." 6 of philosophical Beginning with the seventh century B.C. this epoch. monotonous time. after winter. and so creative. a galaxy and ethical thinkers.

China produced not a single The cyclone was so destructive. the First Emperor (Shih When. original thinker. he took the most drastic measures ever conceived by an absolute mon- arch to suppress the spirit of liberty which was just about to bloom. He would not tolerate a single thought that did not agree with his.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY tellectual blood 3 was doomed end to run along old and this stiffened veins. that people did not new structure of thought . which lasted for a millennium. Whatever discoveries they made . effects of such radical measures were just what the Emperor of desired.). He suppressed all independence thought and reduced the spirit of the nation to a comatose condition. Huang in the year Ti) of the Ch'in dynasty succeeded in consolidating the small kingdoms and dukedoms of feudal China for the first time into one vast empire. The pathy with the new administration (213 B. He would not countenance scholars and thinkers who dared to assume an independent air and voice their opinions. by burying and put an end to the discord of beliefs by burning 7 that were not in symall the books and documents He silenced all criticism his critics alive. They made a diligent research among the literary remains. An unhappy glorious came quite abruptly to Ante-Ch'in period. leaving desolation in venture to build any wake..C. 221 B. 8 During these times.C. but its were constantly endeavouring to recover what they had lost.

this period proved a fruitful season for literary forgery. the Buddhists utilized his terminology to the best advantage. but gradually recognized the superiority of the Hindu intellect. They not only rendered many Sanskrit texts into their own language. and boldly appeared with the old labels on them. and also coined a number of new words to express ideas hitherto unknown to the Chinese. So. 960-1279). In the doctrine did not meet with great oppoFinding a similar vein of thought in the spite of the strong conservative spirit of the Celestials. were even manufactured. A gradual and steady spread of Bud- dhism among the scholars paved the way for a renaissance under the Sung dynasty (A.D. teaching of Lao-tze.-A. Chinese Buddhists busily occupied themselves with the elaboration of their own sacred books.4 A BRIEF HISTORY OF were carefully studied. new sition. 959).C. This recognition of the merits of Buddhism was a great impulse to the pedantic disciples of Confucius. . Buddhism was introduced during this lethargic period of Chinese thought (213 B. Those which could not be found. though their traditional existence was known. especially in metaphysics and methodology. and commentaries were written by various hands. The people. did not observe the propagation of the foreign doctrine.D. with their characteristic indifference. Though the Confucians were not inclined in those days to comment upon the do anything more than merely edit and lately discovered classics.

But the Chinese did not swallow the new the nourishment with their eyes closed. of course. It furnished the Chinese stomach with more food to digest and assimilate into its system. They intuitively discarded what they thought was not profitable for They drew inspiration from . if not more boldly. now grappled with the questions of the Sphinx more intelligently. but they assimilated them so perfectly that Chinese Buddhism can be said to stand on own footing.defined period in its 9 history. except in the Ante-Ch'in period. The re-awakening of Chinese philosophy under the Sung dynasty marked a clearly. when other thoughts than those of Confucius things. understand thoroughly the train of thought that was prevalent during the renaissance. Its philosophy was more than that of Confucius. than it did during the Ante-Ch'in period. Their world-conprofound more into the nature of ception penetrated deeply its We generally understand by the history of Chinese philosophy that of Confucianism. Their inspiration. their practical nature. But if we want to appeared in the foreground.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 5 but also produced some original religio -philosophical works. which was refreshed after its long slumber of a thousand years. primarily came from the Buddhist canons. Buddhism stirred up the Chinese nerve to respond to new stimuli. for it is nothing more than that. Speculation. we cannot ignore the significance of the development of Buddhism during the hibernation period of Confucianism.

were to them irrevocable and They never dreamt of repudiating or con- tradicting tions. Almighty. All their new acquisifrom whatever source they might have come. which. Confucianism was not yet firmly established. But the philosophers of the Sung dynasty never thought of deviating from the old rut. may. Strictly speaking. them in any way. like the will of the infallible. time felt The thinkers of the a strong aversion to being yoked to one set of teachings. They became conscious of many new thoughts introduced from India. During the Ante-Ch'in period. or rather in practical ethics. properly be said that this period of Chinese renaissance did not bring out any new philosophical problems outside of the narrow path already beaten by the earlier Confucians. and how- . However subtle in their reasoning. and there were many rival doctrines struggling for ascendancy and recognition.6 A BRIEF HISTORY OF in those problems only Buddhism set which Confucianism It up for their intellectual exercise. the Chinese are not a speculative people like the Greeks or the Hindus. Their interests always centre in moral science. and endeavoured to utilize them only so far as they were available for a fuller interpretation of the Confucian doctrines. were invariably made use of for the discovery of something hidden in the old doctrines. What was original with them was the interpretation of the old system in a new light. and for a fuller analysis of them. there- fore.

which did not contribute anything worth special consideration to the history of Chinese philos- This short Mongolian dynasty left its pages opened where it found them.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 7 ever bold in their imagination. it to The Sung dynasty is followed by the Yuan (12711363). Its successor. Though he was not an independent thinker sense of in the being a non-Confucian. he was original enough to find a new path to the confirmation and After realization of the old time-honoured doctrines. the Ming ophy. for to whatsoever soaring heights man's speculation may climb. the passing of this luminary. dynasty (1363-1663). He was a worthy heir to the thoughts that stimulated and rejuvenated the Chinese mind at the time of the Sung renaissance. he is utterly unable to change This must always be kept in mind when we peruse the history of Chinese thought. They refuse to be carried up to a heaven where pure ideas only exist. They prefer to be tied down in earthly relations wherever they may go. The practical nature and conservatism of Confucianism his destiny here below. forever forbidding wander in a cometary orbit. They would deride those star-gazers whose legs are fatally chained to the earth. however. produced one great moral and intellectual character in the person of Wang Yang-ming (1472-1529). they never lose sight of the practical and moral aspect of things. the Chinese intellectual heavens were once more overcast with clouds. put an eternal seal on it. and .

Methodology is the key of knowledge. it is still a question. but simply to the clumsiness of method which he has applied in the investigation of nature and mind. However superficially changed form of government. of how soon China will recover from the dreamy inactivity induced by the excessive use of the opium of conservatism. Under the present revolutionary Govern- ment. Some time. for what has hitherto kept him comparatively backward in the march of civilization is not due to his intellectual awkwardness or to the lack of mental equipment. indeed. the masses are not yet quite fully aware of the significance of the intellectual movement of the twentieth century. and this. only recently ushered in after the overthrow of the Manchurian dynasty.8 A BRIEF HISTORY OF from his time until the present day nothing significant or deserving special mention has ever stirred Chinese serenity. to a their certain extent. also applies to their neighbours. has elapsed since the intro- duction of Western culture and thought into the Far East. he worthy of sure to achieve something quite history. as far as its intellectual life is concerned. when the giant of the Orient is fully awakened. threadbare usages and traditions and superstitions. but it is only a handful of thinkers among hundreds of millions of souls that have been awakened from their time-worn. Let the . makes free and his intelligent use of is But and Western methods of science. and contribute something original to the world treasure of thought .

Enjoying the utmost freedom of speech. Taoism was not yet lectual idiosyncrasy. every be original a hearing. the so-called I-twan. Natural selection had not yet set her stamp on any definite conception of life that seemed universally acceptable to the national. and there will surely come a time for the world to feel indebted to the giant of the Orient for his valuable store of knowledge. J Jg.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 9 Chinese entirely change their former attitude towards modern intellectual activities. and political environment of the time was very favourable. As the tide of civilization had then original advanced far enough. II the facilities of printing and could find and distribu- . and intel- whose virgin The competition for supremacy was free and keen. and the general. soil would distract It was ushered into a field had not yet been touched by human hands. were boldly Jpi standing on a level with Chang-tao. and unhampered by the tyranny of tradition and learning. Confucianism was found still struggling for its existence . man who had ventured his own intelligence enough to opinion. the orthodox. The Ante-Ch'in period yields the richest harvest of thought in the whole history of Chinese philosophy. i> that is the heterodox teachings. social. and time had not yet announced the survival of the fittest. recognized as a distinct system . had from so far nothing in the past that fully expressing itself. moral. the Chinese mind plunged life itself unreservedly into It it a bold speculation on and the universe.

with no method. The train of thought found in Taoism.10 tion A BRIEF HISTORY OF had been such as they are to. and in this respect that of irrational vagaries such as It we meet with in the Middle was to a fault. thus choked and obstructed. The Chinese mind seems to have exhausted itself this period. which represented the type of Hindu Chwang-tze was practically the speculation in China. thoughts appeared than were expressed at this time either explicitly or by implicaSome of the thoughts that were then uttered audibly enough had even to suffer the sad fate of being almost entirely ignored by later philosophers. moralizing and Ages. but pregnant with mystic suggestions and vague assumptions. and refused to be thrown into the abysmal depths of metaphysics. with no system. climax of the Lao-tzean philosophy. Therefore. 10 no doctrines were encouraged to develop that did not help to elucidate Confucius in a better light or in a more popular form. As soon as the Confucian teachings gained a strong hold on the people. could not make any further development even after its contact with Buddhism. for through the entire course of its history no further original tion. for Cononly fucianism did not favour superstition. practical positivistic. The history of Chinese thought after the Ch/in closely resembles European medieval philosophy. we assert . fanaticism. the former assumed a milder form. we can imagine what a spectacular sight the Chinese world of thought in would have presented in this Ante-Ch'in period.day.

themselves intractable and clumsy. language time is the tool of reason. broader in scope. a hindrance. the material on which we work reader is fails to produce the effect we desire . and classical purity are desirable in certain strength. and bolder in speculation than that in any succeeding age. and at the same it is the key to the understanding. rhetorical advantages mean very More than 11 that. forms of literature. When we cannot wield the tool as we will. and even writing. they are actually an incon- venience. the first How could thinkers of satisfactorily magnitude express themselves in such a language as Chinese ? Terseness. literal But while first accuracy and precision are the requisites. little. the nouns are indeclinno tense-relations are grammatically expressible. This fact shows itself in the Ante-Ch'in philosophy. to philosophical Another thing that is sadly lacking in the Chinese mind is logic.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 11 that the Chinese philosophy of the Ante-Ch'in period was richer in thought. The verbs able. . but their grammatical construction is extremely loose. and the at a loss to understand the meaning which was intended by the author. and throughout in the succeeding periods. and for this purpose the Chinese language logical may be those eminently adapted. Now. One thing at least that prevented the Chinese from making headway in their philosophy is their use of Not only are the characters ideographic characters. are not subject to conjugation. brevity.

Theretheir philosophy did not vanish in the mist of vague mysticism. as in the case of Taoism. They did not necessarily aim at distinctness of thought and exactitude of expression. They were strict in reasoning. " They will be broadly treated under Philosophy. They sense and practical working knowdid not want to waste their mental energy on things which have apparently no practical and immediate bearings on their everyday life. no eternal individual continuity after death." and "Religion. for in our practical and concrete world there lute exactness. is the Chinese might have unconsciously reasoned. there was no need for them to get entangled in the meshes of verbal subtlety fore. the Greeks had their logic and the Hindus very their Jietuvidya (science of cause) . and systematic in drawing Their minds seem to have been made of than the Chinese. much filled finer fibre The latter were with common ledge. that let us see what were the principal thoughts were being elaborated by the Chinese mind during the Ante-Ch'in period of Chinese philosophy. no miraculous revelation. nothing that can claim absoAs long as we are moving on earth. when and abstract speculation. Now." ." " Ethics. in which there was no absolute being. conclusions. when intellectual culture reached a similar height as that of the Ante-Ch'in period in China. it tenaciously clung to the agnosticism of everyday experience.12 EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY In India as well as in Greece.

PHILOSOPHY
THE philosophy of the Chinese has always been practical and most intimately associated with human
affairs.

No

ontological speculation, no cosmogonical

hypothesis, no abstract ethical theory, seemed worthy
of their serious contemplation, unless
it

had a

direct

bearing upon practical morality. They did, indeed, speculate in order to reach the ultimate ground of existence but, as they conceived it, it did not cover
;

so wide a realm as
to
its

them
it

it

we commonly understand it; meant not the universe generally, with
is,

for
all

innumerable relations, but only a particular portion
that

of

human

affairs

and these only

so far as

they were concerned with this present mundane life, Thus, wedo not have in China political and social.
so much of pure philosophy as of moral sayings. The ^Chinese must be said to have strictly observed the

\

" Know then injunction thyself, presume not Grod to scan; the proper study of mankind is man." And
:

this fact

must be borne in mind when we investigate the history of Chinese philosophy. Though here I have devoted a special chapter to philosophy, it must be understood that the subject was treated by the
13

14

A BRIEF HISTORY OF

Chinese somewhat as a side issue, and not as the main
business of their intellectual employment.

DUALISM, OB THE YIN AND YANG.

Two

antagonistic currents of thought manifested

themselves at an early date in the history of Chinese
philosophy, and run throughout its entire course. One is represented by the " Yi Ching " and Confucius

(551-479

12

B.C.)

;

the other

by

Lao-tze. 13

The former
latter

advocated a dualism, and showed agnostic, positivistic,

and practical tendencies; while the monistic, mystical, and transcendental.
Dualism was the
first

was

speculative philosophy ever constructed by Chinese thinkers. It is set forth in one of the oldest writings called " Yi Ching " (Book

The book is, however, the most unintelChanges) most enigmatical, document ever found in ligible, Chinese literature. Many conflicting theories have
of
.

been advanced as to
far as I

its

real value

and meaning, and

we have not yet come
can judge,
its

to

any

definite settlement.

As

true significance had been lost even as early as the beginning of the Chou dynasty. Not being able to determine its exact nature, King

Wen
J

(1231-1135 B.C.) and Lord Chou (who died 105 B.C.) took it for a sort of general treatise on

affairs, which might book of divination, and upon this surmise they wrote some commentary notes which imply suggestions of practical wisdom and

natural

phenomena and human

also be consulted as a

EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY
moral instructions.

15

Some

four hundred years later

Confucius again struggled hard to arrive at a definite and true estimate of the book. He seems to have

been not wholly
pretation of
find
it

satisfied

by

Wen

with the practical interand Chou. He wished to

a speculative philosophical foundation in the

apparently confusing and enigmatic passages of the " Yi Ching." He is said to have expressed his earnest desire to have his life prolonged several years so that

he could devote them to the study of this mysterious
literature.

The "Appendices," l4 popularly ascribed to Confucius, contain some philosophical reflections, and on that account some later exegetists declare that the "Yi Ching" was primarily a philosophical treatise, and later transformed into a book of divinaWhatever jju^Jvrrift ^frforft fl| |frt ^^^r ** * tion.
from
it

that early Chinese thinkers
_"

derived their

r

qualistic conception of the world.

Some lexicographers think that the character yi " 15 u and "moon )\. Whether ^j is made of "sun"
this

be the origin of the character or not, the interis

'

pretation

very ingenious, for yi means change in the change from daylight to moonlight, the change from blooming springtime to harvest-

any form

ing autumn, or the change from fortune to ill-luck, and vice versa. Change is a predominant characteristic of all fl-ptivitiftgyirn
fr

play of the male (yany)
in the universe.

and the female

(yin) principles

Owing

to this interaction of these

16

A BRIEF HISTORY OF
j

" " Yi opposite forces, which in the Ching proper are called chien and k'un Jty, and respectively represented by a whole line and a divided line, beings now

come

into existence,

and now go out

of

it,

and a conis

stant transformation in the universe takes place. So it is said in the "Appendix" III ie "Heaven
:

high, earth is low ; and the relation between the strong and the weak is determined. The low and the high

are arranged in order ; and the relation between the noble and the lowly is settled. Movement and rest
follow their regular course and the relation between the rigid and the tender is defined. " Things are set together according to their classes; beings are divided according to their groups; and
;

there appear good and evil. In the heavens there are different bodies formed and there take place changes
;

and transformations.
"

*~f
;

Therefore, the rigid and tender come in contact

the eight symbols interact.
;

To

stimulate,

we have

thunder and lightning to moisten, we have wind and The sun and moon revolve and travel, which rain.
give rise to cold and warmth.

r^ "The strong principle makes the male, and the weak principle makes the female.] By the strong the great beginning is known, and the weak brings beings The strong principle becomes ininto completion. telligible through changes; the weak principle becomes The changing is easy to efficient through selection. understand selection is easy to follow. As it is easy
;

BAELY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY
to understand, there to follow, efficiency is gained.
will last
;

17

grows familiarity ; as it is easy That which is familiar
is efficient

that which

will

be great.

Last-

the virtue of a wise man, great is the accomplishment of a wise man. Through change and

ing

is

selection

is

obtained the reason of the universe.
is

When

the reason of the universe

obtained, the perfect

abides in

its

midst."

" " 17 Again, Confucius says in the Appendix IV:

~^ "The

strong and the_weak_are the gates of change. is the male gender, and the weak is the female gender. When the male and the female are

The strong

united in their virtues, the rigid and the tender are formulated, in which are embodied all the phenomena
of

heaven and earth, and through which are circulated

the powers of the spirits bright." C To make another quotation in which the gist of the " " Yi dualistic conception of the Ching is more con" 18 " In olden times VI) cisely stated (" Appendix
;

when
is

the wise

men made

the Yi, they wanted

it

to

be

in accord with the nature

reason.

way
in

and destiny of things, which Therefore, they established the heavenly in Yin and Yang; they established the human way

humaneness and righteousness; they established the earthly way in tenderness and rigidness. Thus, each of the three powers of nature was made to be

by a set of two principles/' Whatever we may call them, the strong and the weak, or the rigid and the tender, or the male and
controlled
'2

18

A BRIEF HISTORY OF

the female^oj^heaYfiiL and -eartliyjic^Ygbng and Yin, or Chien and K'un, there araacordin to the "Yi

Ching," two independent principles, and their interplay, governed by certain fixed laws, constitutes the
universe.

And

the sixty-four trigrams (kua
plained,

these fixed laws are nothing else than f), as defined and ex-

proper. not see this numerical conception of the world in its abstract philosophical signification as Pythagoras did, but confined it to the vicissitudes of human affairs.

however enigmatically, in the "Yi Ching" The practical Chinese mind, however, did

Even when Confucius attempted
philosophical basis in the

to

see a natural

" Yi composition of the

its ethical bearings so as himself into bold speculations. The plunge deeply most eminent trait of the Chinese mind is to moralize

Ching," he could not ignore

to

on every imaginable subject. They could not but betray this tendency, even with the apparently nonsensical

whole and divided strokes of the eight
POSITIVISM.

tri-

grams.

19

What is most typical of Chinese thought, together with the dualistic conception of nature, is its strong
aversion to metaphysics. Avowed assertions of this sentiment have been repeatedly made by Confucius and his school, who later on proved to be the repre-

exponent of the Chinese national mind. They persistently refused to go beyond our everyday Their prosaic intellect always dwelt on experiences.
sentative

EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY
things

19
of

human and mundane.

The discovery

two

contrasting principles in nature satisfied their curiosity,
speculatively considered; they did not venture into a realm beyond the interaction in this visible universe

Yin_and Yang, and perhaps the mysterious working of the five Forces (king fa ). And it was through this interaction and mysterious working that some definite laws have come to be established in the
of the

physical world as well as in the moral; and these laws are curiously set forth in the "Book of Changes/' Therefore, what we have to do here on earth is to

put oursevles in harmony with these laws. When is done, our life-programme as a human being is complete. Why should we go beyond these observable and intelligible laws of nature and
this

morality, only to find out something transcendental and therefore necessarily having no practical bearing

on our earthly

life ?

Are we not

sufficient

unto

ourselves without having our imagination soar so high ? This is the most characteristic attitude of

Confucius.

" How could we know death when Says Confucius life is not yet understood ?" (" Analects," Book XI).
:

Again

"
:

Do

not

trouble yourselves

with things

supernatural,
spiritual

physical

prowess,

monstrosities,

and
could

beings" (Book VII).

Again:

"How

serve spiritual beings while we do not know how In the " Doctrine of the to serve men ?" (Book XI).

we

Mean " (Chung

Yung), however, Confucius expresses

cognizable concerned. which are too deep ceremony. As far as its apparent. Indeed. they are. the human understanding to unravel. attend to the sacrificial all Yet. we feel the existence of some- thing invisible and mysterious . How glorious are the virtues of Our eyes cannot perceive them.20 himself A BRIEF HISTORY OF much more XVI) : ! " (Chapter spiritual plainly concerning spiritual beings. cleanse themselves." is According to these passages." and all that we mortals laws and manifestations are . It Odes ' that the coming of the spirits is beyond human calculation. the Confucian doctrine There might be something on the quite apparent. and clad in the ceremonious dress. however enigmatically. the spirits make ceremony. stated " Book of in the Changes. from which they gain their evidently inexplic- able energy. beings our ears cannot hear them. How full and pervading they are seem to be above us. and moral doings might have something underneath them. we are compelled to acknowledge this fact at the time of the sacrificial But we do not know its exact nature and or too hidden from signification. they seem to be with is ! They us. other side of this All these natural phenomena life. and much more beyond a feeling of aversion. yet they embody themselves in all things. which cannot exist without them. The reason why said in the ' Book of the the invisible are so manifest is that sincerity can never be concealed. the people in the world regulate themselves.

were not . and then communes If it with the wherefore of the universe. monistic. This line of reasoning seems to have appealed most strongly to the Confucian mind.JJ. but which was almost completely neglected by the early advocates I shall quote here some " " passages from the Yi Ching to illustrate my point. the Confucians and other philosophers speak of T^ien .EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY have to do in able this 21 world is to understand these know- phenomena and leave alone the unknowable. tendency. it will be opportune to remark here that the term yi sometimes has the of the Confucian school. Indeed. " The Yi is not conscious. which finally developed into the speculative It is in the ***** " " Yi Ching that of philosophy of the Sung dynasty. but they never seem have attempted any further investigation of the nature of this undefined being or principle called T'ien. It feels. and again that it sometimes designates a system of philosophy which most truthfully explains the reason for all changes in this dualistic world. and mystical very sporadically. or Heaven to or Heavenly Destiny (t'ien ming JRJ f^). nor does it labour . we can trace. it is quiet. Before quoting. force and significance rather than the actual an abstract principle itself phenomenon of mere trans- formation or interaction. though an idealistic. or the Great Ultimate (tai chi ^ j^). and does not stir. however.

The eight trigrams determine the good and evil . and therefore it quickens without being speedy. It is spiritual. it observable in Look upwards. Deep it is. and pervades and interwoven in the course Heaven and Earth. and the two regulators create the four symbols (hsiang) . and changes occur on account of the . which creates the two regulators. and therefore it is able to com- prehend the will of the universe. for this reason that the Yi manifests the is wherefore of darkness and brightness. ch'i Jj!} As it traces them to their death and Things are made of subtle substance (ching 3{*0. it makes known the meaning of birth. and therefore it is able to accomplish the work of the universe. the Yi has the great chi). origin (t'ai we read " : Therefore. walking/' 20 it arrives without Further. and And it is recognizable in the earthly design. wards. It is the reason of motion. and it is the heavenly phenomena look down. and the four symbols create the eight trigrams (Jcua).22 A BRIEF HISTORY OF the most spiritual thing in the universe.). things to their beginning and follows end. and the good and evil create the great work/' In the first of the so-called " Appendices " (Hsi ZQ& Tz'u) we have is it : " The Yi therefore of in accord with is Heaven and Earth. how could it behave in this wise ? " It is through the Yi that holy men fathom the of depths being and explore the reason of motion (chi .

" from which these quotations are taken. . Its wisdom penetrates the ten thousand things. and they will prove that Confucius was not. Its way delivers the world. and knows its therefore it never grieves. Therefore." Finally. and it never errs. the Yi is established between them. and there is nothing wanting in them. its own abode. It rejoices in heavenly ordination. knows the characters and conditions beings (kuei shan $g jfilji). nizable. and night. It moulds and envelops all the transformations in Heaven and Earth. and it therefore never deviates. It rests in own destiny. thoroughly brings all the ten thousand things into completion. and it therefore never errs. When the male and the female are destroyed. there is no way of When the Yi is no more recogrecognizing the Yi. Its wisdom passes through the course of day and Therefore. the male and the female may be considered : to if Confucius " was the real author of these Appendices " to the " Yi Ching. it is and its loving kindness It is sincere. the spirits have no quarters. and therefore capable of love. have altogether ceased to exist/' All these are interesting thoughts. after all. are and the female in (k'uri) (ch'ieri) arranged order.EAELY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY wandering spirits (yu 23 'hun jgr- i$|) . the Yi is free from materiality. Yi seems to be used in the sense of " When the For instance male G-esetzmassigkeit. the Yi of the spiritual " The Yi seems to be Heaven and Earth themselves.

the most brilliant and most militant of all the Confucians of the Ante-Ch'in period. and we can say that what made the latter-day Confucianism such as it is. a kind of psychical agency which on this earth ." None the less Mencius' Ching. but capable of delving deep and existence . of natural religion as professed in the " Shih Ching. of activity to our moral life. Mencius.24 A BRIEF HISTORY OF into the mysteries of life merely a moral teacher." or . it is the nervous system is But Mencius did not use the term its sphere and value It is more definite. If the master were followed more faithfully. " This Ch'i can be freely translated universal energy. and therefore nearer to humanity than of the macrocosm. and through whom Confucianism can be said to have been finally and definitely established in such form as to-day. and his teachings were developed in all their diverse features. stimulates. it animates life awakens. speaks of the Hao jan chi as & 3& filling the universe (Book III). is due more or less to the emphasizing by its followers of certain practical features of the Confucian doctrine at the expense of its more speculative side. he limited the Confucian conception of T'ien or T'ien-ming. though considerably " Shu refined. more psychical. there might have been earlier attempts at a reconciliation between Lao-tzeanism and Confucianism. which seems to be a vestige." " and accelerates that or we understand ch'i Jgj impulse activity ". 21 ***** who was it . in such a broad sense .

EAKLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Ch'i 25 was too practical. Lieh23 What tze. and sole expounder He doubtless had many preof these thoughts. MONISM. There were not lacking. Mencius. Probably this was in the nature of their system. Chwang-tze. was most significant in the author of the " Tao Teh . including Lao-tze himself." 22 and may be characterized mystic. sometimes pantheistic. They owe their origin mainly to the teachings of the " Tao Teh Ching. decessors whose words and lives are scatteringly recorded by Confucius. however. It was quite hampered to in their development. in the Ante-Ch'in period certain tendencies that counterbalanced the ultra-practical. and others. He did not apparently take any interest in the metaphysical side of the Yi system. He developed only the ethics of his great predecessor. they showed a strong front at this incipient stage to their antagonistic systems. Though did not attain a full manifestation at any time in the history of Chinese thought. He was truly the representative of the Confucian positivism. was not the first as monistic. transcendental. too ethical. however. positivistic train of thought as reprethese tendencies sented in Confucianism. though not in its entirety and completeness. to be elevated to the dignity of a universal principle of existence. and Lao-tze. unfortunate that they were and had from time time to lose sight of their essential qualities.

we exalmost perience complete change of scenery. It is the door of all spirituality/' According to Lao-tze. The name that can be named is the not eternal name. but different in name. in eternal nonbeing I wish to see the spirituality of things . of though indefinable and beyond the comprehension . Ching" was that pass from Confucius to Lao-tze. rarely deviates from the plain. The nameable is the mother of the ten thousand things. and in eternal being I wish to see the limitation of things. normal.26 A BRIEF HISTORY OF lie gave to these conceptions a literary form through which we are able to trace the history of the Chinese monistic movement to its sources. and prosaic. Their sameness is called a mystery. and his are eyes steadily kept upon our earthly moral relations. traits. practical path of human life. These two things are the same in source. " " passage of the Tao Teh Ching shows how different his mode : of thought is from that of the Confucian that can be reasoned school "The reason 24 (too jj|) is not the eternal reason. Indeed. When we Lao-tze occasionally betrays his national but he does not hesitate to climb the dizzy The first heights of speculation and imagination. The unnameable is the beginning of heaven and earth. Therefore. Conin whom the Chinese mind is most typically fucius. mirrored. it is the mystery of mysteries. there is only one thing which.

but cannot see its end/' In what Lao-tze again seems to conceive his Tao. " The nature of the Tao. But the Tao principle of the universe. and thereby mother of the world/' Standing in its solitude. it does ! it is capable of becoming the Again see it. call it again returns into nothingness. it We look at We listen to colourless. but cannot see its beginning . not relax . how vague How vaguely obscure and yet in its midst there is ! ! .EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY the 27 all understanding. its is bottom is murky eternity indefinable . . proceed to meet it. is called soundless. beings. which was born prior to heaven or earth. they are merged not into one. Its top is not bright. The limits of we cannot its reach. at once the formative principle of the universe and the primordial matter from which develops this phenomenal world. 26 human is the fountain-head of actions. the I this call the obscure and vague. in Chapter it is hear it. imageless form. We XIY : " it. Therefore. chaotic in its composition. it is called bodiless. all is it Lao-tze calls not only the formative also seems to be prim- For he says in Chapter XXV of the "TaoTehChing": "There is one thing. it. it Universal in its activity. grasp but cannot hold these three it. This I We we follow after it. How noiseless ! How formless does not change. ordial matter. and the norm of this Tao. the shapeless shape. but cannot but cannot it. how obscure.

as it were. The physical conception. and transcends the grasp of the intellect. Lao-tze was the . Lao-tze's The metaphysical side of Tao conception not only was transformed by his early followers into pantheism and mysticism . midst there indefinite ! and yet in its obscurely vague a character. it also served as an electric spark. who endeavoured to reconcile the Yi philosophy with it. reviews the beginning name never of departs. as we might call fusion. as the reason of the universe and as the principle of all activity.28 A BRIEF HISTORY OF How is an image. The Tao. is a potentiality. it Teh Ching. there truthfulness. the Taoist cosmogony. all and things" (Chapter XXI). How unfathomable. it has a form has a shape which is shapeless . as primordial matter from which this world of particulars has been evolved. According to what we learn from the which is formless . developed later into the evolution-idea of the T'ai Chi 26 by the early philosophers of the Sung dynasty. and the is reality is pure. to the explosion of the famous controversy of the Sung and philosophers concerning 1). Essence (Jibing {) Reason (li However this be. The Tao. is something unnameable. From of old it thereby now. it is enveloped in obscurity and utter indeterminate" Tao ness." Lao-tze seems to have comprehended two apparently distinct notions in the conception of He was evidently not conscious of this conTao. how ! yet in truly till its midst there in its it is a reality.

conscious plan of its own in the creation or evolution of a universe. Lao-tze. mystical. whose literary works have been fortunately are Lieh-tze. therefore. he did not see the need of creating a being or power that stands independent of this nameable and knowable world. or Spirit This being is called Tao. this nameable world of phenomena evolved from an unhis cosmogony. Chwang-tze. What most of Taoists is 28 in the galaxy distinguishes Lieh-tze According to him. nameable absolute being. Q jfiijl).EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY first 29 " monist in Chinese philosophy. 27 preserved down to the present day. the Taoist philosophers displayed a depth of intellectual power which has never been surpassed by later thinkers in brilliancy and freshness. . of Valley (ku shen p'in." Being broadly propounded in the ushered into the time when the first speculative activity of the Chinese mind had attained to its full vigour. as the " Yi Ching was the first document that expounded dualism. Lieh-tze says that the unnameable is the nameable. Lao-tze's philosophical successors in the Ante-Ch'in period. idealistic thoughts " Tao Teh Ching. and perhaps Kwan-yin-tze. or the Mys- terious Mother (hsuan 4fc)> all these terms 29 The evolubeing used by his predecessor. They all developed the monistic. that has a definite. that it It was in the very nature of the unnameable should evolve a world of names and particulars. tion did not take place through the direction of a personal will. and the unknowable is the knowable.

we notice that he did not ignore the reason by which the Chaos was at all possible to evolve. or the Going-and-Coming (wangfuh). is able to create everlastingly. Great Change (tai yi) took place in which is it. Pneuma of Form (ch'i). and there was a Great Starting (tai chi). The Great Beginning was followed by the Great Blank (tai su). The Great Starting evolved a Great Beginning (tai shih). is not trans- The Going- . The Solitary Indeterminate is that activity (wu wei). this it lies before us came into exist" ence (Chapter I) In these statements Lieh-tze appears to have . as it formed. A the beginning of Form. The reason is the Tao. which is the first formation of Substance. Pneuma. understood by the so-called Chaos (hun lun) only a material potentiality. and Form being all material world as evolved out of the primordial chaotic mass. which is the inception of Pneuma.30 It could not A BRIEF HISTORY OF do otherwise. the Solitary Indeterminate or Non(i tuh). Substance. But. as we proceed. which creates and forms and it is is not created. as he calls it. that which transnot transformed. Its inherent nature necesit sitated to unfold itself in the realm of the Yin and beginning Chaos (hun tun It was a mingled or hun lun). it is able to transform eternally. To speak more words " There was definitely in the in the author's own stance (chih). potentiality : Yang. an unorganized mass. As it is not created. or. and Sub(hsing).

They who aspire after an . for it is that which causes things to come and go. function of non-activity (wu wei) that reason the " (Chapter I). life What makes a concrete object is substance. For all this is is. formless does not eternally remain be otherThings is exist because they cannot wise . things come to an end because they cannot do otherwise. Will there be no end to this constant coming and going of things ? Is the world running in an eternal " That cycle ? Lieh-tze seems to think so. and those that go are sure for ever. but what creates has no end. for he says : which has life returns to that which is lifeless that which has form returns to that which is formless. is What makes a taste tastable the sense of taste. come.Coming neither goes nor comes. but what constitutes the reason of taste has never been tasted. That which is lifeless does not eternally remain life. is the sense of hearing. sound perceptible itself. but what constitutes the reason of sound has never manifested bility. " What comes out of birth is death. but the Coming-and-G-oing itself remains and its limitations can never be known. a colour perceptible is its visibut what constitutes the reason of colour has What makes never been betrayed. Those that come are doomed to to go. but what constitutes the reason of a conWhat makes a crete object has never come to exist. just as those which are born because they cannot be unborn. that which formless.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 31 and. less .

creation tion istic . This life is merely a temporary abode. or death than life. there- spirit (kwei $). The called is. and not the true one. or sojourning. The soul is heavenly and the bones are earthly. The wise man remains serene and unconcerned in the midst of this revoluexistence. real returning I) . are the inherent law of nature. returns fore.32 eternal life. Life means lodging. and death means coming back to its true abode. The following passage from Lieh-tze will illustrate what a transcendental attitude is assumed by the philosopher toward life and the universe. it soul is and agglomerates from the body and separated is turbid. (Jcwei. and the world must be said to be revolving on an eternal wheel. Life cannot necessarily be said to be better than death. and end with an ethical attitude of aloofness. This is the characterthe Taoist philosophers. g) to its own } essence. and dispenses itself . are ignoring the law of necessity. which is the psychological outcome of a philosophy of absolute identity : . Spirit It is is. existence and non- and annihilation. That which belongs to the heavens is clear. he lives as if attitude of all not living. that returns to its abode " (Chapter death Lieh-tze thus believes that the cycle of birth and is an irrevocable ordeal of nature. Life and death. A BRIEF HISTORY OF or they who want to limit their life. or tenanting. that which belongs to the earth itself. they begin with a monistic philosophy.

and the mountains and plains. A friend came to him and consolingly explained to him f Heaven-andearth is no more than an accumulated pneuma. will not cause to sink/ Treading on With this both were ' : satisfied. and the consequent destruction of his own existence. man in the state of Ch'i was so grieved over the possible disintegration of heaven-and-earth. they cannot strike anything. the rivers and seas are accumulated forms on earth. 3 he . though the hugest among all concrete objects. that he could neither sleep nor eat.earth is merely a small disintegrate ? atom in space. and he who thinks of it as indestructible Heaven-and-earth must suffer a is not quite right. moon. stars. it falls There must surely be the time when And could we be free from appreto pieces. over disintegration. The earth is an accumulation of masses it filling its four it empty quarters.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 33 "A. hension when it actually begins to fall ?' "When this was communicated to Lieh-tze. the winds and rains are " The clouds accumulated pneuma in the heavens. Even when they may fall on the ground. and said and mists. its It goes without saying that measurements and know its nature. and who can say that they will never Heaven. and constellations are pure : luminary bodies in this accumulation of pneuma. its we cannot have He who grieves possible disintegration must be considered truly great. and the sun. Chang-tu-tze heard of it.and.

life does not know of death. nor pieces or not know to Coming does not know does going know of coming. but in truth there could not be any such existence as non-existence. with Lao-tze that the world started from the Nameless. go to pieces I). be it falls to pieces it or not. He maintained. this does not at all concern me ' " (Chapter TRANSCENDENTALISM. nor does death of going. stage of 30 who appeared a little later philosophical speculation. Lieh-tze been deeper in one sense than his successor. saying: that heaven-and. but he the latter. for instance. . on the was the most brilliant Taoist might have China has ever produced.earth it. this nonexistence somewhat suggests the sense of relativity and conditionally. Chwang-tze. this or that. but in many points he extended and detailed what was merely vaguely suggested by his predecessors. falling to pieces as to deny Whether means to tell. was not such a brilliant genius as The main philosophical problems handled by Chwang-tze were those of Lao-tze. for Chwang-tze declares that when we say there was non-existence (wu fjj) before existence. it is all Therefore. than that of Lao-tze. To go to of life. Nameif we could use the expression.34 A BRIEF HISTORY OF 'It is as great a mistake to assert is laughed. but Chwang-tze's less was more absolute and transcendental. we have no the same. and.. therefore.

he was content to remain there as a quiet. but absolute non-existence better to say that there " (Chwang-tze. but he did not altogether fly away from the latter. he left it behind him in his ascent to the realm of the Infinite. there is no avoidance . however. He was. and there he wished to sleep an absohis ideal." Book II). This was lutely quiescent dreamless sleep. inactive. in which he did not know whether or not his was the dream-existence of the butterfly. not non-existing conditional non-existence. more radical than Lao-tze in his transcendental idealism. the world of relativity was felt like a big pen . " covering his brightness with the earthly dust. "The Inner. and harmless fellow. The fundamental conception of Lao-tze's doctrine was monistic and idealistic when contrasted with the Yi philosophy. however. therefore. Chwang-tze was convinced of the ultimate unreality of this phe- nomenal world. there was such a confused and contradictory philosophical con- awakened him from the transcendental enjoyment of his self -forgetting trance. Chwang-tze in this wise delighted himself with subtle dianoetic argument.EAKLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY it is 35 was in the beginning a " non-existence (wu-wu) that is. and showed a certain contempt for the relative phenomenal world where pluralism prevails." When we come to Chwang-tze. 31 He argued that as long as things in this world are conditional and limit one another. At the time troversy that it of Chwang-tze.

perhaps. oh the other hand. It is the height of foolishness to argue that as I am walking one way every man must and ought to walk the same way. the duck. but it would surely resent any human interference with their length. of a military officer. but each responds Suppose differently according to its inner necessity. some like the gruff roar of a lion. therefore. but would not be thankful for . What and is good to me is not neces- sarily so to others. affirmation and negation." Book II) And what need would there be to pass a judgment on these multitudinous notes. they have the same privilege to follow their own inclinations. and declare that some and not others are correct representations of the truth ? Chwang-tze. coming and going. like the stern which may be some like the arrow's whiz.36 A BRIEF HISTORY OF and contradiction. there must be good and evil. has short legs. Has not everybody the will and right to go his own way ? As I should not be compelled by others to deny my own nature. Some sound some like fretted water. the trees a gale sweeps over a mountain forest resound with their varied notes according to all the : possible differences of the cavities found in them. command . As long as there is a relative and conditional existence. The stork has long legs. and so on ad infinitum (" The Inner. says that no good can come out of engaging in a controversy of this nature. vice versa. idiosyncrasy. its of controversy mind has truth is own Each individual One and the same reflected therein.

if we rid ourselves of all the subjective prejudices that we may possess and freely follow the course of the Tao. for dissension is the outcome of human meddling every with the heavenly course of things. is because we do not let the Tao work its own way. "Why did not the fool feed the bird with things it naturally feeds on. the philosopher insists in giving everyone his innate freedom and the right to think and act as he feels all . and. and there would be no controversies . and after three days died. and entertained it with the most beautiful music sad. therefore. and thereby he wishes to reach the point where may eternally be set at rest. Hsi Shih was a beautiful woman. But the bird neither drank nor ate. are in the wrong habit is not right. pleased with it. where he fed it with all the delicacies his culinary depart- ment could was it furnish. it by his court players. every being would enjoy his own inherent virtue. exclaims Chwang-tze.EAELY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY our artificial 37 improvement on their stubbiness. Now. but when her features were reflected in the water the fish would have been frightened away. There was once a strange sea-bird He was visiting the garden of the Duke of Lu. instead of those horrible human concoctions ?" Therefore. controversies But how can we find out what is is the real intrinsic ? nature of each individual existence Chwang-tze seems to think that the Tao of confusing and that the reason why we what is right with what present in every being. and had it brought to his court.

Confucianism. because the Tao cannot be one in one thing and another in another. produced earth.38 A BRIEF HISTORY OF altercations. The Tao must source." We observe here the subjective contradictions. find the uniTao in your own being. is ? Can we know of its nature more thinks of ? Let Chwang-tze tell us what he " This is the Tao there is in it sen: tiency and constancy. What. Bef ree yourself from subjective versal find ignorance and individual peculiarities. Taoism mysticism. It It produced heaven. He " Let us make tendency of Taoism. which distinguishes itself so significantly from its rival doctrine. It may be handed down by the teacher. is the Tao definitely it. but not be received by the scholar. It may be apprehended by the mind. believes Chwang-tze. From it came the mysterious existence of God (ti ffi). then. to find the real nature of things. it cannot be perceived by may the senses. from of old it was securely existing. be the same in every existence. Before there were heaven and earth. it was before the Tai Chi (Great 32 . but it does nothing and has no bodily form. thus simple enough. It has its root and ground in itself. and you will be able to it in others. because " I " and the " " ten thousand from the selfsame things grow and in this oneness of things we can bury : all our opinions and says our appeal to the infiniteness of the Tao and take up our position there. but our life and would be blessed with It is the transcendental bliss of the Infinite Tao. too.

and was enjoying himself by walking along the stream of Hsuen (the Mysterious). and where to go. and yet could not be considered deep. in order to obtain the Tao ?' Chih asked Wei three times. as every is. (intellect) went north. it. and yet could not be considered old" (Part I. It was older than the highest authority. and yet could not be considered to have existed long. and what to wear. answering. Section YI). when he happened to meet Wu Wei Wei (Non. and Wei made no response. in order to rest with the Tao ? What have I to rely upon. When you want to another. point it out or hides itself within the threshold of consciousness. and thinks the Tao is beyond all human intellection. How can this Tao be known and expressed by us ? Is our intellectual faculty able to grasp the nature of Tao ? Can we analyze it logically and bring it out to Taoist our rational plane ? Chwang-tze is a mystic. What have I to think and reflect know the Tao ? Where have I to abide. Wei was not averse to know how to answer.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 39 Ultimate). but did not " Having no answer. doing-speaking) to ask you about. and climbing the Hill of Yin Pin (the Con- " Chih cealed). to express municate it it is lost. It was produced before heaven and earth. Chih returned south of the River Peh (White) and proceeded to the Mount of . f I have something sir. it and comThe mind seems to comprehend expose it but when it tries to it before others' view. in order to Said Chih to Wei.

when virtue is lost. is humaneness . that that which deceives and righteousness. which wants is is propriety. when the Tao is lost. the knowing one speaketh not.40 A BRIEF HISTOEY OF Ku Ch'ueh (Solitary End). and you will know the Tao . while the other and you : two know ' it peror : Wu who Wei Wei not . put nothing on. and you will obtain the Tao/ " Chih asked ' You and I know it. where he saw Chu K'uan (Crazy-Crooked). Said the Emperor: 'Think not. The Tao cannot be brought within human limits. and Ch'u said. and will tell you what it is. Chih returned to the Kung (Imperial Mansion). abide nowhere. He proposed the same questions. will rest with the Tao. is is right now ?' Said the Emis quite right. Ch'u K'uan approaching. Have nothing to rely nor on. when humaneness is lost. then propriety . That which does have virtue. then humaneness. But while on the point of speaking. when righteousness is lost. we Therefore. for the latter is order/ the blooming of the Tao and the beginning of dis" . proposed the same questions. That is why the sage practises the doctrine of non-speaking. nor can Virtue be reached by human means. nor reflect. then righteousness. but you and I are far away. I have forgotten what I was about to speak/ ' "Having no Ti satisfaction. Now. and seeing Huang Ti (the Yellow Emperor). Ah. I know it. and the speaking one knoweth not. go anywhere.

the imagination and faith. though it may contain some of his own sayings scattered in the book. Intellectual discrimination and the analytical process of reasoning give way to a mystic contemplation of the Absolute." seems to have been acquainted with We Lao-tze as we see from his request to the latter to Kwan-yin-tze. The intellect sometimes and then we have an outspoken gains ascendency. may not be proper. and still in our possession. but the work ascribed to him.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY PANTHEISTIC MYSTICISM. Strictly speaking. poetic and religious. therefore. according to Ssu Ma-ch'ien's Historical Records. it write a book on Taoism. " Kwan-yin-tze. ence expression of positivism. It is peculiar to the human mind that while the intellect is ever struggling to attain to a definite conception of the universe and to state it in most positive terms. is earlier than Lieh-tze and Chwang-tze. it naturally turns into mysticism. as the history of thought proves everywhere. and mysticism invariably tends towards pantheism. therefore. insists on concretely and immediately grasping that something which sion is so slippery as to defy all realistic apprehenitself and yet presents to with annoying persist- our inner eye. we have the predominance of mystic tendencies in philosophy. find in Kwan-yin-tze this culmination of Taoism. When its days are gone. to classify the Kwan- . is evidently a later production. 41 When speculation reaches this point.

fuel. It is like the relation between fire One flame of fire burns all kinds of fuel. When one drop of water . it in yourself . . and you know everything else. All things are the Tao fuel. there is no more fire left. according is which thought and explanation. as neither separable from the other. or the Mysterious (hsiien. It is each and all of these. The Tao. and But the is the fire is not independent of the When all fuel burns out. and it is they. of mensuration and divisibility. They Find them they are it. When this evolved.42 yin-tze 83 A BRIEF HISTORY OF with Chwang-tze and Lieh-tze as Ante-Ch'in literature. and with it the mystery of heaven and earth (Book I) Therefore. s). linear development its of Chwang-tze and Hence place here as the last of the Taoist to Kwan-yin-tze. Spirit (shen jj$). But the Tao in itself does above is all Tao not under the categories of freedom and necessity. one breath of Tao penetrates throughout the ten thousand things. Heaven As thus is fests in all possible expressions the one and only Tao asserts itself and maniand existences. the spirit of my existence. Destiny (mingfir). Therefore it is called fall (t'ienJQ. but it contains many characteristic Taoist thoughts which can be regarded as a direct and unbroken Lieh-tze. are in So. the essence of heaven and earth is the essence of myself the spirit of heaven and earth is it and it is in . there appear heaven and earth and the ten thousand things. not the Tao. there is nothing that itself. is that thinkers.

They even go so . but a complete 3). therefore. homogeneity (IV.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY is 43 merged into the waters of a boundless ocean. but the water tranquil. may go through series of transformation. satisfactorily solves the question of its striking resemblance to Hindu philosophy. though was known during the Han dynasty (206 B.C. 3). 9). 2). and which evidently point to their later introduction. The justifiable supposition. is that Kwan-yin-tze might have been produced by one of the Buddhist Taoists of those days. and multiplicity in unity The multitude may change. I mean such terms as $fc $$ (IV. coming and going is filled As is seen here. some claim.D. (V. which held sway over Chinese minds during the Sung dynasty. when we know that the book is ostenits sibly declared to have been recovered. an endless but the one is eternally unchangeable (II.- Besides. 4) and f| 5 its Taoism has such remarkable features in (VII. especially existence A. which. the Kwan-yin-tze with the Mahayana Buddhist thoughts. when almost all notable thinkers of the day rapped at one time or another at the monastery door. there are certain terms in the text which were not yet known in the Ante-Ch'in period. go. doctrine that a foreign origin has been suspected. Therefore the holy man recog- nizes unity in multiplicity. which reflects at the Shadows come and them remains for ever one of the The wise live in this tranquillity of the and serenely look many. there is no distinction between the two. 23).

finally. I will not enter upon a discussion of this point. the reader will notice The Kwan-yin-tze is respect if not in any other. the water on earth. and the spirit in ||) man. how much more openly its it breathes the spirit of Buddhism than predecessors. into one system. Taoism and Buddhism. mortality. and other unknown Taoist far as to suggest the thinkers. is one Essence (ching $J) that becomes the cold in heaven. there were many attempts to bring the two. Kwan-yin-tze. religio-philosophical and. that the present popular religion in China is a sort of conglomeration of these two teachings.44 A BRIEF HISTOEY OF Brahmin descendancy of the Yellow Emperor. must be said to be one of those it with its early attempts in China which were made to reconcile the pantheistic mystic tendency of Lao-tze and Chwang-tze to Indian idealism. as we have already seen. and that the first Buddhist missionaries drew a large part of their terminology from Taoist lore. but the fact remains that there are some significant points of resemblance between Taoism and Buddhism. Lao-tze. and the essence "It in man. and will see later. and that as soon as Buddhism began to send its roots down in Chinese soil. one contributing to polytheistic tendency and the doctrine of and the other with its belief in heavenly imKarma. is one Animal Soul (po that becomes . the one Spirit (shen jff) that becomes fire on earth. highly interesting in this In what follows. It It is the heat in heaven.

such changes as cold. in heaven. " To illustrate. and of "Let my essence be merged heaven-and-earth and all in the Essence things. as all different waters could be combined and made into one water. as one tree could be grafted on another and made into one tree. all things more than soul.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 45 the drought in heaven. and it is warm draw a breath . the metal on earth. " It is thus that heaven-and-earth and are no soul. warmth. . my animal my There nothing that dies. all made into one metal. . one reason (tao). and the animal soul in man. they do not repress the Hot-one with the one. spirit. nor do they injure the one with the notoneness. . one substance. one" (Book I). there is nothing that is born (Book IV) " To the wise there is one mind. is my . "Let my soul be merged in the Animal Soul of heaven-and-earth and all things. " Let my Spirit be merged in the Spirit of heavenand-earth and be united and " Let my animal soul be merged in the Animal Soul of heaven-and-earth and all things. It is one Soul (hun *J|) that becomes the wind the soul in man. the wood on earth. as all different metals could be melted and things. as all different fires could made into one fire. and these three are conceived in their Therefore. heat. and coolness are like those in a brick: when it is placed in fire it is hot when put in water it is cold blow a breath on it. my " essence.

always and are never disturbed by outward signs. Our hair and nails are growing every minute. To illustrate again See : the shadows cast in the water but the water itself come and go. nor death. . and the untrue into the true. of essence. nor of this world life. To him who knows the oneness neither men. there are nor I. may turn the true into The reasoning the untrue. " To In the great ocean there are milillustrate : lions of millions of fishes.46 EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY it. they fail to know it through its potential For this reason die. signs. but only this one with body of water. Only its outward influences are coming and going. while the brick itself knows neither coming nor going. abiding in the eternality of things. think of " its changeable (Book VII) aspect . . but their nature (ctii Jjt) is The wise know this oneness of things. and again. and while the wise look at them through their inner signs and know that there is no change whatever in their ultimate issuance " (Book VII). are born and they think things change. its I and external world multitudinous things are existing in the midst of Great Evolution. from and it is cool. but their essence is one. but the multitude of people recognize the fact only when they become visible. no going (Book II). one. they " knows no coming. " All things change. the wise. it enemies of friends and friends of enemies. may make Therefore. large and small.

however. They did not.ETHICS THE moral can be said to have been the only philosophical subject which. It has been their inmost conviction that the universe is the manifestation of a moral its principle. itself to human life in its and moral bearings. This was even true with the highly metaphysical and mystical school of Taoism. social. whose followers were deeply interested in com- pounding an a sien and ascending to Heaven as without (jjlf. while it was the avowed object of Confucianism to discard all subtle reasonings about philosophical elixir of life problems. philosophy by the Greeks. and which has been considered worthy of their earnest speculation. practical morality must be said to be the most characteristic trait of the thought which prevailed among the people of the Middle Kingdom. has seriously interested life the Chinese. from the earliest stage of culture to the present day. but to confine civil. If religion be repre- sented by the Hebrews. and mysticism by the Hindus. and that every existence in some mission to teach humanity a moral way has lesson. conceive the world to be 47 . saint) shedding their corporeal body.

they were thoroughly mundane. to behave while yet alive in the But here the field is not monopolized between Lao-tzeanism and Confucianism as in the case of as to how we ought . They were thoroughly moral.48 A BRIEF HISTORY OF who Their Heaven superintends and (t'ien). they were thoroughly human. or way Heavenly Ordeal ming). but no religious significance seems to have been attached to their conception. Throughout the writings of Confucius we are unable to find any religious appeal made either by him or by his followers to a power supernatural or transcendental. expounding his views world. China is rich. we it. or Heavenly (t'ien the creation of a personal god directs its course. If they had a clear conscience or Were living in the blissful state of non-action (wu wei |Hf JJ). The Heavenly Way is thoroughly moral. is a sort of natural law. When we do not follow its regulations. therefore. consequence merely because we violated and not because we incurred the displeasure of suffer the some august being. and there was nothing outside that would disturb their peace of mind. they had everything that they desired. (t'ien tao). in this class of literature . and would not tolerate anything that contradicts it. Man is a moral being pure and simple. that is not personal but somewhat deterministic. there is no intimate relation between morality and religion. as the latter is generally understood by Christians. every thinker or philosopher worthy of the name has dipped his fingers in the subject.

modes of thinking. fruitful disciples. is By it this I mean Mu-tze's this There no if doubt that would have been a system could have found a proper support and encouragelater scholars.ny mjsticalor agenc ?The Chinese are a sober-minded people. all with their history can persistently foe one. The reason or at least one of the principal reasons wiiy Qonfucius came to be so honoured and distinguished by the Chinese national teacher wasfulSo ^ ^i based on >n?Tm^jam. which has been the choice the people especially of the middle. though further unfortunately his school did not make any development beyond his own immediate utilitarianism. We shall begin our exposition of Chinese ethics with Confucianism. and social life. there is one writer independent and original enough to stand alone by himself. aJftevoifl nf _. Whatever influence might have been exercised by other scholars upon Chinese culture. they were all outvied by Confucianism.EAELY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY philosophy. 49 At least. fthjfifiti pursued by . and liked Confucius in preference to all other philosophers. ment among CONFUCIANISM. Another reason which favoured Confucianism was that it is officialdom. pre-eminently a code of morality for Olj^ftse As those who are at all acquainted testify. learrift^ || official classes.

.. .p-^. especially among the To understand Confucianism... sense he_ws_inojie-ei-tir-poM and thus - i has been the prevailing . inTI ... we must start with Confucius's doctrine of humanism. of_jnorals as well^ politics and ethics were the same thing with the Chinese. supplied them with a code as a practical political guide .. m China ti L . . frs history. and not necesIn this sarily as transmitters of his vast learning. j __ <Br mi ... -i throughout mandarins. or at least it has been so understood by his influential disciples... __ Their learning and education were not necessarily to cultivate their mental and moral faculties. so that they could succeed him after his death as practical propagators of his doctrine. which forms the corner-stone of his entire ethics.. moral and doctrine political ..50 to obtain A BRIEF HISTORY OF an official pofliMm* witli tuba Jknrernmejat. the principal object which was to prepare them for the public service. but to apply them practically to their official lives as the governing class.. . put his theories into practice while yet living. f- .. he retired from active political life of and began to teach his pupils. Learning was not sojight for ita- Confucianism^ therefore.. Confucius himself worked indefatigably to but seeing that his efforts were not to be crowned with success in his days.

Broadly speaking. is the foundation of society and the road . w^iich its awakened full actuality when he conjes in contact with another fellow -being. and on this basis his ethics founded. The Taoists thought engaged them in discussion being or nature of the Tao. forming /the permanent bond of association between them^/This feeling. and its signification is thai there an inborn feeling in every man's heart.'^Tao-4-that Q is. All Chinese thinkers admit that man and nature are not mere accidents.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Jihr. feeling of fellowship. whether it was transcendental or positivistic. sympathy. and is H to two. The Chinese character (fc. or friendly feeling. that their existence cannot ^gndunt no dissenting voice among the thinkers so far as the existence of a Tao was concerned. The Tao. is Now. it to is no more than jen.afrtfflir^ ^VA T1Jig. is or better. says Confucius.//ew) made out is of the two component ideograms \. a way or norm "TffUlitar flf Tnim and tha giiidq pf . while the Confucians adhered the latter conception. man. 51 THE FUNDAMENTAL VIRTUE. Confucius declares. was the former. but that there is a . or lovingkindness. What vehemently be a haphazard affair. There was ^^J ^ 1 and controversy was the The issue was whether it was metaphysical or simply moral. it is it is very difficult to find a proper English equivalent for the Chinese jen.

one will not be kept from doing what one would not have done by others For indeed the ("Analects/' XII. This fellow-feeling is the reason of the Golden Rule. wishing himself to succeed. this road. which in spite of his innate egoism drives him out seeks its of his narrow selfish limitations. absolute egoism. to others Without it. but in humanity. will have others succeed" (Book YI). as Confucianism does not believe in the innate baseness of human nature^ that_ is. and the feeling of fellowship is the Tao. will have others established. is feeling that of humanity itself. 15) of the house. through a negation. wishing to establish himself. and which it own satisfaction were. No moral being can live without this Tao. Says Confucius : " A man who has jen. 23). for that which can be dispensed with even for a moment is no more the Tao ("Chung Yung/' Chapter is I). it is the door that must be passed through when going out (" Analects/' Book YI. The is latter is not a modified development of egoism. the Tao the feeling of fellowship.|j J^ nil y]>fn^fl It is the Tao . 2.52 A BRIEF HISTORY OF fruTYin. It is in this spirit that inherent Mencius says has a feeling for others which he " : Everybody unable to is . it in its but asserts the existence of an altruistic impulse in every human heart. of himself. XY. The of feeling of fellowship is the primary altruistic instinct man. Therefore. it is the road which must be travelled by every social being.

Confucians. impulses. down into a pit. and benevolence. 15) and that by this he meant no more . faithfulness. so the Confucians consider feeling of fellowship as the prime principle on which the grand edifice of human society is built. longTherefore. feelings respond to them accordingly. 53 . piety. courage. . ." Book IV. intelliand The circumstances gence. Men who have no feeling of pity. Suppose a child is at the point of It awakens in the spectator a mingled feeling of apprehension and compassion. All virtues spring from jen. assuming filial thereby different names. such as loyalty. under which we move are ever changing. affirms that in his dealings with men and things he had only one principle (too) to guide him (" Analects. are no human beings" (Book Ila). slipping .EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY endure. which urges him to an immediate rescue of the child. not because he wants to incur a favour upon This is not because he wants to be honoured by his friends or fellow-villagers. righteousness. This its is parents. as in various it comes related to the will. They are no more than the modifications of this fundamental feeling. As Schopenhauer made sympathy (Mitleid) the foundation of his ethics. This is simply because he cannot bear its pitiful scream. Confucius suffering. propriety. is confirmed by most Judging from the general trend of Confucianism. and our ways desires. than the feeling of fellowship. therefore.

When the norm is lost there ensues : lawlessness later and discord. Mencius.54 A BRIEF HISTORY OF : is egoism (cf. there" J&n fore. comments on jenf saying the virtue of the soul and the reason of love. society into pieces and humanity is ruined. and heart." Chou-tze. to rejoice when they has nothing to do with a desire for compensation. and the raison d'etre of a moral being is lost. There is " (" Mencius." It is interesting to contrast the Confucian definition of jen with that of Han-f ei-tze 36 in his is "Commentary on Lao-tze " " : J&n to love others with gladness of are blissful. they are concentrated only two moral principles are possible feeling or altruism. and the other one is fellow- on our own is selfish motives. When the latter sense cultivated at the expense of the former. a great philosopher of the " Fellow-feeling is the norm of Sung dynasty. says the universe. ' Therefore. Ch'eng-tze." Book Ilia). says Lao-tze. 36 another and : " Jen is great Confucian. When our feelings do not go out to our fellow-beings." nothing that could check its course 34 Book VII). "Mencius. This is because the heart is unable to refrain from being so affected. Superior jen works as if not " working/ . (which is also . says: (fellow-feeling) is man himself" falls pronounced jen in Chinese) To quote Mencius again " Fellow-feeling highest heavenly honour ever given to men. and to be grieved when they suffer misery. : is the It is the safest abode ever secured for men.

" Hence the ambiguity was somewhat which jen is " Studies in ConDr. 37 Now the question is " : How are we to cultivate . but in its specific To them.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 55 But it must be noticed that jen was used by Confucius as well as by his disciples. which are (2) (1) prosperity. It is true that he was quite conscious of one ultimate principle lies all virtues which under- and which is generically known as jen . Every reader of the Confucian "Analects" is well aware of the various senses in which the term Jen is how used by the Master. involved throughout the "Analects. but its particular modifications as practised in our daily life. But his application of the term jen indiscriminately to this principle as well as to its practical specifications in confusing. Y. and we are sometimes at a loss to arrive at a definite conception of it. When the Chinese speak of three or five cardinal virtues. (5) unselfishness (or self-control). (3) charity. But the fact seems to be that Confucius himself did not have a very clear analytical comprehension of jen. for he declared that in his daily conduct he was guided by only one principle. (4) sincerity and sympathy. jen meant not only the most applications. forming the central idea of his ethics. jen must be understood in its specific sense. Kaniye enumerates in his " five different shades of meaning fucius (p. 297) the given to jen by the Master. fundamental ethical feeling innate in man. not only in its general and ultimate signification. kindheartedness.

according Chinese. REVERENCE AND SELF-INSPECTION. " Let us now approach the question By what means can one reach this pinnacle of moral perfec: tion r -jjjfc According to Confucius. he holy is When a said to be a sage. no hesitancy. and all that he does never deviates from F{* the Middle Way (chung tao JH). He is now jen itself. and the moral efforts of its followers are concentrated upon the cultivation of this feeling. and Confucius. ching or kung ijjjf is . every-day life ?" Even the Master himself did not claim to have brought his fellow-feeling into perfect development. no what would be his proper conduct under given conditions. or to the man (seng jen}. reached the state of perfect adjustment between natural impulses and moral discipline. yet Here he may be said to have ects/' Book II. He behaves as freely and innocently as a child fresh from the bosom of nature. He is no longer hampered by any improper thoughts and impulses. He deliberation as to has no scruples. and naturally none of his three it. : have attained to the end of his it life thousand disciples were said to But Confucius declared toward " I behave myself as my heart never transgresses the mean " ("Analdesires. 4). fully deserves this title.56 fellow-feeling A BRIEF HISTORY OF and put This it is in actual operation in our the gist of practical Confucianism. person reaches this stage.

EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY

57

the road that finally leads to the perfection of humanism and to the full development of fellow-feeling. It
is

a reverential attitude of a moral person toward his

own

is composed of being. Etymologically, hung " " heart " and " " many hands," many hands meaning " " " or together conjoined/' It is a state of mind

^

prompting reverential deportment. Ching ^gfc, which " mindfulness" and is composed of "gentle tapping,"

means self-restraint, self-respect, deliberation, gravity, and dignity. Ching and kung are generally used together to make the one clearer by the other and more definite. But, separately, kung is more of the outward deportment and ching of the inner feeling.

When
within,

the feeling is carefully nourished and purified and the outward manners are deliberately

adjusted, the egoistic impulse is gradually subdued, and the altruistic one proportionately strengthened, until the time comes when the two are thoroughly

harmonized.

controls the

The Confucians have no personal God who directly human soul. They do not appeal to any

outward object to be elevated in their moral life. They concentrate all spiritual efforts on themselves in
order to develop from within what they possess from
their very nature.
their self-asserting

They endeavour to be modest in claims. They keep themselves
evil,

well guarded against any possible intrusion of

inspect themselves closely to see whether anything that is not of

inhuman thoughts and impulses.

They

58
fellow-feeling

A BRIEF HISTORY OF

is being stirred in them. They move about very deliberately and reverently not to let loose

any

evil,

selfish

awaken when asked how jen should be says, " When you are away from home, behave
cently
if

impulses, which they might innoin themselves. Therefore, Confucius
practised yourself as
:

receiving a great personage. When employing people, behave yourself as if assisting at a great Do not do to others what you would not sacrifice.

have others do to yourself" (Book XII). This is tantamount to saying: "Keep yourself always in a reverential mood, and let not your hasty and improper In reply to his favourite passions take hold of you."
disciple,

Yen Hui, Confucius

says

:

" Overcome your

egotism and return to propriety" (li jjjg). When asked for further details, he added " Do not see any:

not listen to anything improper. thing improper. Do not speak anything improper. Do not move

Do

towards anything improper" (Book XII). According to these injunctions the Confucian method of maturing
a feeling of fellowship is to give the necessary psychological time to all the impulses, so that when the
first

mind

storm of emotional agitation passes over, the will be prepared for a proper adjustment of

a becoming action. When this practice is repeated with the whole heart and with sufficient frequency, one's deliberate moral judgments and headitself for

strong natural impulses will finally be adjusted, any
feeling or thought that
is

improper and inhuman being

EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY
perfectly subdued,

59

and

all

that

is

of fellow-feeling

being matured to

its full

strength.

SINCERITY (cheng gg).
step which a man must take to realize and perfect a feeling of fellowship, is to guard himself in his solitary moments, that is,
It will

be evident that the

first

to

be sincere with himself, not to play the hypocrite,
to freely manifest the feeling as
it

and
"

moves within.
:

So we read in "The Great Learning" 38 (Chapter VI)

By

being sincere in

all one's soul-activities (i

;jjr)

is

meant that one should not deceive oneself as in disliking an offensive odour, or in being attracted by a
oneself.

This is called being sufficient unto Therefore the superior man must ever be watchful over the self in his solitary moments. 39 " There are no evil things which the mean man in But his retired moments would shrink from doing.
beautiful colour.

when he

sees a superior

man he becomes
if

deceitful,

trying to cover his evils

and

to manifest his goodness,

looking into their own lungs and livers. What, then, is the use [of This is to say that evil hide to thoughts] ? trying whatever is really within you will be made manifest.
Therefore, the superior man must ever be watchful over the self in his solitary moments." " Doctrine of the Mean " 40 in the

although others can recognize him as

again " The Tao is not a thing that could be done without even for a moment. What is done without is not the
i

And

60
Tao.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF

Therefore, the superior man is ever watchful over himself even when he is not seen by others ; he
is

ever fearing even when he is not heard by others. Nothing is so manifest as that which is hidden ;

nothing

is

so conspicuous as that

which

is

invisible

Therefore, the superior
self in his solitary

man

is

ever watchful over the

moments."

more ready to creep into a man's moments than at any other time find his ear more prepared for improper impulses
Evil thoughts are heart in his solitary
;

their whisperings then than at

any other time. deliberate and scrupulous, watch over yourself
giously,

Be
reli-

when you

are alone.

This

is

the

way

to be

sincere to yourself

and

to avoid all

improper thoughts

that are not in accord with the tender, loving, self" sacrificing fellow-feeling. Sincerity (cheng) is the

heavenly way, and to strive after sincerity (cheng
Iffi

cJiih

3)

is

th e
it

human way.

Sincerity hits the

mark

prevails without premeditation, quietly and leisurely it is in accord with the nature of things, as is the case with the holy man ; while to strive after
sincerity means to adhere firmly to goodness when the latter is discerned and espoused." So runs the decla-

without ado,

ration of Confucius.

identified with sincerity of heart,

Jen, then, naturally came to be and how to be sincere

with oneself became a paramount issue with later Confucians.

That the doctrine of sincerity is to be developed from the Confucian conception of fellow-feeling is

jjfc). is Sincerity reached through intelligence Eeligion (chiao. and that the discipline consists in maintain- ing an habitual reverential attitude toward one's own moral personality . and animating moral emotion through a systematic training. when intelligence is attained. central. and the altruistic feeling will be developed so as to regulate the egoistic within its reasonable limits. Through sincerity now one's moral value will be positively appreciated. naturally associated with which is the desire to be sincere to oneself as an ethical personality. which is the doctrine of the mean. We read in his $). 61 impulse in Admit the existence of an altruistic man. 41 The author seems to have had a more synthetic his Master. " (Chapter XXI) sincerity is attained .EAELY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY quite natural. when all external inhibitory forces are absent. Thus. ruling. When sincerity is attained. and also admit that this impulse could be matured into a constant. the "Doctrine of the Mean" somewhat systematically advances the doctrine of sincerity. and the natural course of develop- ment in practical Confucianism will be the doctrine that one should guard oneself against the arrogance of self-assertion in solitary moments. work : " Intelligence unfolding through sincerity is (hsing. intelligence is attained . This self-examination or self -introspection will gradually unfold the sense of moral dignity. . intellect than and his doctrine of sincerity is compreEssence hensive.

one can be said to be occupying the same rank as heaven-and-earth" by and through itself . there is not a way and moment when they are not of things (Chapter XXV). Therefore. " works possible.62 A BRIEF HISTORY OF "It is only through the perfect sincerity of the universe that Essence is thoroughly comprehended. of heaven-and-earth working. The can be comthe Reason is prehended in one word. evolutionary work. is thoroughly comis thoroughly com- prehended. and the internal humanity (Jen). the essence of things thoroughly comprehended. Without sincerity no existence is (Chapter XXII). Therefore. the Path Sincerity leads by and through itself. is the essence of humanity the essence of humanity prehended. When When Essence is thoroughly comprehended. the essence of things is thoroughly can assist heaven-and-earth in its one comprehended. but others. "Perfect sincerity li) exercised in the fitness never ceases Reason (jg. leading to the unity of the external. That which makes the perfect Essence. "One who perfect is is possesses sincerity makes perfect not self only himself. What makes it not dualistic. When one can assist heaven-and- When earth in its evolutionary work. that which makes others These are the virtues of the intelligence. sincerity is most honoured by the superior man. and therefore knows no limits in the . Sincerity is the end and the beginning of things.

be work. must work out what . far-reaching. and everlasting (Chapter XXVI). and above all be sincere to the laws of the universe that make the ten thousand things grow and regulate the concatenation of the four seasons." There are some cosmic laws pervading and regulating all things. for is sincerity that works out the transformation and constant growth of the ten thousand things. no change or transformation could take place. 42 For sincerity is the essence of human For it is humanity itself. the author of the Chung Yung. In concluding this paragraph on sincerity. sincere to your own true nature." had been most foreshadowed long before his time by one of the most " representative Confucians. which. Sincerity is law. it may be remarked that the Kantian precept of morality. bright. and rational being must conform himself to these laws. the Reason of heaven-and-earth is wide. being. are no more than sincerity. solid. and that completes and guides the course of the universe. moral qualities grow naturally from the cultivation of this fundamental virtue. when subjectively interMan as a moral preted. constant in its All It composes the essence of human being. " so to will that the maxim of thy conduct can explicitly become a universal law.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 63 creation of things. high. Be sincere to yourself. Without sincerity no being could come to existence. According to this. the Tao it " is identified with sincerity (ch'eng). must be sincere to himself.

or have it bestowed upon the masses of people. would thought. for these dictates are no more than cosmic laws themselves issuing from the sincerity of heavenand-earth. and never doubted . ? : Because " the of the man have it Have its it established in heaven-and-earth. or have it judged by the [ancient] three sage-kings. violates have is truth and it never examined by all spiritual beings. "the superior man moves so as to make his movements in all generations a universal path. were it not for his most brilit its triumphal progress the subsequent long history of Chinese throughout and upholding perhaps never have enjoyed of the system.64 A BRIEF HISTORY OF feeling of fellowship his inner reason or altruistic dictates. At the time of Mencius there were doctrines propounded many different by able original thinkers. and it never errs. each . leave it to be sanctioned it by holy men after a lapse of one hundred generations. Therefore. Why never errs way superior applied to himself. and yet no uncertainty remains [as to its verity] " MENCIUS. . who was the best representative interpreter of his master. . he behaves so as to make his conduct in all generations a universal law he speaks so as to make his words " in all generations a universal norm (Chapter XXIX) . liant defence Indeed. The development of the Ante-Ch'in Confucianism must be said to have attained its consummation in Mencius.

animate and inanimate. and that this can be developed and matured by reverence and sincerity which will keep under restraint all impetuous. it might have fared differently. and in many respects each disciple typically represents the doctrine which his master so eloquently expounded. and the growth and transformation of all possible living things on earth. This was a natural sequence from the conception of fellow-feeling is and sincerity. as most explicitly stated in the " Doctrine of the Mean. 44 The contribution of Mencius to Confucianism is his doctrine of the essential goodness of human nature. struggled to gain the upper hand over the Confucianism did not thrive any better than other systems. declaring that "Never since the creation of the world was. Grant that every man endowed with an altruistic impulse called by Con" fucius the " feeling of fellowship (Jen)." What Mencius did to Confucianism somewhat resembles what Chwang-tze did for the philosophy of Lao-tze. there a person equal to Confucius. self-disgracing.EAKLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY of 65 whom others. and and by through sincerity. in a harmonious 5 . he who praised Confucius to the sky. 43 and brilliant its if it had failed to have such a and masterly personage as Mencius among It was followers. made and finally grant that the existence of natural and moral laws binding together all beings. egotistic impulses further grant that is it is and desires." that not only movement of the heavenly bodies is but the cycle of the four seasons.

then. is dependent upon the sincerity of heaven and earth our natural question. this reason. Mencius thinks that just as it is it is nature to be good. or as it is human the nature of the willow-tree to be pliable and elastic. nothing will ever be moved " human way. the nature of water to seek its level. will be. " What is this sincerity ?" Being a practical moralist. . how could he at all evolve goodness out of himself ? How could the being sincere to his nature be considered the height of morality? Man must be essentially good in his nature. Therefore. There is not be moved by utmost sincerity is the (Book III). nothing that will and if not for sincerity. and to on sincerity . " there is a way to be sincere to oneself. sincerity is the reflect For heavenly way. sincerity must be said to be synonymous with harmony and goodness. Mencius did not speculate on the problem from the standpoint He did not think of a sort of of a metaphysician. he cannot be sincere to himself. But he reflected As long as the virtue of sincerity that keeps order in nature : and society. cosmic mind that might be existing in heaven-andearth and regulating things in sincere conformity with its essential it is goodness. Man as essentially a manifestation of the virtue of sincerity must be good in his nature.66 A BRIEF HISTORY OF whole. as he cannot develop from within what he is not naturally endowed with. If a man has no clear knowledge of goodness. Otherwise.

Humaneness. The feeling of sympathy is humaneness (jen l) . There is no man who is not good. that water. of is . it flows eastward . Human nature has no choice between good and not-good as is water has no choice between east and west. for his nature ceptible as as sus- water" (Book XI). Farther below in the same book. and the sense of . Mencius replies " Truly. sense (chi ^). it could be made It is to go over a hill. Now. A to feeling of sympathy everybody has. a feeling of deference everybody has. or that.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Kao-tze ^ said : 67 : " Nature is like a running water when it it is turned eastward. a feeling of shame everybody has . Mencius gives the " Man's contents of goodness when he says impulse : is do good." To this. when turned westward. Man could is be made to do not-goodness. there is no water that does not seek its lowest level. but has it no choice between up and down ? The goodness of human nature is like water seeking the lowest level. water has no choice between : east and west. a sense of discrimination everybody has. due to the force of circumstances. tion is intelligence justice. when arrested and driven in another direction. That he does not do good is not the fault of his natural faculty. it flows westward. could be passed over one's forehead. for his nature is good. the of deferfeeling of shame is justice (i ifj|) the feeling discriminaence is propriety (U jjg) . is not in the nature of water. and intelligence are not what propriety. when whipped and tossed.

and righteousness (or justice) is is the the human way. a man without a feeling of shame is not not is human. he replied that it consists in the ennoble: ment is of his mind. the feeling of shame the starting-point of justice. a man without a sense of discrimination startis not human.68 A BRIEF HISTORY OF into us moulded us. a man without a feeling of sympathy not human. having these four starting" points. to be more fundamental than the other : two . a man without a feeling of deference is human . humaneness and righteousness (or justice). ing-point of The feeling of sympathy is the humaneness . " is Therefore. has these four starting-points as he has four and those who. When further asked. when he was asked what was the work of a scholar. plead incapability are mutilating themselves (Booklla). and those who abandoning the heart do not know how to regain it. men are not conscious of They are inherent in them (Book TVa). Mencius seems to have thought the first two. A man limbs. only from without. and the sense of discrimination is the starting-point of intelligence. the feeling of deference is the starting-point of propriety . humanhearted- human- ." Again (Book IV6). Of these elementary moral sentiments making up the contents of goodness. I pity those who digressing from the way do not walk in it. he said of] It is not " It no more than [the cultivation ness (jen) and righteousness (i). for he says (Book IVct) " Humaneness human heart.

" and an objective consideration for others. moral ought. the one is the human heart itself." Lastly.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY hearted to kill . The one finds his home (Book Ilia) . One is the expansion of the allruistic feeling. both of which are differentiations of the Confucian feeling of fellowship. grace. Nowhere but in humanheartedness. humanheartedness and to walk in rightlies here the consummation of a great man's work. subjective feeling . humaneness or humanheartedness and righteousness. while the " other is duty. 69 righteous to take even a single innocent being it is not what is not one's own. Mencius repeals is that " Every man has a feeling which he unable to endure for consists in extending others. or rather two phases of affectional it. and humanheartedness this feeling even to things you can endure for others. and thus each complements the other. With every man there is something which he dares not do to others. is and ethical aspect. One a and love. Again. The Mencian jen is the and i is esthetic aspect of the Confucian jen. . in Book IV6. way ? Nowhere but in righteousness. and righteousness consists in extend46 ing this to what you can dare do to others/' From this it can be seen that Mencius proposes two fundamental moral sentiments. Where is our abode is ? What our in To abide eousness. the abode where a man and the other is the walk which must be traversed by all men. and the other is the inhibition of while his its volitional egoism.

the Confucian ethics feeling of fellowship. though only rudimentarily present in the human heart. in other words. he would surely sink the level of the lower animals. started in the teaching of humanheartedness or the have it developed into the form in which we That is to say. Thus the Confucius's fellow-feeling has undergone through Mencius a more analytical consideration. not only when one is alone.70 is A BRIEF HISTORY OF " not to will what ought not to be willed/' and the other is " not to do what ought not to be done " (Book IVfc). means to is be sincere to one's own good and above human nature were not good. which is possessed by every is being. This fundamental feeling. for then no moral one's own As I am the devil's law could be sacred nature. but when one comes in contact with the world. I will live to one but that of Some one might exclaim from the devil. And this self- reverence. and his teaching has to-day. can be matured to its full power through a constant vigilance over oneself in all time. If a man have no regard for his ethical character. by of associating with others human every social animal that capable and developing a conscious- ness of social solidarity. egoistic interests. And this vigilance over the heart must begin with the cultivation of the sense of reverence for one's own to personality as a moral being. sincerity to oneself might come to mean an unreinner constitution. child. which If strained gratification of selfishness ." " : This sort of sincerity .

for he added another virtue to man's moral being. to benefit the world in a sense to be the Chinese philosophy and ethics. But let us first examine the ethics of Lao-tze. For their main principle of conduct is to . ETHICS or TAOISM." This is the consistent : development of the Confucian ethics.EAELY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY will 71 surely contradict the spirit of the Confucian doctrine of fellow-feeling. and so proclaims Mencius " The nature of man is good. But Mencius did not stop here. especially in the Ante-Ch'in period. some other ethical teachings which were vigorously contesting supremacy with Confucianism. called be moral negativistic teachings may system of egoism. and he made all by these four the most fundamental virtues possessed man. which ought to be developed in order to perfect moral personality through Though Confucianism can be said ***** and this perfection. propriety and intelligence. and among them we can mention the Taoist Yang-tze. the virtue of righteousness. and two more. The Wu Wei. The Taoists were no doubt better metaphysicians Their but poorer moralists than the Confucians. or Taoism as it is commonly designated. and perhaps Hsiin-tze. Mu-tze. there were not lacking. which always stands con- trasted to Confucianism.

they are harmless innocent recluses. left alone. eternal aspect. instead of hurting non-resisting innocents. ^\ |p . " The Or. Let people do whatever they like.. in Far who order have no other desire than to be . their own egotism in defiance of but in the end they will be their own For their egotism. he accomplishes his " self (Chapter VII). but because of their own preservation and happiness and peace. own to promote the general welfare of humanity. it. Here is the gist of the whole Taoist ethics. cares and relations. and let want them assert else. recoils is upon themselves. as : ! Lao-tze teaches egotism Let others have precedence.72 A BRIEF HISTOEY OF life in quiet solitary retirement. They are not selfish in the sense that they want to assert their In fact. and lo I am preserved. and not in its enjoy the bliss of free from all ever -struggling. it is not meant that they are grossly materialistic egotists who When from unblushingly affirm their hedonistic impulses. they of the doctrine non-resistance advocate strongly (pu cheng chih t$. the Taoists are said to be egotistic. He surrenders : the moral boomerang. ever -becoming activity. himself and he is preserved. but this not because they egotistic will over that of others. everything destroyers. Is it because he seeks not his self ? For that reason. {). in his own words holy man puts himself behind and he comes to the front. and by worldly devoting all their time to a serene contemplation of nature in its absolute.

They have no particular desire either on this earth or after death. They have no desire to sacrifice their all- precious self for the happiness of others. which been discovered by their venerable master Lao-tze and transmitted guardedly through generations. degenerated. not after death but in this life. The this later Taoists. and Lieh-tze all had a very exalted view on this matter. But for one thing they seem to esteem their all own self above else. could not understand mystic conception of life and immortality. and naturally upheld a corrupted. jgj wu This term is generally rendered non-action. This was the first great loophole through which had first the Taoists gradually fell into a hopeless system of is 4p| crass popular superstition. they do not desire any worldliness.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY that they 73 may continue their undisturbed meditation in a solitary cell. Lao-tze. therefore. while non-assertion 47 gives in many cases a more . and have no craving for the vanity of vanities that is doomed to But they seem to have cared very much for pass. personal immortality. that there is no need of seeking immortality after death. that this life They intuitively knew as it is lived is a manifestation of the Absolute and as such immortal. the later Taoists even claimed that they knew the secret of preparing the elixir of immortality. Chwang-tze. however. The backbone of the Taoist egoism wei. and. Indeed. and disSome of torted view of immortal life on this earth.

People fail when they are nearly at the point of accomplishing the work they have undertaken . all things are achieving [and so is he]." Again. therefore sustains no loss. or even with one's to sit idle mean and to own as long as they flow of themselves from the inner fountain of the Tao. he : " practises the doctrine of silence. but he does not claim ownership. he seizes not. they would be saved Therefore. It means not with to interfere others' affairs. therefore he is not defeated.74 correct sense A BRIEF HISTORY OF of the original.assertion. the holy Says Lao-tze (Chapter II) man conducts his affairs with non. in Chapter LXIY: "He who asserts is defeated. and the reader will be able to judge for himself what it is like to abide in . he who seizes suffers loss. the goal of the Taoist philosophical training. but he does not dwell in them. His merits are accomplished. but he never dares to assert himself/' In Lieh-tze we are told of the subjective state of one who has attained to wu wei. learns not-learning. Therefore. working and he does not refuse [to work with them] All things are born [and so is he]. if they were as cautious in the end as in the beginning. All things are . Wu wei does not do nothing. the holy man desires notdesiring. and thereby he all assists in the natural development of things. prizes not the treasure that is unobtainable. retires where the masses pass by . The holy man asserts not. from failure. but he is not presumptuous.

but Yin-shang felt still the about matter. Whereupon Yin-shang grew angry with the master and wanted to take leave of him. I thought you were above such petty feelings. ill-feeling is had something no more now. and I naturally felt offended. my mind dared not think of what is right and what . Lieh-tze. passed. but I find now that you Sit down. if 75 the : following passage be thoroughly comprehended Lieh-tze.BAELY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY wu " wei. made great progress teachings of these two philosophers. Yin-shang hearing of it stayed with Lieh-tze for some months [to learn the secrets] . each time refused to answer. but Lieh-tze ever. but you But the refused me. and I are even so small-minded as that. and I < : am here again/ Formerly. Lieh-tze made no protest. and Pe-kao-tze in the who had Lao-shang-shin for his master for his companion. and when he came back he was riding on the wind. will tell you about what I learned through my old teacher. but he received no intimation what- One day he found an opportunity to approach Lieh-tze on the subject. " Lieh-tze said When I stayed three years with the old master as teacher and with Peh-kao as companion. : " Some months you are here again when you left 1 : me 1 only a little while ago ?' Replied Yin-shang about which I wanted your information. and implored him ten times to divulge his mysterious accomplishment. and came back to his old uneasy ' How is it that Said the latter master.

dared not say anything about was then that the master gave me a kindly glance. In seven years. and there was no gain or loss. or was the wind riding on me ? I did not know which. and I was not conscious of right and wrong. like a leaf or a rind detached from the tree was I riding on the wind. Then the eye became like the ear. who have not stayed long enough. or whether Peh was my companion. In five years. it is quite different. while my mouth began to speak of gain and loss . and who even feel think of whatever it desired. the body was dissolved. nor where my feet trod I drifted east or west as the wind blew. and without. and gain and and it the master relaxed his rigid expression and smiled indulgently at me. nothing interfered. ' hurt and repeatedly find fault with me. the ear like the nose. my mind again began to think of what is right and what is not. however. and the nose like the mouth they became all one. the flesh and bones all melted away. whether they were with me or with somebody else nor did I know whether Lao was my Within master. while loss my mouth . I just let my mind and there was no right mouth my speak whatever it wanted to speak. I just let . or wrong. . all restraint on the same matting. . I was not conscious where my body rested.76 is A BRIEF HISTORY OF not. The mind alone predominated. The master then invited me to come and sit by him on In nine years. on my utterance was brushed as as well my thought away. The ether . " With you. gain and loss.

EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY will not 77 embrace you. I do " not dare advance an inch. and grasses and trees are tender and feeble at their birth. but retreat a foot (Chapter LXIX). not even one body. and how could you hope to tread on the vacuity of space and ride the wind Vy the subjective state of moral perfection as viewed by the Taoists. Therefore. "Man is tender and weak at his All things birth. a strong army does not win. not even a portion of your nor will the earth bear you. that is. the transcendental Tao this doctrine of not . and in perfect harmony with is (Chapter II The above : "The Yellow Emperor"). he is stark and rigid when dead. it doing anything is too inclined becomes the ethics of femininism. says Lao-tze . but as the means of attaining the end of "I do not dare self-preservation or self-affirmation. but when dead they are dry and sear. There- fore. The strong and great " are cowered. wu wei. those that are stark and rigid are followers of death. assume lordship. though. ness. these things are not prized for their intrinsic virtue. It teaches submissive humiliation. But when toward passivity. which is above all artificial restraints or regulations. moderation. member of your being. : And 48 again in Chapter LXXVIII. and a strong tree grows to decay. Those that are tender and weak are followers of life. the tender and weak are uplifted (Chapter LXXV1). but the position of a guest. according Lao-tze. meekto and often nonchalance.

the ethics of Lao-tze is not lacking in noble thoughts such as characterize Christianity. men have an inborn desire to follow the course of the Tao. which is in them.78 " A BRIEF HISTORY OF is nothing under the heavens that excels water in tenderness and weakness. not-faithful ones I . let . not-good ones I too meet with goodness and thereby I gain goodness. Masses have an inherent tendency to gravitate toward the centre of the earth. he makes the wishes of his people his own. (Chapter XLIX). that the rigid conquered by the tender. The first is compassion. Lao-tze's doctrine stated. this very precious. to let things follow their when positively own natural bent without any interference from outside. thereby I gain faith" " "Requite hatred with virtue for I hold (Chapter LXIII). " I have a triple treasure. yet there is nothing that surpasses it in efficiency when it attacks the hard There and the strong. too meet with faith. Buddhism and following his : By "The these I mean such passages as the holy man has no fixed thought of own. ANARCHISM. and the third is not to come in front before the world" (Chapter LXVII). Therefore." In spite of this emphasis placed on passive and negative egotism. the second is moderation. strong is This is known to everybody that the is conquered by the weak. is of passivity. G-ood ones I meet with goodness . 49 Faithful ones I meet with faith.

quote Lao-tze again ated. robbers will no longer exist" (Chapter XVIII). away your prudence. when the ethics of Lao-tze is carried out to its logical extreme. and we have much hypocrisy. and the people will return Abandon your to filial piety and paternal love. we have loyalty and allegiance. The Taoist metaphysicians of the . And Chwang- him by saying that. do not yoke them with unnecessary rules and formalities. put away your righteousness. thieves and and scheming. These are strong words. When the country and the clans decay through disorder. When family relations no longer harmonize. " : When the great Tao is obliter- we have humaneness and righteousness. the thieves and robbers tze agrees with more there will be " (Chapter LYII). "Chii Chieh"). put away your gains. Things that are imposed from without acquire unnaturalness.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 79 them alone. Pru- dence and circumspection appear. In truth. so that they are inevitably Lao-tze thus exclaims " The more mancrippled. To . we have filial piety and parental love. the great robbers would cease to arise if jade were put away and pearls broken to bits. it results in nothing but absolute anarchism. ness. and wisdom put away. though not in the sense of utter disorderliness. " if an end were put to sageness. and smack not a little of anarchism. the small thieves would not appear" (Part II. Section III. and the people will Abandon your humaneness. put Abandon your saintli- gain a hundredfold. : dates and laws are enacted.

80 A BRIEF HISTORY OF and non-interference. Ante-Ch'in period unanimously advocate the doctrine of non-resistance to return to the primitive stage of civilization. is Everyhave then body enjoyed the utmost individual freedom and to have been as yet supposed by them to unconscious of abusing it at the expense of another. they might have been induced to doubt it in one way or another. as many other Chinese thinkers did. they were willing to if Even ignore it. however. They want when there were no laws or regulations whatever. does not prove that there was such a golden age in the remote past. on the contrary. The following allegory culled from the Chwang-tze (Part II. their imagination An anarchistic state of and visionary retrothings was thus made the highest ideal of individual as well as social life. who treated them very well. History. in order that they might remain charmingly spellbound by spect. the ruler of the Northern Ocean was Hu. Section VII) very ingeniously illustrates the " The significance of wu wei in the Taoist ethics : ruler of the Southern Ocean was Shu. and the same tribe was a uniBut the Taoists refused to take notice of the fact . but that. They consulted together how they might repay his . the struggle for existence among various tribes as well as within one versal phenomenon. that there existed in prehistoric times a universal peace and unbounded happiness. and the ruler of the Centre was Chaos. Shu and Hu were continually meeting in the land of Chaos. probably they took it for granted.

which are merely a product of the worldly wisdom and artificiality despised so strongly by the Taoists.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY kindness. which was indeed the raison d'etre of his existence. was a direct. while this ruler alone has not one. and. But no Chinese philosopher and moral teacher would ever think of ignoring the practical consequences of his theory. necessarily inactive (wu wei) condition. interference of his neighbours permanently put an end to his very existence. a creation of the Chinese mind. that is. though quite well-meant. ! make them undetermined. as can be expected. It never lost sight of its practical import . therefore. ethical doctrine such as that of Lao-tze would not trouble itself with political affairs. undifferentiated. un6 . and breathing. Let us try and for him/ Accordingly they dug one orifice him every day and at the end of seven days Chaos died. it was. it always showed a considerable interest in politics and state The reader might imagine that an administration. Whatever the Taoist world-shunning after all. The unnecessary. Indeed. he could have enjoyed a life of eternity and of perfect contentedness too. ethics. hearing. in . the value of a theory had to be judged by its working utility in the daily life of man as an individual and as a member of society. Lao-tze's theory with regard to the administration of state affairs. and said ' : 81 Men all have seven orifices for the purpose of seeing." Poor Chaos If he had been left in his chaotic. eating.

is order that used to prevail in the olden times of " cord" administration. which was left to its . cence and absolute artlessness. let them not be encumbered with leave artificial formalities and excrescent regulations . simple and plain. which is situate west of the state of An and north of the state of Tai. it could only be visited by a spirit. In the following. the reader will have the ideal " While kingdom of the Taoists taking a nap. and lead them to a state of primitive innoThis policy. and might be called a laissez faire policy. The cocks and dogs would happily voice their perfect contentment all around the country.82 A BRIEF HISTORY OF modified application of his wu wei." Chapter LXXX). and prudence which they have acquired since the initiation of artificialities. And here we have a perfect state of things that ought to exist when the natural course of the Tao is faithfully followed (see "Tao Teh King. deprive them of all craftiness. They would die natural deaths when they were old. and many hundreds of thousands of miles from the Middle Kingdom. The Hua-hsii's country could not indeed be reached by boat or carriage or on foot . the Yellow Emperor dreamed that he was on a visit to : the country of the Hua-lisii. . Give the people as much freedom as they want. cunning. The people would be knotting delighted with whatever they have. according to understood secure the peace and good to Lao-tze. them alone as much as possible if necessary. There was distant ever so no ruler or chief in this country.

Some sinologists ascribe this difference to climatic variation. 83 The people had no special desires or appe- tites. while the latter that of care-free. They went into water and were not drowned. there They did not know how was no premature death among them. therefore. to be egotistic and how to neglect others. They went into fire and were not scorched. impulsive . the They rode through emptiness of space as if ground . or to get recoil from. for they II. nor did hills and valleys make "). They had nothing to long for. walked as spirits" (Chapter peror "The Yellow Em- The reader difference will here notice the ethics how of radical is the between Confucius and Lao-tze.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY own fate. and order-loving Northerners. industrious. though scratched. The cloud and fog did not obstruct their sight. their steps unsteady. or to attached to. the former representing the type of vigorous. They did not know what was meant by being in accord with a thing or out of harmony with it. they had no itching sensation. they slept in the air as treading on the solid if lying on a bed. nor had they anything to fear. nor did beauty and ugliness affect their minds. therefore they were free from the feelings of love and hate. nor did thunder and lightning disturb their hearing. therefore they entertained no thought of partiality. Though whipped. visionary. they felt no pain . They did not know how to grow attached to life nor how to abhor death . they were living naturally.

she so bountiful that they can enjoy the any toil. The most rigorous expounder of hedonistic egoism in the history of Ante-Ch/in philosophy He seems to was Yang-tze. Taoism aided by Buddhism philosophy is and frequently joined by popular superstition. and force against if it his doctrine displayed a considerable Confucianism. HEDONISTIC EGOISM. On contrary. the Northerners have to fight hard against nature. Confucius can be said to represent the Northern type. have been very influential at times. annihilation But the case is them the - entirely different with the Southerners. fulness of life with hardly For this reason. The history of Chinese thought and the record of the struggles between these two rival conceptions. and Confucianism generally strongly proving to be the more representative and indigenous to the Chinese mind. and able to its had not been it for the eloquence of a great genius like Mencius.84 A BRIEF HISTORY OF and often indolent Southerners. Non-resistance and non-interference are the best policy whereby they can deal with nature. might have been a long while yet. With alone policy will result in the letting of their own existence. Under the pressure of the rigorous climate and inclement weather. defy doctrine to what extent the negaYang-tze's proves opponents for . to them the nature does not to mean a force that to is unfavourable them and therefore is be conquered. and Lao-tze the Southern.

In the latter was a prevailing tone of quiet negativism. and from him he seems to have received some instruction concerning life and virtue. the Mencius. Yang-tze's existence was possible only those days. versatile. Yang-tze was not a philosopher at all.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY tivistic 85 egoism of Lao-tze can degenerate.60 and utterances are contained and these it From appears that Yang Chou was a younger contemporary of Lao-tze. Properly speaking. . perhaps mortally wounded by some political disappointment and wrongfully guided by his natural pessimistic bent. He was an eccentric soul. 61 in the Lieh-tze. if it be so called. but natural that we can Yang Chou's hedonism a distinct echo of Lao-tze's ethics of self-complacency. showed that the Chinese mind in this period was fertile. or Yang Chou. Had he appeared a few hundred years later. the popular acceptance which was accorded to the wild exclamations of Yang-tze. his sayings would buried in oblivion. trace in It is. which work life its is his proper did not leave any of his own. name. have been forever Yang-tze. therefore. which was somehow similar to that given to Confucius. the Chwang-tze. we have to-day of his the Han-fei-tze. His doctrine. All the data but we do not know of existence. But the tolerance. and ready to lend an ear to anyin thing novel. Perhaps he did. nay. but rather the incoherent utterance of a mind cruelly in despair at the outlook of humanity. was not a mature result of serious reflection.

therefore. 52 principle of Yang-tze's egoism is. is artificialities. life 63 to the full extent of his emotional Yang-tze. and. positively. to let him go back to a state of primitive naivete and enjoy his blessed capacity. There is no reason. And he was When seen in this light. looks down on the Confucian doctrine of humaneness and righteousness as something forced upon human nature and not it. however. the years of gone. considered to have taught sometimes verges dangerously near it. is not to yoke ourwere imposed by the order that posterity might have of life even encumbered with ? all kinds of cares and life is worry Subtract from a man's senility. The ground be they high or low. yet is what he a man of loose morals. For is not life short ? and is not this short life Confucians. Sharing with the Taoists the ascetic he did not teach sensual debauchery as a spirit. his it doctrine not so offensive and despicable as is charged to be by the Confucians. innate to The object selves to moral pillories such as The object of life is to give the freeest rein to our nature and gratify it to the utmost. to believe that the author himself was principle. its He was he is a recluse disgusted with the world and a satirist. too. babyhood and and its half Then . to shirk all the artificial restraints that are calculated to bridle the natural impulses of man. merely in a good opinion of us. negatively.86 but in A BRIEF HISTORY OF Yang Chou we have a positive insistence on ultra-egoism.

laws and regulations are muzzling the expression of natural sentiments. which rarely reaches the one hundred-year mark. Desires are consuming our social traditions are crippling our ? moral simplicity. People of olden times were perfectly aware of the shortness of life and wanted to make let and the best of it. ? Therefore. They lived as their simple. let us things that are external and superfluous. But . and there remains only one-fourth of the entire length of our life. us enjoy our natural. commercial greed.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 87 take away hours of sleep. Under these intolerable encumbrances. how could we spend lightheartedly even the mere fraction of life that is granted to us abandon all says Yang-tze. unhampered life to its full limits. They never impulses dictated. They were above for political intrigues. worried never about things earthly. This self-abandoned indifference and transcendentalism distinctly echoes the teaching of Lao-tze. for are there not so many off unnecessary things that threaten to cut even this remaining fraction of life corporeal strength . innocent Their desire was to preserve the naivete or integrity of their nature. national prejudices are strangling freedom of action . and other petty human concerns. They mutilated what they obtained from heaven merely for the acquisition of things artithemselves or distorted ficial. aspira- tion fame. this one-fourth filled But is ness ? By with unalloyed joy and happino means.

ever and aye ? Are not as well as such virtuous men for- are they not all gone their bones crumbling. their and blood already mingling in the dust ? Let posterity say of them whatever it pleases. with other fellow -individuals. He is utterly indifferent to matters concerning others. he scoffs at such men of virtue as Shun. Yang-tze.55 Chou Kung. on the other hand.88 A BRIEF HISTORY OF quietist. Honour on water bubbles ? or dishonour. Therefore. he picks them out as examples of most unnatural men who worried and deformed themselves merely for the sake of a good name. both the censured and the praised are absolutely inflesh sensible. praises Chou 67 and Chieh 68 the type of infamy and depravity as men who had courage and even virtue to behave as their natural impulses dictated. to What did it matter them if disgusting as they now stand for in man? They who everything that is are so vehemently condemned by posterity Shun and Confucius. who are universally revered by the Chinese. . are they not like not enjoy all that is Why enjoyable while alive ? Begone ! our doctrinaires. He stands absolutely He does not condescend to identify himself alone. 66 and Kung Fu-tze (Confucius). unconditional him to almost egoism does not allow extend his sphere of interest either to his fellowbeings that are thriving around him or to those that are to come after him. Yang-tze was not a mere He sometimes His actually endorses debauchery of the worst kind. 64 Yii.

EAKLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY hypocrites. and when this is denied. indulge desires to see . is lightheartedly and joyously indulge your passions and . indulge in what your body desires in and indulge what your mind desires Now. it means the crippling of the visionary sense. and when this is denied. If you cast away the thought of self-molestation. and vain aspirants " '' How then is our life to be lived ? 69 Indulge in what your ear desires to hear . it it means the crippling of the sense of comfort. is torturing himself. and when these are denied. sound is what the ear desires to hear. desires to see. " Things beautiful are what the eye and when these are denied. and when this is means the crippling of the olfactory sense. after fame ! 89 unnatural moralists. Freedom is what the mind desires to have. it means the crippling of the auditory sense. it means the crippling of intelligence. and when it is denied. and these. denied. and he that has the fixed thought to do molesting himself. Delicious food and warm clothing are what the body desires to have. . in what your eye indulge in what your nose desires to smell. " All these cripplings are so many unnatural selfrestraints. it means the crippling of one's nature. Judgment is what the mouth desires to speak. indulge in what your mouth desires to speak to obtain to do. . Perfume is what the nose desires to smell.

" The reason things: (1) why men are restive is due to four longevity. and the civil irrational punishment and could be killed They are called Such people disobeying Heaven. (2) fame. and therefore they fear spiritual beings. Yang-tze most vigorous but in other we across the come libertine. (3) social position. influences of from unknown regions. even of ten thousand years. (4) People crave these things. in a depressed state of mind. or saved at will by others. their fellow- and citizens. for they laws. ten hundred. alone. Those who are yoked to the thought of self-molestation may have a long life of one hundred. They have no desire for rank as they have no thought of abusing their . " Those who obey heavenly orders have no desire for longevity beyond the limit set by Heaven. and your life of one year to another's life of ten This is years. your life of one day is equal to another's life of one month. wealth. They have no craving for fame as they have no thought of social displaying their worth. the are not masters of themselves. but what is the use of all that ? It is not my way of taking care of life.90 desires. A BRIEF HISTORY OF and giving yourself up to the pursuit of pleasure calmly await the coming of death. places typical Lao-tze doctrine of wu wei or the world- may appear a fleeing spirit of some Hindu philosophers. the way I take care of my life." When judged from these passages a crass sensualist.

they have destiny in their own from avarice. he seems to have had quite a sway over Chinese minds as we read in Mencius (toward the end lords Book VI) "As a sage-king does not rise. Yang-tze is not a debauchee. and the doctrines of Yang Chou and Mu Ti are rampant of : everywhere. Whatever the merits and faults of his extreme he occupies a unique position in Chinese philosophy. it is swayed by Mu. When the general public is is not swayed so egotistic by Yang. cold. Yang . simple-minded child of nature. hands and are free from all in all outward interference/' all. bosom of eternity. He wants He to live as he came from the of nature. artless. irresponsible scholars go too far in their discussion. death. self-complacent. or after In these respects he deeply breathes the spirit of Lao-tze. He is and puts on one more woollen tunic. In his days and immediately after his doctrine. they are independent. mortality. Taking but a self-contented. He hates all kinds of inordinate excess and artificiality. they are far above things earthly . free 91 They have no desire for wealth as they are ' These people are called obedient/ The obedient people do not long for worldliness . has not the slightest craving for sensual pleasures beyond the demands is He and feels hungry. is satisfied. the and dukes are unrestrained. either in life He has no desire for imdeath. He calmly greets death. and eats a morsel of coarse bread. He is a fatalist. and comfortable.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY power.

there is a persistent assertion of conservative spirit in all their doings.92 A BRIEF HISTORY OF and as to ignore the existence of a ruler . otherwise. their utilitarian tendency had to be modified to a certain extent. characterized is other moral traits predominant and peculiar to them. But when we do away with the parents. filial devotion is practically the cornerstone of later Confucianism. As all these racial characteristics have claimed their due consideration in the system of their national philosophy. Therefore. it mind. But there are. and would not have filled the position which it has held almost without interruption since its first establishment. it is a matter of self- evidence that we harmonious blending of of the Chinese recognize in Confucianism a all the predominant traits for. the key that opens one of the main entrances to the Chinese mind. ceremonialism also occupies a conspicuous part in Chinese life. and this spirit naturally makes the Chinese great lovers of peace. Almost less all Chinese ethical doctrines are more or for practicality by a strong utilitarian tendency. For instance. and lastly. The doctrine I am going to consider. too. would have been neglected like so many other doctrines. overlooked the importance of all the . on the other hand. we shall all be the beasts/' and UTILITARIANISM. ultra-altruistic Mu is of ruler so as to ignore the existence the parents.

properly speaking. The work 61 now in our possession consists of fifty-three there were more books or chapters. or Mu-tze as he is vary as to his that he was a younger contemporary of Confucius and flourished about the time when most of his more generally known. It also contains many conceptions which are closely similar to Christianity. it might have developed into a system almost like Christianity. but. which necessarily resulted in an utter disregard of all other things. principle is imaginative. made The to adjust them. its fundamental utilitarianism pure and simple. however. Records nativity and age. 62 Many desperate attempts were to no purpose. It seems most of the fifty-three books were written by his personal disciples after his death . He held an official position like every other learned man in the country. but practically other parts. The author of this interesting doctrine is is Mu Ti. Originally books in it. It 93 Chinese peculiarities other than utilitarianism and unduly emphasized this phase. 60 The doctrine is commonly known as ultra-altruism in contradiction to the ultra-egoism of Yang-tze . but the probability immediate disciples were gone. owing to textual discrepancies and corruptions. His home seems to have been in the south and not in the north.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY practicality. but some of them are utterly unintelligible to us to-day. which are . and above all religious. and it is very probable that if it were fostered amongst a people who were more idealistic.

protected. Whatever his teachings. The ideal of Mu Ti is universal peace and universal prosperity. let a nation a sovereign love his love another as own. show in many respects a clear logical mind on the part of the author something unusual in Chinese philosophers. abuse their power over the unand powerful states absorb the helpless.94 free A BRIEF HISTORY OF from obscurity. Mu Ti. and state with state. possible It is wonderful to notice how modern are these views of the old Chinese philosopher. declares that the business of the holy He all man consists in promoting peace among his people. let everybody love everybody else as himself. For these reasons. Let one love another as one's own its self. the crafty take advantage of the ignorant. family with family. they are all in- tended to bring about this state of things. This cannot be the destiny of humanity as ordained by the will of heaven. clan with clan. He asks : " Why is ideal ?" his the existing state of things far from this " " Because/' answers he. everybody esteems self own above others. we are constantly in a state of officers war. in developing the resources of nature. there . subjects as himself. individual with individual. Then there will be no traitors who love themselves at the expense of the state to which they belong . which is our ultimate source of authority." The strong usurp the rights of the weak. let the son love his parents as let himself. and in avoiding all the causes of evils that befall our community.

and pros- . the ignorant are enlightened. and innumerable stars. winter and summer.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY will 95 be no tyrant who ignores the welfare of his no robbery. (Chapters XXXVI and XXXVII). with all useful trees and stored with People avail themselves of these Again. to the needs of the people . it must conform to the will of heaven and be First. secondly. rain and snow. own service all wealth-prothem for their transform People and make themselves comfortable in every way. It sends forth thunder and lightning. men Again. Mu Ti proceeds to when it is it all these points in this way. and thirdly. It regulates their courses. there are sovereigns and wise They make laws specially favoured by heaven. no inhumanity subjects . the principle of universal love and mutual Mu Ti argues that there are three benefit justified ? is How methods of testing the soundness of a principle. and the four seasons follow in order prove spring and autumn. Heaven created the sun. in ac- cordance with the doings of ancient sages . Warmed by them the five cereals and other nourishing and useful plants grow. . made into a law and practised among the 63 must prove an agent for the general welfare people. there are mountains covered ducing metals. in fact. our daily experiences must justify it. and administer the wicked are punished. no enmity. heavenly gifts. moon. there will be no evil that will disturb universal peace ensuing from this practice of universal love (Chapters XIV and XV).

Good or evil. and every youth in the state devoted himself to all kinds of athletic exercises. necessary food. same lesson. the this we make subject loyal. heaven must be considered the source of love and to righteousness. the elder brother friendly. heavenly will the principle of administration. those who hate are hated we glad to return the is favour if we rob them of what due to them. they is will be what we observe If ready to requite in a similar way. There was once a king who admired a slender waist. .96 A BRIEF HISTORY OF perity is secured. and the younger dutiful. the sovereign will be beneficent. they are . the source of influence is from above. the father kindhearted. This all around us (Chapter XIV) . Do not all these things come from the will of heaven ? Do not all these things come everybody without discrimination? Why. Those who love are loved. And was this not also the teaching and practice of the ancient sages ? Our If daily experiences teach us the benefit others. the child filial. this will and our duty on earth is but to follow and practise universal love and mutual benefit (Chapter XXVII). lighted in Therefore nobody can tell to what extremity the masses will rush when an example is shown by the Let the sovereign and his officers privileged classes. exercise the will of heaven as it is manifested about us. then. and every woman in the state deprived herself of There was another king who demuscular strength.

material They are . Mu Ti objected to Confu- The Chinese always cherished a very deep reverence for their ancestors. the masses does not consist in the encouragement of luxury. 7 . eating. seems than in its human- This can be seen from his economic views which brought about the vehement accusation 64 of istic side.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY and the 97 entire nation will at once endeavour to follow the model set up by them. The real happiness of The custom of concubinage naturally results in the overproduction of bachelors as well as old maids the fact will eventually threaten the growth of population. resulting in the final downfall of his whole system. Universal peace and eternal prosperity will then inevitably be the outcome (Chapter XY). and he also condemned the custom of concubinage. but in the production of wealth. and not a moral and social one?) On the same ground. Their burial ceremony. all the unproductive conis sumption of wealth is so much spent. the Confucians. clothing. He rigorously opposed the prevalence of luxurious habits as to dwelling. therefore. to lie The real issue more in its of Mu Ti's doctrine. and lost no opportunity to show the feeling in public. and travelling . utilitarian aspect however. material consideration. and nothing gained thereby. (Is it not interesting to note that the sole ground of Mu-tze's objection to concubinage is that of practical. was naturally of the most cian seritimentalism.

among the poor as well as the rich to go beyond their means. He demonstrated that there was no sense in wasting wealth on such unproductive things as . His objections were on the whole sound and wellgrounded. they did not attend to any commercial transaction. and this was what was most strenuously * opposed by Mu Ti (see "MuTi/' Chapter XXY). fixing all their the memory of the deceased. take such an extreme step to make a public exhibition of their grief .98 A BRIEF HISTORY OF There was a strong tendency elaborate character. at least we are not in possession of any documents to prove this. During this 06 long period they lived a most secluded life. they retired from public offices if they held any. in order to express or make a show of the We deepest reverence and sympathy for the deceased. they refrained from participating in any public or private festivals. But they were certainly ready to acknowledge the highest type of filial devotion in those who remained in mourning for at least three years for their deceased parents. learn from modern travellers that there are in China some professional mourners who are hired by real mourners to make their funeral procession appear more mournful by their simulating show of lamentaThe Chinese of olden times perhaps did not tion. pious thoughts on This was what was generally endorsed by the followers of Confucianism as a pious expression of filial devotion . They remained at home like prisoners or religious recluses.

It is. . In his opinion. valent in his days could also not escape his condemnaAccording to him. Mu Ti was a thorough utilitarian. he was willing to pay due regard to it. and as to war. therefore.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY funerals : 99 of that such a protracted observation mourning tended to paralyze the administration of the government. fatalism was a great obstacle If the people in the way of industry and prosperity. and to check the progress of industry and commerce. and to inter it in an unduly deep grave. and XIX). every trade and industry comes to a standstill. XVIII. A fatalistic doctrine which seems to have been pretion. it was simply abominable. music did not add an iota to the national wealth and prosperity . It is altogether unnecessary to wrap a corpse in extra clothes. but he could not bear to see the national and individual wealth scattered to the winds for the sake of mere sentimentalism. to put it in an extraor- dinarily strong coffin. its At any rate. anything that will disturb the peace of a nation and destroy productive facilities is mercilessly attacked by Mu Ti. no 66 wonder that Mu Ti was also against music (Chapter XXXII) and vigorously condemned war (Chapters XVII. He did not dis- regard the significance of sentiment. and refused to yield to any sentimental extravagances. and every sense of justice and righteous- ness is thereby hopelessly benumbed. is All we have to consider in these matters the practical end which they are intended to serve.

there would be no incentive to urge them to work. XXXVI. Mu Ti was a strong advocate of the untiring energy and strenuous life. 147 et seq." but " can be freely translated by " God even in the Christian sense. Finally. which so This will be done later closely akin to Christianity. though at the expense of their love of formalism and ceremonialism (see Chapters XXXV. tion of what is significant in Mu Ti is his concept'ien. leaving everything to the pre-established order of things as regulated in the beginning of Unknown Destiny.). It will no doubt be very interesting to consider at length Mu Ti's conception of Heaven in its connecis tion with his doctrine of universal love. for the execution of which the God-idea became necessary to him.100 A BRIEF HISTORY OF were abandoned to the so-called fate which is predetermined and beyond human control. and preserve permanent peace. which means literally "heaven. and XXXVII). This state of things could never be suffered to exist in this world of striving. produce wealth. In him we see the practical tendency of the Chinese mind singularly emphasized. the latter conceded the first place to utilitarianism. everybody would remain perfectly passive and utterly inactive. The difference between the Christian God and Mu Ti's Heaven (t'ien) is that while made the conception of God foremost and the former its worship the paramount issue of the religious life. On the other hand. . when the religious side of Chinese thought claims our attention (see p.

as the transmitter of the orthodox Confucian teachings end of the Ante-Ch'in period. there exists no English translation of later days treat Hsiin-tze as if stepson not properly belonging to the of the " Hsiin-tze. The Chinese love of ceremony and their strong sentiment of ancestor . Hsiin-tze lost his of legitimate position and consideration in the eyes the general public. Mencius and a Chinese philosopher of those days his method of reasoning (So far as I was singularly sound and systematic. This antagonistic spirit found its spokesman in Hsiin-tze. 101 As one might have expected. know. This is mainly due to his doctrine of the innate badness of human nature. who nourished several decades later than Mencius. there was a virulent attack upon the ultra-utilitarianism of Mu Ti.D. But from a scholarly point of at the . in place of Hsiin-tze. which he forcefully set opposite view held by Mencius. forth dynasty.worship prevented them from giving themselves up to philosophical simplicity or making an unconditional surrender to utilitarianism. left Chwang-tze. 768-824). an eminent scholar and writer of the T'ang against the Since Han Yii (A. but for predecessors.") The Confucians he were a orthodox lineage of Confucianism.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY CEREMONIALISM. pronounced Mencius. 67 He a work consisting of thirty-two books or He was not so brilliant a genius as his chapters.

jjj) or to His almost congenital fondness for rituals and ceremonies was so remark(jen. Mencius. as if he were the living embodithe reader will notice ment of all that was proper in life.102 view. what Hsiin-tze did for Confucianism was to emphasize its ceremonial side. while Mencius strongly developed its humanistic In the Confucian " Analects " itself. it is someside. which were kept in the archives of the Chou dynasty. humanheartedness able that " In his caused his biographers to record that childhood Confucius used to play with it the sacrificial bowls and dishes which he arranged of the " Analects" with due tormaiities. to a prominent place in the development of Confucianism. Confucius was an ardent advocate of ceremonialism. In the same sense Pascal urged a strict observance of all the church . he is A BRIEF HISTORY OF entitled. not a whit less than his eloquent predecessor. And his contemporaries seem to have acknowledged him as authority on matters sacrificial and ceremonial. From the historical point of view. l)." In Book X how carefully and minutely is described the Master's every manner and behaviour on different occasions. of which Lao-tze was the custodian. not only in its outward expressions. formally recorded or not. but in its morally edifying effects on character. times doubtful whether the Master means to give more importance to ceremonialism (li. The main motive to inquire about of his interview with Lao-tze was ceremonial usages.

Like other Chinese thinkers. this give a philosophical foundation to his ethics. for these were especially invented for this purpose by the ancient sages. Hsiin-tze always kept before his eyes the practical side of his to the philosophy. brilliant. needed correction through to his radical the rules of propriety. and to attain it. and humanitarian phase of his doctrine. But. therefore. It was not of much consequence. would have been recognized as the representative of the orthodox school of Confucianism. and which. strictly speaking. the universal decline of the ceremonial spirit in his days. whether humanity in its innate constitution was theoretically . and needs which of he based on the crookedness humanity rectification. practically considered. If such a powerful. His object was to lead people path of perfect virtue . instead of the eloquent Mencius. he considered essentially bad. ceremonialism was introduced as the best means. promoter of ceremonialism. What was most fatal to the popularity of Hsiin-tze was perhaps due view of human nature. which. this unflattering conception of human nature was not of so much importance to His object was to Hsiin-tze as his ceremonialism.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY rituals 103 as finally conducive to the development of Confucius deplored piety and a Christian disposition. and extraordinary person as Mencius had not followed Confucius and emphatically proclaimed the ethical subjective. and did not miss the opportunity to declare his disapproval. Hsiin-tze. in contrast to Mencius.

When no measure and limits are set to this searching. and imposed them upon the Their desires were thus regulated and their requirements thus furnished. And in the course of bad or good. and disturbance obstruction. why did it ever need rectifying through moral discipline and the rules of propriety ? : " Every one has inborn desires. they fought against one another. of the M proprieties. The equilibrium between them was This is constantly kept under control.104 A BEIBF HISTORY OF the main thing was to follow the Confucian codes of morality. he incidentally found out all as that human nature was not good after claimed by Mencius. for each endeavours to have his own desires satisfied without any regard to his neighbour's. Quarreling means disturbance. therefore. apparent that Hslin-tze considered When men were left to themselves. he reasoned. Tlie people must be put together in groups." this. it is the beginning From society an artificial institution. for if it were. we might say. But somehow it occurred to the mind of a wise man that this constant disturbance was not a very desirable state of affairs. Wise men of old hated this disturbance . Says Hsiin-tze When these desires are not satisfied. nor every satisfaction to lead to a new one. this study. . he looks around for the objects [of satisfaction]. justice. there necessarily arises quarreling. they established rules of propriety and people. Every desire was not allowed to be satisfied.

reverence. considering the rules of propriety as a natural outward growth of the inner sentiment. he strongly believed in the overwhelming influence of environment in shaping a man's character and destiny. but to the artificial refinement that given to the original raw material.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY and 105 to insure peace among them some definite checks must be placed on their never-satiated desires. To use modern terms. It was. jen. wei . literally. But Hsiin-tze did not believe in the goodness of human nature. a very rough . Therefore. Tseng-tze (one of the Confucian apostles). Mencius. to the innate badness of human doing) contrary human nature. the holy man. that this was an artificial in- vention (fJJ. that those checks meant the curbing of their wild desires and impulses. humanism. and could not rely on its self-cultivation. according to Hsiin-tze. The differ- ence between him and the masses was not due is to the difference of their innate character. and %$[. inner Tze Ssu (grandson of Confucius). ching. Here comes the most pronounced difference between Hsiin-tze and other Confucians in their practical system of moral discipline. was no more than a perfected type of artificiality. He knew that this procedure was against their nature. on the contrary. unanimous tendency significance and other principal Confucians show a to lay more importance on the of l. The human mind was not a blank sheet of paper on which anything could be inodelled.

by this artificial remodelling of the baseness of humanity that the hungry could original be persuaded to give precedence to the older. Through the co-operative adjustment of the two." says Hsiin-tze. for all these excellent behaviours are not a spon- . hewing all its ruggedness. artificially be applied to the original raw material. and the people to show due consideration even to strangers . Therefore. then. human nature is the original foundation and raw material. apply to. I say that as all things are created through the union of heaven and earth. " " Therefore. and " artificiality (Chapter XIX.106 A BRIEF HISTORY OF Rigid rules of propriety laid down by the wise men of old had to off it substance which needed the most careful handling and systematic remodelling. and smoothly polishing up to a required shape. the It is. and the consolidation of the empire is thereby effected. we have a class of people called the wise. and as all changes take place through the contact of the male and the female principle. tired to endure their hardships. If not for the to original nature. the peace of the empire is obtained " Li lun through the co-operative adjustment of the original nature p'ien"). brothers to agree in the distribution of their ancestral property. and if not the original nature would fail to polish itself. artificiality would have nothing for artificiality. while artificiality (wei) means refinement and itself culture.

are forced upon a human heart from without. instead of letting them come from within. it can that they will produce in the be logically expected and impulses to receiving organ similar sentiments those that stirred within ancient men of piety and virtue. it is undeniably true that Hsiin-tze's objective ing. are the natural outward manifestations of virtuous men some inner sentiments felt by the wise and of ancient times and by all following generations sanctioned as elevating and hallowing. altruistic He in grafting it from did not believe in the cultivation of the impulse called the feeling of fellowship or (Jen). method of moral train- however one-sided. but in the muzzling of egotism by some artificial method. Hsiin-tze proclaimer of objectivism. When we remember what humaneness powerful factors are traditions and the instinct of imitation in the upbuilding of society. but without. is conducive in many cases to the making of a higher moral character. Ceremonies. and rules prescribed by religion or tradition. of was no doubt a decided He did not believe in evolving goodness from within. but they must be ascribed to the beautiful artificial influence of cere- monialism (li i) . w be classified as If other Confucians are to upholders subjectivism. and. When those established rules are reversed in order. formulas.EAKLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 107 taneous exhibition of the sentiment as harboured in the heart of the natural man. The human heart is made of so many sus- .

note. can be heard distinctly. is due to their adaptation to Therefore. monialism. possible a-tip-toe high go 70 We up to some height and look round far and wide. they can be made to act in a definite way by some mechanical means from without. And that is the psychology of cere- In one sense the view of the later Confucians who find in Hsiin-tze a seed of heterodoxy can be justified. . " Moral training cannot gain Says Hsun-tze a step by mere retrospection . however. One whole day spent in meditation does not equal in merit one minute of [practical] study. may stand it is far better to as as but . is the study . let a man studiously : apply himself to [practical] discipline [or study]. choosing their place of dwelling and for things are grouped according to their congeniality. wise men are particular in their associates. but it Wise men do not differ What makes them wise environment. What is the most essential of all things. necessarily strong. Climb up higher and wave your hands your arms have not gained an inch. Let us study all the records bequeathed by our ancient sages and practise them in our daily life. in their nature from others. Raise your voice in the direction of the wind it is not . they are not strong and original enough to vibrate automatically from within.108 A BRIEF HISTORY OF and each of them responds to a certain If ceptible strings. but they are seen from afar. for he opposed the idealistic undercurrent in Confucianism which was very precious to most of its adherents.

one In the subjectivism and the other objectivism. In this respect Hsiin-tze certainly voiced one of the sentiments remarkably characteristic of the Chinese. But he considered the book of ceremonies or proprieties to be of special There are. This is the all studies and the culmination of As to the study and importance of the canonical books. Hsiin-tze was in perfect agreement with all the other Confucians. One owing of the main reasons. and strongly emphasized the importance of ceremonial formalities. he laid It is. therefore. generally speaking. is. quite in keeping with his general principle that again in opposition to Mu-tze. is opposite tendencies in the history of philosophy. Whatever selfish bestial impulses and thoughts we may betray in our daily intercourse with our fellow-creatures." 71 109 and observance of rules of propriety. Mu-tze saw in music its economical unproductiveness only. Chinese history of thought. him much as Mencius. and ignored sentiment. however.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY consummation of all virtues. as to his peculiar conception concern- ing the original nature of humanity. its Hsiin-tze all soothing and refining effect on the was always bent on cultivating possible external means. why so they did not favour said before. we are innately inclined not to conceive ourselves as radi- and . among of the most the character by 72 which music must be considered one potent. great emphasis on the importance of music. Hsiin-tze represented the latter. two significance.

The Chinese. but in sented. stands on some irrefutable objective facts. is not always determined by its genuine worth. His reason- ing was unusually powerful and exact and logical as 73 compared with Mencius' s. naturally shrank from Hsiin-tze's conception of human nature. Another factor that tends to prejudice Hsiin-tze in the eyes of the Chinese public. Hsiin-tze stands in this respect far below Mencius. Mencius appeals more irresistibly even to . though at first unconscious. but the style in which his thought was expressed was not so It cannot brilliant and elo- quent and charmingly attractive as that of Mencius.110 A BRIEF HISTORY OF and to consider goodness as artificial (wei). many cases by the manner in which it is preFor even a worn-out idea becomes agreeably acceptable when it is garbed in a new style. What makes a thought acceptable generally. lies perhaps in his style of writing. is that we are capable as well of absolutely disinterested impulses and thoughts and actions. cally base in character. while in other points senti- he was a spokesman of their characteristic ments. as we see to-day. with highly cultivated common sense. be denied. and do not cover the entire field. but judging from their rhetorical effects. something Our fundamental belief. And 1 faith in ourselves. that the pre- mises and conclusions of these two great ancient philosophers are defective and one-sided. our experiences prove that our though subjectively formulated at their the beginning .

to the people of the Middle Kingdom.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 111 readers of these latter days . and it is no wonder that intellectual Hsiin was treated by his compatriots as though he were without the pale of the holy teaching of Confucius Confucius who. . was the ultimate authority in matters moral and religious.

including the Confucians. only in them. seem to have had nothing espedo with the worship of God. The philosophers. The earliest Chinese notion of 112 God was more or less . ^ Books The reason why myself because every religious attitude manifested by the Chinese towards God is to be found in them." ( Wu Ching). or sometimes highly speculative. Perhaps one solitary exception was Mu-tze. In fact. and rationalistic. while the latter are practical. who has some special chapters in his book devoted to the subject. The first are religious in the proper sense of the word. the classics and the philosophical works. as is the case with the Taoist books. and I I confine to these classical documents. is and there these a very definite line of demarcation between two representative groups of writings.is might almost say.RELIGION UNDER of God this heading will be discussed the conception in the Five Canonical or Shang Ti J^ " Shu " and the " Shih. Taoists. moral. the cially to others. on the other hand. especially in the both of which may be considered to embody the gist of popular philosophy in early China.

a term fully suggesting a personal agent. August Heaven. Pitying Heaven. T'ien came ti to be used in the sense of rationality." religiously used in the Ching." Whenever the early Chinese they called upon Heaven for protection and . or even a person that governed mortals below. or power. was to a certain degree intimate and mutually responsive .) so liberally and " Shu Shih Ching. and almost entirely replaced by ffi ti (Lord). 113 the relation that obtained between 74 Heaven ^) and mankind on earth." " Yih Ching. Heaven (t'ien) was compas- sionate. In what follows an attempt will be made to illustrate the attitude of the early Chinese towards this shang ti as well as the attributes under which he was conceived. mercy and repent of their But when the philosophical mind began make inquiries.g min. known from one of its common attributes. religious as the source of below . pitying. as it were. Heaven lost its emotional. etc. is gathered from the terms (Lord. commiseration they found consolation in their distress 8 . In the " first place. suffered.BAELY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY personal (t'ien . 76 That in ancient times the Chinese had in their minds a being. 75 or J^ ffi shang (Lord on high)." and "Li Ki "especially in the first two canonical books. for it became more and more impersonal until it finally came to represent a mere sum of natural laws which required no special relations to the creatures humouring. 1. as is . whenever misfortune visited the people they were sure to cry to Heaven to wickedness.

When the early Chinese settlement was still struggling hard with wild and barbarous neighbours. the Chinese authorities thought it expedient to appeal to the religious sentiment of the wild to call Grod to their help. he went into the fields. and to guilt and charging himself with their wickedness.C. Fulness invites of time of Ti 77 way when he was living by Mount upon himself all Heaven.) of the Chou dynasty. who art a . cried daily to Pitying his parents. he looked grave and awestruck. affairs He composed " : Heaven with parental symand thus addressed poem Great and Distant Heaven. a courtier was slandered and disgraced. He did not know where to appeal for who looked upon human pathy. humility receives In the early Li. Reverently attending he appeared before Ku Sau with respectful humility . with those San Miao tribes who rebelled repeatedly against Chinese rule. to his duties. A BRIEF HISTORY OF addressing Heaven as their parent. 78 " will it move the rulers of Miao P 79 how much more Under King Li (878-828 B. till Ku Sau also became transformed by his example. 'It is virtue only that is no distance to which it does loss. taking Heaven." in the Shu Ching (Part II. there not extend. Entire sincerity moves the spirits. when Yi came Yii. to the help of moves Heaven . Miao and " Counin the " " sels of the great Yii.114 by. Book II) ee At the end of three decades. the people So we read : of Miao rebelled against the commands. increase this is the saying. vindication but to Heaven.

Azure Heaven slander." II. Mang-tze. seeking for some one two to give establishment to the people. like every other primitive people." II. The indeed terrors of Great I Heaven no but have committed offence" (" Shih Ching. Wang Chi. 6). it is who that showers blessings upon humankind. hearts overflowed either in grief or in joy. but indeed I have committed no crime. and for which the poet was and is to made to sing the virtues of the kings thank Heaven in the following lines " Great : the Lord on high. Y. T'ai Wang. T'ai Pe. p. Those earlier dynasties had failed to satisfy him with . pity those 2. beholding this lower world in majesty. Since Heaven is compassionate. became a victim of whereupon he cried to Heaven. 80 115 why should I without crime or ! offence suffer from disorders so great The terrors of Great Heaven are excessive. are excessive. Legge. are troubled" (" Shih. they ascribed this to the special grace of Heaven shown to the House of Chou. 4. made Heaven their last refuge.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY called our parent. Chinese were quite simple-hearted. bitterly " The denouncing his enemies proud are delighted and the troubled are in sorrow. : ! O Azure Heaven! Look on these proud men. He surveyed the four quarters. Y. a chief of eunuchs. and through the subjugation of Mi and Ts'ung by King Wen. Heaven The early Whenever their When the Chou dynasty came to full sovereignty through the successful achievements of its earlier rulers. they. 361).

he turned his attention to " the West. princes coming to celebrate the festival (" Shih." IV.116 their A BEIBF HISTORY OF government.C. Everywhere he displayed his valour. he is asked to partake of them and to Then it describes the feudal bless his descendants. and supported them as a strong steed [does : its burden] so did he receive the blessings of Heaven. the dynasty. 7. offer- ings are made. The piece the First. un- . We the appointment in all its greatness. p. and from Heaven is our prosperity sent down. [the princes] bells come to assist at the offerings. fruitful years of great abundance.). T'ang the alludes to his virtuous life. " With the hubs of their wheels bound with Y. the limit/' virtue of T'ang the Perfect is described and praised : as a special blessing bestowed upon him by Heaven "He received the tribute of the states.I. so throughout the various states. This idea of heavenly bliss is also expressed in a much earlier ode of the Shang dynasty (1766- 1123 spirit B. Hating all the great states. Legge. with the eight at their horses' bits all tinkling. and gave a settlement [to King 'Fai] (Shih"III. it is a sort of hymn sung to the of founder of Perfect. [Our ancestors] will come and enjoy [our offerings] and confer on us happiness without In another ode belonging to the same period. he sought one on whom he might confer the rule. unshaken. have received leather. small and large. 389). 2) : and their ornamented yokes.

V. who wanted largely . the Duke of Chou says "And the favour of Heaven has come to us so to retire : Kung. . This is quite natural. There are numerous " Shu " as well as the " Shih " in passages in the which sufferers most pitifully appeal to Heaven for rescue. how is it thou hast not extended thy benevolence. IV. for were it not for the existence of evils man would never become conscious of a power above him. 117 unscared. moral laws as established by it. Great Heaven is not merciful to send down these miseries . united in unterrified. Legge. Alluding to the prosperous state which the Chou dynasty was then enjoying." II. Book XVI. sometimes even blaming Heaven for the misery which they endure. To quote only a few of the many lamentations addressed to Heaven the Chinese " Great Heaven is by early : not just to send down these dire calamities . all dignities were (" Shih. 4. Not only bliss but curses also come from when creatures below pay no regard to the Heaven.." IV. but sendest down ruin that the people have no rest " Great and " (" Shih.." Part V. . Shao him" from the royal service. 310). 3. it should be ours to feel as if we could not sufficiently respond to it" ("Shu.BAELY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY moved. "The Prince Shih"). Unpitying Great Heaven. 7). This idea of heavenly bliss is also expressed by Chou Kung in his advice to his colleague. there ! is no end to disorder With every month it continues to grow so 81 Far-reaching Heaven. p.

I)." V. 84 "Right from the spring comes the water bubbling. but save your posterity " and "If you reverently obey. heavenly displeasure. King of Shang. hast thou no discrimination. 83 4. revealing its Did it start only todepths sorrow of my heart ! day far ? Why not in the days before after is me ? Why not in the days me ? Incomprehensible Heaven. I)." III. no design ? Leave unpunished those who sinned. unfathomable Heaven "The overpowering wrath is felt or ignore of throughout the world below" ("Shin." II. Do distant. IV. you shall not only be deprived of your lands. Great Heaven was moved with indignation" (" Shu. . and bringest about desolation throughout the Empire ? Pitying Heaven. does not reverence Heaven above. who were virtuous and obedient to the heavenly but woe unto those who deviated from its no one could resist prescribed course. Shou. V. Heaven will favour and compassionate you. Heaven was thus considered to be in possession of full power over mankind. But if you do not reverently obey. and inflicts calamities suffered for their offences. 10). ("Shih. 10). It showed mercy to those will.118 A BRIEF HISTORY OF and famine. but I will also carry to the utmost Heaven's inflictions upon your persons" 86 . quickened with wrath. able to strengthen anything." II. not disgrace your ancestors. . . on the people below. for they have already But those who are without sin are also drawn into the general misfortune " " 82 (" Shih. III.

which is taken from Chou Kung's address to the "Numerous Officers" of the Yin dynasty which he had just overthrown. let us be : . p." III. Legge. dynasty. p. the above had to be revered and its decrees complied with. to which further reference will be later on. Legge. a former stronghold of " Let us be the Shang dynasty reverent. represents due the conviction that he authorities his person the according to which he was ordered to overturn the This theocratic tyrannical government of Shang. XIV. In the same spirit. and dare not to be wild the of Revere Heaven. In this passage. of the Chou the prevailing misery of the dynasty. Great Heaven is bright and is with you wherever you go. made any Owing to to the fact that sinners are liable at time power be visited with heavenly judgments. 410). sport or be lax. 10. 5. 200). from the reckless policy of King Yu. conception is traceable throughout in the history of China. Great Heaven is clear-sighted. Wu addresses K'ang Shu who was about to be appointed Marquis of Wei. ways to and dare not make and unruly." V. The poet Fang Peh. King II.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 119 ("Shu. we notice his most threatening attitude toward This in the is survivors to of the preceding above. " and is with you wherever you wander (" Shih. people suffering strongly urges the King and his counsellors to heed " Revere the wrath the wrath exhibited by Heaven : who mourns of Heaven.

87 " The bright and illuminating Lord on high giveth us illuminating survey" Shih.IX." IV. vague and indefinite. Yet when its determination is fixed.p. not only the symbol of power and " energy. Being intelligent and all-seeing.120 reverent. 10). all is Great Heaven is clear-sighted and your with wanderings" (" Shih. There is the great Lord on high. a poet 89 of the Chou dynasty again declares " Look into the midst of the forest . you in all your once declared is irrevocable. 86 promise of a prosperous year" (" Shih. my be. it little child. there we find large faggots and : small twigs. A BRIEF HISTOBY OF The way of Heaven is evident. daily overseeing us. 3). " Great Heaven is bright and is with you in journeys." III. though Heaven 6. these people . Legge. The will of Heaven 7. Heaven is 165/. 2).." II. So. what is decreed by Heaven must be carried out by man who is no more than a mere instrument. and its not easy to follow. Oh Fang. VI. awesome thy person were suffering ! . Say not that it is high." III. if be reverent as from a disease . for it is the source of the moral laws and the standard of conduct. yet helps the sincere " (" Shu/' V.). it is wherever we decree is are. III. there is no one whom it will not conquer. I). bright and illuminating. but that of wisdom. 88 II. The people now in their sad condition look towards Heaven. .. It ascends and descends around high above us. the earth below lies in thy ( "Great Heaven is exceedingly bright" ("Shih. so bright. II. High Heaven.

: heaven and earth.. 159) . 95 /. " was a theocracy. p. 2).EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 121 and does he hate any one ?" Duke of Wei makes a rejoinder to this conviction when he says.." Y. the young King declares (" Shu.) "The former king kept his eye constantly on the manifest decrees of Heaven. who would never think of doing violence to his moral conscience as an expression of the heavenly will.. and of those of the ancestral spirits of temple to light all with sincere reverence. . ment." III. 90 And this unerring decree of Wu Heaven was ever kept in view by a wise ruler.. Yi earlier days. V. So we read in the " Instructions given to T'ai Chia by his aged teacher minister. and so maintained the worship of the Yin ("Shu. Legge. its Heaven took and caused great appointment on him that he should soothe and tranquillize " the myriad regions. clearly-intended will of to help hard duty on not child dare disregard laid the . . Oh 91 ! the it is Heaven " is to be feared. " Great Heaven never errs" ( Shih. in the Great Announcenotice of his virtue. The Chinese government in those and perhaps even now to a certain extent. of those presiding over the land and the grain. which has assigned me this great task and my person. p." Again. my great inheritance (Legge." IY. I the little the appointment of the Lord on high. YII) : " My work is as the servant of Heaven." which was issued by King Ch'eng of the Chou dynasty when he was at the point of undertaking a punitive expedition against some of his rebellious lords. III.

III. . that is the highest virtue" (" Shih. So declares the poet Yin Chi of Fu of the Chou dynasty in the reign " Heaven Hsiian King gave birth to the multitudes of the people . let us be sincere in these five. To delight in what : is held by the people eternally normal. . Through universal be a harmoHeaven favours the virtuous and constant. and ours is to maintain properly and the five orders ." III. let us be respect and united reverence. 6). and . let there are five punishments let the five be in effect. Legge. Heaven escape the source of moral authority. A BRIEF HISTORY OF The moral is relations that exist between men are Those who so determined eternally by the ordinances of Heaven.122 8. In the affairs of administration let us be earnest. and ours is to observe the five cere- monies. The moral laws were thus made by Heaven. nious regulation. It are immoral commit sin against its is Heaven and cannot always impartial and shows no favour in administering justice. and there tinguished. 9. minister to Shun. retribution. " It is the that we have a by heavenly arrangement universal order here . This notion of the heavenly origin of the moral laws is much more : " " Shu clearly Ching (II. 55). let the five be clearly disHeaven punishes the guilty . there are five habiliments. p. let us be earnest " (cf. It is the heavenly ordinance that we have a regular proceeding here . and wherever there are things they are governed by fixed laws. definitely stated in the Kao Yao says III) by Kao Yao.

For Heaven was not only the author of the laws. be it in small things [or large]. . pros- perous. and the myriad regions If . in large things [or small] you be not it virtuous. depended upon their own conduct. the sage-minister. there is no undertaking that not favourable. Yi Yin. law. Therefore.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY eternally fixed. of your ancestral temple" (Legge.doer He down all blessings." IV. Do you but be virtuous. and 123 it was the same authority that rewarded the just and punished the unjust. and on the evil-doer He sends down all miseries. and satisfied. whether or not the creatures here below were made happy. "The is Instructions of Yi") : "Only the Lord on high sends not constant : on the good. again expresses the identical idea in his discourse on "Absolute Virtue" (" Shu. Where there is is absolute virtue. If they obeyed the rules initiated by Heaven and practised goodness (te). but the people turned towards [him who practised] absolute virtue. VI). the Lord on high favoured them . IV. which is also addressed to his charge T'ai Chia " It : was not that Heaven felt any partiality for the Lord of Shang but Heaven comes to [him who practises] It was not that Shang courted the absolute virtue. . but if they did not they were sure to suffer the consequence. will have cause for rejoicing. we read in the Ching (IV. Where virtue contradicts itself. but their executor. favour of the lower people. be it will bring the ruin p. stern and inflexible. 95). There was no escape from this absolute " " Shu Therefore.

perity according to their virtue Legge." Y. calamity. it. In one word. the latter must always be on their guard so that they may not fall from the heavenly grace and suffer misery and ignominy. Section C) " Oh Heaven knows no favouritism. they only cherish those that are benevolent. It thus goes without saying that Heaven knows 110 partiality whatever in conferring bliss or sending Announcement The venerable Yi Yin again instructs young king (" Shu/' Part IY. fall Favour or disfavour does not wrongfully upon men : for Heaven sends down misfortune " (cf. or prosp. "The 'Fang "). " The heavenly way is to bless the III. The Only those who are people's hearts know .124 there is A BRIEF HISTORY OF no undertaking that is not unfavourable." Later. . is Chou Kung also utters the same sentiment when he Chung Hu Heaven knows no about to appoint his nephew " Great to Lord Tsai (" Shu. virtuous are helped by no constant attachment are benevolent. only they cherish those that partiality in its dealings As Heaven shows no with creatures on earth." 11. his : down ! they constantly cherish." IV. difficult to hold. 101). good and to curse the dissolute of " (" Shu. XVII) : favouritism. 10. Book V. Only those who The people have no are reverent are favoured by it. The spiritual beings have no special offerings which they are conspecial person whom stant in accepting. thev only accept things that are The heavenly seat is indeed offered with sincerity.

therefore. it is 125 not constant. utmost the difficulty of securing his heavenly grace of the father : for he sings in commemoration Wen . Heaven's favours are the most retained difficult thing to be unreliability by is us earthly creatures. is Later.C. Shao Kung " The decrees of Heaven are not easily : preserved. struction to the to this idea . and not to deviate even for a moment from the path prescribed by the Lord on high. And it is most difficult for him to be always upright and virtuous.) p. Heaven (" is difficult to be depended upon " XYI. for says Yi Yin. of view. 206). VI. Legge.C. constant in his goodness. 101). 1105 B. ever and again emphasized by the early Yi Yin's (who died 1713 B. Chou Kung (d. In the "Book of Odes" we find Chou Kung again referring to the Shu/' Y. The of the heavenly will. Legge. thinking that the heavenly pleasure once shown to his father is constant " Oh !" and eternal regardless of his own conduct. it changes as a man changes in his virtuous conduct. and he will preserve his Let him be inconstant in his goodness. and throne. also anxious to impress this idea on his colleague. " the nine provinces will be lost to him (" Shu/' IY. from the human point Chinese moralists. passions in his " it is difficult to rely upon Heaven. p.) in- young king T'ai Chia repeatedly refers he seems never tired of reminding the inexperienced lest he let loose his youthful unbridled administration. But [let a ruler] be its decrees are not constant.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Heaven can never be relied upon.

and at the same time the fact will strike an observant reader that the Chinese God is different in one essential point from the Hebrew God that is. and that this conception was of a very high order . A BEIEF HISTORY OF I. no easy task to be a king. . the former betrays no such personal intimacy as the latter does in the Old Testament. ." III. is . and thus won numerous blessings. a Supreme Being.126 (" Shih. . be from all quarters. it is apparent that the Chinese even in those early days had a conception of God. Heaven is not readily to be relied upon . Lord on high with watchfulness and reverence. Even in . . Since his virtue was never reversed. The Chinese are not such an intensely religious and fanatical people as the Hebrews. We rose thereupon and [Shang Fu cried to the King Wen]. it 2) : Yin's rightful heir to the heavenly seat was not allowed to govern the four The King Wen gloriously served the quarters. The Lord on high is with thee. he enjoyed the allegiance of the states The troops of Yin Shang assembled like a forest and marshalled on the wilds of Mu. above. who presided over human affairs below. not faint-hearted P " From ***** ' these statements. . though Shang Ti was personal enough in certain respects. " The bright illumination [of the stern authority [of God] there virtue] here below. and naturally their conception of the highest authority of moral laws was not so personal and intimate as that of the Jews.

you." who founded the Yin B. with one accord protested your innocence to the spirits The way of Heaven is to of heaven and earth.C. One Man. The Great Lord on high has endowed the people below with a conscience. the people of all the clans from myriad regions. "The king Suffering from his cruel injuries. and the tyrant. the of Hsia extinguished his virtue. played the people of all the clans from myriad regions. extending his oppression over you." to have given rein to their imagina- tion so far as to depart from the bounds of common- "Announcement This will be shown in the following of T'ang. clearly to the announcement of me. while the work of the sovereign is to make them tranquilly pursue the course which it would indicate. 92 In this we see the elevation of its moral tone. a solemn inauguration of the new dynasty " Ah Ye multitudes of the listen fervour.). and unable to endure the bitterness and venomousness. This imperial manifesto was issued by T'ang to justify himself before his subjects in the overthrow of the preceding dynasty and in the establishment of his own a procedure dynasty (1766-1154 sanctioned by Heaven. he issued this announcement. and it is their eternal nature to be in accord with it. most religious documents in the "Shu Ching.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY their 127 they seem never sense morality. but not any particularly religious After T'ang had made an end of the Hsia dynasty and returned to Po. : ! myriad regions. .

making clear announcement to the spiritual sovereign in the high heavens. make no approach to insolence and dissoluteness let life . 4 strength. presumed to use and. like the blooming of plants the millions of the people show a true revival. What Heaven appoints is without error . with whom I might unite request the favour [of Heaven] tudes. as if I were in danger of falling into a deep abyss. Then I sought for the great sage. to make manifest her the little its sent guilt. requested leave to deal with the ruler of Hsia as a criminal.128 bless the A BRIEF HISTORY OF down good and make wretched the dissolute. and now I know not whether I may not offend against [powers] above and below. It calamities on Hsia. "Therefore decree of I. that so we . brilliantly and trees. every one be careful to keep his state. "It is given to me. to secure the harmony and tranquillity of your states and clans. child. I am fearful and trembling. to for you. the dark-coloured victim-bull. and the criminal has been degraded and subjected. [now] . did not dare to pardon [the criminal]. the One Man. "Throughout all the regions that enter on a new under me see that ye follow not lawless ways. charged with the I Heaven and evident terrors. my multi- my ' High Heaven truly showed its favour to the people below.

When guilt is found anywhere in you who occupy the myriad regions. thunders. I will examine these things in harmony with the mind of the Lord on high. The Chinese nor of Job . he could not be brought into immediate personal touch with mortals. When in the "Slut Ching" (III. His presence his The Chinese never He was hidden far could only be inferred through the manifestations of power that is. 129 in The good you. I will not dare to evil in me keep concealed . deliberate. it When guilt is found in me. or lightnings to rent his personal ire upon the creatures below. of fires. 89/. " so ('< shall not attach to you who occupy the myriad regions. III. the One Man.EAKLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY may receive the favour of Heaven. ethical power that discharged function rather He never showed himself in the midst impassively. let it rest on me. and has put an It is end to our king. he visited all kinds of calamity upon the misguided. Grod was not the God exercised his of the Psalms he was a or quiet. up in the azure skies. Oh ! let we shall likewise us attain to sincerity in these things.). [now] sending down those devourers of the grain so that the husbandry is all in 9 . 3): "Heaven is sending down death and desolation. and have a [happy] consummation " p. caught a glimpse of their Grod. the One Man. and for the I will not dare to forgive myself. So we read phenomena. through extraordinary natural he was indignant. Shu/' Legge.

crime is chargeable to us now. and 97 having no sound nor odour. A BRIEF HISTORY OF Alas for our Middle States to ruin. But the Chinese Grod in great is far Heaven which extending. The King said." Again Bright was the Milky Way. One and all. 95 veiled in obscurity 96 (though sometimes bright and illuminating). there is desolation is ? Famine comes again have not sacrificed There no spirit I no victim I have grudged. is it that I am not heard? *>. shall we not dread this? Our ancestors These account of suffering is will be without successors/ "" calamities came down from Heaven on human wickedness. there will not be a half man left. are exhausted. Of the remnant of Chou. it it and make creatures piteous enough.* The drought is not try to excuse myself.130 evil case. nor will the Lord on high in great Heaven exempt me. like the clap of excessive. among the black-haired people. to. that Heaven sends : ! " down death and and again. I but think of the power in the azure vault. I am full of terror and feel the peril. Our jade how symbols. shining and ' Oh What revolving in the sky. is altogether irresponsive . he seems to be not immediately concerned with human affairs. I ! all is in peril and going have no strength [to do any- thing]. and if this were raised to is highly probable that he would listen to a personal communication with his below. and I may thunder or the roll. oblong and round. 94 The cry of the Yahveh. in any event not so personally as the Judaic .

in religious fervour. that all men may know his work" (Job.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY G-od. and of creatures man is the most sincerely intelligent [among highly endowed. " Such a God as this was not in accord with the Chinese imagination. But now is the parent sovereign The . The "Great Declaration" ("Shu. and the outrageous. Though lacking God. and When Heaven called the it tive who " found its earthly representa" son of Heaven unworthy of his exalted position. fairly illustrates its the attitude of a new dynasty against He declares : corrupt. 5-7). scious of his holy mission." V. peace. " Heaven-aiid-earth is the parent of all all creatures. inhuman sins in them would seek the justification of his action as heaven-ordained. was a whose foremost object of adminis- was is to give his people happiness. Be thou on the earth . likewise to the small rain. among appointed some one else from This new representative. and the great great men] of the people. 131 who thundereth marvellously with his voice/' Avho " saith to the snow. though by some considered spurious. gathered about him all the available forces to rise against the prevailing house. being a stern moral power. the Chinese political director. and to the great rain of his " strength/' and again who sealeth up the hand of every man. besides tration justice. the becomes sovereign. the people. xxxvii. con- He would recount all committed by the tyrant. degenerate predecessor. I) by King Wu of the Chou dynasty.

not serving the Lord on high nor the spirits of heaven and earth. He has ripped up pregnant women. I. and charged my deceased father Wen to display its terrors. the for them rulers. to the most painful injury of you. embankments. towers. He to their He has put men into offices it on the hereditary principle. the little child. extended the punishments of offenders relatives. oppression. he has dared to exercise cruel. made still mine. On this account. He has made his pursuit to have palaces. the king of Shang. and he says. The victims and the vessels of millet all become the prey of robbers. Fa.132 A BRIEF HISTORY OF Shou. Abandoned has to drunkenness and reckless in lust. neglecting also the temple of his ancestors. does not reverence Heaven above. ponds and other extravagances. of you. He has burned and roasted the royal and good. pavilions. have by means friendly states. for the help of the people below. and made for them instructors. the people of myriad regions. that they might be able to be of service to the Lord on . 'The people are [heavenly] appointment is mine/ never trying to correct his contemptuous mind. and not sacrificing in it. "Great Heaven was moved with indignation. " Heaven. the hereditary rulers of my of sits Shang : contemplated the government but Shou has no repentant heart. but [he died] before the great work was completed. He squatting on his heels. and inflicts calamities on the people below.

but they have hundreds of thousands and myriads of minds j I have The [but] three thousand officers. criminals and who are not. whose atrocious deeds are enumerated " Declaration. Heaven gives cominiquity of Shang is full. the One Man. to destroy it. and secure the tranquillity of the four quarters In regard to deciding who are [of the empire]. when the virtue is the same. early and late am filled with apprehensions. how dare I give any allowance to my " ( When the own wishes ? strength is the same. have performed the due vices to the great earth. Now is the time. mand If I did not obey Heaven.EAELY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 133 high. Give ye aid to me. but they have one mind. I am not loudly pleased with your intelligent virtue. "I.)The " Shih " records how Heaven appointed King Wen to take measures against the tyrant of Shang. and I lead the multitudes of you " to execute the punishment appointed by Heaven. the little child. measure their righteousness thousands and myriads of !' Shou has hundreds of officers. my iniquity would be as great. . my ser- deceased father to the Wen I have offered special sacrifice I Lord on high . 125/. Heaven will be found to give effect. measure the the virtue [of parties] ." " The Lord on high said * in the to above King Wen. To what the people desire. Heaven compassionates the people. I have received the command of . p. to cleanse forever all within the four seas. It should not be lost" (Legge.

Whoever is able to govern the people must be a man of moral perfection. II). In this way Yao raised Shun to the highest office in the state. in accordance with the pattern of the Lord on high/ The Lord on high said to King Wen. it was the wont of a perfect. was not necessary to enforce the heavenly order of things against a despot. in of the Great Yu" ("Shu." which the minister Yi praises the virtue of . to attack the wall of Ch'ung'" (III. get ready your scaling ladders. I. and whoever is perfect in his goodness is entitled to a rulership. Along with your brethren. 'Take measures against the country of your foes. without consciousness of effort on your part. for the highest position in the state belongs to the one who is nearest to the Lord on high. virtuous ruler to select rebellious uprising When any the wisest and most virtuous of his subjects as his own successor. 7). The Chinese did not make any distinction between moral and political authority. and your engines of onset and assault. may who the Chinese conception of rulership be considered somewhat akin to that of Plato. this. without extravagance or changeableness.134 A BRIEF HISTORY OF proclaimed nor portrayed. The occupation of the throne thus effected was ascribed to the heavenly will as we read in "The Counsels II. In institution in conceives the state as a sort of great ethical which the morally perfect and philoso- phically great must lead the masses. and Shun in turn selected Yu to succeed him.

But if the tain the right entrusted to ruler could not be fact made to to become conscious of the and continued tion of affairs.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY Yao " : 135 Oh ! the virtue of the divine Yao is vast and unceasing. great ruin of forbearance from the cessation down on Yin came in pitying Heaven. It is holy. We felt charged with the . The Yin failed because Heaven wanted to discontinue favour. The disintegration that had been going on within the kingdom was the punishment from above. The Chou was its favoured because the rising one had proved its virtue and ability to carry out the appointment by the Un- known." Heaven regarded you favourably. and we. the heavenly aggravate the wretched condipunishment was to be completed by the total overthrow of the reigning spirit that the Duke Chou made the following declaration to the officers of the Yin dynasty which he overthrew (1122 B. and hold all the four oceans and to become Therefore. though this was once so generously bestowed upon the declining dynasty. it was natural that every dynastic change was considered by the Chinese a decree of Heaven. decline that The declining house showed by it was no longer able effectively it its very to main- by Great Heaven. received government. awe-inspiring.C. the lords of Chou. and G-reat ordained you to the ruler of the empire.) " Ye numerous officers of the Yin dynasty. refined. It was in accordance with this of : its favouring appointment. spirit-like.

but Heaven was not for Yin.). Now." V. As I stated before. but through the people. epidemics. as for instance when they apenough before the people. failing to execute this order to the satisfaction of the masses. a clamour goes up from the suffering.136 A BRIEF HISTORY OF manifest wrath of Heaven. p. and when the ruler. for indeed it would not strengthen the disorderly [government of Yin]. Did we dare to seek the office of ourselves ? Only the Lord on high was not for Yin as was gleaned from the doings people in of our com- mon whom is seen the manifest wrath of Heaven" ("Shu. pealed to him as the last resort. ye numerous officers. Whatever displeasure or wrath he felt was only indirectly communicated through such inanimate mediums as drought. Legge. Its everto will is and bring peace persistent good-will and righteousness here below . the Chinese Shang Ti never made any direct personal demonstration of his will though the latter felt intimate toward him. or earthquake. and especially through the doings and feelings of the common people. extraordinary . famine. 196/. But it helped us. XIV. it was not our small state that dared to attack the appointof the ment of Yin. carried out the punishment which came from a superior. and rightfully disposed appointment of Yin. which a wise ruler is always anxious to read correctly. Heaven utters no word. thus finishing [the will of] the Lord on high. disorder begins to prevail. endeavours to promote his personal selfish interests the people grow uneasy.

and the mani- festation of heavenly wrath is shown in the manifestation of the wrath of the people" ("Shu. I.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY phenomena take place. III)." II. There was another indication of it divination. " shown in the intelligence of Heavenly intelligence is the people. The vox populi was not. and herein the wise read symp" Heaven sees as the " people see. Again. The feel relation between the two. the wise knew conclusively where lay the heavenly will. When King Ch'ang of the means within Chou dynasty started on his punitive expedition against the tyrant . was the the Chinese democracy Much of that prevails in spite of an autocratic form of government. and they bide their time to it rise against when all reformation are gone. is so intimate that it. I.. a). motto of the Chinese. vox del. and did not hesitate to carry this out through every their power. the only means to ascertain the heavenly will. hopes for its regeneration or Vox populi. however." Y. Heaven hears as the people hear " As Heaven has (" Shu/' V. 137 toms of heavenly displeasure. is certainly due to the conception of the divinity of the popular will. whenever there a manifestation of unrest among the masses. the wise and virtuous know that the heavenly appointment of the prevailing dynasty is being revoked. mercy upon the is whatever desired them is people. above and below.). When divination and the reading of the popular will agreed. by always granted" (" Shu. when one is affected the other is is sure to Therefore.

Chapter 7). obtained pp. is when lucky. " submit the meritorious by one to the trial of divination and let the favourable indication be followed. The spiritual beings indicated their approval. IY. King Neng. a person should first stalks concurred. before it who should be. successor. ascend the sovereign seat" ("Shu. should The manifest appointment of on thy person. whether the great undertaking he was about to execute were in accord with the heavenly pleasure and could be (" Shu/' Y." II.). who all agreed with me. In "The Great Plan we read how divination Shu." the divine ministers one Shun replied." Y. II. a favourable response.138 A BRIEF HISTORY OF by the great tortoise-shell be- of Shang. YII Legge. though his mind was first made up selecting as to of great Yii. I consulted and deliberated with every one of my people. Heaven p. . dukes and kings as well as to his own people. his To the protestation that the divine Shun should. . . he divined queathed to him by his father. When Shun wanted to select his royal successor. 50/. 157-158) Having he issued "the Great Announcement " to his fellow- brought to a successful end . the tortoise-shell and divining tion of divination. not be repeated. the tortoise-shell and the by (" . Legge. My mind therefore was first made up. he had recourse to divination. . "According to the rules for the regula- make up his mind and then refer his decision to the great tortoiseshell. and thou art eventually to Divination.

In this can also be seen the peculiarly practical turn of the Chinese mind. but Shun. He never revealed himself on a certain sacred spot on earth. in whatever way manifested. to which allusion has been in an earlier part of this book. 98 The philosophy of divination is that of the Yih King. Duke of Chou. no Aaron. It never showed any either through absolute. Their Shang Ti was the Grod of monotheism as much as the Yahveh of the Jews but as I have repeatedly re. was The only way to court its favour was to be morally upright and humane. Yii. though not without some of the human passions as when he showed his wrath through famine and desolation.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY stalks of milfoil is 139 to be resorted to in the settlemen of doubts. made already Thus it is evident that Shang Ti was the supreme power that guided and controlled the destiny of the people below. or mystical imagination. by the human still No Chinese sages ever heard his " small was no Moses. T'ang the Perfect. and its will. However Shang the Chinese conception of Ti was free from the elements of poetical this may be. and Confucius all prosaic and voice/' There . nor in any material. objective form that could be perceived senses. marked. personal favouritism. no Abraham. It was the moral authority of the universe. Yi Yin. Shang Ti never entered into such an intimate The Ti relationship with mortals as did Yahveh. public opinion or divination. was a somewhat impersonal moral principle.

or divination. the significance of Ti was almost lost sight of." populi." place in the religious system of China. of this distinction was not course. In short. however. This would at once be felt when Ti or "God. clearly denned. and did not necessarily consist in or singing hymns or sacrificing victims to an imaginary. manifested himself even in dreams or visions. Theophany was unChinese imagination could not conceive the utility of the prophet or seer.140 practical A BRIEF HISTORY OF and strictly ethical. The early Chinese. or even as early as when the first part of the "Yin King Commentaries" was written. Shang Ti came to be regarded purely as a moral principle or reason of the universe. seem to have made a distinction between Ti and T'ien. but we are always kept in the dark as to his method if not through strange natural vox He never or events. while T'ien came to occupy the more important is translated into English by "Lord" while T'ien is rendered " Heaven." About the time of Confucius. invisible presence that at best had no immediate personal relationship to the offering prayers . In other words. of communication. known in China. It is true that the voice of Shang Ti is sometimes represented as having spoken to the mortal ear. Ti appears to have been understood more personally than T'ien. Though. The most efficient and practical and religious way of serving it was to put all its moral laws such as the five Eternal Codes into practice.

even by feudal lords. was thus that the early religious conception of Shang Ti became gradually metamorphosed into the purely philosophical principle of Tien and then finally into the ethical idea of Tao.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY world below. 100 Another peculiar feature of the Chinese worship of Shang Ti. It 141 The heavenly way was the human way. which must not escape our consideration was that there was no popular temple dedicated to him where Heaven-fearing souls might come and The offer prayers and ask special grace from above. the neglect of which might incur a heavenly displeasure and result in a grievous catastrophe to the kingdom. it was thought Heaven. 101 sacrilegious for the masses to worship who was too sacred. could give him thanks for whatever he did for the reigning house or the people in general. was an act of usurpation upon the inviolable right or duty of the reigning sovereign. It was the ruler himself and nobody else who could offer the annual sacrifice to Shang Ti. who by virtue of his heavenly appointment was the only authorized person- age sacred enough to conduct the ceremony of worship. too divine. in The worshipping of God by the common people. who alone was the mediator between Heaven and the . too holy to be so familiarly fact nobodies in the eyes of the approached by those who were Lord on high. trusted to a ruler personally. Indeed. This was one of the most important imperial functions. a state affair enworship of Shang Ti was solely here.

the state regulations and acted according to the moral laws conceived as eternal and unchangeable. or offering sacrifices on all great As we read in the "" Shu Ching " state occasions. moral and The latter. The supreme one commissioned the earthly ruler with the office of looking after the welfare. revere. therefore. and the " Shih Ching. Ti in his individual relation to nothing to do individually with the highest authority It was sufficient for them if they obeyed himself. he would never think of neglecting either the annual celebration of Shang Ti. appointed by Heaven. and to keep supplied with sacrifices. he was said to have been truly Ever after this. had physical. they had their ancestors to remember. of the masses. When this one man was sucpeople.142 people. cessful in his reflection or interpretation as well as in his undertaking. tion A BRIEF HISTORY OF indignaof the multitudes of the the feeling through it Though Heaven communicated its was only one man who was permitted to reflect upon it and take the proper course to appease the heavenly wrath. to Of course." the omission of this sacred and exclusive duty on the part of the occupant of the heavenly seat was counted among the grave offences which merited his dethronement by a more popular and virtuous political leader. but this was practically all that the common people . This peculiar relation of Shang Ti to the creatures below is due to the fact that the Chinese did not conceive their mankind generally.

the The sun. moon. and offered it magnifi- in accordance with . constellations." the "Chou Li" (records of the rituals " Li Ki" contain of the Chou dynasty). all their other doings being strictly moral.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY had to 143 do in the way of religion. "Shu Ching. " Natural Phenomena. composed kings. which indicates the trigram Yu. we notice "Ku reference to the facts that in ancient times Huang Ti Yu Hsiung Shih built temple. verberates. where he worshipped Shang Ti. practical. From the earliest time in the history of Chinese civilization. that worshipped Shang Ti in a specially Chuan Hsu Kao Yang Shih com- posed a piece of music called Cheng Yun on the occasion of a sacrifice to Shang Ti. The ancient this. and honoured virtue. as the state And was no more than its ruler himself in those days. music. Shang Ti seems to have been associated with the state as such and not with individuals. In the great Chinese Chin T'u Shu Chi Ch6ng" encyclopaedia." chapter " Spiritual (section Beings and the Miraculous. and that later Ti K'u Kao Hsin Shih built a sort of artificial hill in the southern field. These facts are " " confirmed by the Yih Ching where (Appendix II) read " Thunder issues from the earth it re- we : . and secular. and his ancestors." Yol.. the latter always assumed the duty to worship Shang Ti and to offer him the proper sacrifice in the proper season. IX). and also the various of statements referring to the state worship Shang Ti on certain occasions.

but a combined undertaking to of its energy. fire. the five gods of water. the mountain gods. but no hymns singing this connection may of his virtue. monotheism and polytheism. and earth. under the trigram Hwan. while their ancestors and their father were made to share [at the service]. phenomenal world was not the sole work of Shang Ti in Heaven. allowing besides Shang Ti in Great Heaven the terrestrial god. we read : moves over water. which the Earth contributed a great deal . metal. power. This peculiar relation of Shang Ti to the people in general is very significant when we consider that he was not the creator Chinese of the universe. and the river gods. The ancient kings." " Wind Further. if it wavering between sometimes looked as it fell advocated one Shang and then back upon polytheistic belief. But these latter were more or less subordinate to Shang Ti. it In be interesting to note that music was offered to Shang Ti.144 A BRIEF HISTORY OF cently to the Lord on high. or mercy. who apparently occupied the foremost and highly important position in the hierarchy of the gods. in accordance with this. The early world-conception was It Ti. wood. which Lord on high and is Hwan." All this clearly shows that from ancient times the worship of Shang Ti was one of the great state affairs which did not concern the people below. though the exact relation- ship this among them was left undefined. offered sacrifice to the built the ancestral temple. At all events.

in the Chinese mind. either in the popular mind or in philosophy. there was not visible in it any strong predominating will. We can say. and his existence no more sive. the people and the demand for . heaven and earth are very closely associated. There was no logical need for it to find a creator in the Shang Ti. so closely indeed that they sometimes form one idea as heaven-and-earth.EAELY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY 145 Therefore. things were regulated was surely law-abiding. and no means chaotic. however. which was powerful and active enough according to rules. but even when the Chinese mind reached during the its maturity Sung dynasty. not only in its earliest stage. this creation. as it were. Being singularly practical and positivistic. by laws were not animated with the presence of a special soul or spirit. the latter did not go beyond the boundary of its prosaic reasonableness. worship of the Ti tion philosophers turned their attention in another direcwhere the Shang Ti did not make himself obtru- Thus the Ti gradually came to lose his ancient dignity in the popular mind. the universe upon the Chinese imagination. 102 True. 10 . nor was the religious and sentimental to impress itself him strong enough and as soon as the was taken up by the King as his most solemn and especial duty. However that may be. by heaven-and-earth did not have any particularly welldefined purpose . that a dualistic conception of the world. but these well-regulated. was a most predominant note throughout the history of Chinese thought.

The following some passages culled from Mu-tze . existence more or less of a to methodically about the presence of a in the world. tentative. philosophers. they for the first time conceived an allMu-tze. impartial will. they were vague and merely lacked the support of sound reasoning. his doctrine of universal love and extreme utilitarianism are based on the conception are of a great. will in human powerful Grod intellectually. and giving some concrete reasons to him. just. affairs. I mean Mu-tze. however. Whatever and feelings the earlier political writers might have entertained as to the manifestation of a divine moralists. superintending the course of Nature as well as the doings of moral reason Sovereign Power creatures on earth. and the practical Chinaman has ever since been content with the unpoetic and non-religious notion of T'ien. his why worship and reverence are due In fact.146 A BRIEF HISTORY OF actively and efficiently influenced the course of affairs moral as well as political . trying to prove the presence of a Supreme Being. and devoted some special chapters in his book to the subject. wise. the greatest exponent of humanism and utiliIt was due to him that China ever came tarianism. be found quite interesting to note that there was at least one thinker in ancient it In conclusion. will China who came to realize in a systematic way the Supreme Being.

can that For this reason I know justice does not issue from the ignorant and humble." People of to-day. Therefore. I ment. justice in the empire. while the latter govern the noble and govern the former. however. intelligent " It is Heaven that it is noble. confusion prevails. 147 where he reasons for the existence of the highest Those wise men who wish to practise humanity and justice ought to discover the whence of justice. for certain that the sovereign lord. but from the noble and intelligent. but necessarily from the noble and intelligent. is may " We know say nobler than the feudal : and the feudal lord than the not state official. know Those who that justice means good governare ignorant and humble cannot intelligent. But we do know that Heaven is nobler and more intel- ligent than the sovereign himself. For '' justice means good government. " said : The philosopher Mu " Whence is justice ? "Justice does not issue from the ignorant and humble. If so. must be from Heaven where justice issues. order preis but when there no justice." " I know the reason said The philosopher Mu : why the Heaven is nobler and more intelligent than . this ? How do I know " When there is vails . " Who then is and who is ? noble.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY authority. it is Heaven that is intelligent.

148 sovereign. to develop the material resources of the country. t( Therefore. he is punished by Heaven. must surely be from Heaven where justice issues. make sweet liquor and corn to the Heavenly is and it then that Heaven removes all these cases evils for him. what "The Heavenly does not desire to see the . I have. Therefore. ness. I do not know if in fact there is any- it thing nobler and more intelligent than Heaven. he after fasting offerings of spirits . an act of good- rewarded by Heaven but when he commits disorderly deeds. he is A BRIEF HISTORY OF For when the latter does . never known in which Heaven asks the sovereign for blessings. he is sick or suffers calamities or curses. and to discern the origin of humanity and to justice. I know that Heaven is nobler and more only this . ought to revere the Heavenly will" "If we have does it desire ? revere the Heavenly What does it hate ?" will will. " Not tell ' down on the world below as its sovereign/ This is to Heaven is nobler and more intelligent than that say the sovereign. the books by the ancient sage-kings us about the intelligence and activity of Heaven How clear-sighted and knowing Heaven is It looks : ! intelligent than he. and performing ablation. As is thus Heaven that is the noblest and the most it intelligent. wise men of to-day who wish from their inmost hearts to practise rationality. When will. however.

reverently in accord with the . the tired left to rest. on the contrary. desires that the stronger among the people should co-operate with the weaker. Against such a people no feudal lords will harbour enmity. and the wealthy divide with the poor. pearls. the strong abuse the weak. and the noble lord it over the humble. and jades with their sides. The sovereign and superior and inferiors officers will loyal. the higher ones make efforts to conduct the government. On the frontiers there will be no clanking of arms. Now let an abundant supply for public expenditure. Within the empire the hungry will be fed. and all the people find refuge and nourishment. order prevails in the state . the greater families disturb the lesser ones. the subjects the father and elder brothers loving. will barter rings. These are not desired by Heaven. " Heaven. one. Therefore. neighbours on all gems. when the and the lower ones to attend to their own When lower ones there is make efforts to attend to their occupations. children if and younger brothers obedient. be benevolent. the virtuous instruct the ignorant. It again wishes that the higher ones should make efforts to conduct the government. the cunning outwit the simple. the kingdom be orderly and abundantly sup- and the people on one hand will make offerings of purified liquor and corn to Heaven and the spiritual beings. while on the other hand they plied with means. occupations.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY greater states 149 attack the lesser ones.

150 A BRIEF HISTORY OF Heavenly will. and their should these princes respective principalities. The way in which Heaven governs the world is exactly like that. free from worries. Why and lords wish to see their subjects and states and peoples do harm to one another ? When a greater state attacks a smaller one. there prevails a Therefore. to develop the material resource and humanity ought to revere the Heavenly will. to be praised how and honoured could the offender expect for this crime ? Surely they will be most severely punished and executed. "Moreover. but blesswish have blessings may will never be for theirs. Stronger states by attacking the smaller ones. to keep the people in harmonious order. wise general peace. and to meet all the public expenditure. When all the people are thus comfort- ably dressed and sufficiently fed. generally. to from Heaven . men of to-day. or feudal lords. when our conduct not in accord with Heaven's desire. but what Heaven does not desire . to increase the wealth of the country. of the country. practise it in the empire. the relation of the sovereign to his empire is no more nor less than that existing between justice. wishing from their inmost hearts to practise rationality. one will be able to administer a judicious government. and to discern the origin of princes of the minor states. or larger cities by invading the smaller ones. is " Therefore. and a larger family puts in disorder a lesser one. ings they would surely be visited by calamities and is curses.

Therefore. " Moreover. This is because the ancient kings wished to promote the welfare of the empire and to avoid those things that were not conducive to this end. us. epidemics. or famines never assailed the people. but acts contrary to it. constellations. if the sovereign fails to do Heaven's will. sage-kings of olden times knew well how disasters would be brought by Heaven and the spiritual beings upon the people. falling snow. that planned the formation of mountains. and harmoniously disposed of the Ying and Yan. . rain and dew. The five cereals ripened according to the season. and made them shine . stars. then 151 Heaven will act towards . not in the way we desire. and dew quickens the growth of the five cereals and thread-yielding flax. know how For it is sincere Heaven's love for the people moon. that by means of thunder. and follow their courses duly and Heaven that created the sun. and regulated the four seasons. calamities. all the people of the empire along with himself will be plunged into the abyss of calamity and curse. all of which profits the people materially . epidemics. frost rain. and curses. Consequently. but directly against us for we shall then have to suffer diseases. and diseases. that arranged the four seasons in order to regulate the lives of the people on earth .EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY us to do. Therefore. I is. the six domesticated animals multiplied. and they avoided those deeds which would not be liked by Heaven and the spiritual beings. Heaven arranged cold and heat.

Heaven gives misfortune to those who kill the innocent. and to have them supplied with enough means for their clothing and nourishment. A BRIEF HISTORY OF and valleys. " Heaven thus knows no partiality in its love for the world. them. princes. earth. and various lords in order to supervise the moral conditions of the and punishing the disorderly. thereby There is not a single object in benefiting them all. not heavenly made and yet which could not be used by the people and thereby benefit this world which is But those men who only know small things and ignore the greatest. Again. If Heaven did not sincerely love the people. and cultivating the five cereals and thread-yielding flax From the earliest times down to the present plants. to serve them. it quickens and matures all things. producing wealth in manifold forms . those Heaven's will hated and wronged the people were punished by Heaven. making people. do nothing in the way of requiting the heavenly favours. To the former contrary to who . day there has never been any change in this state of affairs.152 rivers. " why would ? it punish the offender with mis- fortune " those Again. and beasts. birds. that created kings. and do not know that this constitutes so-called inhumanity and misfortune. metals. rewarding the deserved. in history we have concrete examples where who in accord with Heaven's will loved and benefited the people were rewarded by Heaven while .

When all these three are universally benefited. and beautiful names are added to it. and Wu. it is called Heavenly Virtue. Heaven's will is like unto the compass When of a wheelwright. and the people. As with It desires first the carpenter. the rightful administration of kings.EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY class 153 belong the sage-kings of the ancient three dynasties Yao. to judge the literature and utterances of all the people. the to abuse the fewer. . Shun. he will say : in accord with my instrument will be called a circle. not will not be so designated. so with Heaven's will. the wheelwright taking up his instrument wants to measure and to distinguish between what is circular ' That which is and what is not circular. they never forgot to benefit the three things. or the rule of a carpenter. What they did not allow the larger states to attack the smaller ones. the larger families to put the smaller ones in disorder. the noble to lord it over the more numerous humble. to measure Whatever deeds or utterances or administration that are in unison with Heaven's will are called good. Yii. and. or grand persons in the empire. that is. Wen. " Therefore. secondly. the strong to threaten the weak. That is to say. 'Fang. In whatever undertakings of theirs. Heaven. the spiritual beings. princes. the cunning to plan against the simple. while that which By this. did they do ? What they did was to practise universal love and avoid partiality. I distinguish one from the other/ Why? is Because his measuring instrument is correct.

" . and higher officials is measured and judged. Therefore. grand per- while those contrary to this sons. and justice. those kings. princes. For obedience to the will of Heaven is the law of justice. It is through law and standard that the humaneness heavenly or inhumaneness of all the kings. grand persons. princes. as when we " distinguish between black and white. or wise men of to-day who wish sincerely to practise rationality. to country.154 EARLY CHINESE PHILOSOPHY it are called bad. to discern the origin of promote the material resources of the humanity and ought to be obedient to the will of Heaven.

V. " . " " Shih (Book of Odes). 155 ." Vols. among whom Dr. Earthly. Their age belongs to the mythological era of Chinese history. " book. . the monistic philosophy is treated. (Book History). and Chuan Hu. 2 ) The " Five Emperors " (wu ti 3 *$& are always mentioned. and also the Chinese Classics. Vols. Shiratori. Te. B. Ill. Kin T'ien.NOTES The " Three Rulers" (san huang JL)> generallyknown as the Heavenly. 4 The two ideal sage-kings of ancient China. Huang Ti. Tokyo Imperial " " Tao" is the 5 way or reason.. A most popular enumeration is Fuh Hi. As canonical virtue and regards the Ching" nature of the book and the author.C. but their names vary. XXVII." by Legge. deny their historicity. Ching See the and " Ch'un Ch'iu " (Spring and Autumn) " Sacred Books of the East.C. is one of the Five Books (wu ching 3 $g)." Literally. XVI.C. They Ching" (Book The " Shu Ching " Wu of Changes). considered canonical by the Confucian Ti (140-87 B.) scholars ever since the time of are: "Yi of the Han dynasty. IV. " XXVIII. see the text.C. Shu Ching" " Li Ki " of of (Records Rites). Yao reigned 2356-2255 But some authorities. Shen Ming. are perhaps personifications of the three powers of Nature. of the University. Ill. and Human Sover1 H eigns. where and Shun 2255-2205 B. covering the period 28522355 3 B.

philosophers of the Sung dynasty en- . Perhaps the Emperor's drastic measures were not solely responsible for this state of things which followed his reign. it can be said that we about the speculative development of the Chinese mind throughout its long history. as school of sophistry which then and whose chief advocates were Ching Sun Ling and his followers. (7) Diplomatists (tsung heng chia) . 7 chia) . which could not possibly do any harm to the absolute government of the First Emperor. (2) Taoists (too chia) . author of the "History " of the Han Dynasty (Han Shu] divides the Ante-Ch'in .) In the second period. (4) Jurists (fa chia) . For in the first period we come across genuine Chinese efforts to solve the problems of the universe quite independent of any foreign influence. (8) Miscellaneous Writers (tsa chia) . 9 This is what Orientalists call " modern Chinese philosophy." though quite Mediaeval as regards the arose. Pan Ku. 8 we can judge from a time. (10) Story Writers (hsiao shuo The " Book of Changes " was not included among them. (3) Astrologers and : G-eomancers (yin yang chia) . thinkers into ten classes (1) Scholars (ju chia. the number of which had become confu singly large. but the Chinese mind itself began about this time to show symptoms of exhaustion.156 6 NOTES What a glorious age this was for early thinkers of China can be seen from the fact that several writers and historians of the day made attempts to classify them according to their doctrines. for it was considered a book of divination. When we know this sophy and know all the ancient Ante-Ch'in philo" modern " one. (9) Agriculturists (neng chia) . (The so-called Indian influence on the early Taoists is not probable. (5) Logicians or Sophists (ming chia) \ (6) Followers of Mu-tze (mu chia) . To quote only one of those historians. Confucians) .

especially in the earlier periods of the Han dynasty. the Middle Kingdom. for Confucianism to this superior position. seemed to get the better of their rival. as we know that officialism is everything in and. however. 10 It took some time. unfathomable. and their son Ching (under the influence of his mother) . and when it became a fixed order of things in Chinese life that every officer. showed great partiality towards the followers of the old philosopher. for the Emperor Tai. the Confucians began to manifest great assume its activity. finally bringing about what we might call the golden age of literature in the Han period.NOTES 157 deavoured to handle the old questions with a light borrowed from Buddhism. and a special devotional palace was built in his honour. civil and military. which was all the while gathering its strength in spite of royal disapproval. The period of the Six Dynasties that followed was characterized by the predominance of Buddhist thoughts vitality partly from in the Early Tang dynasty Lao-tze again became conspicuous. was not openly acknowledged by them. was recruited from among those who passed examinations in the Confucian classics (and Confucianism is eminently fitted for this purpose). pri- mordial. superior. we can understand into what . Empress Tou. claiming the same ancestry as the sage himself. at last succeeded in gaming the upper hand over its rival school. august Lord). At the beginning of career it met with strong opposition at the hand of the Taoists. With the coming of Emperor Wu. however. Taoism as well as Buddhism for ever lost their official hold upon the people. yuen huang ti" (great. when the Emperor W6n. Lao-tze. But the tide of Confucianism. at times. where the Emperor annually worshipped him in great style. which. honoured the " Tai latter with the sublime title of the shang hsiien and feelings which drew their Taoism. who.

compiled by disciples. Those scholars who are versed only in general Chinese classics are unable to understand Buddhist writings. and the result was that even to-day. probably some time after his death. but ' certain " parts of the Book of Changes. after more than one thousand years of intercourse and intermixture with the native thought. was published in 1893. The volume also contains his translation of the other two of the "Four Books" (8hi Shu). are by some scholars denied to be indisputably his. 12 What was done by Confucius along the line of Books thus edited by him. Even Buddhist monks themselves who could not read the Sanskrit or Pali originals must have experienced almost unsurmountable difficulties in understanding the translations of their sacred books. but not as we have it to-day. 11 We can well imagine what a difficult task it was for the first Chinese Buddhists to render their highlyabstract and greatly complicated canonical books into the native tongue. for it was not until after the firm establishment of the Han dynasty that the " Analects" began to assume the canonical shape in which it has been transmitted to later generations. They could never be transformed and compressed into the classical model of Chinese philosophy .158 NOTES predicament the followers of Lao-tze were finally reduced." and usually ascribed to his authorship." known as Appendices. It is the New Testament of ConfuEnglish translation (second edition). This book also throws light on ' literary work was mostly the compiling and editing of old records and traditions. Of the Five Canonical his personality. the " Spring and Autumn " undoubtedly comes from his own pen. by Legge. The " best book that gives his own views is the " Analects his (Lun Yii). that is "The Great Learning" An . cianism. Buddhist literature forms a distinct class by itself.

NOTES

159

(Tai Hsiao), and "The Doctrine of the Mean" (Chung "The Mencius," the fourth of the Four Yung). Books, was also translated by Legge, and forms the second volume of the " Chinese Classics." 13 The Life of Lao-tze is almost lost in legendary mist, but one thing authentically known is that he was an older contemporary of Confucius, and flourished " Tao during the sixth century before Christ. The Teh Ching," "Canon of Reason and Virtue," is the
of his only work which was said to have been written by him through the request of his friend and disciple, Kwan-yin-tze, when the old philosopher was leaving his own country for an unknown part of the world. 14 do not know for certain whether Confucius wrote those " Appendices." They may contain some
title

We

sayings and thoughts, especially in such as introduced by "The Master said"; but passages " the " Appendices as a whole were evidently written as their styles and expressions and by many hands, points of view vary widely from one another. 16 Others, however, assert that the character yi primarily represented the form of a chameleon, and was etymologically connected with the character lung (dragon), to which the former has a certain morphoAnd as the chameleon owes its logical resemblance. most characteristic feature to the changeability of its colour, the character yi gradually came to signify the abstract idea of change in all its modes. It is possible that if the chameleon were really habitually found in the region where the thoughtful author or " flourished, he or authors of the " Yi Ching they must have been struck with the mysterious changes obtainable on the skin of this strange animal, and the finally drew his (or their) own conclusions about
of his

own

divine signification of this peculiarity.
16

Cf.

Legge,

p.

348 /.

The passages quoted

160
in this
tions
17
3

NOTES

book are generally based on Legge's translawherever they were available, but in most cases with some alterations, as the present author deemed fit.
9

my opinion concerning the nature and significance of the " Yi Ching " proper, as this does not particularly concern us here. The " " are more important and interesting as Appendices embodying an early system of Chinese speculation, and as forecasting the development of Chinese philosophy in the Sung dynasty. For further information concerning the kua (trigram) and yao (lines) of the "Yi Ching/' see Dr. Carus's "Chinese Philosophy and Chinese Thought," p. 25 /. (Open Court PubSee also Legge's " Yi Ching " lishing Co., Chicago.) " in the Sacred Books of the East," Vol. XVI.
Legge, p. 350. Cf. Legge, p. 353. 1 His date is not exactly known. He seems to have lived somewhere between 379 and 294 B.C. Mencius is the Latinized form of Mang-tze. His book, which bears his own name, consists of four or seven (when sub-divided) chapters or books. Similar to the Confucian " Analects," it is mainly composed of the dialogues which took place between the author and the feudal lords of his days whom he visited, and also of those between him and his followers as well as
Cf.
20

Cf. Legge, p. 395. Legge, p. 423. I shall not venture

20

contemporary scholars. Legge's English translation Mencius is included in the " Chinese Classics." Arthur B. Hutchinson published in 1897 an English translation of Faber's " Mind of Mencius," which was The sub-title of the originally written in German. book is " Political Economy Based upon Moral Philoof

sophy, a Systematic Digest of the Doctrines of the Chinese Philosopher."
22

There exist several translations of

this

most

NOTES

161

widely known book of Taoism in the English as well as other European languages. It is a short work consisting of some five thousand Chinese characters. It is divided into eighty-one chapters as we have it now, but the division was not the author's own, and it sometimes distracts us from an intelligent reading of the book as a whole, which may best be considered a compilation of epigrams and aphorisms. 23 That Lao-tze records many of his predecessors' views and sayings is seen from his frequent use of such expressions as " Therefore says the sage," " This
:

is

what
1

is

anciently said,"

"So we have

the early

writers saying this." This is Dr. Carus's term for tao.
26

It is difficult to

book began

to

determine the time when the be divided into chapters ; for, accord-

ing to Sse Ma-ch'ien, the only division made by the author was into two parts. But later on commentators, each relying on his own judgment, divided the text into 55, 64, 68, 72, or 81, while some made no such attempts. The division here adopted is that of eightyone, not because the present writer considers this the best way to understand the text, but merely because it is the most popular one. 26 The term, T'ai Chi, first appears in one of the Confucian Appendices to the " Yi Ching." " In the system of the Yi there is the Great Ultimate (or source or limit, t'ai chi). It produces the two regulators "... This passage has been quoted elsewhere. Here, however, the term t'ai chi does not seem to have a very weighty metaphysical sense. It only meant what it literally means, " great limit." The important philosophical signification it came to bear originated with a thinker of the Sung dynasty called Chou Tun-i

According to him, "The Non(A.D. 1017-1073). ultimate is the Great Ultimate. The Great Ultimate
moved, and
it

produced Yang (male

principle).
11

At

162

NOTES

the consummation of the motion there was a rest in the Great Ultimate. While resting it produced Yin (female principle). At the consummation of rest it resumed motion. Now moving, now resting, each
alternately became the root of the other. With this differentiation of the Yin and the Yang there have

been permanently established the two principles." 27 It may be explained here that the character tze, which is found in connection with most of the Chinese philosophers' names, has an honorary signification. It primarily means a child, then son, then any male, young, middle-aged, or old, and finally gentleman. It As a term of also means teacher, sage, philosopher.
address
28

" equivalent to sir." Lieh Yu-kou, is generotherwise called Lieh-tze, the times of Lao-tze known to have lived between ally and Chwang-tze, that is, sometime in the fifth century before Christ. The work which goes under his name
it is

seems to have been compiled by his disciples. It consists of eight books or chapters, and was first edited in the fourth century A.D. by Chang Chen of
the Tsin dynasty. taken from Book
quotations here are mostly his ontological views are comprehensively presented. partial English translation of the Lieh-tze was published by Frederick " Henry Balf our in his Leaves from My Chinese ScrapPhilobook" (pp. 85-135), under the heading, " sopher who Never Lived (London Triibner and Co.,
I,

My
in

which

A

"A

:

and a German

" Textes in his Taoistes," 1891, translation by E. Faber, 1877. 29 find these terms used by Lao-tze (Chapter VI) without reference to an earlier authority ; but Lieh-tze " Book of the Yellow Emquotes them as from the Is it possible that such an ancient literature peror." was still in existence during the Chou dynasty ? If such was the case, and the book really contained such
plete,

1887).

There exists also a French translation, com-

by Ch. de Harlez

We

even those spurious parts are a We development of Chwang-tze's own thoughts. dreamt that I was a butterfly.C. He was a great classic writer. But.32 Chwang-tze's attitude towards God as the maker .three books. 30 Chwang-tze was a contemporary of Mencius. About the genuineness of the writings. twenty of which are now missing. feeling that it was enjoying itself." " Outer." and " Miscellaneous. have two English translations of Chwang-tze one by " Sacred Books Giles. and must have nourished toward the end of the fourth century B. sage Emperor is frequently referred to as an ancient " the writers." Book II). but that the remaining two parts are so interlaced with spurious passages that it is difficult to distinguish one from the other." 31 Formerly. I. the veritable Chou. have is divided into three parts. generally speaking.NOTES 163 passages as quoted by Lao-tze and Lieh-tze. and we find the doctrine of Huang by all Lao " (that is. the Yellow days of Chinese civilization. and the other by Legge in the of the East. we must seek the origin of the Taoistic thoughts in the earliest Indeed. a consensus of opinion is that the first "Inner" part undoubtedly comes from his own hand. " Inner. I did not know whether it had formerly been Chou dreaming that he was a butterfly. a butterfly flying about." altogether consisting of thirtythree books. and usually put in contrast to that of Confucianism. and his writings are considered among the best specimens of His work which we now early Chinese literature. Chwang Chou. or whether it was now a butterfly dreaming that it was Chou. Suddenly I awoke and was myself again. I did not know that it was Chou. the Yellow Emperor and Lao-tze) linked together. It is said that originally it was made up of fifty. This is the case of what is called the transformation of things" ("The Inner.

164 NOTES : Yet I am unable to grasp his peculiarias they are ? All that I know of him is that his working is ties. but contains a great deal of profound philosophical reflection worth studying. the great rival philosopher of Chou Hsi. into any European language. of the universe is that of an indifferent agnosticism. so far as I know. He was a disciple of Ch'ing-tze.D. : 36 . Fifty-five of his essays are still extant. those who do not advocate the views advanced by Lu Chiu-yuan (A. A. It is doubtless a much later production." not. and wrote many books. He was a disciple of Hsiin-tze. 1032-1085. indication but no forms. His position as a moral writer is neither strictly Confucian nor Lao-tzean. among which there are some commentary notes to some of Lao-tze's sayings. He has practicable though its features are hidden. 87 The three cardinal virtues are Wisdom (chi) tjjj.D. as well as by Wang Yang-ming of the Ming dynasty.D. which later became the standard works for the orthodox Confucians. He " " is the author of the books called Ting Hsing Shu and " Shih Jen P'ien. May I assume the existence of an absolute ruler who makes things We Or. great commentator on the Confucian Classics. was also a noted philosophy. . I. 1130-1200. . 1140-1192). 33 This book has never been translated. from this Judging standpoint. 36 Died 233 B. 84 Ch'eng-tze. To quote his own words " What is that which makes us such as we are ? I do not know. and his chief study was criminal law. . A. Chou-Hsi." embodying the gist of his His brother. yet it would not make a particle of difference to this absolute master whether our intelligence is allowed to catch a glimpse of his signs or are such as he made us.C. that is. it is reasonable to conceive of the existence of an absolute master. thinker. or Ch'eng Hao.

when being free the external constraints. Every one there must be a likeness of his own affection or of his own love. who selected these four books as most elemental and fundamental in the study of Confucianism. the grandson This is of Confucius and the teacher of Mencius. While living in the natural world. they hide their ruling love deep within themselves." one of the Four Books (shi shu) of Confucianism. it reveals itself in all its activity. when they have no need of disguising themselves before others. The five Humaneness (jeri) l. 41 "The Doctrine of the Mean" does not exactly . : 38 " Tai Hsiao. righteousness (i) propriety (li) jjj. so Swedenborg says that it is very difficult to know what one's ruling passion really is. one of the most philosophical books on Confucian all from ethics. 39 It will be interesting to note what Swedenborg " In the says concerning man's state after death spiritual world no one is allowed to think and will in one way and to speak and act in another. and faithfulness (Jen) . and there to find out its true nature." 498). they did not have any recognized place in the Confucian system. therefore. most people are hypocrites. 165 and courage (yu) J|. It was Chou-tze of the Sung dynasty. and do not know what its real nature is . generally considered the work of Tze-szu. Before him." 58). which is the man himself. perhaps they may see glimpses of it now and then in : (shen) fg. 40 "Chung Yung.NOTES humaneness virtues are *j$. wisdom (chi) ^." another of the Four Books. and therefore must be outwardly such as he is inwardly " (" Heaven and Hell. as the Swedish mystic truly remarks that " every one is his own love and is thus as his ruling love is ?" ("Heaven and Hell. their solitary moments. Confucianism. advises us to be watchful over one's own heart.

and in which. therefore. and harmony is the thoroughfare of the world. but in the Chung Yung/' it means rather a state of equilibrium or potentiality in which all the passions and impulses are yet hidden and not brought out into operation." Book XVII) "I wish to keep silence." the sense of the entire passage above quoted becomes very obscure." Compare " The unnamable is the this with what Lao-tze says beginning of the universe." When chung is rendered by "the mean" instead of "equilibrium." " its etymological sense. Equilibrium is the foundation of the world. and the namable is the : : mother of all things. to use a Lao-tzean term. said keeps silence.166 NOTES express the meaning of the Chinese term "chung. humble disciples. this is harmony (hwa). and the contrast between the statical chung and the dynamical hwa (harmony) will be destroyed. Find them in our own hearts." Tze-kung. and : . And this state of equilibrium " (chung) is said by Tze-szu to be the great foundation " of the world/' and by Lao-tze the beginning of the universe" (Chapter I). what shall we. Does Heaven ever speak ?" There are certain well-regulated laws in the universe which pursue their course without demonstration. and all things grow. and all things grow." " " " which is also Chung ordinarily signifies middle. or wu yuh). good and evil are not yet manifest and remain in a state "without name" (wu ming. heaven and earth are determined. this is a state of equilibrium (chung) . one of his eminent disciples. When equilibrium and harmony are maintained. 42 Confucius once said ("Analects. when they are manifest all in accordance with order. Chung Yung runs as follows sorrow and joy. The whole passage in the " " " Love and anger. when they are not yet manifest. have to record ?" Confucius : : " What does Heaven ever said speak ? The four seasons come in turn. who was surprised at the Master's " If the Master remark.

the character of each looms up with great clearness and definiteness. however. The other. while irresponsible scholars are talking with utmost freedom. We can mentally picture one donning a golden robe with the embroidered figures of dragon and phoenix. and with an expression which hardly betrays a trace of earthly concern. . those of Confucius will not be made manifest. men become beastly. and to drive away their unrestrained utterances.. The world is filled with the utterances of Yang-chou and Mu-ti. so that the upholders of the false doctrines may 44 is not raise their heads again. and the feudal lords are : behaving as they please. Hence my solicitude for the preservation of the teachings of the ancient sage. and presiding over an assembly of noblemen. his old. might be imagined as swinging himself in a rustic hammock among luxuriant summer greens. The false doctrines are the and deceiving people suffocating humaneness and righteousness. while his eyes are rapturously raised toward a drifting cloud in the distant sky. and anybody who if talks at all belongs to the school of Mu not to that of Yang. deliberate in speech." When we scan their works.. is free about him. 43 We read in Mencius (Book II b) " The sagekings are no more now. and stately movement . When humaneness and righteousness are suffocated. quite opposite to this. One in and unrestrained in every way. and sitting on a throne bedecked with all kinds of brilliant gems. who reverently bow before his august personality which is singularly tempered with a humane expression. This is the Confucian common-sense intuitionalism. What a pitiful fate it was that these two . It is my desire to keep Yang and Mu in check.NOTES sincerely follow 167 them as they dictate. the other. So long as the teachings of Yang aud Mu are not repressed. almost threadbare dress loosely hanging dignified in mien.

and who knows no fatigue in the study of the Tao. . whose insight into the nature of things is Cf. ' What then will virtue be requited with ? Requite" hatred with justice. Chapter XLIII. II a. requite virtue with virtue/ 60 In "Chwang-tze" we have the following dialogue between Yang-tze and Lao-tze Yang-tze-chou saw Lao-tan and said " Suppose here is a man who is quick in turning towards the Tao and energetic in action. but both endowed with unusual dianoetic power and living contemporaneously in the same land. Carus's term for wu wei. 47 46 Book is This : : : penetrating. Dr. 67. " The weakest under the 48 Cf. And again. who ever belabours himself with his trick and handicraft. never chanced to see each other 45 Kao-tze seems to have been a philosopher contemporary with Mencius. tigers and leopards are killed by the hunter because of their beautiful skins monkeys and dogs which are clever enough to hunt : . He did not leave any work ! of his own. and there is no space where it does not For this reason I know the usefulness of penetrate. What do you subject think of requiting hatred with virtue ?' Answered the Master. could such a man be compared to the wise ruler?" Said Lao-tan " When compared to the holy 'man. ' " Someone asked Confucius. but in many ways he seems to have taken issue with Mencius on the subject of human nature. whose intelligence is thorough-going. such a man would look like a navvy or petty tradesman.168 NOTES geniuses possessing peculiarly contrasted characters. as quoted above. " not doing (wu wei) 49 the following Confucian injunction on the Cf. dissipating his bodily energy and wearing out his spirit. p. heavens chases and drives the hardest under the heavens.

his love extends over the ten." 62 What follows is condensed from Lieh-tze's work (" 51 : : . and yet inquire : not conscious of his own doings." Yang-tze said to his " Remember this." we read that Yang-tze was once travelling through the state of Sung and passed a night at an inn in its eastern district. the homely one recognizes her own homeliness. I will not go into details. if you disciples behave wisely and yet be unconscious of your being wise. The innkeeper had two wives . and yet the people are not conscious of its presence. Yang-tze inquired of him " The beautiful why it was so. but it was the latter that was more honoured by him. Though there are many other things to be mentioned about him. and the man answered one is too conscious of her beauty." answer of Lao-tze to Yang-tze reminds us of the former's reply to the founder of Confucianism when he was requested to give him the meaning of propriety remains as if all -regenerating Chwang-tze.NOTES up badgers are caught their very craftiness. while the other was homely . one was very beautiful. only that under his government everything would be rejoicing with itself." Chapter II. for abiding in the unfathomThis able. and I do not know how she could thus be beautiful. there will be no place on earth where you will " be hated (Book VII. Chapter XXII)." Book VI). he leisurely walks in the non-existent. and I do not know how she could thus be homely. my young men. This passage " On the " also occurs in Lieh-tze.thousand things. his merits embrace the entire world. Yellow Emperor. In " Han-f ei-tze. in turn 169 by a trap because of could such ones be compared with the wise ruler ?" Yang-tze-chou then assumed a solemn countenance and asked " I how : May what would be the wise ruler's government ?" Lao-tan answered " In the government of the wise ruler.

68 Died 1763 B. and to abandon oneself to the enjoyment of one's inward life this is typical of all the Taoists. and younger brother to Wang. also makes one of his Chwang-tze characters (Tao-shih) exclaim against the Confucian conventionalism " Let me tell you now what lies in the inmost heart of every individual.C. the next is eighty. which enabled Wang to establish the foundation of the Yin dynasty. can one be sixty. He succeeded Shun and reigned 2205-2196 B. moral or otherwise." "On Yang-tze.C." where this passage occurs in the dialogue between Aii-ping-shang 69 and Kwan-yi-wu. his mouth to taste what is delicious. free from illness. Wu Wu dynasty. 66 Generally known as the Great Yii. who also recklessly indulged in cruelty and debauchery. tyrants The "Lieh-tze. 60 Says Mencius (Book XIII): "With Yang-tze egotism is everything. and his inner impulses and feelings want to be satisfied. Even when he could benefit . fourth son of Wen Wang.. .C. or worry. his ear desires to hear what : melodious. The height of longevity to which one can attain is is one hundred years.170 in NOTES which there is a chapter exclusively dealing with the views of Yang Chou. and the last How often. His eye desires to see what is beautiful. and one of the founders of the Chou dynasty. and committed all kinds of the wildest orgies. and was finally overthrown by Tang the Perfect.C. and have a hearty " Also see below. He was the last Emperor of the Yin dynasty. 56 Died 1105 B. The last ruler of the Hsia . death. 63 To be free from all the artificial or outward restraints. except for a few days. Chou and Chieh are the two symbolical of China. 67 Died 1122 B. laugh ? 64 See footnote 4.

The reason why the extremists are condemned is that they mutilate the [whole] Tao. Hsiin-tze is not so severe and impassioned as Mencius . With Mu-tze altruism is everything. to listen to his methodical exposition of utilitarianism to effect its fuller development. poorly edited. Tze-Mo adheres to the mean. In Faber's German translation.NOTES 171 other people by sparing one bit of his hair. But if. 63 No early Chinese philosopher is so conscientiously methodical in his reasoning as Mu-tze. when a few scholars picked up. as it were. they should be bound fast (Mencius. rpjie re f u ti n g of the arguments of Yang and should be like the taming of the wild hogs. that they raise one point [too high] at the expense of a hundred others. he would not do that. an abstract of each chapter is given. After 64 and Mu they" have been put in a pen. the weights are missed to keep balance. and almost unintelligible in many places. Book XIY). There also exists a French work on this philosopher by Alexandra David. it is just as bad as adhering to the extremes. the almost-forgotten philosopher to examine him in a new light. The adhering to the mean is nearer [to the truth]. In another place (Book he VI) again compares them to the lower animals. who always endeavours to prove every step he takes in accordance with such logical laws as are set forth by It is strange that the Chinese mind refused himself. If he had not been ignored so long. 1907. in adhering to the mean. 62 This is partly due to the neglect suffered by Mu-tze at the hands of Chinese scholars through the successive dynasties until the last Tsin. If by rubbing himself from forehead to heel he could benefit other people. we should have possibly had a far better text than the one we have at present. he would do so." 61 To my knowledge there exists no English translation of the work.

66 For Hsiin-tze's condemnation of the prosaic unmusical Mu-tze. does not know how to consolidate the empire and to establish an administrative order in the state. 67 He was born in 340 B.172 in the NOTES : condemnation of the Mu-tzean utilitarianism. He gives precedence to efficiency and utility. and in expounding them he displays a certain logical skill so that ignorant masses are ready to be deceived and confused by him. Mu-tze. the He Tao is lost in commercialism (li . To maintain his theory. lun p'ien).C. 111. he died at the very high age of over one hundred and twenty Like most Confucian scholars. When eighty-six years old. was passed as a rational. After some vicissitudes. however. : entertain the thought of distinguishing classes. the high state officer. and therefore he does not recognize the distinction between the sovereign and the subject.flj) (Chapter XXI). years. one of his disciples wants to shorten the mourning period from three years to one. his entire life. and the greater part of his exceedingly long life was spent in the kingdom of Ts'i. which." 65 In the Confucian " Analects. he went to Ch'u to seek a new refuge. 21. When utilitarianism (yung fft) prevails. except his last twenty or so years. see p. 68 Chapter XIX. While his argument is very master refuses to agree with him on a sentimental ground. "On the Rules of Propriety" (Li . In another place (Chapter VI) declares Hsiin-tze " He. Mu-tze now advances some plausible reasons . exaggerates the importance of economy and thrift." XVII. seems to be somewhat too far-fetched and not at all convincing. " Mu-tze' s one-sided doctrine of utility made says him ignore the significance of culture and refinement (wen ]). and pays no attention to the order of social He has never allowed himself to organization..

intonation. A . and definite explanations. and each expressed their feelings. Therefore. it is tightening. 73 Hsiin-tze is right in a sense when he says against " It is the reasoning method of Mencius as follows tion is : stilted and lacks there are no and the knots remain unloosened. "On the Encouragement of Study.NOTES 69 173 Chapter XXIII. and this enjoyment must be demonstrated but when the demonstra. however. and concordance were enough to awaken in a man's heart a variety of good feelings and to keep him away from " evil and filthy influences (Chapter XX. " Against the Twelve Philosophers "). "On the Badness of Human Nature. hated this disorder. their melodies were various. which were thus checked . "On Music ")." 72 US J C means enjoyment. It was of no use." (Chapter VI. it is obscure. Nothing is like study [that is to say. combination. it will As the wise men of old inevitably lead to disorder. but did not go to excess . This is human." 71 An abstract of Chapter I. practical discipline]. one cannot go without some form of enjoyment. we the human must have some form of enjoyment. All the movements that may take place in our hearts will thus be manifested outwardly. Thus. 74 J^n 35 t'i en (heaven) and -Jfc t'ai (great) and common the from to have all seem developed (man) in universality. and enjoyment is what M heart inevitably craves. which expresses itself in sound and action. all the modes of inflection. not in accordance with certain laws." 70 A similar view was also expressed by Confucius himself in the "Analects". all the time engaged in thinking. for he says: "Once I fasted the whole day and did not sleep the whole night. people sang and enjoyed themselves. Therefore. they regulated the singing of man so that it might lead him to the path of rectitude.

J^.<&. The character " man. 76 It may not be altogether proper signifies a to consider .174 NOTES source representing a human figure with outstretched arms. attached to the original signification of jen (man). though their different stages are not now traceable. anc^ nna lty have suffered most changes. seems ^. thus 1^. and it mighty one who is on high. . The latter explanation is too philosophical to be the T'ien.. engraved in the ancient vessels. while t'ai (great) retained its original type more faithfully than the others in the ancient vases. 5c.$. -. /^ . -ft and the reason t'ai is. as we have it conception of the natural man. but this guess is too obviously wrong to be refuted. ^ is an abbreviation or a trans"ft to formation of the original or t'ien. for it is engraved to -^. the ancient form of which is according to a Japanese sinologue. to explain a human by making represent figure as seen sidewise. when there is no reason to suppose that the ancient is 7| or }y which some lexicographers try it Chinese people preferred this obscure character to the most natural one without some serious reason . t'ien primarily signified simply something above. >^. : "great" "j^ and "wide" ||. that is. "fr. appears in the f ollow- ^ ing forms: Jft . com" (( above posed of three elementary characters jjjff ^ is. perhaps owing to its earlier The only ancient type we have of it transformation. "J"." however. To avoid confusion. distinguish it which meaning gradually came to from be Therefore. this archetypal character was later differentiated into the three f orms. and not something great which is above. 76 The character ti ^.

height. but his material or objective expression. Heaven was Shang Ti. certain that he was not merely a moral power nor the personification of Heaven as some Christian missionary scholars of Chinese religion are inclined to believe. though not their creator. When the Chinese spoke of Shang Ti. It is T'ien when viewed from the point of its objectivity . He Heaven was A "Wu Ching. and earth abiding in different localities assume alternately the rank of leadership. wood. it is Ti when viewed from the point of its rulership. they had in their minds something of an august supreme being in Heaven above." Lii Shih says: "It is called its Heaven overshadowing the entire world .NOTES Shang Ti Though it as is 175 a being residing in heaven (t'ien).rbiter of human destiny. it is called the lord on heaven. Figuratively speaking. metal. and expansion ' of the essence is considered. it is called Lord (ti) when viewed from the point of its rulership. When the immensity of depth." There is no doubt. which . while Ti is a name given to its virtue as manifested in its activities. are they not identical ? T'ien is a general name given to primordial essence [yilan ch'i]. that the early Chinese did not conceive their Shang Ti as did the Jews their Yahveh. we consider the Lord differentiating himself into five lordships. however. exactly speaking. Why. and famous commentator to the Shang Ti was Heaven. the author of the " Lii Shih." Again. and he is : accordingly known under five different names. fire. says in one of his supplementary essays attached to the (t'ien) when viewed from the point of History "Ti is T'ien. who was the a. reside in Heaven. and T'ien is Ti. he was not a person in the fullest sense of the word.' When reference in is made to high great the fact that the lords of water. ality in instead of did not. But he had something of person- him and could properly be called "he" " it." a history of prehistoric China.

then they are collectively known as the Shang Ti (Lord on high). III. 79 denotes a spiritual being. be comprised in the one name of Great Heaven." 77 That is. The author of the poem is Chili Yu of the Chou dynasty.C. Legge's translations in the Sacred Books of the East." Vol. shen above earth. 78 jp$ (sheri) was originally written J2> (^). who wrote this. p. "The Great are the parents of all creatures. p.). who. lamenting the unjustifiable action of the King. rays coming from above. 75 ( shih) was added later when the idea of a spiritual being was conceived who is the controller of electric current in the heavens. <j|f symbolizes. as far as the etymology is concerned. When sacrifices are offered to the five lords who severally assuming their celestial ranks are to be designated under one common appellation. Book " Heaven and Earth I. "Shu " . 80 Cf. 88 . Therefore. and meant lightning . 82 Legge.C. who listened to the evil advice of his favourite mistress Yin. 352 ff. residing in a region us. From the first section of the "Great Declaration." Part V. however. p." Legge. Legge. 357. who became the ruler of this early settlement in the year 2255 B. with occasional modifica" from tions. a grand officer of the Chou dynasty under King Yii (781-771 B. as we can still trace its meaning even in its present form. sends down its rays of revelation on the The quotations from the "Shu" and the "Shih " Ching are generally taken. The poem is said to have been composed by Chih Fu. Declaration 81 Ching." which is divided into three.176 NOTES may. Shun. 125 /. and means a revelation from a higher being to the creatures below. and expressing his surprise at its progress unchecked by heavenly wrath.

321. he calls to Heaven that knows everything which transpires on earth. who admonishes his minister of agriculture. 88 Legge. if the people below behaved according to his behest. A : I am 85 greatly grieved. 429. When I look at the counsels and schemes. the poison [of my lot] is too bitter. 90 Legge. 8. 354). The whole stanza runs thus " Oh. 416. 417. Do I not wish for home ? but I dread the net of guilt. Composed in the time of King Yii. IV. Speaking of the hardships which he endures. p. Some consider this spurious. From the first to the second cold." 87 Legge. I have passed through the heat and the heart is sad. evil counsels are listened to. : My 12 . moon. p. By Chou Kung. and my tears fall down like rain. my son. I have told you the old ways. the tyrant of the Shang. 89 Chia Fu lamenting the misrule of his King My Wu (" Shih. It " continues [The King's] counsels and plans are crooked and bad. I think of those officers at court. p. From a didactic poem by Duke of Wei in his ninetieth year. 358. Hear and follow my counsels.NOTES 177 The Declaration was issued by King Wu of the Chou dynasty when he assembled his army at Mang Ching to attack Chou Hsin. When will an end be put to them ? Good counsels are not followed. poem written during the reign of King Yii who was notorious for his misconduct. p. then shall you have no cause Heaven is now inflicting great for great regret. Legge." Legge. 4 Legge. p. illustrations calamities and destroying the state. 86 This is from a poem composed by a court officer engaged in a frontier war. and continues " I marched on this expedition to the West as far as : this wilderness of Ch'iu." II. p. The author evidently believes in the almighty power of Heaven who can turn misery into happiness.

Why these two things have been selected for this particular purpose explained. IY. 2). V. whenever there was a hurricane or thunder of unusual violence. : ! ! This justification was later subscribed to by who says in one of his commentaries on the "Yih Ching. how uninterrupted they are and how unfathomable !" ("Shih. II. II. etc." III.178 NOTES are not taken from things remote ." HI." IV. III." 91 Observe also the following " The ordinances of Heaven. III. 1)." 93 "Shih. you will bring the people to great distress. the sixth year of reigned 827-781 B." that "The revolution of T'ang and was in accordance with Heaven and in harmony with Confucius. IY. Confucius seems to have shared this belief to a " certain extent as his " Analects records his assumption of a reverential attitude as if in awe for something extraordinary. I. " How vast the Lord on He is the ruler of high men below. 4. and the myriad regions will repose their confidence in you" (" Shih. 10. III." "Shih. etc. There are none who have not their [hopeful] start. 94 He The drought occurred in Hsuan of the Chou dynasty. and that by the milfoil sliih $g." "Shih. III. 92 Wu men. errs. great Heaven never If you go on to deteriorate in your virtues. 10. whose destinies are not uniformly determined." III. I. Divination by the tortoise shell is called pu f. King 95 96 97 "Shih. 4." II. 1). Follow the example of King Wen. Heaven creates the multitudes of the people. 1.C. I. When in his fearful wrath. "The doings of High Heaven have neither sound nor odour. III. according to one commentator. but few are they that have a [blissful] finish" ("Shit. by the fact that they both acquire something of spiritual is 98 . the decrees of the Lord on high are full of woes. 8.

at it. Such things as the eclipses of the sun or moon. or the frequent appearance of strange stars such things occur in every generation. Note what he says about strange phenomena of nature which the early Chinese people thought 99 to be expressions of heavenly indignation : " The stars are falling. If the ruler is benighted and his government is disorderly. caused by Yin and Yang. Therefore. or the roaring of trees. as recorded in the "Analects. "On this with the almost religious attitude of Confucius toward unusual natural happenings such as violent thundering or hurricanes. when the diviner is finally able to settle his doubts. On Heaven ") will show what a prosaic and Heaven "). If the ruler is enlightened is honest. In the case of the milfoil. however often such take place. the shooting of stars. he is of little account. Compare . It is a natural disturbance caused by Yin and Yang. even if there may take place no such things. but irrational to fear it" (Chapter wonder XVII. the trees are roaring. It is rational to wonder at it. What does this signify ? It does not signify anything. is no more than a mere natural disturbance. he cannot be hurt. and the people of the kingdom tremble with fear. The shell is burned in a fire properly purified. Hsiin-tze was a very practical and unimaginative thinker. and occurring and his government events may It is rational to at irregular intervals. forty-nine stalks of it are separated and counted over and again until eighteen changes are effected. unseasonable storms. and in the cracks thereby produced are read divine signs.NOTES 179 signification when sufficiently old so as to enable a diviner to consult spiritual beings through these mediums. and occurring at irregular intervals. and irrational to fear it." 100 The following passage from Hsun-tze (Chapter " XVII.

when. such a one cannot be made by rain or drought to suffer hunger or thirst. one who has a clear understanding of the distinction between heavenliness "When and and humaneness. is a man. when he responds to it with When he strengthens the disorder. it does not exist for Yao. neglects the foundation extravagant in expenditure. for it there procedure . Heaven cannot make him healthy. Says Hsiin-tze working of Heaven is constant . when he is single-hearted in practising what he ought to. such a one will suffer hunger before a drought or rain comes . with order. Heaven cannot make him ill. Therefore. cannot be made by cold or heat to suffer sickness. " Peace is gained by opportuneness and not by evil is no reason to blame Heaven. Heaven cannot make him poor. and . he will be miserable before evil spirits visit him. he wanders about irregularly. there is evil. Therefore. is as it ought to be.180 NOTES practical conception of Heaven the author had . we can at once feel the gap that came to exist between the canonical writers and " The the philosophers. deviating from the course which one ought to follow. is called the perfect man. cannot be made : by evil spirits to suffer misfortune. which was highly religious and reverential. he will be sick before the cold or the heat is yet threatening. and when we compare this with the attitude of the Five Canonical Books towards Heaven. however. Heaven cannot make him rich. Therefore. Heaven cannot make him happy." 101 The reason why the common people were not allowed to worship the Shang Ti individually. there is luck . when he does not take sufficient nourishment and does not exercise himself frequently enough. foundation and is economical in expenditure. nor does When a man responds to it it disappear for Hsiieh. Heaven cannot do him any harm. when he takes the proper nourishment" and exercises himself regularly.

" Vol.. he ( Great indeed is the spoke to him [the dying friend] author of transformation What is he now going to make of you ? Where is he going to take you ? Is he going to make you the liver of a rat ? or is he going Tze Lai said. : ! ! : ! A A . west. that which has taken care of my birth is that which will take care of my death. there is the Great Mass. ' to make you the arm of an insect ?' whenever he such that to his is son's relation parents is told to go. and rest in death. As a typical instance of the Chinese philosophical attitude towards the universal will. indifference. but this consciousness did not play a very important part in their emotional life. If they are hastening my death. while his wife and children stood around him weeping. "'Now. south. is partially seen in the following passage from the "Li Ki" (Book XXI): "Sacrifices should not be frequently repeated. Yin and Yang is more than that to his parents. Nor should they be at distant intervals. Therefore. that makes me carry this body. leaning against the door. or north. B. and importunateness is inconsistent with reverence. 102 rpj^ 0hinese p 0e ts and philosophers were not altogether unconscious of a predominating will in the and universe. Such frequency is indicative of importunateness. relax in old age. E. XXVIII). Get Li went to ask for him and said to them. ' Hush out of the way Do not disturb him in his process of transformation/ Then. and I do not obey. he man's relation to the simply obeys the command. Such infrequency is indicative of indifference leads to forgetting them altogether" (" S. which is beyond human control. here is a passage quoted from Chwang Tze " Tze Lai fell ill and lay gasping at the point of death. whether east.NOTES 181 why the ruler himself did not worship him more frequently. I shall be considered unruly. labour with this life.

if merely because one has once assumed the human form. E. should say." Yol. that author of transformation will be sure to consider this one an evil being. shall we not be at home ? Quiet is our sleep. Let us now regard heaven-andearth as a great melting-pot and the author of transformation as a great founder. If the " I must be metal. and wherever we go. So. " ' Here . and calm is our awakening'" (" S. and a man only. B.182 NOTES is a great founder casting his metal. 249). made into a Mo Yeh [a famous old sword]. XXXIX.. one insists on being a man. dancing up and down. p." the great founder would surely consider this metal an evil one.

23 Chih (substance). 137 See Changes. King of Chou. Mahayana. 19.INDEX AARON. 36 seq. 117. on the unknowable ness of . 35 . 93 Chung explained. 181 . 7." See " trine of the Mean Chwang-tze. 2. 158 Anarchism. 23 Chou dynasty. 24 Ch'i (nature). 43 Buddhists. the. 94 " the Confucian. 145 Ching (essence). 121 Ch eng-tze on7&t. to a gale. Ceremonialism. of. and Taoism. 18. 10. Book of. his ideal. 166 " " Docthe Chung Yung. 170 Chou Kung. 40 quoted. 54 CJii (the reason of motion). 57 Ching chi (subtle substance). his naturalism. 8 . practicality . 119. 11 et seq. Analects. allegory of. 88. Ante-Ch'in period. 30 ' ' ' ' Christianity and Mu-tze. and mediaeval philosophy 10 aversion to metaphysics. 9. 157 . 84 Chinese. 106 mology. 78 et seq. . compared compares Tao his attitude towards God.. 163 his book and translations. made classical. : j 11 . 139 Altruism. 65 compared . 139 Abraham. 14. 59 et seq. 161 . 107-108 Ch'ang. and the Doctrine of the Mean. . 34 with Mencius. Chinese. . psychology of. Tao. the 124. 39 and Creator. 12 thinkers. and Lao-tze. 5 ." quoted. 29 . on the Great Ultimate. 16. 4. 88. 34. 139. its freshness. King. his dream of a butterfly. 18. 4 . See Hun lun Cheng (sincerity). and Kwan-yin-tze. its clumsiness. 15. 10. 25. 102 . 4. 3. allegory of chaos. 5 . 161-162 Chou-tze on Jen. conservatism of. 80. I ! Buddhism. with Lieh-tze. 13. 101 . . Ch'in dynasty. 11. .. its moralizing tendency. 101 et seq. 5. . 158 . and logic. 163 . . 2. and its ! Sanskrit literature. . 54 Chou " Yi Ching " Chang-tao (orthodoxy). 9 Chaos. 46 CJii (pneurna). 73 85. 125. 34 et seq. 44 its etyChing (reverence). 18 . 3 Chinese thought and ideography. 1. 135. 79 183 . 10. 115. 2 . 30 Chieh. 170 CKien. 163 . 88. 170 Tun-i. 80 a mystic. 65 Ch'eng. 6. 167 . 36 et . 22 Ch'i (energy). 93.

. . 68 Divination. 116 . and Ching. 67. against Taoism. ." 131. . 102 . 14. 1 orders. 126 to be obeyed. and . 19. . 20 his popularity. . 9. 161. 20. 3 " 11 Five Books ( Ching). " Wu . irrevocable. 158 Hindu influence. 47 See J$n Fellow-feeling. 118 . 67 "Great Declaration. 112 et seq. ing death. the most favourite theme for the Chinese. 122 " Shang Ti" Heaven and earth ception. 129 thanked by the House of Chou." 23 his contrasted religious attitude with Hsun-tze's. 18 . the Chinese. 120 123. . 67. Filial devotion. 68 Discrimination. on Jen. .184 INDEX God. 49 et seq. 146 . 117 . . pitying. 136. 65 and positiv" Yi ism. and the moral order. 15 . 2. 25. 144 . 10. . 6. . . 5. 124. 112. mourning. 167 why favoured by the Chinese. 155 eternal codes. 88. more moral than political religious. indignant. 92 First Emperor. 82 Creation. 140. 12 122 et seq.. defined by Mencius. disintegration 33 Hedonism. . 114 et seq. his relation to the "Appendices. 62. compared 115 with the Hebrew. favouring T'ang the Perfect. 5. 119 . 14 et seq. its decree not partial. 114 dom. the. 131 . 131 . compassionate. Chinese. . 24 its intuitionalism. 92. See Tai Hsiao Great Ultimate. 137. 122 and Mu-tze. Heaven Good. 132 . 14. . 90 . irresponsive. . 59. 145 . 49 Confucians and Buddhism. 131 . 120 communicates its will through natural phenomena. "God"." 15. 122 kings. 54 Han-yu. 49 . s punishes the unjust." the. 158 155. 4 Confucius. 61. 156 philosophers. 140 gods. 130. one ordained by. 12 Han-fei-tze. punishments. : as one conof. 57. See also Tien. " See also Shang Ti ". 131 . 83 and Mencius. " " Four Books enumerated. 172 on study. 64 178 and dynastic change. See " enumerated. 122 Emperors enumerated. 140 . . . 140 appealed by King Li. 139. 137. 113 et seq. . 26. . . 157 and Laotzeanism. Dualism. Yang-tze's. 93 Ethics. cursing. 114 apas pealed by Mang-tze. Wu Ching Five ceremonies. 59. 129. 52. . 24 . Deference. Confucianism. Chinese. 176 "Great Learning. different from the Hebrew. 138. 113 as illuminating wisas parent. 121. " Doctrine of the Mean " quoted. . 114 God. 10. 145 Egoism. 84 Hetuvidya. 144 habiliments. quoted. 130 127 the . 173 Cord-knotting. See Tai CKi Greece. unerring. . 18. on 179 . 125. Chinese notion of. : chi ch'i. 123 sendson of. wards spiritualism. director. 96 and the popular will. displeased. 101 Haojan Heaven 135 . and Lao-tze compared. 139 and ceremonialism. his attitude towards agnos21 his toattitude ticism. 47 et seq.

129. 28. 53 nature. prac- tical. and human and Buddhism. . 55 realization of. 75. 68 . . 54 dedefined by Mencius. . 131 Justice (i). See also . 68. 102." 63 Kao-tze. 41 et seq. 67 . 68 14. his prosaic conception of Heaven. biguous. 51 . 71. " Spiritual beings " JCun. 109. 101 . 6. 54 . 30 Hsuan ping (mysterious mother) 29 Hsiin-tze. 108 . 18. /(righteousness or justice). and Mencius. 160. 107 and Mitleid."113 Lieh-tze. to practice. as one of the four cardinal - virtues. 16. 29 Kuei sMn See. 65 and Conan(^ fucius. 54 . . Kua " (trigram). denned by Chou-tze. 31 . on abnormal phenomena. its etymology. 23 Kung (reverence). 4. contrasted with Yi philosophy. and objectivism. 70. 29 compared with Chwang-tze. 25. 54 denned by Ch'engtze. 104 . 111 and Confucianism. 173 . . its etymology. and Confucius.. heartedness. Nature Humaneness. 56 explained etymologically. 85. . See also " Shen" Lao-tze. quoted. 33 . in Lao-tze 54 . 90. 185 12 Hsiang (symbols). 28 egoism. 22 Hsing (essence). 4 and Chwang-tze. 82-83 Human. 54 .. See Jtn Human nature like water. 102 . "LiKi. 172. 63 and the . 51 etseq. 2. 52 is man (J2n). 122 . . his work and . 29 tze. quoted. 179 on artificiality. 67. Ku shtn Ku chin t'u shu chi ch'eng. . how . 62. . Ituh (solitary indeterminate). . . 173 . contrasted with Lao-tzeanism and Confucianism. 11 Intelligence (chi). 101 et seq. 66-67 See also like willow-tree. 110. 30. 104 quoted on study. life of. on Tao. 52 and Yang-tze." 52 . _fii_ Confuciui. 52 .INDEX Hindu philosophy and Taoism. . 24 Li (reason). 56. 102 et seq. is door and road. 61-62 Hsing (form). his life. 67. 157 86 . 30 57 Kwan-yin-tze. 67. 9 Jin. 42. and the golden rule. 85. 10. 54 denned by Han-fei-tze. 59 the fundamental virtue. 58 . . 52-53 fined in the "Chung Yung. fellow-feeling. 69. is the Middle Way. riding on the wind. 29. the ideal state of Taoists. ' ' ' ' Hun See J$n lun (chaos). why a later production. . 34 .79 : worshipped as~Lord.74. 66.77^1^ altruistic impulse. 162 . on music. 71. 53 Job. 73. Kant and the "Chung Yung. 34. on life. his book a later production. 75 with Changtu-tze. 179-180 . 4344 thought. 105. 65 and sincerity. 174 . 31. 43 Kwei (spirit). 159 . . 168 Kao Yao. 104 on human nature. translation. difficult to cultivate. 25.^ comparea^26 and Kwan-yinand 41 Lieh-tze. 41 . . 72. its four meanits real sense amings of. human heartedness." (spirit of "Trigram" : . . 32. 18. 35 . 29. why heterodox ? 108 Hua hsii. . 30 I-twan (heterodoxy). 76. . and Mu-tze. 143 the valley). 107 . 172 . . and Lao-tze. 71 . . 55 . 81 :mio ted. : . 69 Ideograph. obscure. in Mencius.

139 et seq. Propriety (U). 33 Po (animal soul). 112. 67 Yang and Mu. . 139. or Mu-tze. Chinese practical. 67. 56 et seq. 18 et seq. . See also : ' ' ' ' . to. Post Ch'in thinkers. 146. thought Plato. " 155. 102 et attacks seq. . 68 . 96 . his his Godeconomic view. . 140. Ti. Reason . et seq." See the Analects dynasty. 174-175 and state worship. INDEX analyzed by Yang-tze. 102 classified. 175 " Yii. Book of. . 85. popular prayers offered to. Non-action. 142. . 45 Mu Ti. 46 Pantheistic mysticism. 93 et seq. compared with Hsun-tze. 141. 172. . 71 Mysterious Mother. 145. . 114 Schopenhauer. 171 . the of. worship not creator. 173. 34 Non-resistance. 54 mental moral feelings. 31 . Philosophers. 71. 52. its European translations. . 139. el. Positivism. See Non-assertion (wu wei). against 100 determinism. 100 . J>3. 67 . 25 Moses. on T'ien. 19 7 Pneuma (chi). 168 Non-existence. 180 and Tao. Chinese. 113. 143. Confucianism. attacked by Mencius. . ?uoted. why neglected. 160 Milfoil. 41 Pascal. 8 Mu (soul). against excessive 98 against music. 112. 140 . pantheistic. methodical. See " Thinkers 13 et seq. his ideal. the " Ching See ' ' Shih . 43. 171 . and the many. " See also God " Nature : and Kao-tze. 129 Pythagoras. 65 et seq. 29 Mysticism. 72. and Kao-tze. 1 the SMn 44 . Shame. 171 compared with Chwang-tze. human. et seq. . 147 et seq. 161 Renaissance. 167 defines goodness. . 144 . no popular temple dedicated 141 . the. 13. 65 pqiWtttJ. 109 . 14 . 69 his position in Confucianism. "LuShih" ' ' Lun quoted. 4. See also wei Non-activity. 8 and the one. explained ety- Chinese conception mologically. and Mencius. 34 and " Heaven" . 84 Wu Wu wei ' ' . and Christianity. 100 95. 70 Righteousness. 54. 101. 97 idea. 41 . 44 Monism. 48. 84. 64 et seq. Philosophy Chinese. (spirit). 43. five. the. Chinese. quoted againsF Yang-tze. 167. Nameless. 178 Manchu Many. 5. 67 of. against mourning. 68 Psalms. 65. ' ' seq. 97 ." Odes. 66. 91. thinkers. translations of. See Justice Mu-tze. 7 Ming. a person. One. 49. 94 . 99 . 171 . 6 Reverence (ching). 18 (too). San Miao. 80. a state function. 56 et seq. 46 Mencius. 176 . 53 Self-inspection. Shang 67.186 Life. attacked by Hsiin-tze. 97 . defines his two funday^/i. on concubinage. 69. 141 no as the moral reason. 105 and Hsiin-tze. 87 Nature. 134 Ming dynasty. 24 25. towards one's own person. 167.

82-83 Theocrasy. 155 1 . 155 Taoism. 138 21. 114 Three Rulers.. 10. 138. 6 . as as destiny (ming]. 30 Tai su (great blank). distinguished from T'ien. by Lao-tze. . . 43. 153. "Tao-Te-Ching. 44 as negativistic 79 chistic. by . 47 . 113. 92 et seq. 100 as God. 114 as Tien. Sincerity. tze. 176 Sien (saint). 37 present in every- Wang Yang-ming. ated. the. also chapter quoted " " on Religion Ti. 174 Tai chi (great starting). 42 terious . 165 T'aishik (great beginning). 30 116. 28 "Tai Hsiao" (great Ti (God). explained etymologiin Mu-tze's philcally. 42 . See Ch'eng Sophistry. 78 Trigrams. title explained. . 42 conditioned. throughout the 117. Treasure. 48. 139. Ti. 145.INDEX "Shih Ching. denned by Chwang-tze. 5.hsiin). 118. 138 Ssu Ma-ch'ien. 32 Spirit of Valley. distinguished from Ti. 153 . 30 T'ai chi (great ultimate). 9. its pracfeminism. a parable. 41." 20. 29. notes on. 165 Sympathy. is Heaven (t'ien)." 1. : and hatred. its unknowableness told in . 21. and juskinds. 73 the ideal state of. 139. his " announcement. 51 : . 14. 119. 12. 1. 30 T'ai yi (great change). . ethics of. T'ang the Perfect. 40 thing. 117. 138 Tao and fin. 178 . 121 Theophany. compared to fire. . 119. 140 . 140 . Confucian. 162 Tze-szu. 20. 160-161. 71 et . . 5. 6. 84 and Hindu as anarphilosophy. . 77 81 side. etymologically explained. 137 42 . . 168 its . Vox populi. 165 Utilitarianism. quoted. 114. 164-165 . 168 . 29 . enumer- Spiritual beings. 100 . 67. 155. and Tao. 24. 18. learning). Transcendentalism. 71 against hypocrisy and humaneness." 127 et seq. shell. 155 quoted. 105 Tze explained. 113. : . 156 Spirit. . the triple. 28 Swedenborg. 147 et seq. 116. 161 Sung dynasty. 22 Tseng-tze. 187 24. 140 yin-tze. philo- sophers of. " Emperor Shu Ching. and Shang . 21. 23. 38. 38. 22. 174 Ti (Shun). . . 4. quoted. 7 . 48 Tortoise. Virtue tice. 25 etseq. 105. 42 . 36 . 24. 119. by Kwan-yin- 141 . vox dei. . 161 . . 38 subjective.. 113 115. 26 et seq. mystical. 34 et seq. 38 Taoists as quiet recluses. 29 Spirits. Wang fuh 30 (going and coming). 4. Lao-tze. 42 as the mysspirit (shtn). 59-60 . etymologically explained. 159. 38 explained. 122. 48 too (heavenly way). 26-27. 146 conceived by Mu-tze. 24. 68 T'ai. a school of. 113 . 79 and Buddhism." 2. . 118. egoism. tical . 174 osophy. Tien ming (heavenly Tien destiny). 41 seq. 71 culminates in Kwan. 127. Shih Huang " See " the First . 120 also quoted through" out the chapter " on Religion Shun. 88.

155 . 153. 159 quoted from Chwang-tze. 88. 139. 139 Yin and Yang. 124. 19. 171 . 168 fined. 123. Yahveh. See "Yang-tze" Yang-tze. a sensualist (?). 80 deits usefulness. 115. 15. 143 . . . 44 Gesetz- Non-assertion Wu. Heavenly. 48." 2. min (?). on life. 84 et seq. 91 ." 112 mdssigkeil. 14. 146 Wu. 87 . and . . 23.. 71 et seq.. 167. in the universe. 15. 18. 8 INDEX Yao (lines). . 16. 169. 15. Chwaug-tze's allegory. . LTD. 170 Yu hun (wandering Yuan dynasty. " Yi philosophy and Taoist cosmogony. 22. PRINTERS. 170 . 19. 85. . its etymology. and Lao-tze. . . 1. 153 Western culture and China. why men are restive ? by. 148 et seq. 21 character explained. 31. 30. 119 Ching. 25 as . 86 Lao-tze. 16. King. 74 non-activity. 139 Yang-chou.. 134." Book 162 Yi : and Mencius. 130. 138. 23 BILLING AND SONS. laissez faire. 14. 17.. 89 90 and against humaneness. 110 WSn. the 30. 14 et seq. . 90 Yao. ." . . See Non-existence " and " " ' ' " Yellow Emperor. . 140 (quoted) and Confucius. 114. 88 his life. and divination. 7 spirits). "Yi Ching Appendices. 29 and Sung 160 and the philosophy. 105. 169 in Lieh-tze. 159 . King. 73 . its meaning. 121. 151 Yii. 134. 87 et seq. 18. 86. 85 in Han-fei-tze. 15 . . 73 non-assertion. 21 et seq. 82. "Yi Ching. a Brahof the. 125. "Wu Wu wei.188 Wei (artificiality). 139 113." 168-169 attacked by Mencius. 28 Yi Yin. numerical conception of the and the philosophy world. . 18 of Sung. 145. . . in Mu-tze. 156 and dualism. 82 . QUILDFORD . Will. 21 quoted. 71. 21 its mystical teachings. a fatalist. 160 Yellow Emperor. his egoism. 90 .

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