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2'090 "% 2011& Renu & Ors. Versus District & Sessions Judge, Tis Hazari & Anr. …Respondents …Appellants
JUD(MENT Dr. B. S. CHAUHAN) J.
atter initiall! related to the appoint ent o" #lass $V
e plo!ees in the courts su%ordinate to Delhi High #ourt as the dispute arose a%out the continuit! o" the e plo!ees appointed on ad&hoc %asis "or '( da!s )hich stood e*tended "or the sa e period a"ter sa e inter+al "ro ti e to ti e. The atter reached the Delhi
High #ourt and ulti atel! %e"ore this #ourt. This court +ide order dated 1,.-..,1. too/ up the atter in a larger perspecti+e ta/ing
cognizance o" perpetual co plaints regarding irregularities and illegalities in the recruit ents o" sta"" in the su%ordinate courts
throughout the countr! and in order to ensure the "easi%ilit! o" centralising these recruit ents and to a/e the transparent and
trans"era%le. This #ourt suo motu issued notice to Registrar 0enerals o" all the High #ourts and to the States "or "iling their response ainl!
on t)o points +iz. 1i2 )h! the recruit ent %e not centralized3 and 1ii2 )h! the rele+ant rules dealing )ith ser+ice conditions o" the entire sta"" %e not a ended to a/e the as trans"era%le posts. All the States are
and High #ourts ha+e su% itted their response and all o" the dul! represented in the court.
This #ourt had appointed Shri 4.S. 5arasi ha, learned senior atter )as heard on
counsel as A icus #uriae to assist the court. The
.'.1..,16 and deli%erations too/ place at length )herein all the learned counsel appearing "or the States as )ell as "or the High #ourts suggested that the atter should %e dealt )ith in a larger perspecti+e
i.e. also "or appoint ents o" e plo!ees in the High #ourt and courts su%ordinate to the High #ourt )hich ust include #lass $V posts also.
A large nu %er o" instances ha+e %een pointed out on the %asis o" the in"or ation recei+ed under the Right to $n"or ation Act, .,,- o" cases not onl! o" irregularit! %ut o" "a+ouritis also in a/ing such
appoint ents. $t has %een suggested %! the learned counsel appearing in the atter that this court has a dut! not onl! to chec/ illegalit!, and "a+ouritis in 7udicial enace o"
irregularit!, corruption, nepotis
institutions, %ut also to pro+ide guidelines to pre+ent the
%ac/&door entries o" e plo!ees )ho su%se8uentl! are ordered to %e regularised.
$t )as in +ie) o" the a%o+e that this #ourt +ide its earlier orders
had as/ed learned counsel appearing "or the States as )ell as the High #ourts to e*a ine the records o" their respecti+e States:#ourts and report as to )hether a proper and "air procedure had %een adopted "or e+aluating the candidates. A di""erent counsel on these issues. i*ed response )as recei+ed "ro
$n +ie) o" the a"oresaid su% issions, )e do not thin/ it
necessar! to peruse the record in order to gauge the a ount o" irregularities or illegalities. Our %asic concern is that the appoint ents in 7udicial institutions ust %e ade on the touchstone o" e8ualit! o"
opportunit! enshrined in Article 16 read )ith Article 1; o" the #onstitution o" $ndia, 1(-, 1hereina"ter re"erred to as the <#onstitution=2 and under no circu stance an! appoint ent )hich is
illegal should %e sa+ed "or the reason that the grie+ance o" the people at large is that co plete dar/ness in the light house has to %e re o+ed. The 7udiciar! )hich raises a "inger to)ards actions o" e+er! other )ing o" the societ! cannot a""ord to ha+e this /ind o" accusations against itsel".
Rule o" la) is the %asic "eature o" the #onstitution. There )as a
ti e )hen R>? )as @>?. Ae no) see/ to sa! @>? is R>?. $t is a*io atic that no authorit! is a%o+e la) and no an is a%o+e la).
Article 191.2 o" the #onstitution pro+ides that no la) can %e enacted )hich runs contrar! to the "unda ental rights guaranteed under 4art $$$ o" the #onstitution. The o%7ect o" such a pro+ision is to ensure that instru ents e anating "ro an! source o" la), per anent or
te porar!, legislati+e or 7udicial or an! other source, pa! ho age to the constitutional pro+isions relating to "unda ental rights. Thus, the ain o%7ecti+e o" Article 19 is to secure the para ountc! o" the #onstitution especiall! )ith regard to "unda ental rights. 6. The a"oresaid pro+ision is in consonance )ith the legal
principle o" BRule o" @a)C and the! re ind us o" the "a ous )ords o" the >nglish 7urist, Henr! de Dracton E BThe Fing is under no an %ut
under 0od and the @a)C. 5o one is a%o+e la). The dictu
E BDe !ou
e+er so high, the la) is a%o+e !ouC is applica%le to all, irrespecti+e o" his status, religion, caste, creed, se* or culture. The #onstitution is the supre e la). All the institutions, %e it legislature, e*ecuti+e or 7udiciar!, %eing created under the #onstitution, cannot ignore it. The e*ercise o" po)ers %! an authorit! cannot %e unguided or un%ridled as the #onstitution prescri%es the li itations "or each and e+er! authorit! and there"ore, no one, ho)soe+er high he a! %e, has
a right to e*ercise the po)er %e!ond the purpose "or )hich the sa e has %een con"erred on hi . Thus, the po)ers ha+e to %e e*ercised )ithin the "ra e)or/ o" the #onstitution and legislati+e pro+isions, other)ise it )ould %e an e*ercise o" po)er in +iolation o" the %asic "eatures o" the #onstitution i.e. 4art $$$ dealing )ith the "unda ental rights )hich also prescri%es the li itations.
Article 16 o" the #onstitution pro+ides "or e8ualit! o"
opportunit!. $t "or s the cornerstone o" our #onstitution. $n I.R. C"*+," (-*.-& %! @.Rs. /. S$.$* "% T.0i+ N.-#, A$R .,,G S# ';1, the doctrine o" %asic "eatures has %een e*plained %! this #ourt as underH
“The doctrine of basic structure contemplates that there are certain parts or aspects of the Constitution including Article 15, Article 21 read with Articles 14 and 19 which constitute the core values which if allowed to be abrogated would change completel the nature of the Constitution! "#clusion of fundamental rights would result in nullification of the basic structure doctrine, the ob$ect of which is to protect basic features of the Constitution as indicated b the s noptic view of the rights in %art &&&!'
As Article 16 is an integral part o" our s!ste , each and e+er!
state action is to %e tested on the touchstone o" e8ualit!. An! appoint ent ade in +iolation o" andate o" Articles 16 and 1; o" the
#onstitution is not onl! irregular %ut also illegal and cannot %e sustained in +ie) o" the 7udg ents rendered %! this #ourt in D*+,i D*/*+"10* $ H"r$i2#+$#r* E01+"3**s4 U i" /. D*+,i
A-0i is$r.$i" ) D*+,i 5 Ors.) A$R 1((. S# G'(3 S$.$* "% H.r3. . 5 Ors. /. Pi.r. Si !, 5 Ors. *$2.*$2.) A$R 1((. S# .19,3 Pr.6,.$ 7#0.r S,.r0. 5 Ors. /. S$.$* "% U.P. 5 Ors. , A$R 1((; S# .;9'3 J.A.S. I $*r C"++*!*) 7,#r8.) U.P. 5 Ors. /. S$.$* "% U.P. 5 Ors. , A$R 1((; S# 96.,3 M.P. H"#si ! B".r- 5 A r. /. M. "8 S,ri/.s$./.) A$R .,,; S# 96((3 M.P. S$.$* A!r" I -#s$ri*s D*/*+"10* $ C"r1"r.$i" L$-. 5 A r. /. S.C. P. -*3) 1.,,;2 .
S## G1;3 and S$.$* "% M.-,3. Pr.-*s, 5 Ors. /. 7#. S. -,3. T"0.r 5 A r., JT .,19 1(2 S# 19(.
$n E92is* S#1*ri $* -* $ M.+:.1.$ .0) 7ris, . Dis$ri2$)
A.P. /. 7.B.N. Vis;*s,;.r. R." 5 Ors., 11((;2 ; S## .1;, a larger Dench o" this #ourt reconsidered its earlier 7udg ent in U i" "%
I -i. 5 Ors. /. N. H.r!"1.+ 5 Ors. , A$R 1('G S# 1..G, )herein it had %een held that insistence o" re8uisition through e plo! ent e*changes ad+ances rather than restricts the rights guaranteed %! Articles 16 and 1; o" the #onstitution. Ho)e+er, due to the possi%ilit! o" non sponsoring o" na es %! the e plo! ent e*change, this #ourt held that an! appoint ent e+en on te porar! or ad hoc %asis )ithout in+iting application is in +iolation o" the said pro+isions o" the #onstitution and e+en i" the na es o" candidates are re8uisitioned "ro > plo! ent >*change, in addition thereto, it is andator! on all eligi%le the
the part o" the e plo!er to in+ite applications "ro candidates "ro open ar/et as
erel! calling the na es "ro
> plo! ent >*change does not
eet the re8uire ent o" the said
Articles o" the #onstitution. The #ourt "urther o%ser+edH “&n addition, the appropriate department(!!should call for the names b publication in the newspapers having
wider circulation and also displa on their office notice (and emplo ment news bulletins) and then consider the case of all candidates who have applied! &f this procedure is adopted, fair pla would be sub served! The e*ualit of opportunit in the matter of emplo ment would be available to all eligible candidates!' 1> phasis added2 1See alsoH Ar# T*;.ri 5 Ors. /. <i+. M. s./i S,i:s,.: S. !, 5 Ors.) A$R 1((' S# 9913 and 7is,"r* 7. P.$i /. Dis$$. I s1*2$"r "% S2,""+s) Mi- .1#r 5 Ors., 1.,,,2 ( S## 6,-2.
$n S#r*s, 7#0.r 5 Ors. /. S$.$* "% H.r3. . 5 Ors.) 1.,,92
1, S## .G;, this #ourt upheld the 7udg ent o" the 4un7a% & Har!ana High #ourt )herein 1;,, appoint ents ade in the 4olice
Depart ent )ithout ad+ertise ent stood 8uashed though the 4un7a% 4olice Rules, 1(96 did not pro+ide "or such a course. The High #ourt reached the conclusion that process o" selection stood +itiated %ecause there )as " .-/*r$is*0* $ . - -#* 1#6+i2i$3 %"r i /i$i !
.11+i2.$i" s %r"0 $,* *+i!i6+* 2. -i-.$*s .$ +.r!*.
$n U i" P#6+i2 S*r/i2* C"00issi" /. (iris, J.3. $i L.+
V.!,*+. 5 Ors.) A$R .,,; S# 11;-, this #ourt heldH “!!!!!!!!The appointment to an post under the +tate can only be made after a proper advertisement has been
made inviting applications from eligible candidates and holding of selection b a bod of e#perts or a speciall constituted committee whose members are fair and impartial, through a written e#amination or interview or some other rational criteria for $udging the inter se merit of candidates who have applied in response to the advertisement made((((( Any regular appointment made on a post under the +tate or ,nion without issuing advertisement inviting applications from eligible candidates and without holding a proper selection where all eligible candidates get a fair chance to compete would violate the guarantee enshrined under Article 16 of the Constitution. !!!' 1> phasis added2
The principles to %e adopted in the
atter o" pu%lic
appoint ents ha+e %een "or ulated %! this #ourt in M.P. S$.$* C""1. B. : L$-.) B,"1.+ /. N. #r.0 =.-./ 5 Ors., 1.,,G2 ' S## .;6 as underH “-1. The appointments made without following the appropriate procedure under the rules/government circulars and without advertisement or inviting applications from the open mar0et would amount to breach of Articles 14 and 11 of the Constitution of &ndia! -2. 2egularisation cannot be a mode of appointment! -3. An appointment made in violation of the mandator provisions of the statute and in particular, ignoring the minimum educational *ualification and other essential *ualification would be wholl illegal! +uch illegalit cannot be cured b ta0ing recourse to regularisation!
-4. Those who come b bac04door should go through that door! -5. 5o regularisation is permissible in e#ercise of the statutor power conferred under Article 112 of the Constitution of &ndia if the appointments have been made in contravention of the statutor rules! -1. The court should not e#ercise its $urisdiction on misplaced s mpath ! -6. &f the mischief pla ed is so widespread and all pervasive, affecting the result, so as to ma0e it difficult to pic0 out the persons who have been unlawfull benefited or wrongfull deprived of their selection, it will neither be possible nor necessar to issue individual show4cause notice to each selectee! The onl wa out would be to cancel the whole selection! -7. 8hen the entire selection is stin0ing, conceived in fraud and delivered in deceit, individual innocence has no place and the entire selection has to be set aside!'
A si ilar +ie) has %een reiterated %! the #onstitution Dench o"
this #ourt in S*2r*$.r3) S$.$* "% 7.r .$.:. 5 Ors. /. U0.-*/i 5 Ors.) A$R .,,; S# 1',;, o%ser+ing that . 3 .11"i $0* $ 0.-* in +iolation o" the Statutor! Rules as also i /i"+.$i" "% Ar$i2+*s 14 . 1' "% $,* C" s$i$#$i" ;"#+- 6* . #++i$3. BAdherence to Articles 16 and 1; o" the #onstitution is a ust in the process o" pu%lic
e plo! entC. The #ourt "urther re7ected the pra!er that ad hoc appointees )or/ing "or long %e considered "or regularisation as such a
course onl! encourages the State to "lout its o)n rules and )ould con"er undue %ene"its on so e at the cost o" co pete. an! )aiting to
$n S$.$* "% Oriss. 5 A r. /. M.0.$. M",. $3, 1.,112 9 S##
69;, this #ourt dealt )ith the constitutional principle o" pro+iding e8ualit! o" opportunit! to all )hich ust %e noti"ied in ad+ance recruit ent andatoril! re8uires that +acanc!
eaning there%! that in"or ation o" the anner in pu%lic
ust %e disse inated in a reasona%le a*i u
do ain ensuring
participation o" all eligi%le candidates3
there%! the right o" e8ual opportunit! is e""ectuated. The #ourt held as underH& “Therefore, it is a settled legal proposition that no person can be appointed even on a temporar or ad hoc basis without inviting applications from all eligible candidates! &f an appointment is made b merel inviting names from the emplo ment e#change or putting a note on the noticeboard, etc! that will not meet the re*uirement of Articles 14 and 11 of the Constitution! +uch a course violates the mandates of Articles 14 and 11 of the Constitution of &ndia as it deprives the candidates who are eligible for the post, from being considered! A person emplo ed in violation of these provisions is not entitled to an relief including salar ! 9or a valid and legal appointment mandator compliance with the said constitutional re*uirement is to be fulfilled! The e*ualit clause enshrined in Article 11 re*uires that ever such appointment be made b an
open advertisement as to enable all eligible persons to compete on merit!' Ahere an! such appoint ents are ade, the! can %e challenged
in the court o" la). The 8uo )arranto proceeding a""ords a 7udicial re ed! %! )hich an! person, )ho holds an independent su%stanti+e pu%lic o""ice or "ranchise or li%ert!, is called upon to sho) %! )hat right he holds the said o""ice, "ranchise or li%ert!, so that his title to it a! %e dul! deter ined, and in case the "inding is that the holder o" the o""ice has no title, he )ould %e ousted "ro that o""ice %! 7udicial
order. $n other )ords, the procedure o" 8uo )arranto gi+es the Judiciar! a )eapon to control the >*ecuti+e "ro a/ing appoint ent %eing
to pu%lic o""ice against la) and to protect a citizen "ro
depri+ed o" pu%lic o""ice to )hich he has a right. These proceedings also tend to protect the pu%lic "ro usurpers o" pu%lic o""ice )ho
ight %e allo)ed to continue either )ith the conni+ance o" the >*ecuti+e or %! reason o" its apath!. $t )ill, thus, %e seen that %e"ore a person can e""ecti+el! clai a )rit o" 8uo )arranto, he has to satis"!
the #ourt that the o""ice in 8uestion is a pu%lic o""ice and is held %! a usurper )ithout legal authorit!, and that ine+ita%l! )ould lead to an en8uir! as to )hether the appoint ent o" the alleged usurper has %een ade in accordance )ith la) or not. Ior issuance o" )rit o" 8uo
)arranto, the #ourt has to satis"! that the appoint ent is contrar! to the statutor! rules and the person holding the post has no right to hold it. 1VideH T,* U i/*rsi$3 "% M3s"r* 5 A r. /. C.D. ("/i -. R." 5 A r.) A$R 1(;- S# 6(13 S,ri 7#0.r P.-0. Pr.s.- /. U i" "% I -i. 5 Ors.) A$R 1((. S# 1.193 B.R. 7.1#r /. S$.$* "% T.0i+ N.-# 5 A r.) A$R .,,1 S# 969-3 T,* M"r M"-*r C">"1*r.$i/* Tr. s1"r$ S"2i*$3 L$-. /. Fi . 2i.+ C"00issi" *r . - S*2r*$.r3 $" ("/$.) H.r3. . 5 A r.) A$R .,,. S# .-193 Ar# Si !, /. S$.$* "% Bi,.r 5 Ors.) A$R .,,; S# 16193 H.ri B. s, L.+ /. S.,"-.r Pr.s.- M.,$" 5 Ors.) A$R .,1, S# 9-1-3 and C* $r.+ E+*2$ri2i$3 S#11+3 U$i+i$3 "% O-is,. /. D,"6*i S.,"" 5 Ors.) 1.,162 1 S## 1;12.
Another i portant re8uire ent o" pu%lic appoint ent is that o" ust speci"! the nu %er
transparenc!. There"ore, the ad+ertise ent
o" posts a+aila%le "or selection and recruit ent. The 8uali"ications and other eligi%ilit! criteria "or such posts should %e e*plicitl! pro+ided and the schedule o" recruit ent process should %e pu%lished )ith certaint! and clarit!. The ad+ertise ent should also speci"! the rules under )hich the selection is to %e ade and in a%sence o" the rules,
the procedure under )hich the selection is li/el! to %e underta/en.
This is necessar! to pre+ent ar%itrariness and to a+oid change o" criteria o" selection a"ter the selection process is co un7ustl! %ene"iting so eone at the cost o" others. enced, there%!
Thus, the a"oresaid decisions are an authorit! on prescri%ing the a/ing appoint ent against pu%lic posts in ter s o"
li itations )hile
Articles 16 and 1; o" the #onstitution. Ahat has %een deprecated %! this #ourt ti e and again is B%ac/door appoint ents or appoint ent de hors the rulesC. $n S$.$* "% U.P. 5 Ors. /. U.P. S$.$* L.; O%%i2*rs Ass"2i.$i" 5 Ors., A$R 1((6 S# 1;-6, this #ourt )hile dealing
)ith the %ac/&door entries in pu%lic appoint ent o%ser+ed as underH “The method of appointment is indeed not calculated to ensure that the meritorious alone will alwa s be appointed or that the appointments made will not be on the considerations other than merit! &n the absence of guidelines, the appointment ma be made purel on personal or political consideration and be arbitrar ! This being so those who come to be appointed by such arbitrary procedure can hardly complain if the termination of their appointment is equally arbitrary. Those who come by the back-door have to go by the same door(!9rom the inception some engagements and contracts ma be the product of the operation of the spoils s stem! There need be no legal an#iet to save them!' 1> phasis added2
$n S"0 R.8 5 Ors. /. S$.$* "% H.r3. . 5 Ors. , A$R 1((,
S# 11G;, this #ourt held as underH “The absence of arbitrar power is the first postulate of rule of law upon which our whole constitutional edifice is based! &n a s stem governed b 2ule of :aw, discretion when conferred upon an e#ecutive authorit must be confined within clearl defined limits! The rules provide the guidance for e#ercise of the discretion in ma0ing appointment from out of selection lists which was prepared on the basis of the performance and position obtained at the selection! The appointing authorit is to ma0e appointment in the order of gradation, sub$ect to an other relevant rules li0e, rotation or reservation, if an , or an other valid and binding rules or instructions having force of law! &f the discretion is e#ercised without an principle or without an rule, it is a situation amounting to the antithesis of 2ule of :aw! ;iscretion means sound discretion guided b law or governed b 0nown principles of rules, not b whim or fanc or caprice of the authorit !'
a/ing the appoint ents or regulating the other ser+ice
conditions o" the sta"" o" the High #ourt, the #hie" Justice e*ercises an ad inistrati+e po)er )ith constitutional %ac/ing. This po)er has %een entrusted to the sa"e custod! o" the #hie" Justice in order to ensure the independence o" the Judiciar!, )hich is one o" the +ital organs o" a 0o+ern ent and )hose authorit! is to %e aintained. The
discretion e*ercised %! the #hie" Justice cannot %e open to challenge,
e*cept on )ell /no)n grounds, that is to sa!, )hen the e*ercise o" discretion is discri inator! or ala "ide, or the li/e1s2.
>+en under the #onstitution, the po)er o" appoint ent granted
to the #hie" Justice under Article ..( 112 is su%7ect to Article 1; 112, )hich guarantees e8ualit! o" opportunit! "or all citizens in relating to e plo! ent. JOpportunit!= as used in this Article atters eans
chance o" e plo! ent and )hat it guaranteed is that this opportunit! o" e plo! ent )ould %e e8uall! a+aila%le to all.
As a sa"eguard, the #onstitution has also recognized that in the
internal ad inistration o" the High #ourt, no other po)er, e*cept the #hie" Justice should ha+e do ain. $n order to ena%le a 7udicial inter+ention, it )ould re8uire onl! a +er! strong and con+incing argu ent to sho) that this po)er has %een a%used. $" an authorit! has e*ercised his discretion in good "aith and not in +iolation o" an! la), such e*ercise o" discretion should not %e inter"ered )ith %! the courts erel! on the ground that it could ha+e %een e*ercised di""erentl! or e+en that the courts )ould ha+e e*ercised it di""erentl! had the %een %rought %e"ore it in the "irst instance or in that perspecti+e. atter
Article .9- o" the #onstitution pro+ides "or po)er o" the High
#ourt to e*ercise co plete ad inistrati+e control o+er the Su%ordinate #ourts. This control, undou%tedl!, e*tends to all "unctionaries attached to the Su%ordinate #ourts including the inisterial sta"" and ser+ants in the esta%lish ent o" the Su%ordinate #ourts. $" the ad inistrati+e control cannot %e e*ercised o+er the ad inistrati+e and inisterial sta"", i.e. i" the High #ourt )ould %e
denuded o" its po)ers o" control o+er the other ad inistrati+e "unctionaries and inisterial sta"" o" the District #ourt and
Su%ordinate #ourts other than Judicial O""icers, then the purpose o" superintendence pro+ided therein )ould stand "rustrated and such an interpretation )ould %e )holl! destructi+e to the har onious, e""icient and e""ecti+e )or/ing o" the Su%ordinate #ourts. The #ourts are institutions or organis s!ste )here all the li %s co plete the )hole
o" #ourts and )hen the #onstitutional pro+ision is o" such
)ide a plitude to co+er %oth the #ourts and persons %elonging to the Judicial O""ice, there )ould %e no reason to e*clude the other li %s o" the #ourts, na el!, ad inistrati+e "unctionaries and o" its esta%lish ent "ro inisterial sta""
the scope o" control. Such control is
e*clusi+e in nature, co prehensi+e in e*tent and e""ecti+e in
operation. 1VideH T,* S$.$* "% ?*s$ B* !.+ 5 A r. /. Nri1* -r. N.$, B.!2,i, A$R 1(;; S# 66G3 S,ri B.r.-.:. $. Mis,r. /. R*!is$r.r "% Oriss. Hi!, C"#r$ 5 A r., A$R 1(G6 S# G1,3 ="!i .$, D. B.!-* /. S$.$* "% M.,.r.s,$r. 5 A r., A$R 1((( S## 9G963 S#6*-.r Si !, 5 Ors. /. Dis$ri2$ J#-!*) Mir@.1#r 5 A r., A$R .,,1 S# .,13 Hi!, C"#r$ "% J#-i2.$#r* %"r R.8.s$,. /. P.P. Si !, 5 A r., A$R .,,9 S# 1,.(3 and R*!is$r.r (* *r.+) Hi!, C"#r$ "% J#-i2.$#r* .$ M.-r.s /. R. P*r.2,i 5 Ors. , A$R .,1. S# .9.2.
$n M. (#r#0""r$,3 /. T,* A22"# $. $ (* *r.+) Ass.0 . -
N.!.+. - 5 Ors.) A$R 1(G1 S# 1'-,, the #onstitution Dench o" this #ourt heldH “The une*uivocal purpose and obvious intention of the framers of the Constitution in enacting Article 229 is that in the matter of appointments of officers and servants of a <igh Court it is the Chief =ustice or his nominee who is to be the supreme authorit and there can be no interference b the e#ecutive e#cept to the limited e#tent that is provided in the Article((Thus, Article 229 has a distinct and different scheme and contemplates full freedom to the Chief =ustice in the matter of appointments of officers and servants of the <igh Court and their conditions of service!'
$n this #ase, this #ourt spelt out the po)ers o" the #hie" Justice atters o" appoint ent o" sta"" o" the High
o" the High #ourt in the
#ourt, %ut this #ourt did not la! do)n in an! )a! that the #hie" Justice can e*ercise such po)ers in contra+ention o" the pro+isions o" Articles 16 and 1; o" the #onstitution )hile the esta%lish ent o" the High #ourt. a/ing appoint ents in
$n H.C. P#$$.s;.03 5 Ors. /. T,* H" 46+* C,i*% J#s$i2* "%
7.r .$.:. Hi!, C"#r$) B. !.+"r* 5 Ors., A$R 1((1 S# .(-, )hile dealing )ith a si ilar situation and interpreting the pro+isions o" Article ..( 1.2 o" the #onstitution and Farnata/a State #i+il Ser+ices 1Recruit ent to Kinisterial 4osts2 Rules, 1(;;, this #ourt held the appoint ents ade %! the #hie" Justice o" the High #ourt )ithout
ad+ertising the +acancies as in+alid %eing +iolati+e o" Articles 16 and 1;112 o" the #onstitution. The #ourt ca e to the said conclusion as the appoint ents )ere ade )ithout "ollo)ing the procedure
prescri%ed in the Rules. The #ourt "urther o%ser+edH “8hile the administration of the Courts has perhaps, never been without its critics, the method of recruitment followed b the Chief =ustice appears to be without parallel(!!((The methodolog adopted b the Chief =ustice was manifestl wrong and it was doubtless
deviation from the course of law which the <igh Court has to protect and preserve! The $udiciar is the custodian of constitutional principles which are essential to the maintenance of rule of law! &t is the vehicle for the protection of a set of values which are integral part of our social and political philosoph ! =udges are the most visible actors in the administration of $ustice! Their case decisions are the most publicl visible outcome! >ut the administration of $ustice is $ust not deciding disputed cases! &t involves great deal more than that! An realistic anal sis of the administration of $ustice in the Courts must also ta0e account of the totalit of the $udges behaviour and their administrative roles! The ma appear to be onl minor aspects of the administration of $ustice, but collectivel the are not trivial! The constitute in our opinion, a substantial part of the mosaic which represents the ordinar man?s perception of what the Courts are and how the =udges go about their wor0! The Chief =ustice is the prime force in the <igh Court! Article 229 of the Constitution provides that appointment of officers and servants of the <igh Court shall be made b the Chief =ustice or such other =udge or officer of the Court as ma be directed b the Chief =ustice! The ob$ect of this Article was to secure the independence of the <igh Court which cannot be regarded as full secured unless the authorit to appoint supporting staff with complete control over them is vested in the Chief =ustice! There can be no disagreement on this matter! There is imperative need for total and absolute administrative independence of the <igh Court! ut the Chief !ustice or any other Administrative !udge is not an absolute ruler. "or he is a free wheeler. #e must operate in the clean world of law$ not in the neighbourhood of sordid atmosphere. #e has a duty to ensure that in carrying out the administrative functions% he is actuated by same principles and values as those of the Court he is serving. #e cannot depart from and indeed must remain committed to the constitutional ethos and traditions of his calling. &e need hardly say that those
who are e'pected to oversee the conduct of others% must necessarily maintain a higher standards of ethical and intellectual rectitude. The public e#pectations do not seem to be less e#acting!' 1> phasis added2 1See alsoH S$.$* "% Ass.0 /. B,#6,. C,. -r. D.$$. 5 A r ., A$R 1(G- S# ''(2.
$n Bi "- 7#0.r (#1$. 5 Ors. /. R.0 As,r.3 M.,"$" 5
Ors.) A$R .,,- S# .1,9, this #ourt did not accept the contention that appoint ent could %e ade to #lass&$V post in Su%ordinate #ourts
under the #i+il #ourt Rules )ithout ad+ertise ent in the ne)spapers in+iting applications "or the posts as that )ould lead to +.2: "% $r. s1.r* 23 and +iolation o" the pro+isions o" Article 1; o" the #onstitution. The #ourt ter inated the ser+ices o" such appointees )ho had )or/ed e+en "or 1- !ears o%ser+ing that the #ourt other)ise B)ould %e guilt! o" condoning a gross irregularit! in their initial appoint ent.C
To sa! that the #hie" Justice can appoint a person )ithout
"ollo)ing the procedure pro+ided under Articles 16 and 1; )ould lead to an inde"inite conclusion that the #hie" Justice can dis iss hi also
)ithout holding an! in8uir! or "ollo)ing the principles o" natural
7ustice:Rules etc., "or as per Section 1; o" 0eneral #lauses Act, 1'(G po)er to appoint includes po)er to re o+e:suspend:dis iss. 1VideH Pr.-3.$ 7#0.r B"s* /. T,* H" 46+* C,i*% J#s$i2* "% C.+2#$$. Hi!, C"#r$) 1(-; S# .'-3 and C,i*% J#s$i2* "% A -,r. Pr.-*s, 5 A r. /. L.V.A. Di:s,i$#+# 5 Ors., A$R 1(G( S# 1(92. Dut as no e plo!ee can %e re o+ed )ithout "ollo)ing the procedure prescri%ed %! la) or in +iolation o" the ter s o" his appoint ent, such a course )ould not %e a+aila%le to the #hie" Justice. There"ore, the natural corollar! o" this is that the #hie" Justice cannot a/e an! appoint ent in contra+ention o" the Statutor! Rules,
)hich ha+e to %e in consonance )ith the sche e o" our #onstitution.
$n S$.$* "% ?*s$ B* !.+ 5 Ors. /. D*6.sis, M#:,*r8** 5
Ors., A$R .,11 S# 9;;G, this #ourt again dealt )ith the pro+isions o" Article ..( o" the #onstitution and held that the #hie" Justice cannot grant an! relie" to the e plo!ee o" the High #ourt in an irrational or ar%itrar! anner unless the Rules pro+ide "or such e*ceptional relie". ust a/e re"erence to the e*istence o" ust a/e it so clear
The order o" the #hie" Justice
such e*ceptional circu stances and the order that there had %een an application o"
ind to those e*ceptional
circu stances and such orders passed %! the #hie" Justice are 7usticia%le. Ahile deciding the atter, the court placed reliance on its
earlier 7udg ent o" the #onstitution Dench in S$.$* "% U.P.5 Ors. /. C.L. A!r.;.+ 5 A r., A$R 1((G S# .691.
Thus, in +ie) o" the a%o+e, the la) can %e su
arised to the
e""ect that the po)ers under Article ..( 1.2 o" the #onstitution cannot %e e*ercised %! the #hie" Justice in an un"ettered and ar%itrar! anner. Appoint ents should %e ade gi+ing adherence to the
pro+isions o" Articles 16 and 1; o" the #onstitution and:or such Rules as ade %! the legislature.
$n toda!=s s!ste , dail! la%ourers and casual la%ourers ha+e
%een con+enientl! introduced )hich are "ollo)ed %! atte pts to regularise the at a su%se8uent stage. There"ore, ost o" the ti es a/ing
the issue raised is a%out the procedure adopted "or
appoint ents indicating an i proper e*ercise o" discretion e+en )hen the rules speci"! a particular ode to %e adopted. There can %e no
dou%t that the e plo! ent )hether o" #lass $V, #lass $$$, #lass $$ or an! other class in the High #ourt or courts su%ordinate to it "all )ithin the de"inition o" Bpu%lic e plo! entC. Such an e plo! ent,
there"ore, has to %e co petent authorit!.
ade under rules and under orders o" the
$n a de ocratic set up li/e ours, )hich is go+erned %! rule o"
la), the supre ac! o" la) is to %e ac/no)ledged and a%sence o" ar%itrariness has %een consistentl! descri%ed as essence o" rule o" la). Thus, the po)ers ha+e to %e canalised and not un%ridled so as to %reach the %asic structure o" the #onstitution. >8ualit! o" opportunit! in atters o" e plo! ent %eing the constitutional andate has al)a!s
%een o%ser+ed. The un8uestiona%le authorit! is al)a!s su%7ect to the authorit! o" the #onstitution. The higher the dignitar!, the ore
o%7ecti+it! is e*pected to %e o%ser+ed. Ae do not sa! that po)ers should %e curtailed. Ahat )e )ant to sa! is that the po)er can %e e*ercised onl! to the )idth o" the constitutional and legal li its. The date o" retire ent o" e+er! e plo!ee is )ell /no)n in ad+ance and there"ore, the nu %er o" +acancies li/el! to occur in near "uture in a particular cadre is al)a!s /no)n to the e plo!er. There"ore, the e*ercise to "ill up the +acancies at the earliest ensure that the selected person o" the post, and hence, there a! 7oin i ust start in ad+ance to
ediatel! a"ter a+aila%ilit!
a! %e no occasion to appoint an!
person on ad&hoc %asis "or the reason that the pro%le
o" inducting the
dail! la%ourers )ho are ensured o" a regular appoint ent su%se8uentl! has to %e a+oided and a "air procedure gi+ing e8ual opportunit! to e+er!one. ust %e adopted
$t has %een rightl! saidH B4er"ection consists not in doing e*traordinar! things, %ut in doing ordinar! things e*traordinar! )ell.C
Ae had the ad+antage o" the response gi+en %! the High #ourts
and the State. So e o" the States li/e Jhar/hand, Ferala, Kadh!a 4radesh, Orissa, Si//i and Lttra/hand ha+e pointed out in their ost o" the posts are ade
respecti+e a""ida+its that the recruit ent o"
%! centralised selection and so e o" those posts are trans"era%le. So e States li/e Jhar/hand ha+e pointed out that there is a centralised recruit ent o" all the posts %ut di+ision )ise and are trans"era%le )ithin the di+ision. So e o" the States li/e 4un7a% & Har!ana and Lttar 4radesh ha+e pointed out that the! ha+e alread! dra"ted the rules pro+iding "or centralised recruit ent. The State o" Hi achal 4radesh and the High #ourt thereo" ha+e sho)n inclination to)ards the centralised recruit ent. $n the State o" Kadh!a 4radesh, though rules
do not pro+ide "or centralised recruit ent %ut it is so done under the ad inistrati+e order o" the #hie" Justice o" the High #ourt. Other States and the High #ourts ha+e also ade suggestions that it is the
need o" the hour to pro+ide "or centralised recruit ent.
Ae )ould li/e to
a/e it clear that the High #ourt is a
constitutional and an autono ous authorit! su%ordinate to none. There"ore, no%od! can under ine the constitutional authorit! o" the High #ourt, and there"ore the purpose to hear this case is onl! to ad+ise the High #ourt that i" its rules are not in consonance )ith the philosoph! o" our #onstitution and the sa e a! %e odi"ied and no
appoint ent in contra+ention thereo" should %e
ade. $t is necessar!
that there is strict co pliance )ith appropriate Rules and the e plo!er is %ound to adhere to the nor s o" Articles 16 & 1; o" the #onstitution %e"ore a/ing an! recruit ent.
$n +ie) o" the a%o+e, the appeal stands disposed o" )ith the
"ollo)ing directionsH i2 All High #ourts are re8uested to re&e*a ine the statutor! rules dealing )ith the appoint ent o" sta"" in the High #ourt as )ell as in the su%ordinate courts and in case an! o" the rule is not in
con"or it! and consonance )ith the pro+isions o" Articles 16 and 1; o" the #onstitution, the sa e ii2 a! %e odi"ied.
To "ill up an! +acanc! "or an! post either in the High #ourt or in courts su%ordinate to the High #ourt, in strict co pliance o" the statutor! rules so ade. $n case an! appoint ent is ade in
contra+ention o" the statutor! rules, the appoint ent )ould %e void ab4initio irrespecti+e o" an! class o" the post or the person occup!ing it. iii2 The post shall %e "illed up %! issuing the ad+ertise ent in at least t)o ne)spapers and one o" )hich ust %e in +ernacular
language ha+ing )ide circulation in the respecti+e State. $n addition thereto, the na es a! %e re8uisitioned "ro the local
e plo! ent e*change and the +acancies other
a! %e ad+ertised %!
odes also e.g. > plo! ent 5e)s, etc. An! +acanc!
"illed up )ithout ad+ertising as prescri%ed hereina%o+e, shall %e void ab4initio and )ould re ain unen"orcea%le and
ine*ecuta%le e*cept such appoint ents )hich are per issi%le to %e "illed up )ithout ad+ertise ent, e.g., appoint ent on co passionate grounds as per the rules applica%le. De"ore an! appoint ent is ade, the eligi%ilit! as )ell as suita%ilit! o" all
candidates should %e screened:tested )hile adhering to the reser+ation polic! adopted %! the State, etc., i" an!. i+2 >ach High #ourt "ro a! e*a ine and decide )ithin si* onths
toda! as to )hether it is desira%le to ha+e centralised
selection o" candidates "or the courts su%ordinate to the respecti+e High #ourt and i" it "inds it desira%le, a! "or ulate
the rules to carr! out that purpose either "or the State or on Monal or Di+isional %asis. +2 The High #ourt concerned or the su%ordinate court as the case a! %e, shall underta/e the e*ercise o" recruit ent on a regular %asis at least once a !ear "or e*isting +acancies or +acancies that are li/el! to occur )ithin the said period, so that the +acancies are "illed up ti el!, and there%! a+oiding an! incon+enience or shortage o" sta"" as it )ill also control the enace o" ad&hocis .
De"ore parting )ith the case, )e record our deep appreciation to
Shri 4.S. 5arasi ha, learned senior counsel "or rendering in+alua%le assistance to the court as Amicus Curiae.
#op! o" the 7udg ent %e sent to the Registrar 0eneral:Registrar 1Ad inistration2 o" all the High #ourts %! this Registr! directl! and the said o""icer is re8uested to place the sa e %e"ore the Hon=%le #hie" Justice "or in"or ation and appropriate action.
AAAA......................J. (Dr. B.S. CHAUHAN& AAA.........................J. (J. CHELAMES?AR& AAA.........................J. (M.=. EBBAL& N*; D*+,iC F*6r#.r3 12) 2014.
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