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Rodica Medan



Universitatea Babe-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca Facultatea de Litere Catedra de limbi strine specializate str. Horea nr. 7, cab. 10



Listening Skills Prepare for Discussion Reading and Writing UNIT I Present Simple UNIT II Present Continuous UNIT III Past Simple UNIT IV Future Simple; Going to UNIT V A Present Perfect Simple UNIT V B Present Perfect Continuous UNIT VI The Passive UNIT VII Comparatives and Superlatives UNIT VIII Modal Verbs UNIT IX Modal Verbs (continued) UNIT X Like doing; would like to do UNIT XI A First Conditional UNIT XI B Second Conditional Grammar Annex English for Specialized Purposes: Listening / Reading

Course Description and Examination Requirements

This a course in reading and communicating intended for first year students in Political Sciences, Public Relations, Administration and Journalism (first semester, intermediate level). It builds on previously acquired knowledge. Special emphasis will be put on communicative skills based on grammar accuracy and reading skills. Additionally, writing skills (note-taking, expressing opinions and justifying them, agreeing and disagreeing etc.) will be presented. Attention will be given to the learning and practicing of elementary strategies necessary for academic reading and writing. The course is intended to increase students' fluency and to encourage a personalized approach of a wide variety of topics.

Study requirements

This course will be based mostly on individual study. Therefore, IN ORDER TO HAVE A SOUND BASIS FOR SELF AND CLASS EVALUATION students are KINDLY required to process the course units and solve the majority of the tasks included BEFORE THE IN-CLASS MEETINGS.


This term your final grade will reflect your individual progress as follows: tasks included in the course Grade 1 (minimum 5) in-class written exam Grade 2 (minimum 5) __________________________ Final grade = (Grade 1+ Grade 2): 2 3

Common European Linguistic Framework

C2 Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. Can summarise information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation. Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in more complex situations. Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices. Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation. Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options. Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes & ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans. Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need. Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has. Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.

Proficient User



Independe nt User



Basic User A1

A1 U N D E R S T A N D I N G
I can understand familiar words and very basic phrases concerning myself, my family and immediate concrete surroundings when people speak slowly and clearly.

I can understand phrases and the highest frequency vocabulary related to areas of most immediate personal relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local area, employment). I can catch the main point in short, clear, simple messages and announcements.

I can understand the main points of clear standard speech on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. I can understand the main point of many radio or TV programmes on current affairs or topics of personal or professional interest when the delivery is relatively slow and clear.

I can understand extended speech and lectures and follow even complex lines of argument provided the topic is reasonably familiar. I can understand most TV news and current affairs programmes. I can understand the majority of films in standard dialect.

I can understand extended speech even when it is not clearly structured and when relationships are only implied and not signalled explicitly. I can understand television programmes and films without too much effort.

I have no difficulty in understanding any kind of spoken language, whether live or broadcast, even when delivered at fast native speed, provided. I have some time to get familiar with the accent.


I can understand familiar names, words and very simple sentences, for example on notices and posters or in catalogues.

I can read very short, simple texts. I can find specific, predictable information in simple everyday material such as advertisements, prospectuses, menus and timetables and I can understand short simple personal letters.

I can understand texts that consist mainly of high frequency everyday or job-related language. I can understand the description of events, feelings and wishes in personal letters.

I can read articles and reports concerned with contemporary problems in which the writers adopt particular attitudes or viewpoints. I can understand contemporary literary prose.

I can understand long and complex factual and literary texts, appreciating distinctions of style. I can understand specialised articles and longer technical instructions, even when they do not relate to my field.

I can read with ease virtually all forms of the written language, including abstract, structurally or linguistically complex texts such as manuals, specialised articles and literary works.

Spoken Interaction


I can interact in a simple way provided the other person is prepared to repeat or rephrase things at a slower rate of speech and help me formulate what I'm trying to say. I can ask and answer simple questions in areas of immediate need or on very familiar topics.

I can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar topics and activities. I can handle very short social exchanges, even though I can't usually understand enough to keep the conversation going myself.

I can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken. I can enter unprepared into conversation on topics that are familiar, of personal interest or pertinent to everyday life (e.g. family, hobbies, work, travel and current events).

I can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible. I can take an active part in discussion in familiar contexts, accounting for and sustaining my views.

I can express myself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. I can use language flexibly and effectively for social and professional purposes. I can formulate ideas and opinions with precision and relate my contribution skilfully to those of other speakers.

I can take part effortlessly in any conversation or discussion and have a good familiarity with idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms. I can express myself fluently and convey finer shades of meaning precisely. If I do have a problem I can backtrack and restructure around the difficulty so smoothly that other people are hardly aware of it. I can present a clear, smoothlyflowing description or argument in a style appropriate to the context and with an effective logical structure which helps the recipient to notice and remember significant points.

Spoken Production

I can use simple phrases and sentences to describe where I live and people I know.

I can use a series of phrases and sentences to describe in simple terms my family and other people, living conditions, my educational background and my present or most recent job.

I can connect phrases in a simple way in order to describe experiences and events, my dreams, hopes and ambitions. I can briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans. I can narrate a story or relate the plot of a book or film and describe my reactions.

I can present clear, detailed descriptions on a wide range of subjects related to my field of interest. I can explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.

I can present clear, detailed descriptions of complex subjects integrating subthemes, developing particular points and rounding off with an appropriate conclusion.



I can write a short, simple postcard, for example sending holiday greetings. I can fill in forms with personal details, for example entering my name, nationality and address on a hotel registration form.

I can write short, simple notes and messages. I can write a very simple personal letter, for example thanking someone for something.

I can write simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. I can write personal letters describing experiences and impressions.

I can write clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects related to my interests. I can write an essay or report, passing on information or giving reasons in support of or against a particular point of view. I can write letters highlighting the personal significance of events and experiences.

I can express myself in clear, wellstructured text, expressing points of view at some length. I can write about complex subjects in a letter, an essay or a report, underlining what I consider to be the salient issues. I can select a style appropriate to the reader in mind.

I can write clear, smoothlyflowing text in an appropriate style. I can write complex letters, reports or articles which present a case with an effective logical structure which helps the recipient to notice and remember significant points. I can write summaries and reviews of professional or literary works.

Listening Skills - Birthdays

Accents: Taiwanese female, Japanese male, Korean female Speed: slow Activity type: information gathering Theme: Talking about birthdays Skills: Listening for details, listening for specific information Level: Pre-intermediate Grammar focus: Going to for future plans, adverbs of frequency Vocabulary: age, birthday, CD player, celebrate, dumplings, flight attendant, guitar, meal, movie, nice, noodles, park, picnic, present, restaurant, special, weather. Practise Listening 1. You are going to hear three people talking about birthdays. Their names are Sun-Hyi, Kenji, Martha. While listening, answer the following: a. Who usually celebrates their birthday with their family? b. Who doesnt usually celebrate their birthday with their family? c. Who doesnt usually celebrate their birthday at all? 2. Listen and write down what each person is going to do or get for their birthday this year. Play the recording again and check your ideas. 3. Listen carefully and match the words and phrases in the right column with the person who says them . Martha Kenji Sun- Hyi Tokyo, May 14th, weather, really nice, park, picnic, friends.; Pusan, mother, sometimes cooks, meal, flight attendant, China Airlines, work, restaurant, evening, dumplings, noodles, parents, grandmother, money

5. Ask and answer questions about each person and what they usually do on their birthday, using the above words cards as a guide. For example: Where is Sun-Hyi from? Hes from Pusan, in Korea What is Marthas job? - Shes a flight attendant for China Airlines Where does Kenji usually go for his birthday? To a park with some friends Focus on grammar 1. Play the recording again and write each phrase you hear with going to in your note books. 2. Do the same for adverbs of frequency (usually, sometimes, never, etc). and write what Martha usually does on her birthday as exactly as you can. Listen and check your work. 7

Post-listening tasks 1. What do you usually do on your birthday? 2. What they are going to do for your birthday this year, and what presents you hope to get? 3. Check your work against the recording script below. Recording script Activity 6 Martha: Hello. My name is Martha and Im from Taiwan. Im a flight attendant with China Airlines, so I sometimes work on my birthday. But I usually celebrate my birthday with my family. We go to a restaurant in the evening and eat dumplings and noodles. My parents and my grandmother always give me money. This year Im going to have a party. I hope all my friends can come. Kenji: Hi. Im Kenji and I live in Tokyo. My birthday is on May 14th. The weather is usually really nice, so I often go to the park and have a picnic with my friends. Sometimes we go to a movie in the evening. I dont usually celebrate my birthday with my family, but they buy me presents. This year Im going to be eighteen, and my mother and father are going to buy me a guitar. Sun-Hyi: My name is Sun-Hyi and Im from Pusan in Korea. Its my twentieth birthday next week. Twenty is a very special age in Korea so my friends are going to have a party for me. My brother and sister are going to come, too. I dont usually have a party. In fact, I usually dont celebrate my birthday at all. But my mother sometimes cooks a special meal for my family. Id like a CD player for my birthday, but I dont really know what Im going to get.

_ Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2003 Activity 2

Listening Skills - Family1

Accents: Chinese female; British female Speed: Slow Activity type ordering, completing notes Theme: Talking about your family Skills: Listening for specific information, listening for details, recognising context Level: Elementary Grammar focus: Present simple, Wh- questions Vocabulary: family, sister, brother, father, mother, grandfather, accountant, mechanic, professor, airline, birthday, office, big, love, enjoy, difficult, next to, university, photo. Practise Listening 1. You are going to hear a telephone conversation between two women. While listening, answer the following: What are their names? What are they doing?

Taken from the Listening Skills section in


Answers: Yu Ling and Kate Yu Ling is telling Kate about her family 2. Make a list of all the words for different family members and relatives you know.

3. Now try to remember which of the words you heard on the recording. Listen again and number any of the words you hear in the correct order. Play the recording, then check your answers. Answers: (in order) sister, brother, father, mother, grandfather 4.Below is a summary of Yu Ling.s family and you must listen carefully and complete the gaps. Play the recording.

Yu Ling.s family Yu Ling.s __________ is an accountant. It.s a __________ job but she really enjoys it. She works in a __________ office in Hong Kong. Her __________ is a mechanic. He works for an airline. Yu Ling.s __________ is a professor. He works at __________. He loves his job. Answers: Yu Lings sister is an accountant. Its a difficult job but she really enjoys it. She works in a big office in Hong Kong. Her brother is a mechanic. He works for an airline. Yu Lings father is a professor. He works at Hong Kong University. He loves his job. Post-listening tasks 1. Read the recording script below and practice the conversation with a partner. 2. Prepare a short talk about your own family Recording script Kate: Is this your family, Yu Ling? Yu Ling: That.s right. It.s a photo of my sister.s birthday, last year. Kate: So this is your sister, I guess. What does she do? Yu Ling: My sister? Oh, she.s an accountant. Kate: An accountant? That sounds like a difficult job. Yu Ling: Yes, but she really enjoys it. She works in a big office in Hong Kong. Kate: And what about the man next to your sister? Is he your brother? Yu Ling: Yes, he.s my brother. He.s a mechanic. Kate: Where does he work? Yu Ling: He.s a mechanic for an airline. Kate: An airline? Wow!

Yu Ling: Then this is my father. Kate: Oh yes, I remember. He.s a professor, isn.t he? Yu Ling: That.s right! Kate: Where does he work? Yu Ling: He works at Hong Kong University. Kate: Oh, that.s a really good university. Does he like being a professor? Yu Ling: Oh, yes. He loves his job. And this is my mother, and my grandfather.

Listening Skills - Film2

Accents: British/American Speed: Medium Activity type: Matching, gap fill Theme: Talking about films Skills: Listening for opinions, listening for details Level: Upper-intermediate Grammar focus: Simple past, passive Vocabulary: adorable, animation, aristocrat, cable car, characterisation, comic (adj), cowboy, literally, planetary, plot, relief, robot, rubbish (adj), sentimental, special effects, split up, threatened.

Practise Listening
1. In groups, list as many types of film that you can think of (e.g. action, adventure, animation, comedy, crime, horror, romance, science fiction, thriller, western, etc) and write more examples for each type of film. 2. You are going to hear five people talking about movies they have seen. Listen and identify the type of film that each person saw. [Refer them to the list of types of film you have writtem.] Answers: Speaker 1: science fiction. Speaker 2: animation. Speaker 3: romance. Speaker 4: action. Speaker 5: horror 3.For Exercise A, listen again and note down all the words and phrases that can help you identify each type of film. Listen and note any words or phrases that help you identify each type of film. Speaker 1: ............................... Speaker 2: ............................... Speaker 3: ............................... Speaker 4: ............................... Speaker 5: ...............................

_ Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2004 Taken from the TEFL Skills section in


Answers: Speaker 1: special effects robots, planetary battle scenes. Speaker 2: toy cowboy, animation, It really did look real, It.s all done by computer. Speaker 3: sentimental, falls in love with. Speaker 4: loads of car chases, people. jumping from one building to the next. Speaker 5: vampire, quite scary, loads of blood

4. For Exercise B you must think about how much each person liked the film they saw. Consider your answers a few moments, then listen again and check. Very good
Speaker 1 Speaker 2 Speaker 3 Speaker 4 Speaker 5


Not so good

Answers: Speaker 1: good. Speaker 2: very good. Speaker 3: not very good. Speaker 4: very good. Speaker 5: good

Post-listening tasks
Speaking Exercise C Answer each question as thoroughly as you can. Work with a partner. 1. What type of film do you like most? 2. What.s the best movie you have ever seen? 3. Who is your favourite movie actor? 4. Do you go to the cinema often? 5. Do you prefer to watch a movie at the cinema or at home? 6. How many famous actors can you think of from different countries? 7. Do you think acting is a good career to have? 2. Writing/Reading Think about a film you know well. Write a paragraph about it, giving as many details as you can (such as when it was made, who it was produced/directed by etc). Describe the story and name any characters and actors you can remember.

Recording script
1. Yes, it.s actually not the kind of film I usually like, but I have to say it was done rather well. I guess because it wasn.t all special effects . there was actually some plot and characterization too. And the robots were really very funny and sweet. And they did provide some comic relief from the big planetary battle scenes. No, could have been a lot worse. 2. Oh, it was adorable. I think we enjoyed it more than the kids did! It was about this little toy cowboy who feels threatened when his owner, you know, a little boy, gets a new robot-thing for Christmas. The animation was fantastic! It really did look real. Still, don.t think they draw them by hand these days, do they? It.s all done by computer. 3. Yeah, it was some kind of sentimental rubbish about a policeman who falls in love with a bank clerk who he meets after a robbery. Typical stuff . they move in together, split up, get back together. Bit boring, really, to tell you the truth. 4. Well, it was Barry.s choice and I thought, .Oh no, what.s he gone and got this time?., but it was actually really rather fun. Loads of car chases and people doing impossible things like jumping from one building to the next. And the scene in the cable car at the end was. well, I was literally on the edge of my seat. No, very good.

5. Return of the Vampire. it was called, or something like that. Made in 1964, but still quite scary. About an aristocrat, who.s actually the grandson of Count Dracula, living in London. Loads of blood, and of course they get him in the end, but not bad at all really. [Source: Skills for First Certificate . Listening and Speaking, Lesson 1, Activity I]

Listening Skills - News3

Accents: American Speed: Slow Activity type: note taking Theme: Catching up on news Skills: Listening for specific information, inferring relationships, inferring meaning Level: Intermediate Grammar focus: Present perfect Vocabulary: news, argument, competition, driving test, engaged, golf, kids, serious, surprise, upset. Practise Listening 1. You are going to hear a telephone conversation between an American man and woman. 2. Call out all the names you can remember. Write them on your notebook. Answers: Kevin, Anne, Dennis, Becky, Kate. 3. Try to guess the answers to these questions: a. What.s the relationship between Kevin and Anne? b. Who is Dennis? c. Who are Becky and Kate? Answers: a. They are friends, perhaps brother and sister, b. Anne.s husband, c. Anne and Dennis. Children 4. When listening once again, you should make notes on what news Anne gives about Dennis, Becky and Kate. Also note Kevins news. Before doing that, try to remember any information you can. Here are the Answers: Dennis has won a golf competition, Becky has had an argument with her boyfriend, Kate has passed her driving test Kevin: has got (gotten) engaged. 6. Try to remember when each of these things happened? While listening the recording once more, put down anything connected to the time period.

_ Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2003 Taken from the Listening Skills section in

Answers: Dennis: last Saturday, Becky: this morning, Kate: on Friday, Kevin: last week 7. Read the statements. Tick ( ) your answers. Then listen and check. True 1. Dennis cant play golf very well. _ _ _ 2. Kate has a boyfriend. _ _ _ 3. Kate is fifteen years old. _ _ _ 4. Becky is older than Kate. _ _ _ 5. Kevin often phones Anne. _ __ 6. Kevin is married. _ _ _ 7. Anne is married. _ _ _ 8. Anne is surprised at Kevins news. _ _ _ False Dont know

Answers: 1. F, 2. DK, 3. F, 4. DK, 5. F, 6. F, 7. DK, 8. T Post-listening tasks 1. Practice the conversation on the recording script below with a partner. Recording scripts Anne: Hello? Kevin: Hi, Anne. Anne: Kevin! What a surprise! Its great to hear from you. How are you? Kevin: Fine, just fine. How about you? Whats new? Anne: Oh, nothing much. Kevin: Hows Dennis? Anne: Hes very well. Hes won a golf competition, so hes thrilled about that. Kevin: A golf competition? Thats great. When was that? Anne: Er last Saturday. Kevin: Well, tell him Congratulations. And how about the kids? How are Becky and Kate? Anne: Beckys had an argument with her boyfriend, so shes a bit upset at the moment. Kevin: Oh, dear. Is it serious?

Anne: Well, I dont know. It only happened this morning. Kevin: This morning? Oh. Poor Becky. Anne: But Kate has some good news. Shes passed her driving test. Kevin: Great! That is good news. Anne: Yes, shes thrilled. She passed the test on Friday. Kevin: Wonderful. Anne: And what about you, Kevin? How are you? Kevin: Im fine. I have some news too, actually. Youre going to be very surprised. Anne: Go on. Kevin: Ive gotten engaged! Anne: No! when? Kevin: Last week. It all happened very quickly. Anne: Oh, Kevin! I dont know what to say!
[Source: Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2003 Taken from the Listening Skills section in Get Real! 2, Lesson 12B Listen In.]

Listening Skills - People4

Accents: American female Speed: Slow Activity type:Matching, gap fill Theme: Talking about people Skills: Listening for specific information. Listening for details Level: Intermediate Grammar focus: Wish + simple past Vocabulary: Annoyed, annoying, argumentative, bossy, easygoing, embarrassed, even-tempered, generous, mad (angry), moody, sociable, stubborn, sympathetic, upset, worried Practise Listening 1. List as many adjectives as they can that describe personality. For example annoying. Put a plus sign (+) next to the positive adjectives and a minus sign (-) next to the negative adjectives. Based on the pair annoyed/annoying call out any other personality adjectives you know that can end in both .ed and .ing (for example, bored/boring, interested/interesting, etc.). ed personality adjectives describe how someone feels, e.g. embarrassed, while .ing personality adjectives describe someone who is, e.g. embarrassing. 2. You are going to hear a young woman called Rebecca describing various members of her family, as well as herself. Study the chart, then listen and complete the missing information. Name Who they are Personality, according to Rebecca

_ Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2004 Taken from the Listening Skills section in

a. ___________

the speaker Rebecca.s brother Rebecca.s b. _______ Rebecca.s dad

d. _____________ f. _____________ h. _____________ j. _____________

and e. ___________ and g. ____________ and i. ____________ and k. ____________

c. ___________

. Answers: a. Brad b. mom c. Bill d. generous _ Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2004 Taken from the Listening Skills section in e. moody f. bossy g. argumentative h. sympathetic i. even-tempered j. sociable k. annoying 3. Here is a Question Sheet. Study the questions, complete the answers and then play the recording again and complete any remaining answers. 1. Who does Rebecca go to when she has a problem? _________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Who has lots of friends? ______________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Why does Rebecca get embarrassed at her father? _________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Why is Rebecca.s father sometimes annoying? ____________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. Why does Rebecca say Brad is bossy? ___________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Why do Rebecca.s friends say she is generous? ___________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 7. Who does Rebecca wish she was like? Why? _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________


Answers: a. her mom b. her dad c. because he always talks to people in the street d. because he.s very stubborn e. because he always tells her what to do f. because she likes to give presents and help people g. her mom, because she never gets mad or annoyed 4. I wish I was Notice that wish with the simple past is for things that you would like to change at the present time. Listen again to the recording and note two sentences Rebecca says using this construction and write each sentence you hear. Answers: a. I wish I was like her b. I wish he was a little more easygoing Post-listening tasks 1. Note the names of three people you know well (either family or friends). Make a list of two personality adjectives to describe each person. Think of one positive adjective and one negative adjective for each person. Try to give a reason for your choice of adjectives. For example, James (my brother) amusing . he loves to tell jokes; selfish. he never thinks of anyone but himself. Also say what you would like to be different about each person. Refer to the above example as a model. My brothers name is James. Hs amusing because he loves to tell jokes. I think hes selfish,though, because he never thinks of anyone but himself. I wish he wasnt so selfish. 2. Now think about yourself. List three adjectives that describe your personality and give reasons. 3. On the model I wish I was more... / I wish I wasnt so...make sentences about yourself. For example, I wish I was more confident. I wish I wasnt so fussy.

Recording Script
Rebecca: Well, there are four people in my family. There.s me: my name.s Rebecca . and I have a brother, Brad. My mom.s name is Judy and my dad is Bill. all very different. My mom is always sympathetic when upset or worried about things: we always talk to her when we have problems. She.s also very even-tempered. She never gets mad or annoyed. I wish I was like her! My dad, well, he.s really sociable. He has lots of friends, and he loves to meet people. I get really embarrassed, because he always talks to people in the street! But he.s really annoying sometimes, because he.s very stubborn. When he decides to do something, no one can stop him! My brother Brad . well, he.s really bossy. He always tries to tell me what to do. He.s also very argumentative. We have arguments every day. I wish he was a little more easygoing. As for me, well, my friends say I.m really generous, because I like to give presents and help people. But I am a little moody: sometimes I get really annoyed and upset about things.

So that.s my family.


Unit 1: Language Learning Unit 2: Education Unit 3: Cultural Differences Unit 4: Traditions Unit 5: Youth and Old Age Unit 6: Male and Female Roles In order to get actively involved in the class discussion, you have to follow these steps:
1. VOCABULARY: Solve the task. 2. TEXT: Read it, get familiarized with the key words (in italics). 3. DIALOGUE: Read it, get familiarized with the spoken language structures in italics. 4. CROSSWORD PUZZLE : solve it and confront it with the key 5. SPEAKING ABOUT LANGUAGE LEARNING : a. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: Read the topics, give concise/ personalized answers by exploiting all the language input. b. Examine and discuss pictures and additional materials

UNIT 1 LANGUAGE LEARNING Vocabulary Find the "odd one out" (i.e. the word that does not match with the rest). There may be more than one answer. Give your reasons. A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. first language English grammar look and say fluency a lesson a dictionary motivation B second language Esperanto vocabulary audio-lingual accuracy a course a lexicon memory C native tongue Chinese pronunciation grammar / translation proficiency a lecture a thesaurus aptitude

LANGUAGE LEARNING Recent psycholinguistic studies on how people learn languages have been accompanied by emphasis among English language teachers on the learner as an individual. Preferred learning styles are increasingly respected and learner independence is encouraged. For some teachers, noninterference is the key to giving a successful lesson. For others, this is an abdication of the teacher's role and shows ignorance of what can be done to make learning more efficient. If there has been a revolution in language teaching methodology, surely there are some things teachers can do to help learners. In the past, many of Britain's top schools modelled the teaching of modern languages on the teaching of Latin. Oral fluency was therefore undervalued and accuracy in the written language became the main goal. Your French might be excellent on your school report, but you could still arrive in France and fail to understand a word. A separate method known as audio-lingualism made its appearance in private language schools. This emphasized the primacy of the spoken word, yet lesson content was mainly structural and contained few of the features of spoken English used as a vehicle for communication. Surely teachers can at least provide learners with good models of target behaviour.

A: Which should be the official world language - English or Esperanto? B: In my opinion, there's only one choice - English! A: But that's not a neutral choice. Think of all the advantages English-speaking countries have. Not only do you save money by not having to learn a second language, but you can make a lot of money by teaching your native tongue. Besides, the choice of a European language is unfair to people from other continents. B: Actually, Esperanto is closer to European languages than any others. A: But at least it's culture free. With Esperanto as the world language, no country would be accused of exporting both its language and its culture. B: Well, I'm not sure whether you can really separate language from culture. The two have developed alongside one another. One would be very impoverished without the other. A: That may be true, but then you're inviting political conflict. Who is going to decide whether North American culture is superior to Chinese culture? B: Nobody really has to decide. All you really have to do is to see which language is already being used for international business, trade and political negotiations. That language is English. A: It doesn't mean that the situation will be the same in the future. China could well emerge as the world's strongest economy. B: That may be so, but the economic strength of Japan hasn't led to much teaching of Japanese. You also have to consider the vast size of the knowledge base available to English speakers - academic research, scientific reports and an infinite number of books and periodicals. A: Much of that knowledge base has already been translated. B: I doubt that many other languages can match the size of the English dictionary, especially any single Chinese dialect. Look how many languages have had to borrow from English, for example, computer terms such as ESCAPE and RETURN. A: But English has borrowed from the Romans, the Vikings, the Saxons and the French. B: Yes, but over a long period of history. Besides, these borrowings illustrate the both the breadth and flexibility of the English language. You just can't begin to compare Esperanto with English as a tool for communication.

Discussion questions 1. Describe "the good language learner" according to the following criteria: woman or man old or young extrovert or introvert other characteristics habits abilities ( including study skills ) motivation and interests 2. In what ways are you a good or bad language learner? 3. How many languages can you speak and how well can you speak them? 4. "Fluency in a language is more important than accuracy". Do you agree? 5. Are you satisfied with the way languages are taught in your country? 6. Do tourists often try to speak your language when they visit your country? 7. "Every child should learn to speak a second language." Do you agree? 8. Which should be the official world language - English or Esperanto? What is a European Language Portfolio? It is a document in which those who are learning or have learned a language - whether at school or outside school - can record and reflect on their language learning and cultural experiences. The portfolio contains a language passport which its owner regularly updates. A grid is provided where his/her language competences can be described according to common criteria accepted throughout Europe and which can serve as a complement to customary certificates. The document also contains a detailed language biography describing the owner's experiences in each language and which is designed to guide the learner in planning and assessing progress. Finally, there is a dossier where examples of personal work can be kept to illustrate one's language competences.

Aims and functions of a European Language Portfolio The European Language Portfolio project has two main aims: a) to motivate learners by acknowledging their efforts to extend and diversify their language skills at all levels; b) to provide a record of the linguistic and cultural skills they have acquired (to be consulted, for example, when they are moving to a higher learning level or seeking employment at home or abroad). The pedagogic function
Enhance the motivation of the learners to improve their ability to communicative in different languages to learn additional languages to seek new intercultural experiences Incite and help learners to reflect their objectives, ways of learning and success in language learning plan their learning learn autonomously Encourage learners to enhance their plurilingual and intercultural experience, for example through contacts and visits reading use of the media projects

Parts of a Language Portfolio$t/208-1-01/main_pages/contents_portfolio.html Language Passport The Passport section provides an overview of the individual's proficiency in different languages at a given point in time; the overview is defined in terms of skills and the common reference levels in the Common European Framework; it records formal qualifications and describes language competencies and significant language and intercultural learning experiences; it includes information on partial and specific competence; it allows for self-assessment, teacher assessment and assessment by educational

institutions and examinations boards; it requires that information entered in the Passport states on what basis, when and by whom the assessment was carried out. To facilitate pan-European recognition and mobility a standard presentation of a Passport Summary is promoted by the Council of Europe for ELPs for adults. (

Language Biography The Language Biography facilitates the learner's involvement in planning, reflecting upon and assessing his or her learning process and progress; it encourages the learner to state what he/she can do in each language and to include information on linguistic and cultural experiences gained in and outside formal educational contexts; it is organised to promote plurilingualism i.e. the development of competencies in a number of languages. Dossier The Dossier offers the learner the opportunity to select materials to document and illustrate achievements or experiences recorded in the Language Biography or Passport.


EDUCATION Vocabulary Find the "odd one out". There may be more than one answer. Give your reasons. A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. single sex compulsory independent school nursery grammar school streaming continuous assessment B mixed voluntary public school primary comprehensive school mixed ability grouping final examinations C coeducational optional state school secondary non-selective school ability grouping intelligence testing

EDUCATION In Britain, school is compulsory between the ages of five and sixteen. Primary education continues until the age of eleven. Pupils wishing to enter university usually finish their secondary education when they are eighteen. Other types of further education are available for those who want to learn a trade such as catering or specialize at an early stage. In recent years, the proportion of young people entering university has risen dramatically. The variety of degree courses on offer has also widened. It is now common for students entering fields such as nursing to be based at university. Educational terminology can be very confusing. For example, preparatory and public schools are fee-paying and both belong to the independent or private sector. Middle schools, which fall between primary and secondary education, are part of the state system, but do not exist in all parts of Britain. Most state secondary schools are "comprehensives" and are non-selective. However, in some towns, institutions known as grammar schools operate selectively. Children are tested at the age of eleven and the bright ones are creamed off. Many parents argue that grammar schools should be abolished to allow equality of opportunity for all children. Others insist that a fast track is needed for gifted pupils and that diversity means more freedom of choice.

A: What kind of education would you choose for your child? B: For a start, it would have to be a mixed school and not a boarding establishment. A: What have you got against single sex schools?


B: Clearly, a coeducational environment promotes understanding between boys and girls. It's far more natural. A: Don't you think they distract one another when they become teenagers? B: Well, maybe they do, but they've got to learn to live together. I'm against all forms of segregation. A: How about boarding schools? Don't they teach children how to live together? I'd have thought they'd be very useful for children without brothers and sisters. B: But "only children" can still find friends in their neighbourhoods or local day schools. Why have we got to create large institutional families? If people decide to have children, then they should value family life. A: Would you prefer your child to be educated privately or by the state? B: To be honest, that's a very difficult question, because if the state schools in my town were very bad, then I might be tempted to pay private fees. I hope that wouldn't be necessary. A: Would you consider sending your child to a grammar school? B: Again, that depends on the alternatives. I prefer the comprehensive system, but I wouldn't want my child to be in mixed ability classes for all subjects. There'd have to be some form of streaming. A: What's wrong with mixed ability teaching? B: The reality is that people learn subjects such as languages and mathematics at different speeds. It's a nonsense to keep everybody at the same level regardless of their progress.


Discussion questions
1. Would you prefer to send your child to a mixed or single sex school? 2. Is day school always a better alternative to boarding school? 3. Should rich people be permitted to buy educational advantages by sending their children to private schools or should all schools be run by the state? 4. Do you prefer a system where children are put in fast and slow streams or is it better to create mixed ability classes? 5. Should corporal punishment be permitted in schools? 6. Which system do you favour for measuring childrens progress - final examinations or continuous assessment? 7. Do the "three Rs" (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic) make up the most important part of the school curriculum? 8. Look at the pictures below and comment , describe and compare the types of educational approaches illustrated.



CULTURAL DIFFERENCES Vocabulary Find the "odd one out". There may be more than one answer. Give your reasons. A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. similar a multi-racial society immigrants the Normans to intermarry asylum Prejudice B different a multi-lingual society emigrants the Romans to interfere refuge bias C dissimilar a monoculture migrants the Saxons to integrate shelter criticism

CULTURAL DIFFERENCES Most European countries have multi-racial societies owing both to historical and geographical factors. Military conquests, persecution and economic hardship have all contributed to waves of immigration. Early British history highlights the influence of the Romans, the Vikings, the Saxons and the Normans. More recently, we have opened our doors to people from our former colonies seeking jobs, refugees seeking political asylum and other members of the European Community. Racial integration has been successful in many areas of Britain. Intermarriage between people of similar cultures is now very common. The popularity of Chinese and Indian food and support for events such as the Notting Hill Carnival show a further acceptance of cultural differences. However, good race relations have proved more difficult where there has been largescale immigration involving dissimilar cultures, especially in areas of social deprivation - for example, where there is poor housing and high unemployment. Not only do immigrants become scapegoats for the problems of these areas, but they, themselves, may be reluctant to integrate for reasons of religion or cultural identity.


A: What do you think is the problem between the English and the Americans? B: That's a very interesting question, because both nationalities share a common language and are usually on the same side in war-time, yet they rarely speak well of one another on a personal level. A: Are we talking about a struggle for superiority? B: Yes, but we measure our superiority in different ways. Ours is cultural and historical. We believe we're more civilized. We're the country of Shakespeare and the industrial revolution. Americans visit England in search of culture and history. A: So in what ways are they superior? B: Well, obviously in size. Everything's bigger - their country, their salaries, their roads, their companies. Theirs is the land of MacDonald's, Coca Cola, Microsoft and IBM. They enjoy telling us that they're the best. A: And are they right? B: Yes, if you measure success purely in dollars, but there're two points here. Firstly, many English people actually believe that "Small is Beautiful". They prefer countries where you don't get mugged in parks and subways. A: What's the other point? B: I was coming to that. It's the difference in character. Maybe you think you're the best in the world, but you don't go shouting about it from the rooftops. Americans lack our modesty and reserve. They're probably warmer and more friendly, but they're often very loud and extrovert to go with it. A: So you prefer the British character? B: Not entirely. We tend to be rather oblique in our conversation. When Americans speak, you can take them literally, but when English people speak you have to read between the lines. A: We say one thing and mean another? B: Exactly.


Discussion Questions 1. "Cultural differences cause problems. It is better for people to stay in their own countries rather than to migrate to other ones." Do you agree? 2. Would you prefer to live in a monoculture or a multi-racial society? Why? 3. "It is better to study major international languages like English rather than to spend time on minority languages for the sake of regional identity." Do you agree? 4. "Governments should give regions in their countries more autonomy so that they can protect and enjoy their own cultures rather than serving the centralized policies of the capital city." Do you agree? 5. Is it better to marry someone of the same cultural background? 6. "Religion as a school subject should include all the major world religions - not only the majority religion in the country concerned." Do you agree? 7. How do you think "British Culture" differs from "N. American Culture"? How do these cultures differ from the culture of your own country? 8. Look at the following pictures, describe and compare them. Comment on any relevant aspect connected with the current topic.


YOUTH & OLD AGE Vocabulary Find the "odd one out". There may be more than one answer. Give your reasons. A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. experience an adolescent a couch potato forgetful an octogenarian elderly antiquated to respect B innocence an adulterer a dodderer senile a pensioner old old-fashioned to revere C naivety a youth a zombie virile a senior citizen antique veteran to worship


Youth is associated with innocence, beauty, good health, energy, idealism, curiosity, immaturity, inexperience and rebellion. Old age often implies experience, wisdom, fatigue, failing health and conservatism. For some people it is a time of fulfillment and contentment; for others it may involve cynicism and bitterness. It is sometimes associated with senility when people are forgetful or easily confused. The physical differences between the young and the elderly are obvious. The average age of competitors in the World Cup or the Olympic Games is likely to be under 35. Medical records show that pensioners require more health treatments than other agegroups. However, the descriptions of character relate more closely to fiction than to actuality. The contrast between the innocence of youth and the experience of adulthood is established both in William Blake's poetry and William Shakespeare's plays. Shakespeare's young lovers are much too innocent and inexperienced to engage in vandalism, joy-riding or drug-trafficking, yet magistrates in Britain today are asking for tougher sentencing powers to combat juvenile crime. Many young teenagers are now experienced offenders. The notion of youth being rebellious could possibly date from the 1960s when there were many student protests in Western Europe and the U.S.A. More recently, there have been big student demonstrations in China and South Korea. Yet in many other countries, young people are careful to observe the status quo. Respect for elders still seems to be more prevalent in Asia and the Middle East than in Western Europe and the U.S.A. where the average age of political leaders seems to have fallen.


A: Do you think that the young have anything to learn from the elderly and vice versa? B: Well, older people are said to have more experience than younger ones. A: I've heard that argument time and time again, but nobody ever says what experience! B: I'd've thought that was obvious. They've lived through personal and family relationships. In many cases, they've bought and sold houses. They've witnessed ups and downs in their careers. They're often experts on matters of health ranging from minor ailments to major operations. Some of them have been round the world. A: But do these achievements really relate to the problems of young people today? B: They have to, somewhere along the line. What I'm saying is that older people have been there before. They've had the problems and found the solutions. A: I'm not sure that it works like that. You see, today's young live in a different age. For a start, they don't go looking for information on the shelves of their local reference library. If they need any kind of advice, they'll find it on the Internet. I don't suppose their grandparents will know how to use Search Engines. B: It seems that you're confusing quantity of information with quality of information. Nobody knows you better than someone in your own family. You don't need a global instrument to solve a local problem. A: Let's look at the other side of the coin. What can the young teach the elderly? B: If the elderly are receptive, they could share some of the benefits of information technology. An E-mail message or a fax could save someone with mobility problems a lot of time and effort. Telephone banking could spare them having to queue in one of the few remaining branches of their bank. The elderly re often confused by modern telephones and automatic switchboards. A: I wonder whether that's the case. Isn't it rather that they enjoy getting out and about instead of sitting next to a telephone? Don't you think they're right to be suspicious of technology which is turning us all into screen-gazers and zombies. The young are so hooked on these electronic toys, that they can't really see where they're going. The elderly don't need all this virtual reality. They are content to listen to the trees rustling in the wind, to smell the summer grass and to watch the setting sun.


Discussion questions 1. Are young people generally more selfish than their parents and grandparents? 2. Should adults try to teach young people lessons, such as the dangers of drinking too much, taking drugs or contracting the HIV virus, or should they leave them alone to find out about these things themselves? 3. What do you think is the best age to be? Explain your opinion. 4. Most countries give young people rights as they reach a certain age. For example, British people can legally make love or fight for their country at the age of 16; they can drink, vote and drive a car when they are 18. Does your country have similar laws? Do you think that any of the age limits need changing? 5. Should young people have to do some form of military or community service by law? 6. Should people of between 60 and 65 be obliged to retire from their jobs in order to make way for younger workers? 7. Are there many things that the old can teach the young or are they hopelessly out of touch by the time they reach a certain age? 8. In most countries, compulsory education is targeted at 5 - 16 year olds. Would it be better to offer it to pensioners who want to learn rather than young people who prefer not to be in school? 9. In Russia, China and many other countries, there is a tradition of choosing leaders who are advanced in years. Do you think that older people make better leaders? 10. Many elderly people have disabilities which limit their mobility. Do buses, shops and public buildings in your country provide easy access for the disabled or are your towns and cities designed mainly for the young and able-bodied? 11. Should the elderly be expected to pay for residential care out of their own savings or should appropriate accommodation and nursing be provided by the tax payer?


We are here to be excited from youth to old age, to have an insatiable curiosity about the world. Aldous Huxley once said that to carry the spirit of the child into old age is the secret of genius. And I buy that. We are also here to genuinely, humbly, and sincerely help others by practicing a friendly attitude. Every person is born for a purpose. Everyone has a God-given potential, in essence, built into them. And if we are to live life to its fullest, we must realize that potential. - Norman Vincent Peale

I am saddened when I speak with so many adults who bemoan their teen years as the worst period of their lives. I remember those years fondly, and sometimes I think my high school and college years were the happiest of my life. I'm not sure I would want to repeat them, but in recollection they were times of dramatic change and growth; for the first time I became a responsible chooser and could begin to plot the course of my own life. Archibald MacLeish has a good word for the vantage point of aging, remembering when he was younger and less wise: "At twenty, stopping round about, I thought the world a miserable place, Truth a trick, faith in doubt, Little beauty, less grace Now at sixty, what I see, Although the world is worse by far, Stops my heart in ecstasy, God, the wonders that there are!"

Figure 1Changing Bodies


"Age is something to be proud of."

What is the best age to be? No, I'll rephrase the question: Spiritually, what is the best age to be? A very different question. Should we want to be young because there is an open and unknown future of growth before us? Should we want to be old so that we may look upon a life of accomplishment, deep relationships, fraught with meaning? Or somewhere in between? Your current age perhaps? In my Building Your Own Theology curriculum I invite people to draw a straight line on paper, place a dot at the beginning for their birth, a dot for where they are now, and a final dot estimating when they think they might die. A sobering, but fascinating, exercise in values clarification. Actually, I identify with E. B. White who wrote, "Old age is a special problem for me because I've never been able to shed the mental image I have of myself - a lad of about 19." It is a common psychological phenomenon for each of us to see ourselves as being frozen at a certain age. In case you were wondering, I'm 35. Then there is a sweatshirt marketed by National Public Radio which I must buy as soon as I am old enough. It reads: "Over the hill and on a roll." Its sequel sweatshirt says, "Over the hill? What hill? I don't remember any hill." The dramatic increase in our longevity does change our way of thinking. While sickness or accident or war does end some lives before their time, we now have years at our disposal once never thought possible. One's later years become an opportunity for a "summing up," a reflection on the meaning of what we have lived. Film maker Ingmar Bergman gives us an arresting image. "Old age is like climbing a mountain. You climb from ledge to ledge. The higher you get, the more tired and breathless you become, but your view becomes much more extensive Life is a combination of memory and hope. What would our lives be without the memories of times past - the good, the bad and the indifferent? We would not be human without our memory, which is the repository of who we are and who we have been. But our lives look not only to the past for their meaning, but also to the future in hope of what might yet be. We live on the cusp of past and future we call the present. And if we ignore the present we may miss it. As John Hughes has Matthew Broderick say in his screen play Ferris Bueller's Day Off, "Life moves pretty fast; you don't stop and look around every once in a while, you could miss it." As John Lennon of Beatles fame put it, "Life is what happens to us while we're making other plans." And so what is the best age to be? In a way that's a no-brainer. With all the difficulties each of us faces, now is the best age to be. Today we can celebrate the past or come to terms with it or some combination of the two - and wrest meaning from it. Today we can anticipate an unknown future - over which we have at least some minimal control. But now - this time in this place with this people is the best place to be - the best age to be. Besides, it's all we have. Life is a series of undifferentiated moments which we seek to weave into a pattern of meaning. Source: Selected from: WHAT IS THE BEST AGE TO BE? By Richard S. Gilbert - September 21, 2003 - Ithaca, NY ( 33

MALE & FEMALE ROLES Vocabulary Find the "odd one out".

There may be more than one answer. Give your reasons. A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. a baby-sitter prejudice racism the chair a husband Ms crches capabilities B a home-maker harassment political correctness the chair-person a wife Mrs nurseries talent C a bread-winner discrimination sexism the chairman a partner Miss primary schools qualifications

MALE & FEMALE ROLES In the British General Election in 1997, some of the most powerful men in the country lost their seats to professionally successful women. One hundred and nineteen women were elected to the House of Commons and five women secured Cabinet posts. By 1997, over a million of Britain's four million small businesses were run by women. Many of these women had left corporate life because of their difficulties in progressing in large organizations, especially in the world of finance, where men are generally favoured for the top managerial posts. During the twentieth century, women in Britain have had to campaign vigorously for equal rights - the right to education, the right to vote and the right to work in posts traditionally reserved for men. It was largely through war-work that women proved their capabilities. More recently, they have been outperforming men in public examinations. Women's rights campaigns have focused particularly on language and thought. Terms such as "chairman" have been changed to more neutral descriptions such as "chair" or less ambiguous alternatives such as "president". This is part of the recent concept known as "political correctness". Some men are careful to avoid accusations of sexism and sexual harassment while others have reacted by campaigning for "men's rights".

A: What kind of rights do women and men want in your country? B: To begin with, most women and men want the right to work.


A: Do you think both partners in a relationship should expect to work in times of High unemployment? B: It's often an economic necessity for both partners to work, especially if they're buying a house or providing for a family. A: What if there isn't enough work to go round? B: Then some people will be out of a job - they could be either women or men. A: Aren't they more often women? B: Yes, but it isn't that women don't want to work. For a start, they suffer more discrimination in the work-place. When a young woman applies for a job, it isn't possible to ask her whether she intends to start a family or not, but it is possible to give the job to a man with fewer qualifications. A: Does that happen? B: Perhaps not as much as it used to, but if a woman leaves a job to start family, it may be very difficult for her to return to full-time work. Many women are in parttime jobs and on very low rates of pay. Underemployment of well qualified women who are working as bar-maids or waitresses is a huge waste of talent. A: Are there many underemployed men? B: Yes, certainly. There are those who do seasonal work such as deck-chair attendants or English language teachers and those who depend on the black economy for occasional jobs - they might repair your motorbike or clean your windows! A: How about unemployed men? B: Well, unemployment can be very frustrating for those men who believe that they should be the bread-winner in a relationship. Many live on state benefits. There is also a group of men who have become unemployable. They have dropped out of the system altogether. The adventurous ones become New Age Travellers, the idealistic ones become political protesters and the dishonest ones turn to crime. A: So, if the system doesn't give you any rights, you live by your own rules!


Discussion questions
1. Belinda Brooks-Gordon, a university psychologist, has done research showing that men in a top international company categorize women into five groups:

Babes (young and attractive women with little professional credibility) Mums (considered unattractive and ignored by male traders) Lesbians (feminists) Dragons (women considered old or unattractive, rudely treated) One-of-the-boys (women who behave like men - only they progress)

In your country, do women have equal opportunities in the work-place e.g. the same pay and promotion opportunities as men? Are they categorized? 2. Is it easy for women to continue their careers after taking time off work to start a family? Do companies provide crches or nurseries? 3. Do parents and teachers in your country encourage girls and boys to grow up differently? Do they play with the same toys? Do they receive the same education at school and university? 4. Do you think women and men should perform the same or different roles? Are men usually the bread-winners and women usually the home-makers in your country? 5. Are there any "womens or mens rights" groups in your country? You can consult the following links to find out more.



Tessa Saunders works for Knight and Day. Knight and Day is an advertising agency with offices in London and New York. Tessa lives in Wimbledon, a suburb of London. She usually gets up at six thirty. She goes to work on the Underground. It usually takes her about fifty minutes to get to her office. It's near Piccadilly Circus about five minutes away on foot. Tessa earns a good salary, but her job isn't easy. She usually starts work before nine in the morning and never finishes before seven or eight o'clock in the evening. Sometimes she leaves the office after nine or even ten o'clock. She often goes to bed after midnight and doesn't get very much sleep - perhaps five or six hours. Tessa has a friend called Roger Mitchum. She doesn't see him very often. He lives in San Francisco. He works for a company that makes computer software.

Present Simple
Form Positive and negative I We live You dont live They He lives She doesnt live It Question I we Where do you they he Where does she it Short answers Do you like Peter? Yes, I do. Does she speak French? No, she doesnt. Use The Present Simple is used: 1. To express a habit.

near here



I get up at 7:30. Dutch people travel a lot. 2. To express a fact which is always true. Vegetarians dont eat meat. We come from Spain. 3. To express a fact which is true for a long time. I live in Oxford. She works in a bank.

Present Simple and Present Continuous

1. Look at the use of the present simple and present continuous in the following sentences. Do you wear a uniform at work? Why are you wearing that funny hat? I watch TV nearly every night. Sh! Im watching a good film! Annie works in an office. Its Sunday now. She isnt working. Shes reading at home. 2. Look at the wrong sentences, and compare them with the right sentences. X X X X Where is she coming from? Where does she come from? Are you liking Coke? Do you like Coke? Who do you speak to on the telephone? Who are you speaking to on the telephone? I read a good book at the moment. Im reading a good book at the moment.

Have/have got
Form Positive I We You They He She have ve got has s got I We You They He She Negative dont have havent got doesnt have hasnt got

two sisters.

any money.


Question Do I we you they he she Have have a car? Has I we you they he she

got a car?


Short answer Have you got a camera? Yes, I have./No, I havent. Do you have a camera? Yes, I do./No, I dont. Note We can use the contractions (ve and s) with have got, but not with have. Ive got a sister. I have a sister. Wrong : Ive a sister. Use 1. Have and have got mean the same. Have got is informal. We use it a lot when we speak, but not when we write. Have you got a light? The Prime Minister has a meeting with the President today. 2. Have and have got express possession. Ive got a car. I have a car. Hes got blond hair. He has blond hair. When have + noun means an activity or a habit, have and the do/does/dont/doesnt forms are used. Have got is not used. I have lunch at 1:00. Look at the wrong sentences and compare them with the right sentences. Note X Ive got a shower in the morning. In the past tense, the got forms are I have a shower in the morning. unusual. Had with did and didnt is X What time have you got lunch? much more common. What time do you have lunch? I had a bicycle when I was young. X He has never got milk in his coffee. Did you have a nice weekend? He never has milk in his coffee. I didnt have any money when I was a student.


Reading and communicating Vocabulary


Love doesnt only mean romantic love. There are many different kinds of love, different levels of feeling towards people, places and things. Number these words from 1 to 9 in the order you think is the best (1 = positive feelings, 9 = negative feelings). Be fond of Adore Dislike Worship Like Idolise Not like very much Love Hate

Choose five of these words and tell your partner about people, places and things you know, using those five words. Talk about your feelings Write the answers in the first two columns below, and then ask your partner about the people, places and things on his/her list and write his/her answers in the second two columns. Tell each other something about the likes and dislikes that youve written down. My partner really likes (perhaps love): My partner isnt very fond of :

What do you love or really like very much? Im not I really like very (perhaps fond of : love) : A country A town A type of music A type of film Something to eat Something to drink A person of opposite sex A person of the same sex A child An animal

Love is sharing an umbrella in a storm. giving him your last chocolate. telling her shes more beautiful than yesterday. Think of some more endings for Love is (you neednt be too serious about this!)


Here are some English proverbs which have the word love in them. They are general comments on love. Work in groups of three or four to make suggestions about their meaning. a) One cannot love and be wise. c) Love me, love my dog. b) Love is blind. d) Love will find a way. Here are some comments made by young children about love. What experiences or observations do you think are behind these comments?

Fiona, 6I love my friends because they play with me. I love my Mummy. I cuddle her. The bad thing about love is that you always have to get married. Alex, 6People who love each other rub noses. I say hello and wave my hand. If I wanted to show a boy I loved him I would give him a game. Id give a girl a dolly. Harriet, 5Love is care. I love my granny and granddad, but older people dont love each other. Ive got an older sister but I dont love her because shes always being nasty. Martin, 6I love Anna but I havent told her. And I love my mummy. She shows she loves me by doing things for me, like washing up. Anna, 6Love is very nice, it makes my feel happy. I love Ben because hes good looking. I dont think Ill get married. I wont love anyone when Im older. Peter, 5I love Abigail. Sometimes I hug her and kiss her. Ive already asked her to marry me and I went down on one knee. Ill marry her when Im 31.

It's half past six on Monday morning. Tessa Saunders works in an advertising agency. She's having breakfast and reading a newspaper. The radio is on. She's listening to some music. Richard Knight is Tessa's boss. He's having a shower. It's half past seven and James Chen is putting on a new suit. James comes from Hong Kong, but he doesn't live there any more. He lives in London now and he has an interview for a job at ten o'clock this morning. It's half past eight now. Richard Knight is driving to work. He isn't going very fast because the traffic is very heavy this morning. It's half past nine now. Tessa is talking to Richard Knight. They're in his office. He's smoking a cigar. James is talking to a policewoman. He's asking the way to Blake Street. It's ten fifteen now. James Chen is in Tessa's office in Blake Street. She's interviewing him.


It's eleven o'clock now. James is waiting for a bus. It's cold and it's raining, but he's happy because he's got a job with Knight and Day.

Question forms
1. Questions with question words Questions can begin with a question word: what, where, which, how, who, when, why, whose Wheres the station? In Backer Street. Why are you laughing? Because you look funny. Whose is this coat? Mine. How does she go to work? By train. Note 1. What, which, and whose can be followed by a noun. What size do you take? Which coat is yours? Whose book is this? 2. Which is generally used when there is a limited choice. Which is your husband? This rule is not always true! What/Which newspaper do you read? 3. How can be followed by an adjective or an adverb. How big is his new car? How fast does it go? 2. Questions with no question word The answer to these questions is yes or no. Are you hot? Yes, I am./No, Im not. Is she working? Yes, she is./No, she isnt. Can you swim? Yes, I can./No, I cant. Form 1. Verbs forms with an auxiliary verb Positive She is reading. Question Is she reading?



They are watching a film.

Question What are they watching? Positive She can drive.

Question Can she drive? 2. Verb forms with no auxiliary verb In the Present Simple and the Past Simple, there is no auxiliary verb in the positive. They live in London. He arrived yesterday. Do/does/did is used in the question. Do they live in London? Where does Bill come from? When did he arrive?

Present continuous
Form am is + verb + -ing (present participle) are Positive and negative Question I m (am) working. What am m not He s (is) What is She working. isnt It We re (are) What are working. You arent They Short answer Are you going? Yes, I am./No, Im not. Is Anna working? Yes, she is./No, she isnt. Note We cannot use Im, were, shes, etc. in short answers. Wrong Yes, Im. Yes, shes. Right Yes, I am. Yes, she is. Use The Present Continuous is used: 1. To express an activity happened now. Theyre playing football in the garden. 43

I wearing? he she wearing? it we you wearing? they

She cant answer the phone because shes washing her hair. 2. To express an activity happened around now, but perhaps not at the moment of speaking: Shes studying Maths at university. Im reading a good book by Henry James. 3. To express a planned future arrangement: Im meeting Miss Boyd at ten oclock tomorrow. Hes starting French lessons next week. What are you doing at the weekend? Communicating Write a paragraph referring to the academic subjects you are studying this semester.

Tessa got up at six thirty yesterday morning. She didn't feel very well, but she went to work all the same. She went to work on the Underground and got to her office at eight o'clock. At half past nine she had a meeting with her boss, Richard Knight, and at ten o'clock she interviewed a young man, James Chen, for a job. Tessa liked him very much and he got the job. She didn't have very much time for lunch. She was too busy, and she wasn't very hungry anyway, so she had a sandwich and a cup of coffee in a small cafe near the office. At two o'clock she had a meeting with a photographer. She didn't like one of his photographs at all. She thought it was all wrong for the advertisement they were planning. They argued about it, but finally he agreed with her. She left the office around eight yesterday evening. She got home about nine and had dinner alone. Then she watched television for a few minutes, but she didn't like the programme, so she turned it off. She went to bed at half past ten. That's very early for her. She usually goes to bed much later.

Past Simple
Form The form of the Past Simple is the same for all persons. Positive The positive of regular verbs ends in ed. There are many common irregular verbs. I finished yesterday. He/She/It arrived


We You They


Negative The negative of Present Simple is formed with didnt. He walk ed . He didnt walk . I She didnt arrive yesterday. You (did not) etc. Question The question in the Past Simple is formed with did. She finish ed . When did she finish ? she you When did arrive? they etc. Short answer Did you go to work yesterday? Yes, I did. Did it rain last night? No, it didnt. Use The Past Simple is used: 1. To express a finished action in the past. We played tennis last Sunday. John left two minutes ago. Note: The Past Simple is often used with past time expressions: last year, last month, five years ago, yesterday morning, in 1945. 2. To express actions which follow each other in a story. James came into the room. He took off his coat and sat down on the bed. Suddenly, he noticed somebody behind the curtain. He stood up and walked slowly across the room.

Past Continuous
Form was/were (past tense of to be) + verb + -ing (present participle) Positive and negative Question


I She He It We You They

was wasnt (was not) working. were werent (were not)

I he was she what doing? it we were you they

Short answer Were you working yesterday? Yes, I was. Was she studying when you arrived? No, she wasnt. Use The Past Continuous is used to express a past activity happening over a period of time. What were you doing at 9:00 last night? I was watching TV. (I started watching before 9:00, and continued after 9:00.)

Past Simple and Past Continuous

Look at the use of the Past Continuous and the Past Simple in the following sentences: I was doing my homework at 7:00 last night. (I was in the middle of the activity.) I did my homework last night. (I started and finished.) I was doing my homework when Jack arrived. When the teacher arrived, the students were talking. (Doing my homework and talking are long activities. Something happened in the middle to interrupt them.) The teacher arrived. Then they started the lesson. (Here, there are two activities, one followed by another.) The moon was shining through the window. James Bond came into the room and sat down on the bed. (In stories, the Past Continuous is often used to describe the scene. The Past Simple tells the action.)

Reading and communicating


In groups of four to six, look at these proverbs. Decide what you think they mean. Do you agree with what they say? Why/Why not? a) b) c) d) e) f) When people are angry, they cannot be in the right. (Chinese proverb) A hungry person is an angry person. Anger is a short madness. People who get angry slowly stay angry longer. Let not the sun go down upon your anger. (Ephesians 4:26) When angry, count to a hundred.


Remember a past event when you felt angry. Then write your answers in the chart below. YOU What made you angry? How did you show your anger? YOUR PARTNER

Now talk to your partner. Ask her/him the same questions, and fill in the chart. Talk to the rest of the class. Tell them about your partner. Listen to all the answers. What makes people angry most often? How do most people show their anger? What would you do? Now work in groups of three. Look at these situations. How would you behave in each situation? Would you get angry? How would you show your anger? Or would you try to control yourself? A visitor to your home accidentally breaks your favourite vase. ii) Your child runs across the road without looking at the traffic, and nearly gets run over. iii) Someone pushes in front of you in a queue in a busy shop. iv) Someone bumps into your car when you are waiting at the traffic lights. v) Your favourite television programme is cancelled because a sports programme goes on too long. vi) A friend telephones to say they cant come and see you tonight as planned, because theyve been invited to a party. vii) Your husband/wife/girlfriend/boyfriend forgets your birthday. i)


viii) Someone leans out of their car and makes a rude sign at you, shouting that youre a bad driver. You dont think youve done anything wrong. ix) In the park, someones dog jumps up at you, and cover your coat in mud. x) In a restaurant, the waiter ignores you and begins to serve other table although you were sitting there first. Now talk to the rest of the class. Did they feel the same way as you? Or did they react differently? How did most people react to each situation? A problem to solve Here is a letter taken from the Problem Page of a magazine. a) In groups of four to six, read the letter, and decide what advice you would give.

Dear Aunt Clare,

I have a very stronger problem - Im married to a man who never gets angry. At first I thought it was wonderful to be with such a gentle person, but nothing ever makes him cross, and its beginning to upset me. We can never have a proper argument, because he doesnt like arguments. He just shrugs his shoulders and leaves the room if I shout at him. Why do you think hes like this? What can I do to change him? Mary S. b) Tell the other groups what your advice would be to Mary S. Have any groups thought of similar advice? Which piece of advice do you think is the best? Class talk Talk about these points with the others in your class. Is anger a good emotion? Is it better to be angry and express your feelings? Or is it better to try to stay calm and hide your feelings? Do you get angry easily? Or rarely? Do you try to stay calm or do you show your anger? Have you ever been angry and regretted it? Or not been angry and regretted it afterwards?

Yes, that's very interesting, Tessa. Now what do you know about their financial situation? Well, they didn't do too well last year. They lost a lot of money in the first half. But the second half was better.


I'd like exact figures. I'll get them if I can. Are they going to make a profit this year? It's difficult to ... I know what you're going to say. It's difficult to know because the year isn't over yet. Just get as much information as possible. I'll do my best. Are they going to bring out any new products this year? Find out about that, too. All right. Anything else? No, not for the moment. Oh ... uh ... by the way, what are your plans for tomorrow evening? Well, I'm going to do an interview at Metro Radio early in the evening. Why? My partner from New York is going to be here. There's something very important we'd like to discuss with you. Oh! In the evening? Yes. Will you have dinner with us?

Form will + infinitive (without to) Will is a modal auxiliary verb. The forms of will are the same for all persons.

Positive and negative I She ll (will) come. help you. You invite Tom. They wont etc. Short answer Will you help me? Yes, I will.

Question he you When will help me? they etc.

Note No, I wont. is not common because it is impolite. It means I dont want to help you. A polite way of saying no here would be: Im afraid I cant. Use Will is used: 1. To express a future decision or intention made at the moment of speaking. Its Janes birthday. Is it? Ill buy her some flowers. Goodbye. Ill see you tomorrow. 49

Ill take the red. Thank you. 2. To express an offer. Ill carry your suitcase. Well do the washing-up.

Going to
Form am/is/are + going + to + infinitive Positive and negative Question am I m (am) I m not he is she He s (is) When going to arrive? it She going to work. isnt It we are you We re (are) they You arent They Short answer Are they going to get married? Yes, they are./No, they arent. Use Going to is used: 1. To express a future decision, intention, or plan made before the moment of speaking. Were going to move to London. How long are they going to stay in Rome? She isnt going to have a birthday party. 2. Where we can see or feel now that something is certain to happen in the future. Look at those clouds! Its going to rain. Watch out! That box is going to fall. You work so hard. Youre going to be rich and successful.

Will or going to?

Look at the use of will and going to in the following sentences: Im going to make a chicken casserole for dinner. (I decided this morning bought everything for it.) What shall I cook for dinner? Er I know! Ill make chicken casserole! Thats a good idea. (I decided at the moment of speaking.)


Reading and communicating Talk about your feelings


Work in groups of three or four. Before you talk to the others write as much as you can about how you would like to be and what you would like to do when youre old. Think about your old age from as many different aspects as possible. Id like to .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... Now compare what you have written with the others in your group. If there are other suggestions that you like too, you can add to your list (if you agree with them). Help for old people In Britain, anyone over the age of sixty can have a Senior Citizens Railcard. This allows them to buy train tickets at reduced prices. a) Describe any special help that people over a certain age in your country get (with travel or anything else). b) What, in general, are the attitudes towards old people in your country? They are respected and helped. __ They are neglected by a society that prefers the young, the beautiful and the modern. __ c) What happens to old people in your country when they cant look after themselves any more? They are looked after by their families. __ They spend their old age in special homes for old people. __ Compare your answers. Justify your opinion and give examples. Pros and cons When Im old Im going to ... leave this city and go and live in the country-side because... ... find a voluntary job to do. Id like to help other people. Ive worked all my life - why should I stop? ... travel all over the country... Work with a partner and think of some positive points about these plans, and some difficulties these people might meet. Talk about these points with the others in your class. What differences can you see between what you used to be like in the past and how you are now? What changes do you expect to happen in your future? 51

What do you think you can look forward to when you retire? What might be less pleasant about becoming old? UNIT V A
You look worried. I am. Why? Well, I'm going to have an interview tomorrow, and I don't know what to say when they ask me the usual question. What question is that? 'Have you ever done this kind of work before?' You see, this company designs hotels, but all my experience has been in restaurant design. Yes, I know. But don't tell them that. Do you mean I should tell them a lie? Say that I have had some experience in designing hotels? No, of course not. Well, what should I say then? Say, 'No, I've never done that kind of thing before, but I have done things that are similar.' But that's not ... Isn't there anything similar about designing restaurants and designing hotels? Well, the two things aren't completely different. I mean, hotels usually include restaurants. You see! There are things in your previous experience that can help you get the job. Hmm. Perhaps you're right.

Present Perfect Simple

Form have/has + verb + -ed (past participle) The past participle of regular verbs ends in ed. There are many common irregular verbs. Positive and negative Question I I we ve (have) We Have you You havent been to the worked in a they They United States? factory. He he s (has) She Has she hasnt It it Short answer Have you been to Egypt? Yes, I have./No, I havent Has she ever written poetry?


Yes, she has./No, she hasnt. Note We cannot use Ive, theyve, hes etc. in short answers. Wrong: Yes, Ive. Yes, weve. Right: Yes, I have. Yes, we have. Use The Present Perfect relates past actions and states to the present. The Present Perfect is in a sense a present tense. It looks back from the present into the past, and expresses what has happened before now. Weve met a lot of famous people. (before now) Shes lived here all her life. (up to the present, and probably into the future) Here are two main use of the Present Perfect: 1. To express an action in the past. We are interested in the experience as part of someones life. Ive travelled a lot in Africa. Theyve lived all over the world. Ever and never are common with this use. Have you ever been in a car crash? My mother has never flown in a plan. 2. To express an action or state which began in the past and continues to the present. Ive known Alice for six years. How long have you worked as a teacher? For and since are common with this use. Ive lived here for two years. Ive had a beard since I left the army. Note: In many languages, this use is expressed by a present tense. In a way, this is logical. Peter is a teacher. Peter is a teacher for ten years. But English has a tense which looks back from the present to the past, the Present Perfect. So we say: Peter has been . Wrong: Peter is a teacher for ten years. Right: Peter has been a teacher for ten years.

Past Perfect and Past Simple

1. Look at the use of the Present Perfect and the Present Simple in the following sentences. Ive lived in Rome for six months. (I still do.) I lived in London for a year. (Now I live somewhere else, not in London.) Sallys written several books. (Shes still alive.) Shakespeare wrote many plays. (He is dead.) Hes worked in a bank three years. He started working in the bank in 1989 / when he was 20 / three years ago.


3. Look at the wrong sentences and compare them with the right sentences. X X X X Ive broken my leg last year. I broke my leg last year. He works as a musician all his life. He was worked as a musician all his life. When have you been to Greece? When did you go to Greece? How long do you have your car? How long have you had your car?

Hello. I'm Paula Silverman, and welcome to Media World. We're delighted to have Tessa Saunders with us today from Knight and Day Advertising. Well, first of all, how long have you been working in advertising, Tessa? For five years. Could you tell us about your present job? Well, I'm an account executive. I work very closely with the client. We make decisions about the best advertising strategy for a product. I also work closely with the people who write the advertisements - the copywriters. And how long have you been doing that? Working as an account executive, I mean. For about three years. I have the impression that people don't last very long in advertising - that it's a good business to be in when you're young but not when you're older. Do you agree? Well, it is true that there are a lot of people below the age of thirty in advertising, and many of them earn very good salaries. But there are also a lot of older people in it, too. But isn't it much easier to lose a good job in your business than it is to get one? It isn't as safe as a job in a bank, if that's what you mean.

Present Perfect Simple Use The Present Perfect Simple looks back from the present to the past. In this unit, we see that the Present Perfect is used to express a past action with a result in the present. We are looking at a recent past action, and expressing its effect on the present. Ive lost my wallet. (I havent got it now.) My cars been stolen! (It isnt here now.) Has the postman brought any letters? (Are there any letters on the mat now?)


Note Notice the use of certain adverbs with the use of the Present Perfect. Shes just passed her driving test. (a very short time before) Thanks, but Ive already had a lunch. (some time before) Has the postman been yet? (any time before now) He hasnt got up yet, and its 11:00! (yet is used in questions and negative sentences) Present Perfect Continuous Form has/have + been + verb + -ing (present participle) Positive and negative Question I I we We ve (have) have you You havent they been working? They been working. How long he He s (has) has she She hasnt it It Short answer Have you been running? Yes, I have./No, I havent. Use The Present Perfect Continuous is used: 1. To express an activity which continues to the present. Weve been waiting here for hours! Its been raining for days. 2. To refer to an activity with a result in the present. Im hot because Ive been running. Her shoes are muddy. Shes been digging the garden. Note 1. Sometimes there is little or no difference in the meaning between the Present Perfect Simple and Continuous. How long have you worked here? How long have you been working here? 2. Think of the verbs that have the idea of a long time, for example, wait, work, learn, travel, play. These verbs can be found in the Present Perfect Continuous. Ive been playing tennis since I was a boy. Think of the verbs that dont have the idea of a long time, for example, find, start, buy, dye, lose, stop. It is unusual to find these verbs in the Present Perfect Continuous. Ive bought a new dress. My cat has die3. Verbs that express a state (for example: like, love, hate, know) are not found in the d. My radios broken. Present Perfect Continuous. 55

Weve know each other for a long time. How long have you had your car? Wrong: Weve been knowing each other for a long time. 4. The Present Perfect Simple looks at the completed action. This is why, if the sentence gives a number or a quantity, the Present Perfect Simple is used. Ive written three letters today. The Continuous in not possible. Wrong: Ive been writing three letters today.

Reading and communicating


The Sunday Times asked people when they felt they had finally said goodbye to their childhood, and became an adult. Here are some of their answers: Manhood finally struck home on the day I left Army. It had to do with facing up the dull, dreary routine of life. Adulthood with its weekly wage-packets and protecting the crease in ones trouser-knees was all that lay ahead Willis Hall, playwright I was 15 years old and my brother Tim was 10 when we learnt my father only had weeks to live. We were told there had been a number of heart operations for this sort of complaint but no one over the age of 30 had survived. Nothing was ever going to be the same again. Rosie Barnes, Member of Parliament Experience has taught me to behave like an adult when its necessary, which is quite a lot of time. Therefore I work, pay bills, answer letters from lawyers and accountants, and consider how what I do today will affect tomorrow. But I dont think its wise to give up childhood so as much as possible Ive held onto mine. Im 41 and 14 concurrently Marsha Hunt, singer I have been pretending to be grown up for some 25 years now. I know precisely the moment it happened: lying in hospital, I turned my head to the side to meet a pair of piercing blue, two-minute-old eyes, totally dependent on me. A slow realisation My God, she thinks I know what Im doing! Ive been playing Mummies and Daddies ever since. Jane Asher, actress Read what each person says about growing up. Then talk about what they say, and write down your answer to the questions in the chart below. Willis Hall Jane Asher Marsha Hunt Rosie Barnes Does he/she feel grown up? When did he/she feel they grew up? Do they think its a 56

good thing to feel? What do they say about it? Think about these questions: Do you feel grown up? Yes When did you first feel grown up? No When do you think youll feel grown up? Do you think feeling grown up is a good thing? Talk to your partner, and discuss your answers to these questions. Do you feel the same about some things? Talk about the differences you feel, and the reasons for them.

Carry out a class survey, to find out how everyone feels. How many people in the class feel grown up? How many dont? (Do not forget to ask the teacher!) What are the main landmarks people think about when growing up? How many people think its a good thing to feel grown up? How many think its better to feel young?

How was your flight? Well, there was a delay, but it wasn't very long. Oh. Well, I'm glad you got here safely. Now, let me introduce you to my colleagues. But of course, you already know Hans Landau. Yes, I do. We met when you and he were in London. Yes, of course. And this is Barbara Fischer, our publicity director. I'm pleased to meet you. My pleasure. Now, uh ... before we begin the meeting, can we get you some tea or coffee? No, thank you. Later, perhaps. Good. Let's begin then.

The passive
Form + verb + -ed am/is/are (past participle) was/were has/have been The past participle of regular verbs end in ed.


Positive and negative English is spoken all over the world. Renault cars are made in France. My children arent helped with their homework. Coffee isnt grown in England. Question Where is rice grown? Are cars made in your country?

Positive and negative My car was stolen last night. The animals were frightened by a loud noise. He wasnt injured in the accident. The thieves werent seen by anyone. Question How was the window broken? Were the plants watered last night?

Present perfect
Positive and negative Ive been robbed! Diet Coke has been made since 1982. Question How many times have you been hurt playing football? Has my car been repaired? Short answer Are cars made in your country? Yes, they are./No, they arent. Were the plants watered last night? Yes, they were./No, they werent. Has my car been repaired? Yes, it has./No, it hasnt. Note 1. The rules for tense usage in the passive are the same as in the active. Present Simple to express habit: My car is serviced regularly. Past Simple to express a finished action in the past: America was discovered by Columbus. Present Perfect to express an action which began in the past and continues to the present: Diet Coke has been made since 1982. 2. The passive infinitive (to be + verb + -ed) is used after modal auxiliary verbs and other verbs, which are followed by an infinitive. Driving should be banned in city centres. The house is going to be knocked down.


Use 1. The object of an active verb becomes the subject of a passive verb. Active: Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Passive: Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. 2. The passive is not another way of expressing the same sentence in the active. We choose the active or the passive depending in what we are more interested in. Hamlet was written in 1600. (We are more interested in Hamlet.) Shakespeare wrote comedies, histories and tragedies. (We are more interested in Shakespeare.) Note Some verbs, for example, give, have two objects, a person and a thing. She gave me a book for my birthday. In the passive, we often make the person the subject, not the thing. I was given a book for my birthday.

Reading and communicating Talk about your feelings


In your country, which of these animals would you i) eat? ii) keep as a pet? iii) treat as a wild animal? iv) use as a working animal?

Fill in your answers below. ANIMAL Cat Dog Horse Deer Rabbit Squirrel Fox Duck Goat Camel Frog Mouse EAT KEEP AS PET TREAT AS WILD USE AS A WORKING ANIMAL


Pros and cons a) Read this article. Pupils Watch Pets Killed Horrified pupils at the George Land School in Hertfordshire have seen their favourite farm animals killed and sold for meat. Parents are worried that their children will be permanently upset by this. One mother said that her 13-year old daughter had been looking after rabbits at the school farm, and had been shocked to find three of them dead. I think its terrible, she said. My daughter was extremely upset when she came home from school. Another mother said that many parents were opposed to the killing, but were frightened to say anything in case their children were expelled from the school. But the headmistress, Mrs. Jill Johnson, defended the farm. She said it was one of several in the area, and that it is supported by local veterinary surgeons. Where town and country meet, there is bound to be a clash of views on life, she added. But its an approved policy in rural schools, and only the children who want to take part in the scheme do so. Theyre not forced to. She agreed that some children become very fond of the animals and are upset when they are killed. However, she hoped those children would speak out and start a discussion about it. The school has an active animal rights group, and many of the girls are vegetarian, she added. Children are told when the animals are to be killed, and can choose whether to watch or not. Children who want to skin the animals can do so. The larger animals are sent to a slaughterhouse, and sold as meat. One mother spoke in favour of the scheme. Mrs. Janette Salter said her 13-year old daughter, Dominique, had a responsible attitude towards animals as a result of working on the farm. She has no fear, and if she had to she could kill her own pet rabbit, she said. b) When you have finished reading the article, decide whether you agree or disagree with what the school is doing. Form two groups: those who agree with the school and those who disagree with it. Make a list of the points in the article which support your view. Add any more points you can think of. Now make a list of all the points for the opposite point of view. Add any more points you can think of. Form small groups of six to eight. Discuss the points you have thought of, for and against what the school is doing. What do you think? Class talk Talk about these points with the others in your class People often say that in Britain, animals are treated better than children. Is this true in your country? 60

Do you think animals are a substitute for children for some people? How do you think animals should be treated? Do you think some people make too much fuss of them? Do you think we should eat them? Use their fur? Keep them as pets? Take care of them? Use them for work? Put them in zoos? Let them go free?

What are the most important things we can say about the new video camera? Frau Fischer. Would you like to answer that question? First of all, it will be one of the best cameras on the market. But it won't be the most expensive. Just a moment please. I'd like to make some notes. Where's my pen? Here it is. Yes, go on, please. You see, we are using some completely new materials. This means that the camera will also be one of the lightest and smallest on the market. But the quality of the pictures and also the sound is excellent. Oh, no! What's the matter? My pen! I bought it only two days ago. It cost a lot, but it doesn't work! Can I lend you my pen? No, that's all right. I've got another one with me. Thanks all the same.

What like?
Form what + verb to be + subject + like? s (is) your teacher are his parents like? What was your holiday were the beaches Note We dont use like in the answer. Wrong : Shes like patient. Right: Shes patient. Use What like? means Describe somebody or something. Tell me about them? Like in this question is preposition, not a verb: What is Jim like?

Shes very patient. Theyre very kind. Wonderful. We swam a lot. OK, but some were dirty.


Hes intelligent and kind, and hes got a lovely blue eyes. In the following sentences like is a verb: What does Jim like? He likes motorbikes and playing tennis. Note Hows your mother? Shes very well, thank you. Hows your mother? asks about health. It doesnt ask for a description.

Comparative and superlative adjectives

Use 1. Than is often used after a comparative adjective. Im younger than Barbara. Barbara is more intelligent than Sarah. Much can come before the comparative to give emphasis. Shes much nicer than her sister. Is Tokyo much modern than London? 2. The is used before superlative adjectives. Hes the funniest boy in the class. Which is the tallest building in the world? 3. As as shows that something is the same or equal. Jims as tall as Peter. Im as worried as you are. 4. Not as/so as shows that something isnt the same or equal. She isnt as tall as her mother. My car wasnt so expensive as yours. Form Adjectives Short adjectives cheap small big Adjectives that funny early end in y heavy Adjectives with careful two syllables or boring expensive more interesting good Irregular bad adjectives far Comparative cheaper smaller bigger funnier earlier heavier more careful more boring more expensive more interesting better worse further/farther Superlative cheapest smallest biggest funniest earliest heaviest most careful most boring most expensive most interesting best worst furthest/farthest


Reading and communicating


Make these words SLOW (S) or FAST (F) in the boxes below. Use your dictionary if you need to. walk W rapid W stroll W wander W fly W amble W swift W quick W gradual W leisurely W run W relaxed W hasty W gentile W Can you think of any more words to add to the list? Work in groups of four. Compare your words. Add any new words to your list. Look at this list of forms of transport. train boat lorry bicycle car bus hovercraft air balloon motorbike aeroplane Concorde helicopter

a) Which form of transport is the fastest? Which is the slowest? With your partner, put them in order of speed by writing numbers 1-12 in the boxes above (1 = fastest; 12 = slowest). b) Which form of transport do you like best? Which would you not enjoy? Why or why not? Talk to your partner. Do you agree? Write down your answers. FAVOURITE FORM OF TRANSPORT WHY? LEAST FAVOURITE FORM OF TRANSPORT WHY?

Me Partner Work in groups of four. Decide which is the best way for you to travel (for example, the fastest, the cheapest, the most comfortable or most interesting) for the following: a) from your home to school/collage/work b) from London to Paris c) from Europe to Australia d) from the East Coast to the West Coast of America e) from your home to your favourite place for a holiday f) around the world Now imagine the same journeys with: your eighty-year-old uncle two small children (a baby of six months and a two-year-old) six heavy suitcases People often say that life is getting faster every year. But does faster mean better? Talk to your partner. Do you think FAST or SLOW is better for each of these things? COOKING (What about fast food?) ART (Think about painting and photographs.) COMMUNICATIONS (Think about writing letters and telephoning.) LEARNING A LANGUAGE (What about intensive language courses?) GETTING FIT (Think about crash diets and exercise programmes.)


Talk about these points with the others in your class. Do you think life is faster than when you were young? Is it better? Do you think being able to travel to other places more quickly makes life better today? Do you think being able to communicate quickly with other people makes life better?

Good evening, sir. Can I help you? Yes, my name is Mitchum. I have a reservation. Pardon? Can you repeat your name, please? Mitchum. How do you spell that, sir? M ... I ... T ... C ... H ... U ... M. And your first name, please? Roger. Robert? Robert Mitchum? No, Roger. R ... O ... G ... E ... R. I'm sorry. Roger. Not Robert. Um ... yes, here it is ... 1st March ... Roger Mitchum. A single room with a shower for three nights. Is that right? Yes. From the first to the fourth. Can I see your passport, please? Here you are. Thank you. Your room number is three forty-seven, Mr Mitchum. Here's your key. Thank you.

Can, could and will

Can, could and will are modal auxiliary verbs. They are used with the infinitive. Can I help you? Could you tell me the time? Ill carry your bag. Polite requests Can and could are used for requests. pass the salt, please? Can you turn off the TV, please? Could

go home, please? Can I have some stamps, please? Could

Could is (a little) more formal. Can is (a little) more familiar.


Offers Will is used to express an offer of help. Ill bring some wine. Ill make you a cup of tea. John will take you home. Note 1. In many languages, this use of will is sometimes expressed by a present tense. English use will to express an offer made now about a future action. Wrong: I give you my phone number. I open the door for you. Right: Ill give you my phone number. Ill open the door for you. 2. In this use, the contraction ll is always used. Wrong: I will help you with your homework. Right: Ill help you with your homework. Reading and communicating ADDICTION

What differences can you see between a drinking habit and a drug habit? Think of some possible answers to these questions. Do this by yourself. Talk about people When do you think a person can have his/her first experience with alcohol or drugs? Where do you think the First experience can take place? Who else do you think can also be involved in this first experience? How easy is it to buy alcohol or drugs? How easy is it to Become addicted? Why is giving up so difficult? THE ALCOHOLIC THE DRUG ADDICT


Giving advice Heres a letter that was received by the organisation LIBRA. Work in groups of three or four, and make a list of points of advice you would give the writer. Useful expressions for giving advice: It may help you to If I were you Id Well, one solution may be to In your situation I think Id It might be a good idea to Dear Mr. Rowley, I need some help badly. My husband, who lost his job last year and has been unemployed ever since, has become an alcoholic. Dont get me wrong he used to drink before he lost his job, but now it has really become a problem. We often used to go out for a drink in the evening together, but we never had more than one or two and it was always a pleasure. Now he just sit around all day, feels useless (so he says) and starts drinking even before lunch. I find that Im beginning to drink more, too. This is not just to keep him company, but Ive developed the idea that if I drink it, he cant. Before I just used to nag him but that didnt work. What can we do now? Can you help us? Im sure our two children, aged eleven and eight, will soon begin to suffer if they havent already. Mrs. D.M. (Eastbourne)

When we think about addiction we nearly always-think first of smoking, alcohol and drugs. What do you think might be the problems of a person who: o cant stop working? o cant stop eating? o cant stop gambling? What do you think could be the consequences of these habits for the person concerned and for others? If you have ever known anyone who was or is addicted to any of the things mentioned in this until tell the rest of your class something about the person.

Well, as I said, this is confidential. Very confidential! Yes, I understand. Go on. We're not happy with Bell and Winter, and Nathalie Artaud ... that's the director of the company (and my boss, of course) ... Nathalie Artaud wants to find another agency. I see. Hmm. That's why I wanted to see you today. I wanted to find out if you're interested. I see. Hmm. Well, are you? 66

Interested? Yes, David. I'm very interested. But I think I should talk to my boss before I say anything more. Of course.

Form should + infinitive (without to) The forms of should are the same for all persons. Positive and negative Question I I Should she see a doctor? He should do more exercise. We they see a doctor? shouldnt tell lies. They I Do you etc. he should think we Short answer Should I phone home? Yes, you should. Should I buy a Mercedes Benz? No, you shouldnt. Use Should is used to express what the speaker thinks is right or the best thong to do. It expresses mild obligation, or advice. I should do more work. (This is my option.) You should do more work. (Im telling you what I think.) Do you think we should stop here? (Im asking you for your opinion.) Shouldnt expresses negative advice. You shouldnt sit so close to the TV. Its bad for your eyes. Note Should expresses the opinion of the speaker, and it is often introduced by I think or I dont think. I think politicians should listen more. I dont think people should get married until theyre 21.

Reading and communicating A problem to solve


Make the punishment fit the crime: A case of murder At the age of forty-two, Kurt Hofmann, a German businessman, was given a very high position in a large company in Zurich, Switzerland. He took the job as head of


the marketing department even though he had not had direct experience in this type of work before. He was very ambitious and really wanted this well-paid job. The company gave him the job even though they knew it was a problem position. After about six months it was clear that Mr. Hofmann was under a lot of stress. Work with a partner and number these stress factors 1-10, starting with 1 as the most serious. his job was beyond him, he just couldnt do it his colleagues, five men in particular, disliked him and told everyone how bad he was at his job his superior didnt help him at all his wife left him his girlfriend refused to move to Zurich __ __ __ __ __ he had to move away from the town where he had always lived he worked at least twelve hours a day trying to do the job there was no one at work he could trust he was living in a foreign country he was living alone for the first time in his life __ __ __ __ __

One day this STOP PRESS report was in the evening newspaper:

RAZ marketing chief kills four. The head of the marketing department at RAZ, Kurt Hofmann, shot five employees, killing four and seriously injuring one, this morning. He escaped from the RAZ head office and, at the time of going to press, had not been found. He is armed and may be dangerous. He was arrested a couple of weeks later in a hotel a few hundred miles away. When his trial took place months later, lots of comments were made about him.

Im a handwriting analyst. Samples of his handwriting over the years show definite signs of instability. I work at RAZ. He should be put in prison for the rest of his life every day of it. Mr. Hofmann lived in the flat upstairs. He seemed such a nice man. I cant understand it at all. I feel very sorry for him. Im a psychiatrist. Ive examined Mr. Hofmann and I can definitely say that he is unable to cope with stress. He is not a leader and probably never was. The consequence of that fateful day were: for Mr. Hofmann seventeen years in prison for his immediate superior early retirement with a good pension for four employees death, leaving three widows and seven orphans for one employee unable to work for the rest of his life Work in groups of four to decide: a) if you think seventeen years was a fair sentence. b) if you think any other people were also partly responsible for what Mr. Hofmann did.


Give reasons for your decisions.

The software's very good. Our customers like the new software. Sales are increasing. I'm glad to hear that. But there are some problems. Oh, what kind of problems? I'd like to explain them later. Perhaps we can discuss them at dinner this evening? Yes, of course. By the way, where would you like to go this evening? I mean, what kind of food would you like to eat? Well, I'm not sure. What do you suggest? What about sashimi? Would you like that? Sashimi? What's that? I'm afraid I don't know very much about Japanese food. It's raw fish or raw seafood. It's very good! Uh huh. I'd like to try that some other time perhaps. Can you suggest something else? Yes, of course.

Verb Patterns
Here are three possible verb patterns. 1. Verb + infinitive (+ to) They want to buy a new car. He promised to come early. I decide to go by taxi. She forgot to post the letter. 2. Verb + -ing She enjoys playing tennis. I like cooking, but I dont like washing up. He finished reading his book. 3. Verb + -ing or infinitive (+ to) with no change of meaning. It began to rain/raining. I started to learn/learning English two years ago. I continued to work/working in the library.


Like doing and would like to do

Like doing (and love doing) express a general enjoyment. Would like to do (and would love to do) express a preference now or at a specific time. Look at the use of like (love) and would like (love) in the following sentences: I like working as a teacher. (I am a teacher and I enjoy it.) Id like to be a teacher. (When I grow up, I want to be a teacher.) I love dancing. (This one of my hobbies.) Thank you. Id love to dance. (Were at a disco. Im pleased that you asked me.) Short answer Would you like to dance? Yes, I would./Yes, Id love to. Would you like to come for a walk? Yes, I would./No, thank you. Note No, I wouldnt. is not common because it is impolite. Reading and communicating WOMEN AND MEN

These statements were made by children. Find four endings for a boy and four for a girl from this list. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) then Id be able to wear trousers more often. then it would be all right if I cried. then a _____________ would ask me for a date. then I could play football. then I could have long hair. then I wouldnt have to help with the washing up. then I wouldnt have to carry all the heavy things. then Id be able to help dad repair the car. Id like to be a boy because

Id like to be a girl because

Fill in this questionnaire by yourself. What sex are you? If you grew up with both parents, which one did you feel closest to? What was your favourite toy when you were a child? What was your favourite subject at school? What subject did you dislike most at school? 70 F M

What was your hobby when you were a child? What did you expect of your future when you were a teenager? Share your opinions about being male or female. Talk about: yourself in relation to societys image of your sex - what is that image? yourself in relation to advertisers image of your sex - do you fit in? what you think must be the best things and the worst things about being a member of the other sex in your country. Have a guess! Here are some statistics about people in America. What do you think the answers to these questions are? You probably dont know the answers for sure, but have a guess! Who live longer men or women? Are there more men or women in America? Which group has the highest percentage of unemployment men or women? Who are there more of male prisoners or female prisoners? Who marry younger men or women? Which group has the highest percentage of smokers men or women? Who is more likely to die of heart and related diseases men or women?

Talk about your feelings Work in groups. Which of these things could you: a) accept completely? b) find unusual but acceptable? c) not be able to accept? d) find unusual and a bit strange?


What about you, by the way? Me? Yes. How's your work going? Uh ... not so well. Oh, really? I'm sorry to hear that. Er ... would ... would you like to talk about it? Um ... I'm not sure if I would. Oh, I see. If you really want to know, it's my boss. Oh ... you mean you don't like him? No, that isn't what I mean. What's the problem, then? It isn't that I don't like him. I hate him! Is it that bad? It's worse than that. I almost quit a few days ago. Quit? Really? So ... what do you think you're going to do now? I don't know ... but I'll tell you one thing. If he talks to me again the way he did a few days ago, I will quit!

A. First Conditional
Form if + Present Simple, will + infinitive (without to) Positive and negative I work hard, I pass my exams. If ll she has enough money, she buy a new car. (will) we dont hurry up, we be late. If youre late wont wait for you. Question What you do you dont go to university? will if Where she go she cant find a job? Short answer Will you go to university if you pass your exams? Yes, I will./No, I wont. If we look after the planet, will we survive? Yes, we will./No, we wont. Note The condition clause (if) can come at the beginning of the sentence or at the end. Ill pass my exams, if I work hard. If I work hard, Ill pass my exams. Use The First Conditional is used to express a possible condition and a probable result in the future. If my cheque comes, Ill buy us all a meal.


Youll get wet if you dont take an umbrella. Whatll happen to the environment if we dont look after it? Note English uses a present tense in the conditions clauses, not a future form. Wrong: If it will rain If Ill work hard Right: If it rains If I work hard

Time clauses
Form Conjunction + Present Simple, will + infinitive (without to) Conjunctions of time (e.g. when, as soon as, before, until) are not usually followed by will. The clause refers to the future, but English uses the Present Simple, not will. When your guests arrived, well eat. As soon as I have some news, Ill phone you. Ill do my work after I have a bath. Ill speak to you again before I leave. Well stay here until the rain stops. Note If expresses a possibility that something will happen; when expresses what the speaker sees as certain to happen. If I find my book, Ill send it to you. When I get home, Ill have a bath.

B. Second Conditional
Form if + Past Simple; would + infinitive (without to) Would is a modal auxiliary verb. The forms of would is the same for all persons. Positive and negative I had more money, I buy a CD player. If she knew the answer, she d (would) tell us. we lived in Russia, we soon learn Russian. If I didnt have so many debts, I wouldnt have to work so hard. Question you had a year off? you do What if would you travelled round the world? you go to Which countries Short answer Would you travel round the world? Yes, I would./No, I wouldnt.


If they had money, would they buy a new car? Yes, they would./No, they wouldnt. Note 1. The condition clause can come at the beginning of the sentence or at the end. Id help if I had more time. If I had more time, Id help. 2. Were is often used instead of was in the condition clause. If I were you, Id go to bed. If he were cleverer, hed know he was making a mistake. Use The Second Conditional is used to express an unreal or improbable condition and its probable result in the present or future. The condition in unreal because it is different from the facts that we know. We can always say: But . If I were Prime Minister, Id increase tax for rich people. (But Im not Prime Minister.) If I lived in a big house, Id have a party. (But I live in a small house.) What would you do if you saw a ghost? (But I dont expect you will see a ghost.) Reading and communicating OPTIMISM AND PESSIMISM Work with a partner. One of you should think about an optimist who sees the positive side of everything, and the other should think about a pessimist who sees everything negatively. Answer these questions from the optimists and pessimists point of view.

OPTIMIST Whats your favourite colour? Which is your favourite month? Which is your favourite season? What sort of films do you like watching? Which foreign language do you like hearing? What are you going to do when you retire? What did you read in the newspaper yesterday?



Are you an optimist or a pessimist? Do this quiz and find out! 1. If you had just started a new job 5. If your boss suddenly called you in

and immediately found that you his office one Friday afternoon, didnt like it, would you would you think a) leave after one day? __ a) he was going to offer you a better b) leave after a week? __ job? __ c) stay longer to see is things __ b) he was going to tell you to leave? __ improved? c) he wanted to talk to you about __ 2. If you ask someone to give you something very routine? some help, do you 6. If you went for an interview for a job a) know they will agree? __ and didnt get it, would you assume b) think they may agree? __ that they c) feel sure they will disagree? __ a) found someone better than you? __ 3. When you get post in the morning, b) realized you were too good for do you expect it to contain the job? __ a) good news? __ c) just didnt like you as a person? __ b) bad news? __ 7. A good-looking member of the c) nothing of interest to you? __ opposite sex is watching you from 4. If a relative contacts you after the other side of a crowded room at years of silence, do you think they a party, do you a) want something from you? __ a) think you must look attractive, b) have realised theyve missed you? __ too? __ c) want to tell you someone in the b) feel that there must be something __ family has died? __ wrong with your clothes? c) tell the friend youre with that the __ stranger is looking at him/her?

Class talk Talk about these points with the others in your class. What things (such as birds singing, for example) make you feel optimistic? What things make you feel pessimistic? What do you sometimes do to cheer yourself up if youre feeling down?


ANNEX 1 The prefixes and suffixes listed below are recurrent in academic and scientific prose. The prefixes have been grouped according to meaning: the suffixes according to the grammatical classes of which they are markers. Prefixes 1. the opposite, negation of something aanticountercontradedisilliminirnonun2. bad, wrong malmis3. quantity bi-/ tri/ etc. centdecequimacromicromonomultia lot, too much hyperoutoversuperultralittle, too little subunder4. temporal ex76 Example amoral anti-modernist counteraction contradict devalue disadvantage illegal impersonal inaccurate irrelevant non-response unrepresentative malformation misinterpret bilingual, trilingual centenary decade equivalent macroeconomics microeconomics monolingual multipurpose hyperinflation outlive overestimate superhuman ultramodern

subsequent underestimate ex-husband

foreneopostpre5. to make or cause to beb beemen6. relations cointerintraintromidsemitransvice7. other important prefixes pro- in favor of re- again self- of or by oneself

foresee neo-Protestantism post-war prerequisite befriend embody enable co-author international intravenous introduction midway semiprecious transaction vice-president pro-feminist re-examine self-conscious



Adverb s



-ability -age -an -ance/ ence -ary -ate -ation -cracy -cy -dom -ee --er/-ar/or -ery -ese -ful -hood -ics -ism -ist -ite -ity/ -ty

capability marriage historian importance / library

-able -al -an -ant -ary/-ory

capable social Marxian important imaginary/ introductory passionate

-ate electorate information democracy efficiency freedom -en employee -er employer/ registrar/ac tor -ese machinery -est -ful japanese handful adulthood politics egotism psychologi st Thatcherite similarity/ novelty developme nt sociology -ic -ical -ish -ist -ite -ive -less -ly -ous -some



golden larger

-en -er faster


Japanese soundest powerful historic political selfish feminist





intensive helpless friendly famous troublesome ninth backward worldwide ward(s) forward -ize (ise) -ly individuall y maximize (A.E.) maximise (B.E.)

-ment -ology/logy -ship

relationship -th -ster barrister -ure procedure -ward(s) -wide


2a. This is the We form the superlative by 1. Adjectives biggest factory in 2a. adding est to one-syllable the area. adjectives ant to two 1.1 Order of adjectives 2b. I have many old books but syllable adjectives Some adjectives can be used before a noun this is the most interesting. ending in y in English. See page 64 for a guide to the order in which they can be used. In general using most + two- and more is as strong as a horse. than two-syllable adjectives we put the precise adjective nearest the 3. He He isnt as/so clever as his noun but it is not always easy to decide sister. 3. We use as + adjective + as for positive comparisons or which is the most precise: a possible order not and as/so + adjective + as would be: for negative comparisons (1) (2) (3) (4) 1.3.2. Adjectives of one syllable determiner, your own options, dimensions (size, weight), age,
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) shape, colour, place of origin, material, purpose. Examples: - a Chinese silk wedding dress - some short blue denim jeans - an awful old stair carpet 1. If the adjective ends in two consonants (e.g. ng, - rd, -rm) just add er, -est to the adjective: long, longer, longest hard harder hardest warm warmer warmest 2. If the adjective ends in one vowel or one consonant (e.g. in, -at, -ot) double the consonant and add er, -est to the adjective: thin thinner thinnest fat fatter fattest hot hotter hottest 3. If the adjective ends in e add r, -st to the adjective: wide wider widest rude ruder rudest

Good better best Bad worse worst Much/many more most Far farther farthest (used to describe distance, but can also mean additional, extra e.g. further details, further information) old older oldest (used to describe objects and people) old elder eldest Notice elder, eldest are used before a noun to talk about family relationships, but after verb only older oldest are possible (e.g. My older/elder brother, My brother is older than I am).

1.2 Other points to notice about the order and use of adjectives Adjectives describing 1. He is 1 metre 30 1. measurement come after the tall. measurement.
2. I dont like living alone. 3. Its difficult to read. 2. Some adjectives (e.g. alone, afraid, alive, awake) come after the verb, never before a noun. 3. Adjectives are often followed by an infinitive with to. 4a. Adjectives ending in ed come after a verb like be, seem or before a noun and describe a persons feelings. 4b. Adjectives ending in ing come after a verb or before a noun and describe the person or thing that produces those feelings.

The instructions are easy to follow.

4a. She was worried about him. Hes a worried man. 4b. Its all very worrying. Its a worrying time for all of us.

1.3 Comparative and superlative of adjectives 1.3.1 Form form the comparative by: 1a. London is We 1a. adding er to one-syllable bigger than adjectives and to two-syllable adjectives ending in y Edinburgh.
1b. This armchair is more comfortable than that wooden seat. using more + two- and more than two-syllable adjectives + than

1.3.3 Adjectives of more than one syllable 1. Ive never been 1. If the adjective happier than I am ends in y, change now the y to i and add Friday 13th is the unluckiest er, -est to the day in the year in Britain. adjective.
2. Sally is cleverer/more clever than her brother. The commonest/most common cause of road death is careless driving. Exception: friendly, more friendly, most friendly 2. Some adjectives with two syllable can form their comparative and superlative in two ways: either by adding (e)r, -(e)st or by using more,


3. I find science more interesting than the arts. He told me the most extraordinary story.

3. If the adjective has three (or more) syllables use more, most + adjective.

weekly. We are monthly.

2. Adverbs 2.1 Form

at the beginning for paid emphasis 4a. Adverbs which 4b. Every Saturday we go out. tell us how often 5a. He never buys cigarettes. usually come in the He always makes his own. 5b. She is always late. end position. 5c. Theyve never offered to
help. We are often being asked for information of this kind. 6. Sit down here. 4b. Phrases like every week, every Saturday can also come at the beginning of a sentence. 5a. Adverbs which do not tell us exactky when usually come before a one-word verb. 5b. If the verb is be they always follow the verb.

1. quick quickly slow slowly 2. careful carefully beautiful beautifully 3. lucky luckily funny funnily 4. He greeted me in a friendly way. She looked at me with a silly expression on her face. 5. We arrived late.

1. Adeverbs can be formed from adjectives by adding - ly 2. The same rule applies to adjectives that end in i. Stand up 3. To form adverbs from adjectives straight. ending in y, He works very change the y to I hard. and add ly. Dont walk so fast. 4. To form adverbs from adjectives ending in ly we use a phrase in a way etc. 5. Some adjectives do not change when they become adverbs. Notice: lately and hardly have a different meaning from late and hard: lately recently, hardly scarcely. 2.2 Comparative and superlative of adverbs 1. She drives more 1. We usually form carefully than her the comparative and husband. the superlative by This is the most efficient adding more most + run office in the area. adverb.
2. He arrived later than you. He walked the fastest. 2. Adverbs with the same form as adjectives form their

He went to the 5c. If it is a two or cinema to the High more word verb Street in town. they come after the Put the book on the table in first part of the verb. the dining room.
7. He reads his newspaper quickly at the breakfast table every morning. 6. Adverbs and adverb phrases which tell us where usually come in the end position with the direction (to the cinema) mentioned first and the places second (smaller places come before larger ones). 7. Adverbs and adv. Phrases which tell us how, where and when usually come in that order in the sentence (e.g. how = quickly, where = at the breakfast table, when = every morning).

2.4 Adverb or adjective?

That smells good but it tastes awful. Notice: If the verb is seem, appear, look, sound, feel, taste we use an adjective, not an adverb.

3. Articles


comparative and superlative with er est. Notice some exceptions to these two rules: Well better best Badly worse worst Little less least Much more most

3.1 Indefinite article (a/an)

1. You will need a Use with singular 2.3 Position of adverbs and adverb pen and an exercise countable nouns: phrases in sentences 1. for more general meaning 1. He plays the 1. Adverbs which book. (it doesnt matter which pen). piano well. tell us how 2. There was a terrible storm Notice: an is used before a word that begins with a vowel She sings beautifully. usually come in the last night. The storm swept sound (e.g. an hour, an heir, an 2a. Shes very clever. across the whole country. end position. MP but a university). I can hardly read it.
I dont quite understand. 2b. I have enough money. Hes not tall enough to join the police force. They dont work hard enough. 3a. Hes coming tomorrow. 3b. Yesterday he was in Paris. Today hes in Rome. 4a. The magazine comes out 2a. Adverbs which tell us to what extent or to what degree usually come in the middle position. 2b. Notice: enough comes before a noun and after an adjective or adverb. 3a. Adverbs which tell us when usually come in the end position. 3b. They can come at the 0 few = not many 0 little = not much 4. to mean every with expressions of time (e.g. once a year) 5. to describe a persons job or situation 3. A million people received our help last year. A few, however, were not so lucky. 4. We come to classes twice a week. 5. Shes a lorry driver. 2. for a noun mentioned for the first time. Notice: we use the for the second mention. 3. with numbers (e.g. a hundred, a thousand, a million) and fractions (e.g. a half, a quarter etc.). Notice: A few (people) = some; A little (help) = some but 3a. for newspaper headlines b.for telexes (where the message should be as short as possible) c. for personal, informal messages 4. before a second noun in a linked part of nouns

3.2 Definite article (the) 1. Jane: A man Use with most 3.4 Changes of meaning phoned last night. nouns for more Peter: Well, what did the specific meaning: man want?
2.Last night I read the book you recommended. 3. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 4. The computer has revolutionized office systems. 5. You can buy the best pizzas in town at Paulos. 6. The English and the French agreed to build a channel tunnel. The strong should help the weak. 7. I live in the United States/the Netherlands/the Falklands/the West Indies/the Philippines/the USSR. 8. Paris lies on the Seine. The Atlantic separates Britain from America. Its very hot in the Mediterranean at the moment. 1. to refer back to something already mentioned 2. when we know which one we are talking about 3. when we refer to only one of its kind Notice these other uses of the: 4. with singular countable nouns when they stand for an invention or a species 5. with a superlative (the first, the most enjoyable) 6. with adjectives as plural nouns 7. with the names of countries or groups of islands which are plural. Notice these exceptions: the United Kingdom, The Yemen 8. with names of rivers, oceans and seas

Sometimes the use (or omission O) of the article changes the meaning of what we say.

3.4.1 Meals 1. A dinner was held last night at the Savoy.

The dinner we held last night was marvelous. 2. Come to 0 dinner next Saturday. What time do you have breakfast. 1. a/an or the for particular meals 2. no article (0) for mealtimes in general

3.4.2 Transport 1. I hailed a taxi but 1. a/an or the for particular forms of it didnt stop. The six oclock train was en transport minute early.
2. I always travel by 0 bus. I came home on 0 foot. 2. no article (0) for the form of transport in general

3.3 No article (0)

1a. 0 Museums are We do not use an article: 3.4.3 Places with plural interesting 0 places. 1a. countable nouns and 1b. 0 Sound travels very fast


in 0 water. 2a. I live in 0 Rome/0 Percy Road/0 China/0Jersey/near 0 Lake Windermere. 2b. I shop in 0 Harrods. 2c. I read 0 Punch. 2d. The queen lives in 0 Buckingham Palace. 2e. He went to 0 Shelffield University. 3a. 0 MAN FOUND DEAD ON 0 TUBE 3b. Send 0 representative immediately. 3c. 0 Dinner in 0 oven. 4. You will need a knife and fork. Take a bucket and spade to the beach.

1b. with uncountable nouns when speaking about the noun in general (e.g. food, music, love etc.) Compare: I hate the sound of a drill (a particular sound). Notice: a few uncountable nouns (e.g. advice, news, luggage, information, research) require phrases like: a/the bit of a/the piece of to refer to a particular example of that noun: a bit of advice, a piece of news. 2. with the names of most a. towns/cities, streets, countries, single/individual islands, lakes b. shops c. magazines. Notice these exceptions: The Economist, the Listener and most news papers (The New York Times, The Daily Mail) d. named buildings e. named institutions (e.g. universities, schools, churches etc.)

1. The meeting was 1. a/an or the to refer to a particular held in a school. The workmen are busy in the or known place or church repairing the roof. building 2. Hes at university
(studying). Shes in hospital (receiving treatment). He is in prison (serving a sentence). 2. no article (0) to refer to the normal activity which goes on at a place or building

4. Conditional sentences

Both if and unless (= if not) can be used to introduce conditional sentences. The if clause can come before or after the main (or result clause). Notice we often use a comma when the if-clause comes first.

4.1 Conditional 1
1a. If you take drugs regularly, you become addicted to them. 1b. If you mix the colours blue and red, you get purple. 2. If you work hard, youll get a good job. Unless you study, you wont pass your exams. Ill explain it again if you dont understand.

1a. for general facts that do not change 1b. for scientific facts. Notice the verbs in both parts of the sentences are in the present. 2. maionly for future possibilities. Notice the verbs after if and unless are in the present but the verbs in the result part of the sentence are in the future.

5.2 Verbs followed by the infinitive 5.2.1 Verb + infinitive with to I cant afford to have a holiday this year.
We decided to get married. I managed to find another glass to replace the one I broke. Some verbs are followed by the infinitive with to. Here are some of the most common: Afford Appear Arrange Decide Fail Mange Mean Offer Plan prepare forget happened hope intend learn promise refuse seem threaten

4.2 Conditional 2
1a. If I had a million pounds, I would buy a yacht. If he knew the answer he wouldnt tell me. If Mary were here now, she would drive me home. 1b. If I were you, I wouldnt marry him.

1a. the unreal or improbable conditions in the present or future 1b. for giving advice and suggestions. Notice the verbs after if in the result part of the sentence are in present conditional.

4.3 Conditional 3 1a. We wouldnt Use: for unreal or impossible have gone abroad 1a. conditions in the past. for our holidays if 1b. to imply regret to imply criticism. Notice we hadnt bought a 1c. the verbs after if are in the past new car. perfect but the verbs in the
1b. If we hadnt set out late, we wouldnt have been caught in the traffic jam. 1c. If you had listened to your father, you wouldnt have made so many mistakes. result part of the sentence are in the perfect conditional.

5.2.2 Verb + direct object + infinitive with to He advised me to Some verbs have a take the exam. direct object before They persuaded me to stay for the infinitive with a few days. to. Here are some of the most common:
Advise Allow Encourage Force Invite order persuade remind teach tell warn


5. Gerunds and infinitives 5.1 Verbs followed by the gerund (or 5.2.3 Verb + direct object + infinitive ing form) without to I cant stand waiting Some verbs are I heard him sing Some verbs have a in queues. direct object before followed by the ing Figaro. You considered buying a He let me borrow his car. the infinitive form. Here are some house in the coutryside, but we He made me tell him the truth. without to. Here are of the most enjoy being in the town too much. some of the most common: I miss living abroad. common: Apprecia keep Feel let Hear make (on) te See look Avoid Notice: hear and see can be followed by the ing form to forward Cant express hearing or seeing only to help part of an action (e.g. compare I heard him singing in the mention Cant bath). mind stand Consider miss object to Deny practise Deslike put off Enjoy Feel like risk suggest Finish Give up be/get imagine used to be worth


5.3 Verbs followed by either the ing or the infinitive 1. He continued Some verbs take working/to work either the ing form after everybody else or the infinitive: Sometimes there is very had left the 1. little difference in meaning. building. 2a. When verbs like cant bear,
2a. I like going to the cinema. She loves dancing. 2b. I like to go to the cinema once a week. She would love to dance the samba with you. 3a. I began studying/to study in 1984. I started writing/to write when I was very young. 3b. I began to see that something was wrong. I started to realize what he had done for me. 4a. He stopped smoking last week. He remembers going to the seaside when he was a child. Hell never forget eating raw fish for the first time. 4b. He stopped the car to pick up a hitch-hiker. He remembered to post the letters. 5a. I tried to phone you several times but I couldnt get through. 5b. I tried working in a shop, but it didnt interest me. 6. Your hair needs cutting. The garden wants weeding. like, love, hate, prefer are followed by the ing form, they tend to refer to a general activity. 2b. but when these verbs are followed by the infinitive, they tend to refer to particular occasions 3a. begin and start can take either the ing form or the infinitive 3b. but before a verb expressing understanding (see, realize) these verbs are followed by the infinitive. 4. with verbs like stop, remember, not forget, regret a. the ing form refers to what happens/happened before the main verb (e.g. first he smoked, than he stopped: first he went to the seaside, now he remembers the event; first he ate raw fish, now he remembers the event never forget = always remember) b. the infinitive refers to what happens/happened after the main verb (e.g. first he stopped the car, then he picked up the hitch-hiker; first he remembered about the letters, then he posted them: 5. try can take either the ing form or the infinitive but a. it is followed by an infinitive when we mean to attempt to do something b. it is followed by the ing form when we mean to experiment 6. neead and want can be followed by either the ing form or the infinitive , but when they are followed by the ing form the meaning is always passive.

what to do.

3. after certain adjectives + prepositions. Here are some of the most common:
afraid of bad at bored with clever at fond of about good at keen on interested in tired of worried

5.5 Other uses of the infinitive 1. I came here to study English.

2. She doesnt know what to do next. Can you explain how to do it? The infinitive is also used: 1. to express purpose 2. after who, what, how, whether and verbs like know, explain, wonder. Notice the infinitive is not used in thios way after why.

6. Link words

6.1 Words expressing result

1a. He was so tired 1a. so that he went to bed adjective/adverb early. that + clause
He spoke Russian so well that everyone thought he was Russian. 1b. It was such a difficult exam (that) he knew he wouldnt pass it. 2. It was late, so he decided to take a taxi home. 3a. We have invested too much money in this project. Consequently, we are in financial difficulties. 3b. His wife left him and as a result he became very depressed. 4. We feel, therefore, that a decision must be made.

+ +

1b. such + noun + that + clause Notice: that can be left out in informal speech. 2. so + clause 3a. as a result, consequently can begin a new sentence 3b. and, as a result, is used in the middle of a sentence 4. therefore often comes in the middle of a sentence (it can also come at the beginning or the end).

5.4 Other uses or ing form 1. Walking is good The ing form is also used: 1. as the subject of a for you. clause or sentence 2. After walking to work, Im
ready to sit at my desk all day. 3. Im afraid of missing the train. Hes good at telling others 2. following time words like after, before, when, since, while

6.2 Words expressing reason 1. Seeing 1. such, as, seeing that/Since/As we that + clause often arrived late, all the come before the best seats had been main clause 2. because + clause usually taken. comes after the main clause
We couldnt find a good seat because all the best ones had been taken.


3. because of, as a result of and due to are followed by a noun or a noun Many of the deaths of older phrase. people are due to heart attacks. Notice: due to means caused by or resulting from. 6.3 Words expressing purpose 1. We came to the 1. We can use the countryside to find infinitives to (do), in some peace and order (not) to (do), quiet. so as (not) to (do) to Handle the flowers carefully express purpose. in order not to manage them. 3. We were unable to go by train because of the rail strike.
2. He chose this university so that/in order that he could study Physics. Notice: in order to, so as to are more formal. 2. so that, in order that + clause (often with the verbs can could, might, would in the clause).

4. During/All be used to introduce through the summer a chain of events during, all through and we got a lot of 4. throughout are followed by a visitors. noun or a noun phrase
It rained heavily throughout the night.

6.6 Words expressing condition 1. Even if you are 1. even if, as long as born rich, life is and unless + clause can be used before very difficult. You can borrow the car as or after he main long as you are careful with it! clause You cant come with me
unless you promise to keep quiet. 2. I dont know whether you have met him or not. a. They discussed whether they should attend the Games. b. It depends on whether the government takes any action. The organizers will decide whether to impose lines. Notice unless means if not 2. whether + clause usually comes after the main clause and is often used in indirect questions with or not a. Certain verbs (e.g. discuss) can be followed by whether but not if b. After prepositions and before to infinitives use whether but not if.

6.4 Words expressing contrast

1. Although/Even if/Even though the car is old, it is still reliable.

2a. Despite/In spite of the rain, I went for a walk. 2b. We enjoyed our walking holiday despite/in spite of the fact that it was lining. 3a. Buying a house is expensive. It is, however, a good investment. 4. John is very rich but/while/whereas his friends are extremely poor. 5. On the one hand, these computers are expensive. On the other hand, they are exactly what we wa

1. although, even if, even though + clause can come before or after the main clause. Notice: even though is more informal 2a. despite or in spite of + a noun or noun phrase + the ing form 2b. despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that + clause 3a. however can come at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a sentence 3b. though is more informal and comes at the end of a sentence 4. but, while, whereas are usually placed in the middle of two main clauses expressing contrasting ideas 5. on the one hand and on the other hand can be used at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of two sentences expressing contrasting ideas. Notice: on the other hand is often used at the beginning of the second sentence.

3. Take this 3. in case + clause umbrella in case it usually comes after rains. the main clause.
In case of emergency break the glass. Notice: In case of + noun(often used in formal written notices.

6.7 Words expressing additional information or reinforcing a point 1a. I dont really want to go out tonight. Besides there is a good film on TV. We are still waiting for the goods we ordered three months ago. Furthermore we 1a. besides, in addition (to that) and furthermore can be used at the beginning of a sentence following the first statement made. Notice: besides is less formal; furthermore


6.5 Words expressing time 1. When/While/As I 1. when, while, as was driving along and after + clause the road, I saw a can come before or terrible accident. after the main He went out after hed clause. finished work.
2. Whenever/Everytime I see him, hes driving a different car. 2. whenever, everytime + clause often come before the main clause for added emphasis. 3. first, then, later etc. can be


pounds. 4. They like Indian food. I like Indian food too/as well. They arent very generous people. They havent got any friends either.

What the speaker is saying. In this case it is necessary to change the order of the subject and verb. In sentences like these the subject pronoun and verb in the second part of the sentence are usually mentioned and but also are separated.

7.4 should 1. I should really help my mother with the dishes (but I wont)
2. I should study harder 3. We should be taking off in a few minutes 4. I/We should be most grateful if you could send us a copy of the agreement 5. I should have told you but I forgot Should is used to express 1. an obligation (which you may not carry out) 2. advice 3. something that will almost certainly happen as long as nothing unexpected prevents it 4. conditional sentences in more formal/written style with I and we 5. (with the perfect infinitive) an obligation which was not carried out

7. Modals
Will, shall, would, should, may, might, can, could, must, have (got) to, ought to, need

7.1 will

1. Itll be raining tomorrow.

2. Nothing on TV. Ill go to the cinema instead. 3. Will you sit down, please? I wont go with you. 4. Ill take you to the cinema. 5. Could you lend me one pound? Of course I will. 6. You will start work at 8 on Monday. 7. I will not be treated in this way.

Will is used to express; 1. a prediction about the future 2. a decision made while you are speaking 3. a request or a refusal 4. a promise 5. willingness 6. an order 7. determination

7.5 may and might

1. He may/might be the new teacher 2. He may/might be late this evening 3. May/might I ask a question? 4. They may/might have been held up in the traffic May and might are used to express: 1. a possibility now 2. a possibility in the future Notice: might is rather less certain than may in meaning 3. asking for permission Notice: may is more common than might and can is often used instead of may 4. (with the perfect infinitive) a possible explanation for something in the past

7.2 shall 1. We hall send you the information as soon as possible

2. Shall we go out for a meal tonight? 3. Shall I carry the case for you? 4. No pupil shall enter the library without the permission of a teacher.

Shall is used to express: 1. the future (in the same way as will but only with I and we) 2. a suggestion 3. an offer 4. Notice: shall is occasionally used in very formal (written) orders.

7.6 can
1. I can ski/drive a car 2. Im there tomorrow. I can drive you to the airport. 3. Can I go now? 4. Can you come to the party? 5. You cant be tired! Youve been asleep all morning. 6. You cant have been pleased when you realized what he had done! Can is used to express 1. knowing how to do something 2. being able to do something 3. asking for permission (used informally instead of may) 4. a possibility 5. an unlikely explanation for something now; Its impossible for you to be tired 6. (with the perfect infinitive) an unlikely explanation for something in the past: It wasnt possible for you to be pleased

7.3 would 1. Id like to go.

I wish you wouldnt smoke so much. 2. I would move house if I had the money. 3. Would you type this for me, please? 4. Id rather have tea than coffee. 5. Will you ring me? He asked if I would ring him. 6. He would sing at the top o his voice in the shower.

Would is used to express:

1. a wish (sometimes suggesting annoyance or disapproval) 2. the result part of a conditional sentence 3. a polite request 4. a preference with rather 5. the reporting of will 6. a habit in the past

7.7 could 1. When I was six I could play the piano.

2. When I was younger I could drive around for our without a break. Could is used to express: 1. knowing how to do something in the past 2. being able to do something in the past


3. Could I use your 3. asking for 8. The passive phone? permission (used 4. Could he be right? informally instead 5. They couldnt have phoned of may but rather 8.2 Most common forms her! She hasnt got a phone! more polite than can) IT Is
4. a possibility (rather less strong than can) 5. (with the perfect infinitive) an unlikely explanation for something in the past: It wasnt possible for them to phone her Has been Will be Was done seen reported

7.8 must 1. I must wash my Must is used to This toy is made in The passive is hair tonight. express: Japan. formed by using a 2. The work must be done 1. a personal obligation A strange object has been seen form of be (is, has before tomorrow. 2. what you consider to be in the night sky. been, will be, was 3. You must not smoke in someone elses obligation Further information will be here. 3. (with not) what is not given in our next bulletin. etc.) + the past 4. You must be exhausted after allowed This report was prepared by a participle of the all that work. 4. a reasonable conclusion team of experts. 5. You must have been made about something now verb (made, seen, surprised when she said she 5. (with the perfect infinitive) given, prepared). was getting married. a reasonable conclusion about
something in the past Notice: when the person or thing responsible for the action (the agent) is mentioned, use the preposition by.

7.9 have (got) to Ive got to/have got to be on time tomorrow.

We havent got to/dont have to go if we dont want to.

Have (got) to is used to express What is or isnt necessary

7.10 ought to 1. I really ought to go and see her.

2. I ought to have gone to see her but I was busy.

Ought to is used to express: 1. an obligation (which you may or may not carry out) 2. (with the perfect infinitive) an obligation which you did not carry out Notice: ought to is rather stronger than should

8.2 Use 1. Five policemen The passive is used: have been killed in 1. when the agent is unknown (we may Northern Ireland. not know who killed The weather was heated and a solution of chemicals was the policemen) or prepared. not important. 2. A description of the gunman was issued by the Notice: the passive police. is often used in 3. A charity record has been made by many famous names newspaper reports in the world of pop music. and in scientific experiments or processes.
2. to make the object of the active verb more important (attention is drawn to the description of the gunman rather than who issued it) 3. when the description of the agent is very long (many famous names in the world of poo music)


7.11 need
1. You neednt shout. I can hear you You neednt bring anything to the party. 2. Need I take anything to the party? Need you ask that question? 3. You neednt have phoned. I already knew you were coming.

8.2 Points to remember Use be + past principle after 1. neednt is used 1. The painting 1. should and other modals here as a modal verb should be finished 2. Use been + past participle after would have, should have 2. There is also a question by next week. etc. form, constructed in the same
way as questions with can, must and other modals. 3. Neednt with the perfect infinitive expresses the idea that something in the past was not necessary but it was done. Compare the ordinary verb need: You dont need to shout. I can hear you. Do I need to take anything to the party? You dindnt need to phone. I already knew you were coming. 2. The decoration should have been finished but I ran out of paint. 3. Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Mother Teresa. 4. I got stuck in a traffic jam. She is getting married next month. 5a. It is thought that he started the fire deliberately. 5b. He had got his hair cut yesterday. 6. This job needs/wants doing. 3. Verbs with two objects which can form two types of active sentence can form two types of passive sentence. 4. get + past participle is often used instead of be with passive meaning. 5. The passive is used in constructions with verbs like think, believe, say, consider, feel, find, know, understand


a. after the introductory if b. before an infinitive 6. have/get something done expresses the idea of a. arranging for or paying somebody to do something for you. Notice: get is more informal. b. experiencing something 7. After need, want, the ing form can be used with passive meaning

9.3.2 Verb + adverb + preposition + object

We dropped in on the Sniths. We dropped in on them. Even if the object is a pronoun it must come after the adverb + preposition.

9.4 Ordinary verbs + preposition The boy ran over the bridge.
He stepped over the puddle. He stepped over it. The object must come after the verb + preposition, even when it is a noun.

9. Phrasal verbs

9.1 What is a phrasal verb? 10 Prepositions 1. A phrasal verb consists of a verb plus one 10.1 among or two words like on, up, into etc.
2. The words which come after the verb are usually adverbs, although sometimes a phrasal verb can consist of verb + adverb + preposition. 3. When an ordinary is followed by a preposition, the meaning of the verb will be clear from the meanings of the individual parts of the verb. In the case of a phrasal verb, however, the parts of the phrasal verb together have one basic meaning which may be completely different from their individual meanings.

1. Divide these sweets Use for a group of among the children. things to express:
2. The workers talked among themselves as if they waited to see the boss. 3. He was the only one among all my friends who supported me. 1. with a share for each of 2. with one another 3. in the group/company of

Ordinary verbs + prepositions

I looked into the mirror. She ran out of the room crying.

Phrasal verbs The police looking into murder.

We ran out of money on holiday. Notice: these verbs change their meaning when adverbs and prepositions are added. E.g. look into (a murder) = investigate; run out of (money) = have none left.

10.2 all are the 1. The train left at Use to express: 1. an exact point of time midnight/8.30 p.m. 2a. an exact position or place
2a. Ill meet you at the corner of the street. 2b. The train stops at Birmingham. I studied at London. 3. Look at this new car. Aim at the centre. 2b. with the name of a city, town or village, if we are interested in a particular point of activity in it rather than the whole place

9.2 Phrasal verbs which can be separated 9.2.1 Verb + adverb + object 1. He looked a word 1. If the object is a up in the dictionary. noun, it can come He looked up a before or after the word in the adverb. 2. If the object is a pronoun dictionary. (e.g. it) it must come before 2. He looked it up. the adverb.

Used expressions hand At all At At home/the costs/eve office At last nts At least At any At a loss/ a profit rate At lunch At At night church/th At once e hairdress ers/ school At Christma s/ Easter At ease At first (sight)

At peace/war At present At sea At a time (when) At the same time (as) At times At the weekend

At work Astonished at Bad at Clever at Good at Shocked at Shoot at Shout at Smile/laugh at Surprised at


9.3 Phrasal verbs which cannot be separated 9.3.1 Verb + adverb (no object) cannot separate the two They called in to see You parts of the verb. You cannot us. say They called to se us in.
The plans fell through. They turned up unexpectedly. We walked for several miles

10.3 between

Miles 4. Are you for or against nuclear weapons?

5. What did you do that for?

3.distance 4. in favor of 5. reason 6. purpose + noun 7. movement towards.

6. Lets go out for a meal.

7. They left for America this morning.

1. The bank is Use to express: Useful expressions 1. a position in the middle between the post (which things or people on two office and the sides) Forever Once and 2. bringing two or more things bakers. For goodness or people together for all 2. The ferry sails between sake 3. sharing something together
Dover and Ostend. An agreement was made between the three superpowers. 3. Just between you and me, I think hes awful. 4. I cant choose between these three dresses. (a secret) 4. either one thing or another For heavens sake For a while/ time

Anxious for As for Ask for Care for

Pay for Reason for Responsible for Search for

10.4 beyond 1. The farm lies beyond that field. 2. His story is beyond belief. She is beyond help. 3. The success of the plan was beyond anything we had hoped for. 10.5 by 1. This book was written by Charles Dickens.
2. This model was made by hand. 3. The bank is just by the Post Office. 4. By next year Ill have fnished this book.

Use to express 1. further than (distance) 2. outside the understanding or the reach of 3. more or better than

10.8 from 1. We traveled from Vienna to Paris by train.

2. He works from 9 to 5. 3. Prices start at 5 pounds. 4. I cant tell one from the other

Use to express 1. place of origin 2.a starting point in time 3. a starting point in quantity 4. separation

Useful expressions
Use to express 1. who does/did/will do an action 2. how something is/was/will be done 3. closeness or nearness to 4. not later than From A to Z From beginning to end From head to toe From morning to night From time to time Away from Apart from Hear from Prevent from (doing) Suffer from


Useful expressions
By accident By airbus/ car/ plane/sea/ship/ train (and other means of transport) By all means By chance By day/night By (doing) By far By mistake By post By sight By surprise By yourself (alone)

Amazed by5 Astonished by1 Impressed by1 Surprised by1 Upset by1

10.9 in 1. Theyre in the kitchen.

2. We got married in March/winter/1985. 3. Ill be back in an hour. 4. Hes in banking/the local police force/a mess.

Use to express 1. place 2. a point during a longer period of time weeks, months, seasons, years and centuries 3. within a certain time 4. a job/profession/situation

10.6 except 1. All the boys had pens except one.

2. The holiday was excellent except for the rain. 3. Hes a good student, except that hes always late.

Useful expressions
Use to express 1. excluding 2. apart from + noun 3. apart from the fact that + clause In all In any case In bed In common In danger In debt In difficulties In the end In fact In general In half In hurry In ink/pencil In love In a loud voice In the morning In my opinion In other words In particular In prison In private In public In secret In sight In spite of In shock In tears In time In turn In a way In a sense Dressed in Get in Interested in Succeed in Take part in

10.7 for 1. This is for you.

2. Weve lived here for three years.

Use to express: 1. intended to belong to 2. length of time Use to express movement towards Jump into Run into Throw into Walk into

10.10 into
Hey came into the room.

Useful expressions
Bump into Crash into Get into (trouble) Go into

10.14 out of 1. She ran out of the house.

2. Two out of five children have learning problems. 3. I copied the recipe out of the newspaper. 4. The dress was made out of a lace curtain.

Use to express 1. movement away from 2. from among (with ratios) 3. place of origin 4. the material something is made from

10.11 of 1. The cover of this book is attractive.

2. Hes one of my best friends. 3. a ton bricks a pint of milk a pound butter 4. He died of starvation. 5. a man of 40/the City of London/made of gold

Useful expressions
Use to express 1. belonging to 2. from among 3. measure 4. cause 5. description Out of breath Out of control Out of danger Out of date Out of order Out of practice Out of the question (impossible) Out of reach Out of stock Out of work

10.15 since

Useful expressions
Ahead of Because of By means of Cure someone of Die of Dozens of Enough of Everyone of Example of Explanation of] Hundreds of In case of In front of Instead of Lack of On account of On behalf of Out of Proof of Remind someone of Several of Think of Typical of

1. I havent seen him since 1978. 2. Since he had flu, he decided not to go to work.

Use to express 1. a starting point for actions and situations which continue to the moment of speaking 2. because

10.16 to 1. Were going to Paris.

2. Its a quarter to 12. 3. Well be in the office from 9 to 5. 4. He won by 2 games to 3. I prefer sleeping to working. Use to express 1. in the direction of 2. before (in time) 3. until 4. comparison

10.12 off

1. A tile has come off the roof.

2. Our house is off the High Street.

Use to express 1. movement away from 2. at a distance from

Useful expressions

Useful expressions
Off duty Off limits Off work Get off (the bus) Take off (your coat)

According to In addition to Due to

Owing to In order to So as to

10.17 under

= or at


10.13 on 1. The book is on the table.

2. Ill see you on Saturday morning/Christmas Day/your birthday. 3. Whats on TV tonight? Theres a good film on at the cinema. 4. Hes written a book on insects.

Use to express 1. contact (on the surface of) 2. time a particular day 3. what entertainment is being offered 4. what something is about

1. The box in under the stairs. 2. Please dont sweep the dust under the carpet. 3. The bridge is under repair.

Use to express 1. beneath 2. beneath(with movement) 3. in the process of)

Useful expressions
Under control Underneath (preposition) = under Under orders Under oath (in a court of law)

Useful expressions
On business On duty on purpose On time On foot On the other hand On holiday On sale On the whole Agree on Depend on Congratulate someone on Have an effect on

10.18 until 1. Ill keep the ring until we meet again.

Stir the mixture until it thickens.

Use to express 1. Up to a certain time 2. up to a point or degree when


10.19 up
Dont run up the stairs. He went up in the next class. Use to express movement to a higher place Ups and downs (good times and bad times) Fed up (bored or unhappy)

11.1.2 Leaving out the pronoun in defining relative clauses

The man (who/whom/that) I was meeting was an important client. The relative pronoun can be left out when it refers to the object of the verb in the clause. Notice: the relative pronoun cannot be left out when it refers to the subject of the verb in the clause (e.g. The man who came to meet me was an important client)

Useful expressions
Up-to-date (modern) uphill

10.20 with/without
1. Be patient with the children 2. He hit the burglar with a hammer. 3. Youll have to go with /without me. 4. A room with/without a view Use to express 1. as regards 2. instrument 3. accompanying/not accompanying 4. having/not having Disgusted with Impressed with Pleased with Shivering with (cold) Trembling with fear (whats) wring with (?)

11.1.3 Prepositions used with relative pronouns in defining clauses The preposition comes at the 1. The man who/that 1. end of the clause in informal I was talking to is my speech or writing. 2a. The preposition comes at the uncle. beginning of the clause in
2a. The person to whom I was addressing my comments does not seem to be listening. 2b The problem about which we had so much discussion has been solved. formal speech and writing. 2b. Notice: the relative pronoun cannot be left out in sentences like these even though it is the object of the verb of the clause.

Useful expressions Angry with With Do without best Filled with Green with wishes envy
With/without difficulty Without any fuss With love With pleasure Agree with Have difficulty with

11.2 Non-defining relative

Ive just met Mrs Watts who wants to buy my car.


These clauses give further information, which could be left out, about the sentence. Commas are used.

11. Relative clauses 11.1 Defining relative clauses

Is that the man who wants to buy your car? Thee clauses are necessary in order to complete the meaning of a sentence. They identify somebody or something. No commas are used.

11.2.1 Relative pronouns in non-defining clauses

11.1.1 Relative pronouns in defining relative clauses relative pronouns are 1a.The person who These used deals with that isnt 1. for people who/that as the subject of hear at the moment. a. the verb in the clause The person who b. who/whom/that as the of the verb in the clause interviewed me was object ( whom is more formal) a nice sort of fellow. c. whose meaning belonging 1b. The person to 2. for things who/whom/that you a. which/that as subject or want is out of office. 1c. The man whose address youve asked for has left the firm 2a. The instructions which come with this machine are impossible to follow.

1a. The members of the expedition, who had been away for six months, said they were proud of their achievements.
1b. The candidates, who/whom we met for the first time yesterday, are all preparing their speeches for the debate tomorrow. 1c. A car manufacturer, whose name I have forgotten, has invented an electric car. 2a. The report, which was drawn up by a special committee, states that more needs to be done in the inner city areas.

These relative pronouns are used 1. for people a. who as the subject of the verb in the clause b. who/whom/that as the object of the verb in the clause c. whose meaning belonging to 2. for things a. which as the subject or object of the verb in the clause b. which to give further information about the whole main sentence


2b. He had been in prison, which was a fact nobody had realized.

Notice: the relative pronoun cannot be left out in nondefining clauses and that cannot be used to replace the relative pronoun.

12.1.2 No changes

11.2.2 Prepositions used with relative pronouns in non-defining clauses

The organization, to which we owe so much, has announced a further contribution for our appeal. Prepositions usually come at the beginning of the clause as the use is rather formal.

Some verbs used in directed speech do not change in reported speech. The reporting verb is often in the present tense. Direct speech The verbs do not normally change when 1. reporting a present state of affairs e.g. The cost of living here is high. 2. reporting things which are always true e.g. Its always cold at this time of year. 3. reporting something which we believe (or someone believes) will happen e.g. Theyre going to sack 300 workers next week. 4. they are the modal structures would, could, might, ought and should e.g. You might be mistaken. Reported speech 1. The reporter says/said that the cost of living here is high. 2. Mary says its always cold at this time of year. 3. The union representative said that they are going to sack 300 workers next week. 4. She said (that) he might be mistaken.

11.3 Participle phrases

In participle phrases the relative pronoun and the auxiliary verb(s) are left out. phrases can be 1. The boy (who is) These 1. defining

sitting in that corner has been here all morning.

The bricks (which have been) used to build the church were specially made. 2. Simone de Beauvoir (who was) wellknown for her fight for the womens rights died in 1986.

or 2. non-defining

12.2 Reported statements

12. Reported speech

Please tell Mr. Watt Ive put the paper in the post. Mrs. Green phoned. Oh what did he say? He said hed put the papers in the post.

12.2.1 Verb (+ that)

(e.g. say, claim, admit, explain, insist, agree, complain, deny, reply) She said that she was an art student. I dont know you. He claims he doesnt know me. I was lying. She admitted she had been lying. Im hot. He explained (that) he was hot. Notice admit and deny can also be followed by ing forms Im an art student.

12.1 Tenses 12.1.1 Changes

Verbs used in direct speech will change their tense in reported speech, especially when the reporting verb is in the past (e.g. said)

Direct speech
1.Ill put the letters in the post. 2. I work for an insurance company. 3. We cant borrow anymore money from the bank. 4. Weve moved in a bigger house

1. will to would 2. work to worked 3. cant to couldnt 4. have moved to had moved 5. must to had to

Reported s p e e c h
1. He said he would put the letters in the post. 2. She said she worked for a insurance company. 3. They said they couldnt borrow anymore money from the bank. 4. They said they had moved to a bigger house. 5. She said she had to pay the gas bill.

12.2.2 Verb + pronoun/noun (+ that)

Im an art student. She told him (that) she was an art student.

12.2.3 Verb + infinitive

(e.g. offer, refuse, agree, promise) Ill take you to the dance. He offered to take her to the dance.

12.2.4 Verb for + -ing form

(e.g. apologize, thank)

5. I must pay the gas bill.


Im sorry I trod on your foot Thank you for doing the shopping.

He apologized for treading on his foot.

He thanked her for doing the shopping.

4. Some words like please and now disappear e.g. Please come in. Now what do you want to talk about?

4. He asked her to come in. She asked him what he wanted to talk about.

12.3 Reporting requests and orders asked me to close the door. Close the door, He He asked them not to shout. please. The boy told his dog to sit.
Please dont shout. Sit, Flover. Dont move. Attack. The policeman ordered the burglar not to move. The captain ordered his soldiers to attack.

13. Tense forms 13.1 Present forms 13.1.1 Present simple 1. We go out every Saturday night.
He never gives me presents. 2. He lives in Greece. The earth travels round the sun. 3. Jane: I dont like big cities. They smell of cars. Peter: I know what you mean. 4. First you check the gear and the handbrake, then you switch on the engine. 5. A gorilla goes into a bar and asks for a drink The Pope visits Tokyo today. Use 1. for something which happens regularly or which is a habit (often with adverbs of time like always, usually etc.) 2. for something which remains true for a long period of time or for a scientific fact 3. With verbs not normally used with any of the progressive forms (believe, understand, imagine, suppose, hear, see, taste, look, haste, need, want, prefer, see, appear, belong, deserve). Notice feel can be used either with the simple or progressive form: e.g. I feel ill/I am feeling ill 4. to give instructions (more friendly and personal than the imperative Check switch on etc.) 5. to describe events in jokes, events and news items to make them seem more dramatic

12.4 Reporting questions

Remember to change the word order in a reported question to subject followed by verb. what time is it? He asked what time it was. How much money do you She asked how much money I need? needed. Remember to use if or whether f there is no question word. Are you tired? He asked if I was tired. Do you want the car or not? She wondered whether I wanted the car or not.

12.5 Reporting suggestions

Suggest can be followed by an ing form or that + should + infinitive Lets go home. He suggested going

He suggested that they should go home.

12.6 Other points to notice about reported speech

Direct speech 1. The pronoun often changes e.g. Ive washed the dishes. 2. Words like tomorrow change to words not directly related to present time e.g. Ill do it tomorrow. a. today b. yesterday c. next week/year etc d. last week/year etc. e now f. here g. this (in the expression) e.g. this year, this week 3. Other changes are: a. this, these, that, those (as adjectives) b. this, these, that, those (as pronouns) Reported speech 1. She said she had washed the dishes. 2. He said he would do it the following day/the next day.

13.1.2 Present progressive 1. Look, they are coming out of the cinema now.
The standard of living in the country is slowly rising. 2. Shes always borrowing money from me. Its always raining here. 3. A man is standing on the pavement when suddenly a spaceship lands. Use 1. for an event in progress in the present time 2. with always to show surprise or disapproval when an action is repeated 3. to set the scene in a joke or a story and describe events which have already begun but which are not

a. the same day/that day b. the day before/the previous day c. the following week/year d. the previous week/year e. then f. there g. that (e.g. that year, that week) 3a. the 3b. it, they, them

13.1.3 Present perfect

1. Ive seen that film. Ive just seen him. I havent finished yet. Ive never been there. Use 1. for an event which happened at an indefinite time in the past. Compare: I saw that film last


2. Shes been a widow for about six months/since last year 3a. I cant write because Ive broken my arm. 3b. Look at the mess youve made. 4. This is the third time hes taken his driving test.

week when the time reference is definite Notice: adverbs which express indefinite time are often used: already, just, yet, often, never, so far, still etc. 2. for an event which began in the past and is still going on now. Notice: we use for to talk about the length of time 3. for an event which 3a. is finished but which still affects the present. Compare; The President died and The President has died (so we must make various arrangements) 3b. has a result which can be seen in the present (Compare: e.g. What have I drawn? To what did I draw? 4. after expressions like first, second This best, worst That is the most interestin It only

13.2.2 Used to and would

1a. I used to smoke cigars but now I prefer cigarettes. He used to be very fat, but hes lost a lot of weight. 1b. I didnt use to go to the theatre but I try and go once a month now. I never used to like him but I do now. 1c. Do you use to do sports at school? Didnt you use to be much thinner?

Used to only exists in the past form. Use it to express:

1a. a habit or state in the past 1b. something which did not happen in the past but which has now become a habit or state. Notice the negative form (e.g. I used not to go to the theatre) is becoming less common in speech but is still found in formal or written English. 1c. an inquiry about a habit or state in the past Compare the expressions be/get used to: Im used to getting up early. I was used to getting up early. Youll soon get used to drinking tea! I soon got used to working so hard. Notice after be/get used to we use the verb + -ing Use would 2. for a habit or repeated event in the past which is now finished and which shows the speakers attitude to the event ((anger, irritation etc.)

13.1.4 Present perfect progressive 1a. Weve been Use 1. for an activity which began living here for six in the past and is still going on (to emphasize the length of years/since 1981. time taken by that activity) 1b. Weve been b. (Notice it often shows surprise etc.) standing in this bus anger, 2. to describe a temporary stop for half an hour arrangement which may still be going on or which may just in the pouring rain. have finished 2. Ive been staying 3. for an activity which was on, which has now with my cousin for going finished and the result of the last week. which is still evident. (This, often shows anger, 3. Look at the mess too, surprise etc.). youre in! What on earth have you been doing? I can see that youve been decorating. The house looks lovely!

2. He would keep telling me what to do

13.2.3 Past progressive 1a. I was driving along the motorway when I had a puncture.
1b. It was six oclock and darkness was falling. 2. I was digging the garden while John was painting the kitchen. 3. He was coming to dinner but he had to go away on business. Use 1a. for an event which was in progress when another event happened 1b. to set the scene and provide the background for a story 2. for two (or more) events which were in progress at the same time in the past 3. for an event which had been arranged but which did not happen


13.2 Past forms 13.2.1 Past simple

1. Last night I went to a concert. Last time I saw Maria was three years ago. 2. Jane: Did you have a nice time in Paris? USE: 1. when a definite point in time is mentioned when talking about the past 2. when the event took place at a time the speaker is aware of but does not mention 3. for a number of events which took place one after another in the past 4. to describe a past habit

13.2.4 Past perfect 1. I went back because Id forgotten my keys.

I was sure I hadnt seen him before. By 1986 Bob Geldof had raised millions of pounds for charity.

Peter: Yes, we did.

3. The thief went into the bank, pulled out a gun and pointed at the chashier. 4. When I was at school, I got up at seven oclock.

2. I had scarcely/hardly put the phone down when the bell rang.
No sooner had I left the house than it started to rain.

Use: 1. for an event which happened before another in the past (first I forgot my keys, later I went back home) 2. with scarcely/hardly + when or no sooner + than. Notice these words (scarcely, hardly, no sooner) are often put at the beginning of the sentence to emphasize that one event happened almost immediately


after the other (notice the word order)

14. Wishes, regrets and preferances 14.1 Wishes and regrets 1. I wish I were rich!
If only we could see each other more often! I wish we didnt live in this terrible place. 2. I wish you wouldnt make so much noise! If only they would stop that terrible noise! I wish it would stop raining! 3. I wish I had never married him! If only I had studied harder at school. I wish you hadnt told me your secret. 1. These examples express wishes (often suggesting that the speaker is sorry about something Im sorry Im not rich) Notice the past form of the verbs (were, could see, didnt live) after I wish and if only as when with conditional 2. 2. These examples express verbs for a change in the future and often suggest that the speaker is angry or dissatisfied about (or tired of) the present situation 3. These examples express wishes or regrets about the past (I wish I had studied harder but I didnt). Notice the past perfect is used in the same way as conditional 3 sentences

13.2.5 Past perfect progressive Theyd been Use to emphasize the continuous studying for hours nature of an action or activity happened before when they suddenly which another in the past. realized it was midnight.
He knew they hadnt been paying attention during the lesson.

13.3 Talking about the future going to Im gong to wash Be Future simple my hair. Present simple
Its going to snow. Ill see you tomorrow. Term starts on Monday. Im meeting the boss at 10. Present progressive Future perfect Future perfect progressive Be about to or be on the point of 1. Use be going to for a. an intention b. an indication that something is probable 2. Use future simple (will/ shall) to make a prediction about the future. Notice shall is only used for I and we 3. Use present simple for future events on a timetable or a fixed programme. Notice when ca be used with the present simple for an event in the future

This time tomorrow Ill be sitting my exam.

Ill have finished it by 4 oclock. Well have been living here for ten years next spring. Theyre about to announce the election results. Hes on the point of changing his job. 1a. Im going to write some letters 1b. Look at those black clouds. I think its going to rain. The work is not going to be easy. 2. Tomorrow will be fine and sunny. We shall expect you next week.

4. Use present 14.2 Preferences progressive for a definite arrangement, plan or 1a. I like the summer 1a. like better than and 1b. prefer to express better than the winter general preferences 3. Easter is early appointment 5. Use future progressive for 2a. d rather + infinitive without 1b. I prefer soft drinks to this year. an event which will be in to than expresses either a alcohol. at a certain time in the 2a. Id rather have a snack than general preference or a The match begins progress future preference for a particular a take-away meal. at 3.30. 6. Use future perfect for an occasion (e.g. Id prefer (to 2b. Id rather not go to the which will be over no have) a glass of wine now) football match, if you dont When he comes, event later than a certain time in the mind. 2b. d not + infinitive Ill tell you. future 3. I would rather you stayed at 7. Use future perfect 4. Were flying to Spain next without to expresses home tonight. I think its going progressive for something week. to snow. the fact that you which is which is still in Im taking my driving test Id rather you didnt see him progress but which will be tomorrow. would prefer not to again. complete not later than a 5. This time next week Ill be do something which certain time in the future (often swimming in the used to emphasize the length Mediteranean. has been suggested
6. Theyll have done their homework by tomorrow. 7. Hell have been working for the bank for 3 years next summer. 8. The plane is on the point of taking off. Nick was just about to put the money in his pocket. of time involved) 8. Use be about to or be on the point of for an event which is or was just going to take place. 3.would rather + (you etc.) + past tense suggests that you could be happier if someone did or didnt o something. Notice the unreal present is expressed by a past form of the verbs stayed, didnt see


15. Words that cause difficulties

15.2 do and make 15.2.1 Meaning of do and make

Have, make and do

15.1 have 15.1.1 Three basic uses of have can be used 1. She has bought a Have 1 as an auxiliary verb new car. 2. to express what is or isnt
He said he had seen the film. 2. I have (got) to be ready at 6.30. You dont have to (havent got to) do it if you dont want to. Do I have to (Have I got to) go? 3. Theyre having the house redecorated. Did he have his hair cut yesterday? I didnt have the curtains made. I mad them myself. 4. Ive got a headache. Have you got a big family? I havent got any brothers or sisters. necessary. Notice have got to can be used to express the same idea as have to.

1. What doing?



Im doing a puzzle. 2a. Im making a cake. This firm makes TV sets. 2b. The car journey made him sick. 2c. They made him work very hard.

1. do can mean perform an action in general and solve or put together 2. make can mean a. create or construct b. cause to happen c. force

3. to express the idea of arranging for 15.2.2 Other expressions using do and make or paying somebody to do something for MAKE you. Notice the DO Money - rrangements - History, - a course object of the - a favour A noise an attempt Maths, sentence comes - homework An offer The beds Science (as A phone call A decision subjects) military between have and A profit An effort - work or jobs service the past participle. A speech in general (the An excuse - something/
4. with got to express a condition or state (less common in the past tense and often suggesting the idea of possession). Notice have got is now more common n statements than than the rather formal I have four brothers, but question forms and negatives with do and have are commonly used (e.g. Do you have a big family? I dont have any brothers or sisters) nothing/ anything cleaning/ gardening etc.) Love A mistake

A suggestion trouble

Notice there are meny phrasal verbs with do and make

2. Hes having a shower/ bath/ test. 3. Shes just had a little girl. 4. She had an enormous hat on.

15.1.2 Other expressions using have in these examples means 1. Ill have the Have 1 eat or drink chicken/some tea, 2. taste 3. give birth to please. 4. wear
5. experience 6. In these examples and others like them, have means the same as the word it is used with (e.g. try, quarrel)

5. Weve had a marvelous holiday.

We didnt have any trouble with the car. 6. Have a try! Did they have a quarrel?

15.1.3 had better You had better decide quickly.

Youd better not have any more to drink!

Had better is used to give strong advice (= ought)


Appendix 3 English Grammar - The tenses 1

tense signal words use something happens repeatedly how often something every day happens sometimes one action Simple Present or Present Simple always often usually seldom never first ... then follows another things in general after the following verbs (to love, to hate, to think, etc.) future meaning: timetables, programmes something is happening at the same time of speaking or Present Progressive or Present Continuous now at the moment Look! Listen! around it future meaning: when you have already decided and arranged to do it (a fixed plan, date) Simple Past action took place in the regular: infinitive + I'm working. I'm not Am I working. working? He isn't working. Is he working? I'm not going. Am I going? Is he going? he/she/it + -s infinitive I work. He works. I go. He goes. form examples examples examples affirmative negative interrogative

I don't work. He doesn't work. I don't go. He doesn't go. Do I work? Does he work? Do I go? Does he go?

to be (am/are/is) He's + working. infinitive + I'm going. ing He's going. He isn't going.

last ...

I worked.

I didn't

Did I work?


or Past Simple

... ago in 1990 yesterday

past, mostly connected with an expression of time (no connection to the present) an action happened in the middle of another action someone was


He worked. work. He didn't work. I didn't go. He didn't go.

Did he work? Did I go? Did he go?

irregular: I went. 2nd column of table of He went. irregular verbs

Past Progressive or Past Continuous while

I was working. was/were + He was working.

Was I I wasn't working? working. Was he He wasn't working. working? I wasn't going. Was I going?

doing sth. at a certain time (in the past) you don't know whether it was finished or not

infinitive + I was ing going. He was going.

He wasn't Was he going. going?

just yet never Simple Present Perfect or Present Perfect ever already so far,

you say that sth. has happened or is finished in have/has + I have worked. He has worked. I have gone. He has gone. I haven't worked. Have I worked?

the past and it participle* has a connection to the present *(infinitive +

-ed) or (3rd up to now, action started column of table of irregular in the past since verbs) and continues for up to the recently present action began in the past and has just stopped how long the action has been happening emphasis: length of

He hasn't Has he worked. worked? I haven't Have I gone? gone. He hasn't Has he gone? gone.

Present Perfect Progressive or Present Perfect Continuous

all day the whole day how long since for

have/has + been +

I have been working.

I haven't Have I been been working? working. Has he been He hasn't working? been working. Have I been I haven't going? been going. Has he been

He has been infinitive + - working. ing I have been going.


time of an action

He has been going.

He hasn't going? been going.

mostly when two actions in a story are related to each other: Simple Past Perfect or Past Perfect (Simple) already just never the action which had already happened is put into Past Perfect, the other action into Simple Past the past of the Present Perfect I hadn't I had been been Had I been working. working. working? He had been working. He hadn't Had he been been working. working? Had I been going? Had he been going? had + past participle* worked? He hadn't *(infinitive + He had worked. Had he -ed) or (3rd worked. worked? I hadn't column of I had gone. gone. Had I gone? table of He had irregular He hadn't Had he gone? verbs) gone. gone. I had worked. I hadn't worked. Had I

Past Perfect Progressive or Past Perfect Continuous

how long since for

how long something had been happening before something else happened

had + been + infinitive + ing

I had been I hadn't going. been going. He had He hadn't been going. been going.

predictions about the future (you think that sth will - future will happen) you decide to do sth. spontaneously at the time of speaking, you will + infinitive I'll work. I won't work.

He won't He'll work. work. I'll go. He'll go. I won't go. He won't go.

Will I work? Will he work? Will I go? Will he go?


haven't made a decision before main clause in type I of the if clauses I'm not going to work. He's not going to work. I'm not going to go. He's not going to go.

when you have already decided to do going to future

I'm going to work.

Am I going to work? Is he going to work? Am I going to go? Is he going to go?

He's going be sth. in the (am/are/is) to work. future + going to + I'm going infinitive to go. what you think what will happen He's going to go.

An action will be in progress at a certain time in the future. This Future Progressive or Future Continuous action has begun before the certain time. Something happens because it normally happens. I won't have worked. He won't have worked. I won't have gone. He won't have will + be + infinitive + ing I'll be working. He'll be working. I'll be going. He'll be going. I won't Will I be be working? working. Will he be He won't working? be working. Will I be I won't going? be going. Will he be He won't be going. going?

Simple Future Perfect or Future Perfect Simple sth. will already have happened before a certain time in the future

will + have + past participle* *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)

I'll have worked. He'll have worked. I'll have gone. He'll have gone.

Will I have worked? Will he have worked? Will I have gone? Will he have gone?


gone. I won't Will I have have been been working. working? He won't Will he have have been been working. working? I won't have been going. He won't have been going. Will I have been working? Will he have been working?

Future Perfect Progressive or Future Perfect Continuous

sth. will already have happened before a certain time will + have in the future + been + infinitive + emphasis: ing length of time of an action

I'll have been working. He'll have been working. I'll have been going. He'll have been going.

I would sth. that might happen Conditional Simple would + main clause in infinitive type II of the if clauses work.

I wouldn't work. Would I

work? He wouldn't Would he He would work. work? work. I Would I go? I would go. wouldn't go. Would he He would go. go? He wouldn't go. I wouldn't be Would I be working. working? He wouldn't Would he be be working? working. Would I be I going? wouldn't be going. Would he be He wouldn't be going. I going?

I would be sth. that might Conditional Progressive or Conditional Continuous happen emphasis: length of time of an action would + be + infinitive + ing working. He would be working. I would be going. He would be going.

Conditional Perfect

sth. that might would +

I would

Would I have


have happened in the past

have + past participle*

have worked.

*(infinitive + He would (It's too late -ed) or (3rd have worked. column of now.) table of I would main clause in irregular verbs) have gone. type III of the I Would I have wouldn't if clauses He would gone? have have gone. gone. He wouldn't have gone. I wouldn't have been I would working. Would I have sth. that might have been been have He working. working? happened in wouldn't He would have Would he the past have been been have been would + (It's too late going. going. have + been working? now.) + infinitive I would I Would I have + ing have been wouldn't emphasis: been going? have going. length of been time of an Would he He would going. action have been have been going? He going. wouldn't have been going.

wouldn't worked? have worked. Would he have He worked? wouldn't have Would I have worked. gone?

Conditional Perfect Progressive or Conditional Perfect Continuous

We sometimes use Continuous instead of Progressive. Some signal words can be found in more tenses. We did not list signal words in the future tenses as there are no definite ones. Always remember what action is described.

English Grammar - The tenses 2

One sentence is put into different tenses. You can see how the meaning changes. The words in green are signal words. They tell you which tense you have to use. Tense Simple Present Present Example I play football every week. I'm playing football Explanation Here you want to say that it happens regularly. Here you want to say that it is happening at the


Progressive now. Simple Past I played football yesterday.

moment. You did it yesterday, it happened in the past. You were doing it in the past. It's not sure whether the action was finished or not. You have just finished it. So it has a connection to the present. Maybe your clothes are dirty. You want to say how long you have been doing it. (You started in the past and it continues up to the present. The two actions are related to each other: you had finished to play football and after that the girl arrived. Here you want to point out how long you had been doing it before the girl came.

Past I was playing football Progressive the whole evening. Present Perfect I have just played football.

Present I have been playing Perfect football for 2 hours. Progressive Past Perfect I had played football when Susan came.

I had been playing Past Perfect football when Susan Progressive came. will future going to future

I will play football next This is a prediction, you can probably do week. something else. I'm going to play football this afternoon. This is a plan you've made. You do it every Sunday (as usual) You will have done it before tomorrow. You'll probably do it. You'll probably do it. Here you concentrate more on the progress of the action. You'll probably have finished playing football at a special time in the future. Here you concentrate on the fact (football). You'll probably have finished playing football at a special time in the future. Here you concentrate on the progress of playing (football).

Future I will be playing Progressive football next Sunday. Future Perfect Conditional Simple I will have played football by tomorrow. I would play football.

Conditional I would be playing Progressive football. Conditional Perfect I would have played football.

Conditional I would have been Perfect playing football. Progressive Negations of the sentences Tense Simple Present Present Progressive Simple Past Past Progressive

Example I do not play football every week. I don't play football every week. I am not playing football now. I'm not playing football now. I did not play football yesterday. I didn't play football yesterday. I was not playing football yesterday. I wasn't playing football yesterday. I have not played football.

Present Perfect

I haven't played football. I've not played football.


Present Perfect Progressive

I have not been playing football. I haven't been playing football. I've not been playing football. I had not played football.

Past Perfect

I hadn't played football. I'd not played football. I had not been playing football. I hadn't been playing football. I'd not been playing football. I will/shall not play football next week. I won't play football next week. I am not going to play football this afternoon. I'm not going to play football this afternoon. I will/shall not be playing football. I won't be playing football. I will/shall not have played football. I won't have played football. I would not play football. I'd not play football. I would not be playing football. I wouldn't be playing football. I'd not be playing football. I would not have played football. I wouldn't have played football. I'd not have played football. I would not have been playing football. I wouldn't have been playing football. I'd not have been playing football.

Past Perfect Progressive will future going to future Future Progressive Future Perfect Conditional Simple Conditional Progressive

Conditional Perfect Conditional Perfect Progressive Questions Tense Simple Present Present Progressive Simple Past Past Progressive Present Perfect Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Past Perfect Progressive will future going to future Future Progressive Future Perfect Conditional Simple Conditional Progressive Conditional Perfect

Example Do you play football? Are you playing football? Did you play football? Were you playing football? Have you played football? Have you been playing football? Had you played football? Had you been playing football? Will you play football? Are you going to play football? Will you be playing football? Will you have played football? Would you play football? Would you be playing football? Would you have played football?


Conditional Perfect Progressive

Would you have been playing football?

English Grammar - The tenses 3 - How to fill in the verbs

Here you find 4 examples where you have to fill in the correct form of the verb. Study the steps which show you how to fill in the verb form into different types of sentences. Do not follow the text in grey. What are signal words? What are auxiliaries? Is there a signal word in the sentence? yes Define the tense. Form the verb form. What type of sentence do you have to fill in the verb? Is it a statement? Is it a question? yes Is there an auxiliary in the question? yes yes Is the statement or the question negative? Put in not after the auxiliary. (Simple Present don't or doesn't; Simple Past didn't) Now fill in the verbform into the gap. Example 1: Peter always ________ (to play) football. Is there a signal word in the sentence? yes always Define the tense. Simple Present Form the verbform. plays What type of sentence do you have to fill in the verb? Is it a statement? Is it a question? no Is there an auxiliary in the question? yes yes Is the statement or the question negative? no Put in not after the auxiliary. (Simple Present don't or doesn't; Simple Past didn't) no do or does in Simple Present did in Simple Past no What action is it? no do or does in Simple Present did in Simple Past no What action is it?


Now fill in the verbform into the gap. plays Peter always plays football. Example 2: Peter ________ (always/not/to play) football. Is there a signal word in the sentence? yes always Define the tense. Simple Present Form the verbform. plays What type of sentence do you have to fill in the verb? Is it a statement? Is it a question? no Is there an auxiliary in the question? yes yes no do or does in Simple Present did in Simple Past no What action is it?

Is the statement or the question negative? yes Put in not after the auxiliary. (Simple Present don't or doesn't; Simple Past didn't) Now fill in the verbform into the gap. doesn't play (Do not put an -s on the full verb, the -s is in doesn't. The adverb of frequency always goes before the full verb play.) Peter doesn't always play football.

English Grammar - Irregular verbs - Learn verbs effectively.

Here you find irrregular verbs listed to their forms. So you can learn them more effectively. Question: Must I write -ought or -aught? Answer: If in the infinitive is an -a, write -aught, otherwise -ought. all 3 forms are similar infinitive bet* cost cut hit hurt let put read set shut simple past bet cost cut hit hurt let put read set shut past participle bet cost cut hit hurt let put read set shut

Infinitive and Simple Past are similar


infinitive beat

simple past beat

past participle beaten

Infinitive and past participle are similar infinitive come run become simple past came ran became past participle come run become

Simple Past and past participle are similar infinitive bring build burst buy catch deal feed feel fight find get hang have hear hold keep lay lead leave lend light* lose make mean meet pay say sell send shine shoot simple past brought built burst bought caught dealt fed felt fought found got hung had heard held kept laid led left lent lit lost made meant met paid said sold sent shone shot past participle brought built burst bought caught dealt fed felt fought found got hung had heard held kept laid led left lent lit lost made meant met paid said sold sent shone shot


sit sleep slide spend stand stick sweep swing teach tell think understand win

sat slept slid spent stood stuck swept swung taught told thought understood won

sat slept slid spent stood stuck swept swung taught told thought understood won

all 3 forms are different infinitive be begin blow break choose do draw drink drive eat fall fly forget freeze give go grow hide know lie ride ring rise see shake show* simple past was/were began blew broke chose did drew drank drove ate fell flew forgot froze gave went grew hid knew lay rode rang rose saw shook showed past participle been begun blown broken chosen done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen flown forgotten frozen given gone grown hidden known lain ridden rung risen seen shaken shown


sing sink speak spring steal swear swim take tear throw wake wear weave write

sang sank spoke sprang stole swore swam took tore threw woke wore wove wrote

sung sunk spoken sprung stolen sworn swum taken torn thrown woken worn woven written

* regular form (+ -ed) also possible. The following English irregular verbs are now obsolete and use the standard past and participle forms (-ed). infinitive burn dream learn simple past burnt dreamt learnt past participle burnt dreamt learnt

ANNEX 4 Placement Test for Elementary, Intermediate, First Certificate and Advanced Language Practice Name: _______________________________ Date: ____________________ France. C French. D Please solve the Placement Test Im French. below. Then correct it in red pencil according to the Key. Mark it and 1 How old are you? bring the results for the teacher to see and comment. A I have 16. B I am 16. C I have 16 years. Circle the answer which best answers the question or fits the space. 0 Where are you from? B Im from years. 2 Are you having a nice time? B Yes, Im D I am 16

A Yes, Im nice.

A Im France.


having it. D Yes, it is. 3

C Yes, I am.

A Have Should 10

B Do D Did

Could you pass the salt please? B I dont know. D Here you

A Over there. C Help yourself. are. 4 A on D with 5

- Dont forget to put the rubbish out. - Ive __________ done it! B still already C D even

A yet

Yesterday I went __________ B in C by

bus to the National Museum.


You dont need to bring __________ to eat.

A some Sue and Mike __________ to B said D talked Whos calling, please? B Its David C Ill call you back. C many 12

B a food D anything

go camping. A wanted made 6 Parker.

What about going to the B Twice a C Its Star Wars.

cinema? A Good idea! month. D I think so. 13 - What would you like, Sue? - Id like the same __________ Michael please. B as D had 14 A Few Least __________ people know the B Little D A little Its not __________ to walk B certain D problem C C C for

A Just a moment. D Speaking. 7

They were __________ after B hot D tired Can you tell me the B way D street C C

A that

the long journey, so they went to bed. A hungry lazy 8 A road direction 9

answer to that question. __________ to the bus station?

15 A sure safe

home by yourself in the dark. __________ you remember to buy some milk?

Placement Test



__________ sure all the B Have D Make Ill go and __________ if I can B look C try C

A could not C are not allowed to be 24

B dont have to D cant

windows are locked. A Take Wait 17 A see D tell 18 A from D between 19 My car needs __________ . B to repair D repair Whats the difference B with C for

Everyone wanted to go out B unless D except C

__________ John. A apart however 25

find him.

Honestly! I saw a ghost! Im B laughing D joking

not __________ it up! A having C making 26 plate! A left put 27 C A right along 28 C B missing D staying Take the A20 __________ the B as far as D heading north I really hope you can find a B way D solution C C C

__________ football and rugby?

Eat everything up! I dont want

to see anything __________ on your

A repairing C to be repair 20

Tim was too __________ to B shy D polite I havent had so much fun B for D since Sorry, I dont know B what D why Im afraid you __________ C

ask Monika for a dance. A worried selfish 21

roundabout, then turn left.

__________ I was a young boy! A when during 22 A that which 23

__________ to this problem. A result conclusion 29

__________ youre talking about.

Could you watch my bag while B Never mind. D It doesnt

I go and get a cup of tea? A Of course! matter. C If you dont mind.

smoke in here.

Placement Test



In my country, it is


If only I __________ made that B didnt D havent I like Mary for her friendly B manner D impression These shoes are very C C

__________ the law to watch an Xrated film if you are under eighteen. A under over 31 B against D beyond Rebecca had to __________ the C

phone call! A wasnt hadnt 37

smile and her __________ of humour. A sense way

invitation, as she was busy studying for her exams. A take off C turn down 32 B put back D get away


__________ for walking in the mountains. A practical C realistic C B functional D active

Police __________ that a

terrorist group might be behind the kidnapping. A suppose suspect 33 B fancy D accuse When Christopher smiles, he B recalls D reminds


__________ of the credit for

our success has to go to the Chairman, Peter Lewis. A Several Enough 40 B Much D Sufficient C

__________ me of his grandfather. A remembers C rethinks 34

We were surprised that over B applied D requested C

The wonderful smell of freshly

500 people __________ for the job. A wrote enquired

__________ coffee hit us as we entered the store. A crushed C ground 35 B smashed D pressed


The children watched in

excitement as she __________ a match and lit the candles. A scratched C rubbed C 42 B struck D scraped

Mikes dad wouldnt

__________ him go to school with a red streak in his hair. A allow accept B permit D let

Sorry about Kates strange

behaviour, but shes just not used to __________ lots of people around her.

Placement Test


A had having 43

B have D has

A gets on C sets out 49

B takes up D brings about

Ivan kept running very hard

__________ we get to the top B Eventually D Finally

__________ none of the other runners could possibly catch him. A even though C despite 44 Milly. A by D on 45 You __________ better check B with C for D as B however

of this hill, the path gets much easier. A At the time C Once 50

Fifty-seven? No, that B mustnt D neednt C

I did this painting all

__________ be the right answer! A cant wouldnt 51

__________ my own, Dad, said

__________ happens, Ill B What D No matter

always be there for you! A However C Whatever 52 A see ensure 53

all the details are correct before we send it off. A would should 46 B had D did This game is __________ to be C

Can you __________ to it that B deal D get A __________ debate ensued, C

no one uses this entrance?

for five year-olds, but I think a two year-old could do it! A expected C obliged 47 B required D supposed

with neither side prepared to give way to the other. A warm hot 54 C B heated D boiling Ive drunk milk every C

Just put this powder down, and

it should __________ any more ants from getting in. A prevent refuse 48 B avoid D forbid When Jonie __________ to do

__________ day of my life, and its never done me any harm! A particular C single B individual D one

something, you can be sure shell do it, and do it well.

Placement Test



The version of the film I saw B deeply D heavily


If I were you I would

had been __________ censored. A strongly C great 56

__________ clear of the area around the station late at night. A stick stop 59 B steer D stand Turning back now is out of the B matter D possibility C C

He promised to phone me at

nine oclock exactly, and he was as __________ as his word. A true right 57 B good D honest There has been so much media C

__________ . A agenda question 60

Joes fear of enclosed spaces

__________ of the wedding that Im completely fed up with it. A circulation C broadcasting B attention D coverage

__________ from a bad experience he had when he was a child. A stems starts B leads D flows C


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11


12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22


23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33


Placement Test


34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

C D C A A B B B C A D B D A C C A C A B C D B D B C A 4660 3145 1630

(Parcursul 2) Interme diate Language Practice (Parcursul 1) First Certificate Language Practice Advanced Language Practice

Interpretation of marks 115 Element ary Language Practice


ESP (English For Specialized Purposes) Listening / Reading

Supplementary Materials: A Citizen's Guide to Democracy