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MINI PROJECT REPORT Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Degree of



Submitted to


Under guidance of Sri N.V.S.Ramachandra Rao (Dy. Manager)


Affiliated to JNTU, Sheriguda, Ibrahimpatnam, Hyderabad.


Department of Mechanical Engineering


This is to certify that the project report titled Part Programming on CNC Lathe is being submitted by M.Rahul Kumar, Yarabati Rohit Kumar bearing Roll Nos. 09D41A0304, 09D41A0315 in III B.Tech II semester Mechanical Engineering, is a record bonafied work carried out by them. The results embodied in this report have not been submitted to any other University for the award of any degree.

Internal Guide: M.SrinivasRao External Guide: Mr.N.V.S.RamchandraRao << HOD>>

The project entitled PART PROGRAMMING ON CNC LATHE is the sum of total efforts of our batch. It is our duty to bring forward each and every one who is directly or indirectly in relation with our project and without whom it would not have gained a structure. We express our grateful thanks to M.SRINIVAS RAO, HEAD OF DEPARTMENT, (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING), SRI INDU COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY for their support in completing our project. We express our gratitude to Sri N.V.S RAMACHANDRA RAO, Dy. Manager (production MT-2 shop) for spending his valuable time and suggestions, guidance made by him at various stages of this work done at HMT MACHINE TOOLS LTD, PRAGA DIVISION.

We hereby declare that the whole work done in completing this project is our own effort and we have not copied it from anywhere. During our project, our project guide Mr. N.V.S. Ramachandra Rao guided us to complete our project. We are very thankful to HMT MACHINE TOOLS LTD, PRAGA DIVISION for giving us opportunity to do our project in this esteemed organisation.

M. RAHUL KUMAR (09D41A0304). Y. ROHIT KUMAR (09D41A0315).

In the present manufacturing scenario, the available facilities should be able to handle production which ranges from small as well as batch production and also it should ensure high productivity with good quality and reliability. This is achieved by using the latest trends in technology of CAD, CAM which has evolved as the key elements right from the product concept of analysis, design, detailing, processing, manufacturing information which in term automatically reduces the lead time. The new methodologies and standards are emerging day by day in reducing the lead time in the fabrication of a new product with good precision and high reliability. The project deals with the computer aided manufacture of closure using computer numerical control. The component, which had been manufactured using CNC LATHE, is used as a wheel flange in CTG (centre tool grinding) machine. In CNC complete machining of precision word piece is done by the capability of CNC LATHE. In this project the configuration and modes of operators of computer Numerical Control systems have been studied. Thus, in order to meet the increasing demand to manufacture the complicated components of high accuracy in large quantities and to reduce the production time, CNC and CIM play a prominent role.

The following are the symbols of various parameters used in NC codes,

G_ _
M_ _ F_ _ X_ _ Y_ _ Z_ _ D_ _ R_ _ or CR A B C U V W I, J, K P Q R I S T H L_ _ N_ _ O_ _

= preparatory functions. =miscellaneous functions. =cutting feed in mm/min or mm/rev. =position in X-axis. =position in Y-axis. =position in Z-axis. =diameter of the cutter. = radius of curvature being done. =rotary axis with its centre line on X-axis. =rotary axis with its centre line on Y-axis. =rotary axis with its centre line on Z-axis. =extension of X-axis. =extension of Y-axis. =extension of Z-axis. =circular interpolation parameters. = no. of repetitions. =pecking depth (Incremental depth). =Reference point level. =initial level. =spindle speed in r.p.m. =tool no. =tool length compensation. =subprogram number in sinumerik PMC (810D). =block no. (Each line in a NC program is called NC block). =main program no. (In Fanucoi-MC PMC).

1. Company profile. 2. History overview. 3. NC systems. a. Types. b. Position and motion controls 4. Introduction. a. Benefits of CNC. b. Difference between CNC and Conventional Machines. c. Change. 5. Introduction to part programming. a. CNC programming basics. b. Program command parameters. c. Rules for programming. 6. Programming codes. a. Offset. b. Register. c. G codes. d. M codes. 7. Machining operations. 8. Wheel Flange Component. a. First face. b. Second face. 9. Isometric view of component. 10. Conclusion. 1 3 6



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H.M.T Machine Tools PRAGA Division is one of the leading machine tool manufacturing units in India. Established in 1943, pragas products are well known in the field of machine tools. The company is organized in two divisions viz the machine tool and CNC division which pulsates with the activities of employees, turning out a wide range of products. The two divisions equipped with modern facilities for design, development and manufacture of machine tools, are manned by qualified personnel with proven record of technical knowledge and exquisite craftsmanship acquired over a period of years. MANUFACTURERS OF Surface Grinding Machines Cutter & Tool Grinding Machines. Thread Rolling Machines. Spline Rolling Machines. Pulley Forming Machines. Tube finishing machines. Milling Machines. Horizontal Machining Centres. CNC Lathe Machines. CNC Milling Machines. CNC Surface Grinding Machines. CNC Cutter & Tool Grinding Machines. Praga are also manufacturers of Customer Tooling for the above Machinery like: Jigs &fixtures. Mountings. Accessories. Tooling for the above mentioned cold forming processes.

Praga is collaborated with some of the world famous companies like Jones & Shipman of U.K., Gambin of France, Escoffier of France, George Fischer of Switzerland, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Japan and Keiyo Seiki also of Japan. The collaborations have culminated in Praga producing Machine tools of the highest quality conforming to international standards. Praga has contributed to the development of the machine tool industry in the country and the creation of a vast band of skilled technicians. Thus Praga, today is a name of reckon with in the Machine Tool Industry. In compliances of the directives of the Govt. of India actions have been initiated for the merger of Praga tools limited with HMT limited. Bangalore obtaining of necessary approvals and sanctions of BIFR and Government of India with effect from (13-06-2008) and all formalities completed on (20-062009). Praga tools limited renamed as m/s HMT Machine Tools Limited-VI (Praga division-HYD) from this data all the guidelines and policies, rules and regulations and facilities are applicable to the Praga employees as per HMT Machine Tools Limited.

The first commercial NC machines were built in the 1950's, and ran from punched tape. While the concept immediately proved it could save costs, it was so different that it was very slow to catch on with manufacturers. In order to promote more rapid adoption, the US Army bought 120 NC machines and loaned them to various manufacturers so they could become more familiar with the idea. By the end of the 50's, NC was starting to catch on, though there were still a number of issues. For example, g-code, the nearly universal language of CNC we have today, did not exist. Each manufacturer was pushing its own language for defining part programs (the programs the machine tools would execute to create a part).

1959 CNC Machine: Milwaukee-Matic-II was first machine with a tool changer... A number of key developments brought CNC rapidly along during the 1960's: Standard G-Code Language for Part Programs: The origin of g-code dates back to MIT, around 1958, where it was a language used in the MIT

Servomechanisms Laboratory. The Electronic Industry Alliance standardized gcode in the early 1960's. CAD came into its own and started rapidly replacing paper drawings and draftsmen during the 60's. By 1970, CAD was a decent sized industry with players like Intergraph and Computer vision, both of whom I consulted for back in my college days. Minicomputers like the DEC PDP-8's and Data General Nova's became available in the 60's and made CNC machines both cheaper and more powerful. By 1970, the economies of most Western countries had slowed and employment costs were rising. With the 60's, having provided the firm technology foundation that was needed, CNC took off and began steadily displacing older technologies such as hydraulic tracers and manual machining. US companies had largely launched the CNC revolution, but they had been overly focused on the high end. The Germans were the first to see the opportunity to reduce prices of CNC, and by 1979 the Germans were selling more CNC than the US companies. The Japanese repeated the same formula to an even more successful degree and had taken the leadership away from the Germans just one year later, by 1980. In 1971, the 10 largest CNC companies were all US companies, but by 1987, only Cincinnati Milacron was left and they were in 8th place. More recently, microprocessors have made CNC controls even cheaper, culminating with the availability of CNC for the hobby and personal CNC market. The Enhanced Machine Controller project, or EMC2, was a project to implement an Open Source CNC controller that was started by NIST, the National Institute of Standards and Technology as a demonstration. Sometime in 2000, the project was taken into the public domain and Open Source, and EMC2 appeared a short time later in 2003. Mach3 was developed by Art soft founder Art Fenerty as an offshoot of early EMC versions to run on Windows instead of Linux, making it even more

accessible to the personal CNC market. Art's company, Art Soft, was founded in 2001.Both the EMC2 and Mach3 CNC software programs are alive and thriving today, as are many other CNC technologies. 15th century Machining Metal 18th century Industrialization, production type machine tools 20th century F. W. Taylor tool metal, HSS AUTOMATED PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT Screw machines Transfer lines Assembly lines Using cams and preset shops etc PROGRAMMABLE AUTOMATION Numeric Control-NC Programmable Logic Controller-PLC Robots

Point-to-point: The objective is to move the cutting tool to a predefined location. Once the tool reaches the desired location, the machining operation is performed at that location. Straight cut: Capable of moving the cutting tool parallel to one of the major axes. Work pieces of rectangular configurations may be fabricated. Angular cuts are not possible. Contouring: The most complex, the most flexible, and the most expensive type of machine tool control. Capable of performing both point-to-point and straight cut operations. In addition, simultaneous

control of more than one axis movement of the machine tool. Straight or plane surfaces at any orientation, circular paths, conical shapes, and most any other mathematically definable form are possible.


The data read into the MCU define machine table positions. Each axis is equipped with a drive unit which is connected to the table by means of a lead screw. The axis positioning system may be designed as either an open-loop or a closed-loop system. Numerical control (NC) refers to the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone. The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 1950s, based on existing tools that were modified with motors that moved the

controls to follow points fed into the system on punched tape. These early servomechanisms were rapidly augmented with analog and digital computers, creating the modern computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools that have revolutionized the machining processes. In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided

manufacturing (CAM) programs. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machine via a postprocessor, and then loaded into the CNC machines for production. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different toolsdrills, saws, etc., modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell". In other cases, a number of different machines are used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from machine to machine. In either case, the complex series of steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD design.

CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control and these machines have replaced many of the more traditional machines in the industry vertical millers, routers, shaping machines, and more. One benefit of utilising CNC machines is that they allow for very high output, since they can be run continually, 24 hours a day, and 365 days a year. They typically stop production only when they are switched off for occasional routine maintenance. Unlike traditional machines, CNC machines can be run with minimally trained operators, whereas the traditional machines require more skilled engineers to run smoothly. Plus updating the machines is easy, with a simple software update. Training of new operators of CNC machines is typically carried out through virtual software, which allows the operator to operate a virtual machine in real time. The training has been said to be pretty similar to a typical video game just not as fun. Typically, one person can supervise multiple CNC machines at a single time. Once the machines are programmed, they can usually run on their own unimpeded. Occasionally, the specific cutting tools will need to be replaced, but that is a quick and simple exchange. A skilled engineer can almost make identical components, but there are always some small differences from piece to piece. CNC machines can manufacture each component exactly over and over, thousands of times, and each one will be an exact match. The precision and speed of CNC machines are nothing less than amazing. CNC is short for Computer Numerical Control. It's a method used in modern machining to perform a wide range of associated tasks. In here, we are going to take a look at benefits of CNC Precision Machining. 1. Cost savings: CNC machining allows the operator to take full advantage of raw materials. With the accuracy delivered through CNC machining, waste is decreased--which minimizes loss and increases profit over costs.

2. Speed: CNC machines can quickly produce parts that would normally take multiple steps to manufacture otherwise. 3. Safety: Because the entire fabrication process is automated, the operator is kept out of harm's way, allowing for a much safer work environment. 4. Improved Efficiency: CNC machines are the most efficient means of

creating a component due to the fact that most feature internal quality assurance detectors. The minute an error or deficiency is detected in a product, the operation is stopped to prevent further waste of material. With the efficiency of CNC machining in addition to its speed of production and optimum raw material usage, it's easy to see why CNC machining is the gold standard of metalworking and part fabrication.

CNC Machining is short for computer numerically controlled machining. It is a computer tied to a machine tool that holds varying amounts and styles of metal cutting tools usually on a tool carousel indexing mechanism. It is an efficient and very precise way of manufacturing quantities of quality metal widgets. This process lends itself to lots of 25 minimum but really more because of the costs involved for initially setting up a specific task or job. Individual items or two, three level orders get expensive. It can take 3-5 hours to set up a job and that cost has to get into the price in some manner. Small lot items are better at a local prototype or manual machine shop. The Process is as Follows: 1. Review item/blue print to be machined. 2. Design of process flow raw material to finished product. 3. Determine/design featuring of part to be machined. 4. Write computer program to power CNC and machine geometry of part. 5. Schedule CNC machine time.

6. Order and review raw materials to be used 7. Pre-Process of stock raw material (if required). 8. Set up and offset tools, fixture and CNC machine being employed. 9. Test and run first part. 10.Quality Control inspection. 11.Run rest of parts through machining/QA in process inspections 12.Part finishing (grinding, burr removal, plating if required). 13.Final Inspection. 14.Part Shipment. Benefits of CNC Machining Low cost of production. Once set up, the machines will repeat very. Accurately and require minimal machinist level intervention. High part to part accuracy and consistency. Fast, consistent thru-put of finished goods. Once started, it really doesn't pay to stop. With part fixturing, fast setup and rapid shipment from order date is possible. Happy Customers.


There are vast differences between the present emerging trend in production technology i.e. CNC machine and the Conventional machines, some of them were listed below


Consistency of work pieces produced - Since a CNC machine executes a program, and it will do so in exactly the same fashion time and time again, the consistency of work pieces produced is much better than work pieces run on conventional machine tools. Faster work piece machining - Since current model CNC machine tools are guarded (splash guards, windows, etc.) in a much better manner than most conventional machine tools, users can apply the most efficient cutting conditions to attain the best cycle times. Manual machinists tend to nurse-along their machining operations to minimize the chips and coolant is constantly thrown from the work area. Lowered skill level of machinist - Though there are some misconceptions in this area (some people believe that anyone can run CNC machines without training), the level of skill required to run (but not program) a CNC machine is much lower than that required to run a conventional machine tool - especially in a production environment when the same work piece is run over and over again. Complexity of work pieces to be machined - CNC machines can generate very complex motions, making it possible to machine shapes that cannot be generated (or are extremely difficult to generate) on conventional machine tools. Flexibility, faster turn-around, and smaller lots - Because they're programmable, a given CNC machine can be used to machine a large variety of different work pieces. Most are also designed to minimize downtime between production runs (setup time). Some conventional machines they're replacing (screw machines and transfer lines, for example) are extremely difficult to setup, making them feasible only for larger lot sizes. Ability to bring work piece closer to completion - The general nature of CNC machines allows them to handle more machining operations in one setup than is

commonly possible on conventional machines. Specific features of CNC machines that are designed to allow this include live tooling on turning centres that make it possible to perform machining operations on a lathe that are commonly done on a mill, rotary tables and indexers on machining centres designed to rotate the work piece to expose multiple sides of the part to the spindle for machining, and spindle probes on machining centres that make it possible to accurately (and automatically) locate key location surfaces Feedback to production control - Since CNC machines have a built-in computer, they can relay information about how they're running to other parts of the company using the same network that other computers in the company are using. Self diagnostics - Most current model CNC machines include self-checking systems to constantly monitor their own systems. When something goes wrong, they generate an alarm to alert the operator.

c. Change
Over 80% of companies that manufacture anything have at least one CNC machine tool. While this may not leave much room for growth in number of companies using CNC machines, the current CNC using companies will be constantly buying more machines and replacing those they have. New areas of development include high speed machining (ultra fast spindles and motion rates), development of high-bred CNCs like mill/turn machines, and continuous improvement of CNC controls to allow easier operation. By implementing new trends in machining has brought a drastic change in precision, machining time, reliability, flexibility, faster production, etc.



A program is a set of encoded information giving coordinate values and other details to indicate how a tool should be moved in relation to work piece in order to achieve a desired machining form. A part program contains all the information for the machining of a component which is input to the CNC system. The CNC system provides signals at the correct time and in correct sequence to the various drive unit of the machine.

Program Planning
The development of any CNC program begins with a very carefully planned process. Such a process starts with the engineering drawing of the required for production. Before the part is machined several steps have to be considered and carefully evaluated. 1. Study of initial information (drawing and methods) 2. Material stock (blank) evaluation 3. Machine tool specifications 4. Control system features 5. Sequence of machining operations 6. Setup of the part 7. Technological data (speeds, federates, etc) 8. Determination of the tool path 9. Program writing and preparation for transfer to CNC 10.Program testing and debugging


Initial Information
For programming, a good knowledge of material is essential and starts mainly in terms of size, type, shape, condition, hardness, e.t.c. The drawing and the material are the primary information about the part. At this point, CNC program can be planned. The objective of such a plan is to use the initial information and establish the most efficient method of machining, with all related considerations mainly part accuracy, productivity, safety and convenience.

Machine Tool Features

During program planning, programmer concentrates on particular machine tool, using a particular CNC system.

Machine Type and Size

Each part has to be setup in a fixture, the CNC machine has to be large enough to handle the size of the part, and the part should not be heavier than the maximum weight allowed. Other features, equally important are the machine power rating, spindle speed and feed rate range, number of tool stations, tool changing system and available accessories e.t.c.

Control system
The control system is the heart of a CNC machine. Being familiar with all the standard and optional features available on all controls is a must. This allows the use of a variety of advanced programming methods, such as machining cycles, sub programs, macros and other time saving features. The control system must be capable to provide the needed tool path.


Machining Sequence
The basic approach for determining the machining sequence is the evaluation of all related operations. In general, program should be planned in such a way, that the cutting tool once selected will do as much work as possible, before a tool change. Another consideration is in benefits gained by programming all heavy operations first, then the lighter semi finishing or finishing operations.

Part Setup
Another decision in program planning relates to the part setup i.e. 1. How to mount the raw material or pre machined material? 2. What supporting tools and devices should be used? 3. How many operations are required to complete as many machining sequences as possible? 4. Setup is necessary and should be done efficiently.

Technological Decisions
The available range of spindle speeds is fixed for any CNC machine. The size of the cutter and the type of the material will influence speeds and feeds. The power rating of the machine tool will help determine what amount of material can be removed safely. Other factors that influence the program design include tool extensions, setup rigidity, cutting tool material and its condition.

Tool path
This process involves individual cutter movements in its relationship to the part. The key factor for understanding this principle is to visualize the tool motion, not the machine motion.

The tool path for all profiling tools has to take into consideration the cutter radius, either by programming the equidistance part for centre of the radius or by using cutter radius offset. CNC machines for milling and turning are provided with rapid motion, linear interpolation and circular interpolation or as standard features. Two groups of typical tool paths exist: 1. Point to Point also known as positioning. 2. Continuous also known as Contouring.

Manual Programming
The CNC controls make manual programming much easier than ever before by using fixed or repetitive machining cycles, variable type programming, graphic tool motion simulation, standard mathematical input and other time saving features. Programmed data can be transferred to the CNC machine via a cable, using an inexpensive desktop or a laptop computer. This process is faster and more reliable than other methods. Programs can be entered manually, by key board entry, directly at the machine.

Responsibilities of CNC Machine Operator

1. Job loading and setting as per the job lay out. 2. Program entering manually/ through punched tape/ through DNC/ calling from memory. 3. Loading the required cutting tools into the turret/ tool magazine as per the tools layout and entering the tool data into the memory. 4. Fixing the work-zero with respect to machine zero. 5. Verification of correctness of the program from graphic simulation, if the system allows. 6. Machining the job in single mode as per the program. Dimensional


inspection while machining and correction of tool offset is necessary. Replacement of inserts, cutting tools whenever required. 7. Optimization of the program i.e. correction of feeds, speeds, idle movements e.t.c.


CNC instructions are called part program commands. A part program is a series of coded instructions required to produce a part. It controls the movement of the machine tool and the on/off control of auxiliary functions such as spindle rotation and coolant. The coded instructions are composed of letters, numbers and symbols and are arranged in a format of functional blocks. When running, a part program is interpreted one command line at a time until all lines are completed. Commands, which are also referred to as blocks, are made up of words which each begin with a letter address and end with a numerical value. Each letter address relates to a specific machine function. G and M letter addresses are two of the most common. A G letter specifies certain machine preparations such as inch or metric modes, or absolutes versus incremental modes. A M letter specifies miscellaneous machine functions and work like ON/OFF switches for coolant flow, tool changing, or spindle rotation. Other letter addresses are used to direct a wide variety of other machine commands. Programming consists of a series of instructions in form of letter codes. Preparatory codes. G codes-Initial machining setup and establishing operating conditions. N codes-specify program line number to be executed by the MCU. (Machine Control Unit)


Axis codes: X, Y, Z used to specify motion of the slide along X, Y, Z direction. Feed and speed codes: F and S specify feed and spindle speed. Tool codes: T-specify tool number. Miscellaneous codes- M codes for coolant control and other activities.


Optimum machine programming requires consideration of certain machine operating parameters including: Positioning control Compensations Special machine features Positioning control is the ability to program tool and machine slide movement simultaneously along two or more axes. Positioning may be for point-to-point movement or contouring movement along a continuous path. Contouring requires tool movement along multiple axes simultaneously. This movement is referred to as Interpolation which is the process of calculating intermediate values between specific points along a programmed path and outputting those values as a precise motion. Interpolation may be linear having just a start and end point along a straight line, or circular which requires an end point, a centre and a direction around the arc. c. RULES FOR PROGRAMMING BLOCK FORMAT N_ _ _ G_ _ X_ _ Y_ _ Z_ _ F_ SAMPLE BLOCK Restrictions on CNC blocks. Each may contain only one tool move. Each may contain any number of non-tool move G-codes.

Each may contain only one feed rate. Each may contain only one specified tool or spindle speed. The block numbers should be sequential. Both the program start flag and the program number must be independent of all other commands (on separate lines). The data within a block should follow the sequence shown in the above sample block.


Types of Offsets
1. Work Offset 2. Tool Offset

Work offset
To define the reference point on the work piece with respect to home position (X0, Y0) work offset is used.

W .P y
W .Pre fe re n cep o in t

M a ch in ere fe re n cep o in t

W orkoffset inx,yd irection


Tool Offset
The distance between spindle face (gauge plane of major diameter of the taper tool holder) and tip of the cutting tool offset is used.

P u ll S tu d

S p in d leB o d y T a p e re dT o o l H o ld e r S p in d leF a c e

T a p e re dS o c k e t T o o lL e n g thO ffs e t

C u ttin gT o o lT ip W o rkO ffs e t

R e fe ra n c eb lo c k W .P

P a lle tF a c e

b. REGISTERS Format of Work Offset Register

The format of registers will not differ from one CNC system to another system. We can store the work offsets from register G54 to G59 and G501 to G599 in Sinumerik and Fanuc systems.

Format of Tool Offset Register

The distance between spindle face (gauge plane of major diameter of the taper) and tip of the cutting tool is tool offset register.


NOTE: In the above table there is no need of entering the length2 value. Radius or Diameter offset is used for milling cutters only.

Machine Control Units:

Various types of MCU available in the market are 1. SINUMERIK / HINUMERIK 2. FANUC 3. GE 4. MARK ++ 5. FAGOR 6. GE FANUC 7. HEIDENHANN These systems are having their own advantages and disadvantages. The most popular machine control units are Fanuc and sinumerik.

CNC programming
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Sequence Number (N word) Preparatory Word (G word) Coordinates (X, Y word) Feed Rate (F word) Spindle Speed (S word) Tool Selection (T word) Miscellaneous Command (M word) End of Block (EOB)

Sequence Number (N word)

This number is used to identify the block of instruction. From one to four digits can be used. Example: N 0001 N 0002


Preparatory Word (G word)

These words are needed so that the controller can correctly interpret the data that follow in the block. It consists of two numerical digits followed by the G word. For example G O3 prepares the controller for counter clock-wise circular interpolation, to the subsequent data given in the block. In machine

tool industry, these G words have been standardized, but sometimes differ from particular machine. For instance, there are many differences between turning and milling machines.

Coordinates (X, Y word)

Coordinates gives the position of the tool. X, Y words are used in two axis system and can be specified in inches or millimetres. For incremental mode of X, Y directions another words U, V are used A, B words are also used in this systems for rotational axis. A is the rotational axis about X axis, Similarly B for Y respectively.

Feed Rate (F word)

In machining operations this specifies the feed, i.e., feed per minute or per revolution in inches or millimetres. Examples: feed rate=40mm/min in milling or drilling operations.

Spindle Speed (S word)

This Sword specifies the rate at which the spindle rotates (cutting speed). If is expressed in revolution per minute.

Tool Selection (T word)

This T words specifies which tool is to be used for operation, and used for machine tools with automatic tool changers or tool turrets.

Miscellaneous Command (M word)

This miscellaneous are also called auxiliary functions used to specify the machine functions which are available on the machine tool. This gives the machine codes, for example MO 3 commands the machine to start spindle rotation in clockwise direction, and this function is the last word in the block.

End of Block (EOB)

This is to identify the end of the instruction, in a block. Every block is ended by this EOB word. Example: N---- G-- X-- Y-- G-- H--;

c. G codes list (preparatory functions)

G00 - Rapid Positioning G01 - Linear Interpolation G02 - Circular Interpolation CW G03 - Circular Interpolation CCW G04 Dwell G07 - Feed rate Sine Curve Control G10 - Data Setting G11 - Data Setting Cancel G17 - XY Plane Selection G18 - XZ Plane Selection G19 - YZ Plane Selection G20 - Input in Inches G21 - Input in Metric G22 - Stored Stroke Check ON G23 - Stored Stroke Check OFF G27 - Reference Point Return Check G28 - Automatic Zero Return G29 - Return from Zero Position


G30 - 2nd Reference Point Return G31 - Skip Function G32 - Thread Cutting G36 - Automatic Tool Compensation G40 - Tool Compensation Cancel G41 - Tool Compensation Left G42 - Tool Compensation Right G46 - Automatic Tool Compensation G50 - Coordinate System Setting G52 - Local Coordinate System Setting G53 - Machine Coordinate System Setting G54 - Work piece Coordinate Setting 1 G55 - Work piece Coordinate Setting 2 G56 - Work piece Coordinate Setting 3 G57 - Work piece Coordinate Setting 4 G58 - Work piece Coordinate Setting 5 G59 - Work piece Coordinate Setting 6 G61 - Exact Stop Check Mode G62 - Automatic Corner Override G63 - Tapping Mode G64 - Cutting Mode G65 - User Simple Macro Call G66 - User Modal Macro Call G67 - User Modal Macro Call Cancel G70 - Finishing Cycle G71 - Turning Cycle G72 - Facing Cycle G73 - Pattern Repeating Cycle G74 - Drilling Cycle G75 - Grooving Cycle G76 - Threading Cycle G80 - Canned Cycle Cancel

G83 - Face Drilling Cycle G84 - Face Tapping Cycle G85 - Face Boring Cycle G87 - Side Drilling Cycle G88 - Side Tapping Cycle G89 - Side Boring Cycle G90 - Absolute Positioning G91 - Incremental Positioning G92 - Threading Cycle G94 - Face Turning Cycle G96 - Constant Surface Speed Control On G97 - Constant Surface Speed Control Off G98 - Feed rate Per Time G99 - Feed rate Per Revolution G107 - Cylindrical Interpolation G112 - Polar Coordinate Interpolation Mode On G113 - Polar Coordinate Interpolation Mode Off G250 - Polygonal Turning Mode Cancel G251 - Polygonal Turning Mode


d. M codes (miscellaneous functions)

M00 - Program Stop M01 - Optional Program Stop M02 - Program End M03 - Spindle Clockwise M04 - Spindle Counter Clockwise M05 - Spindle Stop M07 - Coolant 1 On M08 - Coolant 2 On M09 - Coolant Off M10- Chuck clamp M11- Chuck unclamp M12-Bar feeder advance M13-Bar feeder retract M16-Work probe ON M17-Work probe OFF M21-Parts catcher advance M22-Parts catcher retract M28- Tailstock left M29- Tailstock right M30 - End Program, return to start M98- Subprogram call M99- Subprogram end


7. Machining Operations
Machining Operations




More Information


Boring is an operation to enlarge and finish holes A work piece may be held in a 3, 4, or 6 accurately. This may jaw chuck and collets. be done on a lathe or a milling machine. Boring is a machine operation in which the work is in contact with a single point tool.

Broaching is an operation that Broaching completes the cutting in one stroke or cut. Broaching can be done on both internal and external surfaces.

The teeth of a broaching tool are equally spaced so that as the tool advances into the work piece, each tooth removes a specified amount of metal.


Drilling is an economical way of removing large amounts of metal to create semi-precision round hole or cavity. Drilling allows a person to make holes through boards, metals, and other materials.

Used for last removal of stock on preparation for other operations like boring, reaming, or tapping.

There are three major types: drill press A machine designed to hold drill bits which will produce cylindrical holes. Used for producing cylindrical holes, as well as reaming, boring, counter-boring, counter-sinking, honing, lapping and tapping. - Sensitive drill (light drilling) - Upright drill (heavy duty drilling) - Radial arm drill press (large, heavy work pieces)



gang drilling machine


Facing is a lathe operation in which the cutting tool removes metal from the end of the work piece or a shoulder. Facing is a machine operation where the work is rotated against a single point tool. Gang drilling machine performs a The gang drilling machine is a series of single spindle drill heads number of drilling mounted on a long table. operations in a sequence. Grinding is an Grinding processes remove very operation in which small chips in very large numbers the cutting is done by by cutting the action of many small the use of abrasive individual abrasive grains. particles.

A work piece may be held in a 3, 4, or 6 jaw chuck, collets or a faceplate.

Each head is equipped with a different tool to drill the part being machined as it moves from one station to the next. The abrasive grains are formed into a grinding wheel. Very smooth surfaces can be accomplished by the use of the proper grinding wheel. Various types of grinding machines: - Plain Surface grinders - Rotary Surface grinders - Tool & Cutter grinders - Universal grinders - Internal grinders

grinding machine

gun drilling machine

Grinding machine machines metal parts with an abrasive wheel which can grind to close tolerances. Grinding machines can produce parts of the identical size, shape, and finish quality. Gun drilling machine is a machine used to In some drilling machines, the gun produce long, deep drill is held firm in a machine and holes. the work piece revolves; in other cases the work is stationary and the tool revolves. The operation is called "Gun drilling". Honing is an internal cutting technique that uses abrasives on a rotating tool to produce extremely accurate holes that require a very smooth finish.

Uses three types of spindles for producing deep holes: - way - quill - fixed-spindle

Similar to lapping where abrasive sticks are mounted in a rotating tool. Capable of accuracies of less than 1/10,000th of one inch.



Honing operation A horizontal milling machine uses a horizontal rotating tool to produce flat surfaces. milling machine Used for heavy stock removal. The milling machine provides cutting action with a rotating tool. The lathe is used for producing cylindrical work. The work piece is rotated while the cutting tool movement is controlled by the The lathe is primarily used for machine. cylindrical work.

The spindle is mounted on a horizontal position. Available in different size tables.

The lathe may be used for: boring, drilling, tapping, turning, facing, threading, polishing, grooving, knurling, trepanning


nonprecision grinding

Non-precision grinding is a cutting technique used when the grinding does not need to be accurate. Non-precision grinding is done when accuracy is not important. Precision grinding is a cutting technique used when close tolerances and very smooth finishes are required.

Non-precision grinding is a free-hand operation done on a pedestal or bench grinder.

precision grinding

Precision grinding allows very small amounts of material to be removed from a work piece. This is extremely useful in acquiring smooth finishes. Precision grinding as often used as a finish machining process.


Reaming is a sizing operation that removes a small amount of metal from a hole already drilled.

Machinists may use hand or machine reamers depending on the job they are The reamer is the tool used for this performing. operation. 30


Shaper is a machine used for the production of flat surfaces in vertical, horizontal, or angular planes. The shaper cuts by passing a single point tool by the work piece.

There are three types of shapers: - Horizontal / plain or universal - Vertical (slotter and key seater) - Special


Shaping is an operation used to produce flat surfaces. Shaping Single point threading is a lathe operation used for creating internal / external precision machined threads with a single point tool.

When the cutting tool reciprocates while the work is fed towards the tool removing material on each stroke, it is called shaping.

single point threading

Uses a special cutting tool that reflects the thread form. There are over 100 thread forms. Single point threading

- it is used for light duty work Sensitive drill press sensitive is a high speed drill press machine that drills very small holes. - extremely precise quill and spindle - capable of speeds of over 40,000rpm - maximum drill size of 1/32 of an inch The sensitive drill press Tapping is the process of cutting a thread inside a hole so that a cap screw or bolt can be threaded into the hole. Also, it is used to make Tapping is done with a tool called a threads on nuts. "Tap". 31 Tapping may be done by: - hand - lathe machine - milling machine - tapping machine



Turning is a lathe operation in which the cutting tool removes metal from the outside diameter of a work piece.

A work piece may be held in a 3, 4, or 6 jaw chuck, collets or may also be held between centres. A single point tool is used for turning.

vertical milling machine

A vertical milling machine uses a rotating tool to produce flat surfaces. A very flexible, light-duty machine. The milling machine provides cutting action with a rotating tool.

The spindle is mounted on a vertical position. Available in different size tables.


8. WHEEL FLANGE (100 DIA) 00196



N10 (Facing outer dia)

G54; T0000; GOO G91 G28 U0 W0; T0606; G92 S800; G96 S150 M04; G90 X150. Z50. ; G00 X66. Z10. ; Z.6 M08; G01 X9. F.2; G00 X66. W1; Z.1; G01 X9; G00 X63. Z1. ;

G71 U1.5 R1. ; G71 P11 Q12 U.5 W.1 F.15; N11 G00 X50.8; G01 X54.8 Z-1; Z-4.5; X57. Z-5.5; N12 Z-23. ; G00 X150. Z50. M09; G97 S0; T0000; G91 G28 U0 W0; M01;

N20 (Rough taper bore)

G54; T0000; G00 G91 G28 U0 WO; T0101; G92 S300; G96 X150 M04; G90 X100. Z50. ; G00 X12. Z10. ; Z1. M08; G71 U.5 R1; G71 P21 Q22 U-.4 W.1 F.15; N21 G00 X24.039 Z1. ; G01 X20.039 Z-1. ; X12.311 Z-28.5; N22 Z-30. ;

G70 P21 Q22 U-.2 W.1 F.1; G00 Z20. ; G00 X150. Z50. M09; G97 S0; T0000; G91 G28 U0 W0; M01;

N30 (Finish Turning)

G54; T0000; G00 G91 G28 U0 W0; T0404; G92 S800; G96 S150. M04; G90 X150. Z50. ; X60. Z10. ; Z0. M08; G01 X20. F.15; G00 X50.8 Z1. ; G01 X54.8 Z-1. ; Z-4.5; X57. Z-5.5; Z-23. ; G00 X150. Z50. M09; G97 S0; T0000; G91 G28 U0 W0 ; M01;

N40 (Face recess)

G54; T0000; G00 G91 G28 U0 W0; T0202; G92 S350; G96 S150 M04; G90 X100. Z50. ; G00 X36.5 Z10. ; Z1. M08; G01 Z-4.5 F.02; G00 Z1. ; X32.8; G01 Z0. F.05; X34. Z-.6 F.03; Z-4.5; G00 Z1. ; U5.9; G01 Z0. F.05; U-1.2 Z-.6 F.03; Z-4.5; U-3.5; G00 Z20. M09; X150. Z50. ; G97 S0; T0000; G91 G28 U0 W0; M01;

N50 (Finish bore)

G54; T0000; G00 G91 G28 U0 W0; T0707; G92 S400; G96 S150 M04; G90 X100. Z50. ; X24.039 Z10. ; Z1. M08; G01 X20.039 Z-1. F.1; X12.311 Z-28.5; Z-30. ; G00 Z20. M09; X150. Z50. ; G97 S0; T0000; G91 G28 U0 W0; M01;



N60 (Facing outer dia-rough)

G55; T0000; G00 G91 G28 U0 W0; T0606; G92 S700; G96 S150 M04; G90 X150. Z50. ; X60. Z10. ; Z.1 M08; G01 X9. F.2; G00 X58. Z1. ; G71 U1.5 R1. ; G71 P61 Q62 U.5 W.1 F.25; N61 G01 X25.3; X29.8 Z-1.25; Z-14.5; X32.3 Z-15.5;

Z-22.9; X55. ; N62 X57. Z-23.9; G00 X150. Z50. M09; G97 S0; T0000; G91 G28 U0 W0; M01;

N70 (Counter drill)

G55; T0000; G00 G91 G28 U0 W0; T0505; G92 S300; G97 S250 M04; G90 X100. Z50. ; X0. Z25. ; Z2. M08; G01 Z-15.4 F.04; G00 Z25. ; X150. Z50. M09; G97 S0; T0000; G91 G28 U0 W0; M01;

N80 (Finish Turning)

G55; T0000;

G00 G91 G28 U0 W0; T0404; G92 S800; G96 S150 M04; G90 X150. Z50. ; X58. Z10. ; Z-22.9 M08; G01 X33. F.15; G00 Z1. ; Z0. ; G01 X17. ; G00 X24.8 Z1. ; G01 X29.8 Z-1.5; Z-13.5; X28. Z-14.5 F.05; Z-15. ; X30.3 F.15; X32.3 Z-16. ; Z-22.9; X54.5; X57. Z-24.15; G00 X150. Z50. M09; G97 S0; T0000; G91 G28 U0 W0; M01;

N90 (Counter Bore)


T0000; G00 G91 G28 U0 W0; T0707; G92 S400; G96 S100 M04; G90 X100. Z50. ; X11.5 Z20. ; Z-15.5 M08; G01 X19. F.1; G00 U-.5 Z1. ; X24.7; G01 X20.7 Z-1. ; Z-15.5; X14. ; X12. Z-16.5; G00 Z20. M09; X150. Z50. ; G97 S0; T0000; G91 G28 U0 W0; M01;

N100 (Face relief)

G55; T0000; G00 G91 G28 U0 W0; T0808; G92 S750; G96 S150 M04;

G90 X150. Z50. ; X37. Z10. ; Z-22. M08; G01 Z-23. F.15; X35. Z-23.7 F.05; X32.5 F.1; G00 X37.5 W1. ; G01 Z-23. ; X35.5 Z-24. F.1; X31.75 F.15; Z-23.7; G00 X35. W2. M09; X150. Z50. ; G97 S0; T0000; G91 G28 U0 W0; M05; M30;


The 3-D view of the finished job is as shown,


By observing the above points we conclude that there is a 60% of time reduction for manufacturing of given closure component on CNC machine when compared to Conventional machine. Thus by obtaining this time we can increase rate of production with high precision and also at low cost.

REFERENCES Workshop technology Production technology Production technology

- Raghuvamshi - R.K Jain -H.M.T