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Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Erythrocytes
Small, flexible formed elements Commonly referred to as red blood cells Lack nucleus and cellular organelles Have biconcave disc structure Plasma membrane with enclosed hemoglobin molecules

Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Erythrocytes (continued)
Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide between tissues and lungs Can stack and line up in single file, rouleau Has latticework of spectrin protein provides support and flexibility to erythrocyte

Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Hemoglobin
Red-pigmented protein Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide Termed oxygenated when maximally loaded with oxygen Termed deoxygenated when some oxygen lost Oxyhemoglobin (bound to oxygen) Deoxyhemoglobin (not bound to oxygen) Carbaminohemoglobin (carbon dioxide bound to amino group)

Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Hemoglobin (continued)
Composed of four protein building blocks, globins two alpha chains two slightly different beta chains all with a heme group contains porphyrin ring iron ion in center, which binds oxygen for transport

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H3C

CH2CH2COOH

Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Erythrocyte production
Controlled by hormone, erythropoietin (EPO)
produced primarily in kidney liver small producer
1 globin chain

N H2C=CH N H3C Fe N N

CH2CH2COOH

CH3

Molecular Structure of Hemoglobin (Figure 18.6)

H2C=CH

CH3

2 globin chain

EPO inhibition
caused by increased oxygen levels

Heme (a ringed molecule with iron ion [Fe2+] in the center)

2 globin chain

1 globin chain

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How EPO Regulates Erythrocyte Production (Figure 18.7)


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Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Erythrocyte production (continued)
Influenced by testosterone levels stimulates kidney to produce more EPO males with higher testosterone and higher erythrocyte count Affected by altitude at high altitude, lower atmospheric pressure less oxygen taken into the lungs compensate by releasing more EPO
6

1 Stimulus: Decreased blood oxygen levels.

Increased O2 levels are detected by the kidney, which inhibits EPO release by negative feedback.

RECEPTOR 2 Kidney detects Decreased blood O2 3

CONTROL CENTER Kidney cells release EPO into the blood.

Stimulation Inhibition

NET EFFECT 5 Increased numbers of erythrocytes enter the circulation, during which time the lungs oxygenate erythrocytes and blood O2 levels increase.

EPO

More erythrocytes carrying O2 EFFECTOR 4 EPO stimulates red bone marrow to increase the rate of production of erythrocytes.

Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Erythrocyte destruction
Erythrocytes unable to synthesize proteins cannot repair itself due to lack of nucleus and cellular organelles Maximum life span of 120 days old erythrocytes phagocytize in spleen or liver macrophages Globin protein, iron ion, heme group all need to be disposed of

Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Blood types
Based on Surface antigens project from plasma membrane of erythrocyte have implications for blood transfusion, pregnancy

Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Blood types ABO blood group
Consists of two surface antigens, A and B Presence or absence determines ABO blood type type A: erythrocytes with surface antigen A type B: erythrocytes with surface antigen B type AB: erythrocytes with both antigens type O: erythrocytes with neither antigen
Blood type

ABO Blood Types (Figure 18.9a)


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ABO Blood Types

Type A

Type B

Type AB

Type O

Surface antigen A

Surface antigen B

Surface antigens A and B

Neither surface antigen A nor B

Erythrocytes

Anti-B antibodies

Anti-A antibodies

Neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies

Both anti-A and anti-B antibodies

Plasma

(a)

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Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Blood types ABO blood group (continued)
Antigens accompanied by specific antibodies anti-A antibodies that react with surface antigen A anti-B antibodies that react with surface antigen B Type A blood with anti-B antibodies Type B blood with anti-A antibodies Type AB blood with neither antibodies Type O blood with both antibodies

Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Blood types ABO blood group (continued)
Agglutination clumping of erythrocytes person transfused with blood of incompatible type can block blood vessels and prevent normal circulation can cause hemolysis, rupture of erythrocytes, organ damage compatibility between donor and recipient determined prior to blood donations using agglutination test

Agglutination Test (Figure 18.10b)


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Donor blood type

Recipient blood type

Agglutination reaction

Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Blood types (continued) Rh factor (surface antigen D)

Type A blood of donor (has surface antigen A)

Type A blood of recipient (contains anti-B antibodies)

No agglutination

Another surface erythrocyte antigen Presence determines Rh blood type When present, termed Rh positive When absent, termed Rh negative Antibodies to Rh factor appear when Rh negative person exposed to Rh positive blood e.g., inappropriate blood transfusion

Type A blood of donor (has surface antigen A)

= Type B blood of recipient (contains anti-A antibodies)

Agglutination

(b) Agglutination test

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Rh Blood Types

Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Blood types (continued)
ABO and Rh types usually reported together e.g., type AB and Rh+ reported as AB+ e.g., type A and Rh- reported as A-

Blood type Rh Blood Types (Figure 18.9b)

Rh positive

Rh negative

Surface antigen D

No surface antigen D

Erythrocytes

No anti-D antibodies Plasma

No anti-D antibodies unless exposed to Rh positive blood

(b)

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Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes What is the main function of an erythrocyte, and in what ways is an erythrocyte designed to efficiently carry out its function?
An erythrocyte is designed to carry hemoglobin, transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide between tissues and the lungs. It lacks a nucleus and organelles to carry more respiratory gases, and has a shape that allows it to stack in single file.

Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes What surface antigens are present on a cell that is A+?
A-antigen, Rh factor (surface antigen D)

Formed Elements in the Blood: Erythrocytes


Clinical View: Rh Incompatibility and Pregnancy
Rh negative mom may be exposed to Rh+ blood during childbirth of Rh + baby mom now with anti-D antibodies in future pregnancy, may cross placenta may cause destruction of fetal erythrocytes Results in hemolytic disease of the newborn infant with anemia and hyperbilirubinemia, heart failure prevention: give pregnant Rh negative woman special immunoglobulins