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1.

Force per unit positive charge

B1
[1]

2.

(i)

Suitable recognisable pattern around (not just between) the charges Quality mark: symmetry spacing lines joined to charges !onsistent arrows toward B on some lines
+

B1 B1 B1

(ii)

"se o# $ % (1&'()*)Q&r Sum o# two e,ual terms . 11. 11* + $ % + - . - 1* - 1/0 - 1* & (+/* - 1* ) 1* 11 11 $ % 2/+ - 1* 3 ! or 4 m 6he separation between the ions because this has an e##ect on the breaking #orce/ (5llow the si7e o# ionic 8charges9)

!1 !1 51

(iii)

B1
[7]

3.

(a)

(i) (ii)

!p % + : ' % 0 ;F 1/! % 1&+ : < !s % '&= %1/== ;F 0/* 4 Q % !p4 % 0 - 0 % =0 ;!
+

51 !1 51 51 !1 51

(b)

(i) (ii)

(c)

$ % > !s4 % +' - 1*

!1 51 B1

10

(d)

(i)

6he capacitors discharge through the voltmeter/
1t&CR

(ii)

V % V*e

1&' %e ln ' % t & 2+ t % 2+ ln ' ? 1** s

1t&(0-1+)

!1 !1 51
[12]

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4.

5ny seven #rom: @ A particle scattering suitable diagram with source #oil moveable detector + or more trajectories shown vacuum most particles have little i# any de#lection large de#lection o# very #ew re#erence to !oulomb9s law &elastic scattering alphas repelled by nucleus (positive charges) monoenergetic BC electron scattering Digh energy diagram with source sample moveable detector & #ilm 4acuum $lectron accelerator or other detail Eost have 7ero de#lection !haracteristic angular distribution with minimum Einimum not 7ero Fe Broglie wavelength Gavelength comparable to nuclear si7e hence high energy !learly shows how evidence #or the si7e o# the nucleus #ollows #rom what is described/ (1)

B1 - 2

[8]

5.

(a)

De nucleus a #ew cm & = to 1* cm 5bout 1 m & */= to + m & several m 1 to 1* mm 5l & 1 mm Hb (high energy) eAm radiation 1 to 1* cm o# Hb & several m o# concrete only + correct 1 mark only ' correct + marks Source absorbers placed in #ront o# detector on diagram $Iplanation o# how results identi#y the source (+ marks possible) 5llowance #or background (maI +) (allow #or distance eIpt to a maI +)

B= B1 B+
[6]

(b)

6.

(a)

(i) (ii)

#luI % B - 5 (normal to B) with symbols eIplained linkage % 3 - #luI + + 5 % x so linkage % 3Bx

B1 B1 B1

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(b)

(i)

Statement o# Faraday9s law or indication + e/g/ 4 % d(3Bx ) & dt #rom (a)(ii) + 4 % 3B x dx&dt or 4 % 3Bxv & argue area swept out per second as xv 4 % 1+J* - */*=+ - */*+ - */1 % */*K or K* m4

B1 B1 B1 5* B1 B1 B1 B1
[10]

(ii)

e,ual positive and negative regions e,ual positive and negative values o# 8maIima9 labelled on yAaIis value changes within correct time 7ones t % */+ to */' */0 to */K s 8s,uare pulse9 shape sinusoidal graphs score zero marks

7.

"niverse is isotropic &same in all directions Domogeneous & evenly distributed

B1 B1
[2]

8.

5ny #our #rom: "ni#orm intensity in all directions & everywhere Structure in background intensity & ripples Hroduced when matter and radiation decoupled Briginally gamma radiation (gamma) redAshi#ted to microwave & originally higher energy $vidence that universe began with big bang 6emperature corresponds to +/2 L & =L & that predicted by big bang model Mink between evidence and eIplanation/ (1)

B1 - '
[5]

9.

5ny two #rom: 3o eIperimental evidence & no physical evidence State o# matter unknown & laws o# physics unknown $nergies unreproducible & re#/ to very high temperature

B1 - +
[2]

10.

Bpen: "niverse eIpands #or all time Flat: eIpands to a limit (but never reaches it) !losed: "niverse contracts & collapses back Ce#erence to role o# gravity & critical density Earks #or (a) can be gained on a labelled diagram

B1 B1 B1 B1
[4]

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3

11.

Do % (1 - 1*

+

1+0

- K - ( - 0/02 - 1* s

111

)&=

!1 51
[2]

Do % +/=0 - 1*

11K 11

12.

(a)

Fensity (o# medium) Speed o# ultrasound (in medium) or any #actors that a##ect the speed o# ultrasound in the medium e/g/ Noung modulus (i) blood: 10 10 + 10 10 + # % (1/J. - 1* 1 1/0= - 1* ) & (1/J. - 1* : 1/0= - 1* ) 1' # % 1/J' - 1* muscle: 10 10 + 10 10 + # % 1/2* - 1* 1 1/0= - 1* ) & (1/2* - 1* : 1/0= - 1* ) 1' # % '/' - 1* so the medium is muscle (bald muscle scores zero) (s % u - t) = 10 s % 1/J' - 1* - +0/J - 1* % */*'*K m depth % */*'*K & + % */*+* m
= 0

B1 B1

(b)

B1 B1 B1 51

(ii)

!1 51

(iii)

O % 1/J' - 1* & =/J - 1* 1' % '/' - 1* m (do not penalise the same power o# ten error in (iii) as in (ii)

!1 51
[10]

13.

(a)

Mow energy PArays are absorbed by the skin & undesirable as can cause damage &greater ionising
1;I 1+J* - */*+J J 1+

B1

(b)

Q % Q*e

ln Q % ln Q* 1 ;I ln Q* % ln ='2 : +J* - */*+J

!1 !1 51

Q* % ='2 & e

Q* % 1/2. - 1* Gm (c)

H%Q-5 1+ + H % ='2 - ( - (*/*1* - 1* ) 1= H % 1/*. - 1* G

!1 51
[6]

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14.

(i)

H % 1K - 1** & */1J H% 1+*** G
12 11'

!1 51

(ii)

$nergy o# one electron % 1+*** & 2/J - 1* (1/0 - 1* + 11' > m v % 1/0 - 1* K 11 v % 1/. - 1* m s
12 11.

)

!1 51

(iii)

tube current % 2/J - 1* - 1/0 - 1* % */1+ 5 H % 4 - Q % 1+*** 4 % 1+*** & */1+ % 1***** 4 or 1** k4 11' 11. J Br: 4 % G&Q % 1/0 - 1* & 1/0 - 1* % 1/* - 1* (4)

!1 !1 51
[7]

15.

5ny six #rom: method does not use ionising radiation hence no radiation ha7ard to patient or sta## gives better so#t tissue contrast than !6 scans generates data #rom a =F volume simultaneously in#ormation can be displayed on a screen as a section in any direction there are no moving mechanisms involved in ECQ 6here is no sensation a#ter e##ects at the #ield strengths used #or routine diagnosis Strong magnetic #ield could draw steel objects into the magnet Eetallic objects may become heated !ardiac pacemakers may be a##ected by the magnetic #ields !6 scanners better #or viewing bony structures B1 - 0
[6]

16.

(a)

Cb .' !s JJ "1'= 11 #or each error 4alues #rom graph: " 2/' Ee4 allow 7.3 to 7. Cb K/0 Ee4 allow !." to !.# !s K/' Ee4 6otal binding energies: " +=J - 2/' (12=.) Cb .' - K/0 (K*K) !s 1'+ - K/' (11.=) 6otal energy released % K*K : 11.= 1 12=. % +0+ Ee4 allow K/0 : K/' 1 2/' % ./' Ee4 #or 1 mark only

B+

(b)

!1

B+ 51
[6]

The Windsor Boys' School

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1* (s) gi$e (%) mark &or change in momentum % impulse or Tmv % F(T)t 1+ + + + + (b) (i) !oulomb #orce @ distance or F1&F+ % r+ &r1 or Fr % constant (1) giving F % '/* 3 at 1* .J*R % '/2 (m s ) + + = 1+ 11 + (ii) a % v &r % '/2 &*/*1JR % 1/J .1* . (a) (i) > mv % 2/0 .1* &0/0 .1* (m s ) (1) (electrostatic) repulsion between charged particles (1) slows alpha and accelerates nucleus&5G (1) momentum o# system is conserved(as no eIternal #orces) (1) sum o# momenta o# alpha and nucleus must always e.1* 1+2 2 R % =/= .1/J+ .1* 11' m (+) = 1 [13] (ii) plot and draw correct curve ec& plausible $alues in b(i) (1) 19.1* (m s ) ec&(a)(i) + The Windsor Boys' School 6 . (a) (i) v % +(r# % +( .1* (m s ) + 1+* (iv) Ft % +mv or .*/*1J .0 [6] 18.t % + .ual initial momentum o# alpha&be a constant (1) so speed o# nucleus can be calculated as momentum % mv (1) max 3 1+2 2 1+J J 11 + 11= 11= 1+2 + (ii) = (iii) mv % E4 or 4 % 0/0 .1* 11' R % 1/K 3 at 1J .1* .1* R t % +/+ .2/0 .1* to give v % S(+ .1* or % 1/J+ .1* & =/* .0/0 .17.1/J+ .1* (1) 1' 2 11 evidence o# calculation v % S+/= . 5ny siI #rom: (two advantages and two disadvantages needed) problems with the reaction getting out o# control maintaining the reaction so that it proceeds continuously does not produce acid rain or waste gases that could cause pollution risks #rom radiation: emissions due to an accident (1)R emissions #rom radioactive wastes (1) long hal# li#e o# some o# the waste products (1) other eIamples are likely to be added but should be related to Scienti#ic reasons rather than political/ B1 ./* .

1* 1J 1J or % 1/'' .1* 1= Q le#t so 1* 4 le#tR % J/* (4) &1/+ . (a) Qo % !4 % 1/+ .1* 1K 11+ (5) (1) ' (iii) t % Qo&QR % 0 .1* .1* or 0/* .1* & '/10 .1* R % 0/* .1* R ! (=) 111 ' = 1K = (b) (i) (ii) C! % 1/+ .ually spaced hori7ontal parallel lines #rom plate to plate (1) arrows towards cathode (1) + The Windsor Boys' School 7 .1* (4) (+) + (c) 1 (ii) = [12] 20.(iii) the belt tension is insu##icient to provide the centripetal #orceR (1) so the belt does not 8grip9 the pulley&does not hold the belt against the pulley&there is insu##icient #riction to pull&push&move the belt/ (1) alternati$e argument the belt does not 8grip9 the pulley&there is insu##icient #riction to pull&push&move the beltR because o# its inertia&insu##icient to provide #orce #or acceleration o# (belt)Adrum + (b) resonance occursR when the natural #re.uency o# the motor (1) (i) 1 J 1J +J (ms) 2 * 1* +* =* (ms) Stating&using U % dV&dt (1) 11 = gradient % */02 W */*J (Gb turns ms )R em# % gradient .1* &1/+ .1* 111 .1* (s) + (iv) (c) (i) Q % Qoe R Q % */=2Qo so Q lost % */0=Qo capacitors in parallel come to same voltage (1) so Q stored @ ! o# capacitor (1) = 1= capacitors in ratio 1* so only 1* Qo le#t on #ootball (1) 1K 1K 111 111 1= + = (ii) 4 % Q&! % 0/* .1* 11 % 1/'' .J/* .1* or only 1* + [14] 21.1* (s) (1) 11+ 1 1 Q % 4&C % J***&1/+ .uency o# vibration o# the (1) panel % rotational #re. (a) (i) e.1/+ .1* or % '/10 .

.1* (m s ) (1) + 11. % (m) + .1* &+1+ % =/+2 ./1 .1* 2 11 v % '/. (a) (i) (ii) +1+R X +*KR @ + + (b) range&penetration&absorption eIperiment: @ place detector very close& +cm #rom sourceR measure count rate (1) use paper screen or move back to 1* cm or moreR contrast to (1) background count level& other emissions #rom same source (1) X place detector eg 1* cm #rom sourceR measure count rate add (1) thin sheets o# 5l until count drops to very low or almost constant value (1) aliter de#lection eIperiment: needs vacuum #or @ eIperimentR (1) source #or radiation passes through region o# $A or BA #ieldR (1) de#lection o# particles detected by detector to distinguish emissionsR (1) detection method (1) max marks += 1.0 . 1* ' (c) (i) 5 % O3R% Om35&ER% */*11J ./1 × 1* −=1 × '/.0 × 1* 2 =/* × 1* −= × 1/0 × 1* −1.2***&.1* 1+ ' (c) change magnitude o# current in coils to change #ieldR (1) change #ield to change de#lectionR (1) reverse #ield&current to change de#lection #rom up to down (1) max ' + [13] 22./' .1* min 11 = 1 1 [13] (ii) (iii) 61&+ % */0.1* 1=1 ) so (1) + 1 + (b) (i) (ii) arrow perpendicular to path towards centre o# arc (1) out o# paper&upwardsRusing Fleming9s MD rule (#or conventional current) (+) (iii) mv &rR % B.0/*+ .1* . R% .1 .(ii) > mv % .4R v % S(+e4&m) % S(+ .1/0 .=&O % 0*/= (min) (1) !urve passing through (* =+) (0* 10) (1+* K) ec&s &rom (i) ( (ii) (1) The Windsor Boys' School 8 .vR r % mv&B.

23.ual number o# nucleons involved i& nothing else is achie$ed (1) -ull argument: +=J g o# uranium and ' g o# hydrogen&helium contain 1 mole o# (1) atoms (1) there are '/+0 moles o# uranium and +J* moles o# helium (1) so at least JK times as many energy releases in #usion (1) ratio o# energies is only 2 #old in #avour o# uranium there#ore more energy release #rom 1 kg o# hydrogen any similar alternati$e argument along same lines scores marks (1) eg For " each nucleon 8provides9 */KJ Ee4 (1) For D each nucleon 8provides9 2 Ee4 (1) (5pproIimately) same number o# nucleons per kg o# " or D (1) so K/+ times as much energy #rom D Quality o# Gritten !ommunication ' + [6] The Windsor Boys' School 9 . . )o not score the same marking point twice* some marking points appear more than once in a di&&erent context &ission is splitting o& nuclei: neutron is absorbed by the nucleusR (1) an (unstable) nucleus splits into two (major) #ragmentsR (1) and several&two&three neutrons (1) charges on&!oulomb repulsion pushes #ragments apartR (1) loss o# mass&increased binding energy accounts #or k/e o# #ragments&release o# energy (1) &usion is &using o& nuclei+ two light nuclei (are moving rapidly enough to overcome the !oulomb repulsion to 8touch9 and) #useR statement in brackets gets second mark (1) has to be very hot #or nuclei to have enough kinetic energy& only (1) happens naturally inside Sun&star accept DAbomb (1) loss o# mass&increased binding energy accounts #or release o# energy similarity: release o# energy&total (rest) mass decrease&9increase9 in (1) binding energy &conservation o# charge&massAenergy etc di&&erence: &cold hot&heavy light nuclei&large (+** Ee4) small (=* Ee4) energy release per reaction (1) conditions: #ission rate can be varied&controlled by absorbing and or slowing released neutrons in reactor where chain reaction is occurring&5G (+) max ' marks #usion needs a very hot and su##iciently dense and plenti#ul plasma #or random #usion collisions to occur eg inside Sun&star&5G (+) max ' marks Quality o# Gritten !ommunication 2 + [9] 24.ppreciation that key is the di##erence in numbers o# atoms&nuclei or e.

uency & is proportional to #re.1* s or e.'Hu : * 11X & * 11e : $ (1) + allow neutrino instead o# antineutrino omits neutrino altogether A gets 1&+ 1= (b) straight line starts #rom 7ero and reaches 1/*K . . acts only on nearest neighbour & when nuclei are 1 diameter apartR (1) either so #orce holding nucleons& neutrons together independent o# si7e o# nucleus (1) or re#erence to b so distance apart (o# nucleons) must be constantR so density o# nucleus is independent o# si7eR (1) = [3] 27.25.=3p : 11X & 11e +=K 1 allow .+" : *n on MDS +=. +=.uency read metersR (1) 6able headings to show: meter readingsR (1) primary power secondary power e##iciency/ (1) Yraph o# e##iciency against drawnR (1) Fetails o# calculations o# power (may use meter readings and value o# resistor)R (1) $Ipression #or e##iciency & Z e##iciency/ (1) maI $nergy & heat is lost in core due to hysteresisR (1) $nergy & heat loss in 1 cycle is proportional to area o# hysteresis loopR (1) Fre.uivalent (1) 1 The Windsor Boys' School 10 . .1* at J t % 0/* . * * .uencies over a wide range & the range availableR (1) 5t each #re.uencyR (1) (so) induced current in core increases with #re.=3p : $ (1) [ +=.area enclosed by hysteresis loop/ (1) $nergy loss takes place due to heat generated in core by induced & eddy currentsR (1) Qnduced voltage in core increases with #re. (a) +=.+" [ .uency & is proportional to #re.uency increase reduces e##iciency because energy loss (per second) % #re.uency .uency 5/! source to primary core coilsR (1) resistor connected to secondaryR (1) appropriate meters in primary and secondary circuitsR (1) Quantities kept constant: 4oltage o# sourceR (1) Hrimary current & powerR (1) Cesistance o# secondary circuit resistorR (1) 3umber o# turns in both coilsR (1) Hrocedure: "se several #re.uency/ (1) maI 1* (b) ' [14] 26. (a) Sketch to include: 4ariable #re.

.=3p) + 1 (ii) (iii) % rate o# #ormation (1) d.1* u (% '/1K .1* ]) subs/ (1) 1+ % J/= .1* ans/ (1) calculation o# / gets 1&= 1+ = (iv) correctly curved #rom 7ero to (J/= .1* u ) (1) 1+2 allow m % 1/00 .1* m s : 1&+ 1 1 % =&' [11] + The Windsor Boys' School 11 . (a) (i) to come to rest simultaneously total mtm/ % * or 5G (1) (but initial mtm/ not 7ero) initial mtm/ % = m u 3 + m u % m u (1) when closest mtm/ % (=m : +m) $ (1) so Jm $ % m u (and $ % u & J) initial k/e/ % #inal k/e/ : (gain o#) p/e/ (1) + 1 (ii) + (b) (i) 1 (ii) k/e/ % > m $ (1) + + + total k/e/ % > .1* u 1 '/1K .= & 2> 2 J so .1* ) or less (1) 1 [10] 28.(c) (i) rate o# decay increases with timeR (1) because rate o# decay increases with & is proportional to number o# nucleiR (1) (eventually) rate o# decay (o# +=.1* (u&J) (+) (' ( × K/KJ × 1* −1+ × 1/J × 1* −1J ) 1/J= .+ m u (% +/J m u ) (1) 1+2 + 1+2 + % +/J . ) + 1+2 + 1+2 + % '/1K .&dt) & / % 1/K .1* 0 11 u % 0/1K .1* % '/*1 . % (d.1* & (*/0.= & \+/*' .= m u : > .1* kg #or #ull credit gain o# p/e/ % initial k/e/ 1 #inal k/e/ (1/0 × 1* −1.1/02 .1* m s (1) omits A '/1K .1* 1+2 11= 1+2 = (iii) u (1) algebra ' 0 11 + (u&J) gets u % 0/ *0 .&dt % (1) / 0 e1uation (1) / % */0.

.+" [ 1** '*ar : 1=1 J+6e : J *n (1) 1 1 (i) (ii) nucleon number: no change proton number: increases by (1) nucleon number: 1** proton number: '' (1) J correct points (1) ' correct arrows (1) straight line through & close to J0 & '' o# (1) b gradient c + i# curved correct sense (1) reactant mass % ./K. (% .uantities o# reactants (in vessel) (1) reaction ceases immediately (temperature #alls) (1) any two reasons (^) ` 1mark : corresponding detail ` 1 mark % + : + accept other valid answers [4] 30. (much) greater energy per unit mass o# #uel (1^) detail: greater change o# binding energy & nucleon #or #usion than #ission (1) no & little radioactive waste (1^) detail: byAproduct is (stable) helium (1) materials in _$6 structure will not become radioactive over long period (1) tritium has short hal#Ali#e (and is used anyway) (1) #uel & reactants (virtually) limitless (1^) detail: deuterium available #rom water (1) deuterium easily separated #rom normal hydrogen (1) lithium is a common material (1) but not tritium is widely available no chance o# runaway & meltdown (1^) detail: only minute . (a) (b) +=0 ./K.+ ++K u) (1) mass de#ect % */**= JK* u (1) 1 1 (iii) + (iv) 1 (c) (i) + The Windsor Boys' School 12 .29...J K*K u product mass % ./K.1 02. : */*** J'.

(ii) Tm % */**= JK* .1* ./.1* 1+* % .1* ) (% J/=J .1* ) R giving t % 1/J .1* (% J/== ./. (a) (i) (ii) suitable patternR arrows #rom : ion to 1 ion F % kQ1Q+&r R Q1 % Q+ % e (+) F % ./+ .1* (3) (+) ' (b) (3+ gives) FD % mDaD and FQ % mQaQ (1) (3= gives) FD % FQ (1) can be implicit SDE gives a @ 1 x (1) hence xD&xQ % aD&aQ % mQ&mD % 1+2 (1) ' The Windsor Boys' School 13 .1/0 . (_) ' ' = + + + + (iii) (iv) ' % J eIp(1t&1/J .1/0 .ln 1/+J % =/= .1/00 .1* _) (1) 1+2 1=* + (iii) (antiA)neutrino is also emitted (1) (antiA)neutrino has (some) energy (1) recoiling (niobium) nucleus has (kinetic) energy (1) any ' + [12] 31.'= .1* _) (1) or uses 1 u % .1* (% J/.1* % +/. .1* kg) (1) + 4 % (T)m c 1=* K + 11= % J/. + 1=K + + 11* &+J .1* % =/* mG ec& b(ii) and (iii) + + = allow H % 4av &C % '/J &0/K .=1 .+/+ % 1/J .1* s % '/10 h TG % > !(41 14+ ) % 1/1(+J 1 10) R % .1* .1* .=1 Ee4 so */**=JK % .1* (s) H % TG&Tt % .1* .'= .&=/= .*/**=JK (% =/== Ee4) (1) 11= 11+ % =/== .K mG = + 1 [11] 32.1* . (a) (i) (ii) Q % 4!R G % > 4!/4 ( % > !4 ) (+) parabolic shape passing through origin (1) + plotted accurately as G % 1/1 4 (1) = ' + ' (b) (i) (ii) 6 % C!R % 0/K .(=/* .

1* % '/K .1* .(c) (i) (ii) sine or cosine curveR amplitude K/* .1* R s or B.1* (s ) 11K +J K 11 5 % O3 % '/.uency o# oscillation o# molecule&5G (1) 33.&'/J .0 . . 5: the number o# (undecayed) nuclei which decay per second&rate o# decay o# nuclei O: the probability o# a given nucleus decaying in the neIt second or in unit time&the (decay) constant relates the activity to the number o# undecayed nuclei 3: the number o# undecayed nuclei&nuclei o# the original nuclide (remaining) 1 1 1 [3] 34.1* .1* % 1/2 .1* 11+ mR period % 1/J .1* .* and +=' + .2/* .uency o# radiation % natural (1) #re.1* ) O % */0. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) . . #orce per unit (positive) charge #orce per unit mass #orce per unit length o# conductor carrying unit currentR perpendicular to #ield and current examples o& similarities: all eIplain action at a distance all #orces per unit somethingd/ #ield lines never crossR density o# lines indicates relative strength o# #ield $ and g have the same laws&geometry e/g/ #or point and&or plane distributionsR #or $ and g #orce in direction o# #ieldR #ield lines perpendicular to sur#ace 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 + The Windsor Boys' School 14 .=/J .1* 11' s = + [15] resonance situationR driving #re.=/+ .1* . 2 11K 11 = += +J 10 0 1 1 1 1 + [6] 35.1* % 1' (kg) 3 % (m&E) 35 % 1' .&6 % */0.1* &+=K (% =/J .

#luI where 3 is the number o# turns (o# the coil) Faraday9s law: induced e/m/#/&voltage is proportional to rate o# change o# #luI linkage through it &correct mathematical #ormulation&5G Men79s law: the direction o# the induced e/m/#/&voltage is such as to oppose the motion&change that produced it relationship o# Men79s law to conservation o# energy or other valid eIplanation&discussion&description max " marks .uality o# written communication 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + [7] 37.uality o# written communication 1 + + 1 1 + + [9] 36.uals 3 . magnetic #luI % B5 meanings o# B and 5 i/e/ #luI density or #ield strength and area ⊥ to it magnetic #luI linkage re#ers to the #luI linking&passing through a coilR and e. (a) (to a maIimum o# 2 marks) e/g/ e PAray source : detectors round patient d e d rotated around patient d& the signal & PAray passes through the same section o# the body #rom di##erent directions/ e d producing a (thin) slice & crossAsection/ e Qdea o# absorption & less gets through & more is absorbed d e by dense material & bone & material o# high a & Digh a related to materials such as bone & Mow a to materials such as so#t tissue e attenuation is by the photoAelectric e##ect e the possibility o# using a contrast medium/ e better than a simple PAray at di##erentiating other organs/ e patient is moved a small distance and the process is repeated & process continues in a spiral/ e a computer (analyses the data) & identi#ies the position o# organ&bone d e d and #orms a =AF image/ 2 (b) e Hatients are eIposed to ionising radiation/ (1) 15 The Windsor Boys' School .examples o& di&&erences+ #orces caused by di##erent entitiesR and act di##erently i/e/ $ and g di##erent to BR #orce caused by stationary versus moving chargeR direction o# #orce #or B given by F/M/D/rule etc/ g is only attractive $ (and B) can cause attractive and repulsive #orces #ield lines #or B #ield closed loops others start and #inish on m Q magnitudes o# #orces very di##erent #or unit ddR detail/ max 7 marks .

8to a max. (1) e Qt9s eIpensive/ e 6ime consuming & uses valuable resources etc// = [10] 38.4 &rom+7e.1/J . o& 59 e 5 p/d/ & voltage must be applied d e d causing the (pie7oelectric) crystal to change shape/ e 5 named crystal (eg .uent) peaks (not just 8nothing9) (1) = [7] The Windsor Boys' School 16 .uency o# the crystal resonance occurs/ e 6he crystal is damped & stops vibrating when the applied voltage stops d e d due to the backing material & epoIy resin d e d which also absorbs backwardAtravelling sound waves (which might give spurious re#lections)/ J [5] 39.e (Qonising radiation) could cause cancer & damage cells (1) 5lus a maximum o& 6.uency applied matches the natural #re.+* fs cm .g. (i) e J/' cm :&1 */1 cm read #rom the graph (1) e % J/' .uart7 lead 7irconate titanate \Ha6] lithium sulphate barium titanate) e 5n alternating p/d/ causes the crystal to oscillate & vibrate (accept resonate)/ e Q# the #re.1* m s (1) e % */10+ m (1) e */10+ & + % */*K1 m or K/1 cm (1) ' 11 = 11 (ii) e Digh re#lection at the airAskin boundary & Mittle ultrasound enters the body & 5 very large peak right at the start d (1) e d due to large di##erence in acoustic impedance & allow 8ddue to large di##erence in density9/ (1) e 4ery low peaks & no (subse.

+" = [6] 42.40.uency & number o# collisions among nucleiR (1) gravitational attraction heats plasma & gravitational p/e/ changed to heatR (1) any = [3] 43. (i) (neutrons) having energies comparable with thermal energies & slow moving & low kinetic energy & energy in range 0 A 1** e4 & energy similar to (energy o# ) atoms o# surroundings R either thermal neutrons will be captured & absorbed (by "A+=J nuclei) or higher energy neutrons do not get absorbedR 1 1 [2] (ii) 41.=1 Ee4 1' = The Windsor Boys' School 17 .1* . % +/*1' 1*+ u so Tm % '/J .1* _ (1) allow conversion using 1 u % .1/**2 +20 % +/*1' JJ+ u product mass % +/*1= JJ= : */*** J'.1* ) %0/2 . (i) (ii) = points plottedR any point incorrect loses this mark 1 + curve through = points and heads down towards 7eroR (1) line peaks between Br and originR (1) +=J (iii) B$ per nucleus o# B$ o# products % 2/0* .1* ) .(=/* ./+ Ee4 gets * 1 * % 1 .(1/00 .1* u (1) + 4 % Tm c (1) 1' 1+2 K + 11' % '/J . (i) reactant mass % + . con#ines & pulls together plasma & nuclei & ions & nucleons & protonsR (1) so increases density& concentration & number per unit volumeR (1) and increases #re.+=J (% 12K0 Ee4) % K/+* . Ee4 (1) omits multiplication by nucleon number to get .1'0 : K/0* .2 : 2'K Ee4) so energy released % (11. either area is potential & stored energy & work done & energy to overcome coulomb barrier or minimum k/e/ at in#inity or 5GR (1) it is (minimum) energy needed #or #usionR (1) [2] 44.2 : 2'K) 1 12K0 (1) % 1J.K2 both lines (1) (% 11.

(i) (ii) up down down & uddR Q u (:)+&= d 11&= B (:)1&= (:)1&= S * * 1 u values (1) d values (1) + The Windsor Boys' School 18 .* R (1) lines sensibly 8mirror images9R (1) = [10] 46. .* % (J/** & +=K) .number o# undecayed "A+=K nucleiR (1) so 1&= o# "A+=K has decayed and +&= o# "A+=K has not decayedR (1) (so ratio % +&=) . 11* 11 + (b) either O % */0.*) % 1O t alg/ & arith/ (1) ans/ (1) x .= & ('/'2 .* e 1Ot y ) subs/ (1) so . % . so t % +/01 .* % (J/** .1* % 1/+0 .1* atoms (1) ++ 1+2 (d) eIponential decay graph #or ": starts #rom .1* ) (% 1/JJ .1* % +/01 . (a) number o# decayed "A+=K nuclei % > .1* .1* atoms or ++ 1= subs/ (1) ans/ (1) + . : .+=K) (1) .(ii) positron and electron annihilate 1 [4] 45. : .0/*+ .1* .1* % 1/+0 . (i) (ii) leptonsR neutrino & muon & tau(on)R 1 1 [2] 47.* % e 1Ot and ln (.1* y += (c) either .1* ) & (1/02 .* and approaches t aIisR (1) eIponential growth o# Hb #rom 7ero: approaches a constant value o# .'/'2 . ln (*/002) % 11/JJ .* % (>) so */002 % (>) and ln (*/002) % x ln(*/J) x % */JK' then t % x 2> % */JK' .= & 2> % */0. : .1* y or and x 11* t = .

11.1* */=0'R (% =/0' . % K/=0 .1/+ .uency o# "4 is greater than #re.1* 3) (+) triangle o# #orces gives G&F % tan 2* etc (1) = 10 1. (a) appropriate shapeR lines perpendicular to and touching plate and sphereR (+) arrows towards negative sphere (1) (i) = (b) By moments e/g F cos +* % G sin +* & by triangle o# #orces & by resolution o# #orces & other suitable methodR i.1* &r R (+) or use F % (1&'()o)Q &r R r % =/0 .1* (m) (1) + + 1= 1+ = The Windsor Boys' School 19 .(iii) so #or neutron . .1* & 1/+ .uency o# light BC alternative statement in terms o# wavelength/ so photon energy o# visible light is less than photon energy o# "4 (1) HM"S one o# the idea o# conservation o# energy it is not possible #or a low energy photon to give a high energy photon this is a one to one process (1) $ % 4&d and power o# 1* correct #or d (1) % =*&*/***+* % 1J* *** (1) 11 4 m (1) 1 = (c) + (d) = [9] 49.1* R3 ! & 4 m + = + .%* <%1 =%* 1 [4] 48.1* % .1* (_) (1) #re.1* giving r % 0 .e. = 11 11 (ii) $ % F&QR % =/0' .1* tan +*R % 1/* .1* . >usti&ication needed (1) 1J 1J 10 F % 1/* .1* % =/* . (a) (b) one (or more) electrons removed (or added) to an atom $ % h# % hc&O together with knowledge o# symbol meaning (1) 0/0= × 1* −=' × =/** × 1* K % (1) +=K × 1* −. + = (c) $ % (1&'()o)Q&r R =/* . 1.

*/**+JR % =/* (3) 5 voltage is induced across moving metal as it cuts lines o# #luI&5GR (1) voltage is proportional to #luI change per second&5GR (1) the #luI change per second is Bwv & is proportional to the area o# metal moving through the #ield per second & is proportional to v (1) or Faraday9s law #ully statedR with reasonable attempt toR (+) relate #luI linkage per second proportionally to speed (1) #luI (linkage) doublesR so using Faraday9s law 4 doubles&5G + 1 + (b) (i) = + [10] (ii) The Windsor Boys' School 20 . .1* 11+ s ) accept ln ' 11* 1 (c) (i) Q % !4 % 1/+ . . (a) +.(d) #ield line sketch minimum o& " lines symmetrical about line >oining centres with arrowsR (1) Fig 1 sketch matches CDS o# Fig +&plate analogous to mirror&5G relating to symmetry (1) + [14] 50. $ariations R % =/K .=&(1+* .K** .1* using 7.*R evidence o# calculation (% 1/1 .1* K R % 0/.1* .=/+ .R =' 2 11* 11 + (b) O % */0. &ig.1* 11..? gi$es 3. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) F is towards 8open9 end o# tubeR using Fleming9s M/D/ rule F % BQw F % */1J .=&6 % */0.1* allow sig.1* 11* &1/0 .@ 1K + = 5 % O3R 3 % 0/. K !) + (ii) (iii) (iv) n % Q&e % 1/1 .1* &1/K .1* ) % (1/K .1* 11* 1 y is less than 1Z o# 1+* y so eIpect to be within 1Z& 1Ot using e gives eIactly 1Z #all& problem o# random emission or other relevant statement 1 [11] 51.

uation suggests&5GR + mass reduction provides energy release& gm % g$&c (1) the process re. description: (') hydrogen or light nuclei&protons are #used together to #orm a helium&heavier&larger nucleusR (1) two positrons must also be releasedR to conserve chargeR (+) the process is more complicated than the summary e.1* ) % 2/K* .1/J .1* m 11 11 1 [1] The Windsor Boys' School 21 .52. nature and #eatures: @Aparticle is +p : +n& mass ' u (1) charge o# :+e (1) very short range&heavily ioni7ing&absorbed by paper (1) spontaneousR and random nature o# radioactive decay (+) energetically more #avourable to eject #our particles together than a single one&other comment about energy minimisation&mainly occurs #rom higher 5 nuclei&5G (1) small mass decrease&loss provides kinetic energy o# @Aparticle (1) particle energy o# a #ew Ee4R particular decay is monoenergetic (+) @Aparticle scattering: suitable diagram and/or description to illustrate eIperiment up to ' marks (+) most particles have little i# any de#lection (1) large de#lection o# very #ew shows nucleus is smallR and very massive (+) (!oulomb9s law enables closest approach to) estimate nuclear si7e (in case o# @Aparticle back scattering with conservation o# energy argument) Quality o# Gritten !ommunication maI 2 + [9] 53.uires very high temperatures (to bring the protons together)R (1) normally achieved inside a starR only by man in a bomb so #arR (1) comparison: (+) $nergy release in #usion is much greater than in radioactive decayR because mass reduction&change in #usion is much greater than in radioactive (1) decay&5GR (1) as the helium nucleus is so strongly boundR (1) also energy release #rom annihilation o# positronsR (1) Quality o# Gritten !ommunication maI J + [7] 54. (J/+ .

(i) accept description of plan view or side view. Dydrogen atoms&particles (1) !ollapse under gravity& decrease o# gpe (1) Qncrease in kinetic energy& temperature (1) Fusion o# protons (1) + $nergy released& re#/ to $ % gmc (1) [5] 56. side: central bulge (1) galactic disc each side (1) plan: accumulation o# stars in centre/ (1) spiral arms (minimum o# + arms) (1) correct position o# Sun (accept +K***ly #rom centre) (1) + 1 [3] (ii) 59. in#inite "niverse (1) all lines o# sight end on star (1) so night sky should be bright& not dark (1) either eIpanding "niverse&light undergoes red shi#t (1) more distant galaIies have greater red shi#t (1) or age o# "niverse is #inite (1) light #rom distant stars not yet reached $arth (1) [5] 58. (i) (ii) hydrogen & helium gas (1) #ormed a#ter big bang & remnants o# supernovas (1) critical density is condition #or #lat "niverse/ (1) dark matter increases density o# "niverse/ (1) density greater than critical density/ (1) "niverse will contract & big crunch/ (1) [6] The Windsor Boys' School 22 .r (1) labels (including one re#erence to $arth&Sun&YalaIy) (1) + [2] 57. v @ r & v % Do .55.

(a) 0 points plotted correctly (1) remaining point plotted correctly (1) sensible continuous smooth graph drawn (1) (i) (ii) */. (a) #orces -S and -Y acting inwards #orce -$ acting outwards A all through centre o# protonR = #orces +&+ + #orces 1&+ marked and labelled (+) -$ % -S : -YR accept -$ : -S : -Y % * allow ec& &rom (a) (1) + + + (b) 1 (c) (i) -$ % .4 e. 1I = 1 (b) (1) ' [8] 62. & ('( )* r ) (1) % (1/0 .K/KJ . For ation of i a!e to a ax 3 e/g/ PArays are detected by a #ilm & scintillation counter etc/ (1) Digh 8a9 means high attenuation & low transmission \5llow atomic mass & nucleon number] (1) shadow on the #ilm & re#erence to eIposure a#ter attenuation (1) Ce#erence to photoelectric e##ect & energy range around 111**ke4 & = absorption h a (1) "xplanation of the #se of a contrast edi# to a ax.!.1* 11J use o# r % 1/' . to a maI/ K [8] 61. + 11+ 11J + ) ] % +.1 e. PArays do not di##erentiate & show up so#t tissues well d(1) d as similar absorption & 8a9 is similar & 8a9 is low #or these tissues/ (1) !ontrast medium has high 8a9 & absorbs PArays strongly/(1) Qt is usually taken orally & as an enema & can be injected/(1) "xa ple of t$pe of str#ct#re that can %e i a!ed to a digestive tract & throat & stomach/(1) ax.60. 3 (1) + The Windsor Boys' School 23 .1* m (11) once only 11.!.1* (+/K .J :&1 */1* mm (1) Q & Qo % e (1) */J* % e f % 2=* (1) 11 m (1) 1*/***.1* ) & \'( .

1* s or c .+ " 1 + * * v ( − bar) + 1 " → +=.1* 11J + ) % +/' .) .0/02 . % (*/*J .0/*+ .1* (atoms)) += + (ii) activity % / . . g o# Hu contain 0/*+ . & s ans.1* -S % +/' . (1) 11= += % . . . .= P (b) (i) (ii) +' *** year & i+' *** year / % ln + & 2> % ln + & (+'*** .'/' & */+=.5 (1) .1* ie applies Z and units correctly (1) += (% J/J' .(ii) (iii) (d) (e) -Y % m A & r (1) % (1/02 .1* B./10 ./10 .' Hu + −1 e + * v ( − bar) omits any neutrino (11) once only electron incorrectly represented (11) once only +=.+' . B unit (+) = [12] The Windsor Boys' School 24 .1* 111 & (+/K .1* 1=J 3 (1) + 1 1 1 -S % +.1* s ans/ (1) 1J #ailure to convert years to s giving +/K. 3 & same as F$ allow ec& (1) -$ ii -Y so -Y negligible & insigni#icant & can be ignored or 5G (1) (i) (ii) (iii) -$ % * (1) -Y % +/' .1* allow ec& 11 11 % J/*K . (a) (i) (ii) (iii) +=K .=0J ./10 .1* 1+2 + + + ) .= P + −1 e * * → +=.1* 1=J 3 (approI/) allow ec# (1) 3 (approI/) (1) 1 1=J comment: -S now repulsive (not attractive) or 5G or indicated by minus sign with -SR (1) any 3 1 [12] 63.1* .=0**) subs/ (1) % .J/J' .1* gets 1&+ += 11= 11 11= 11 1 + (c) (i) +=.1* atoms or alternative correct use o# . . * .+ " +=.+ 1 + * n→ +=.

+1 '1 : */*** JJ % 1.1* .1* ) : + .+ gives =1/2 .+ → * 1e + → −* (1) 1e omits both neutrinos gets 1&+ maI/ : 1.64.+ and .1* .1K 2. u (1) products mass c reactant mass so reaction can occur (1) X decay: (reactant mass % 1.+ K* Dg + * v (1bar) + (b) X decay: reactant mass % 1.1. + 11+ 11= 11J 11= = (b) 4H % (1/0 .1* .1/1 . 5u 1 1.+ X : 2.(+/= .1/. 5u X : : 1.1* L ans/ (1) 1 (d) either: 4L is the mean k/e/ o# protons (1) protons (in plasma) have a range o# k/e/s (1) any % so (at any instant) some protons have much greater k/e/ than average or+ protons can #use #or separations i +/1 #m (1) because o# (.1+ i 1 .1K +' : */*** JJ % 1.K/KJ .1* _ #or 1&+ + neutrinos escape #rom the Sun (and carry away energy) (1) _ (+) + 1 (#) either 2 (h 4L) h .(K/K .1* % +/*2 . (a) p/e/ increases (1) k/e/ decreases (1) or k/e/ is converted to p/e/ gets +&+ eventually all k/e/ is changed to p/e/ (1) 11.1* ) % '+/K .1* ) (% 1/1 .1/.+ * 2K Ht + * v (1) * + 1.1* L 6 so 6 % +/2 .1* 11= adds energies without .+ is greater #or reactions in carbon cycle (eg 1 .1)R or verbally: repulsion is greater between nuclei in carbon cycleR (1) greater repulsion & !oulomb barrier means more energy needed (so higher temp/) (1) + [13] 65.1/.1* 11' 1+= % J/J . accept +/0 .1/.0 u products mass i reactant mass so reaction cannot occur (1) 1 J The Windsor Boys' School 25 .1/.1.+1 '2 u) product mass % 1.+1 .+/1 .1* ) : (+*/0 .1* _ (1) _) (1) + so k/e/ o# each proton % > .uantum) tunnelling (e##ects) (1) 11= 11= 11= 11= + (e) (i) (ii) + .1/.+1 '2 u product mass % 1.1* ) & (' ( . (a) 2. 11' (c) J/J .

1* _ (1) 11 11= accept .1* (1) 11= % '/** . all #ree hadrons (thought to be) (somewhat) unstableR (1) protons and neutrons are (both) hadronsR (1) : (1) protons and neutrons inside a nucleus are stableR (1) #ree neutrons have hal# li#e o# 1* A 1J minutesR (1) =+ #ree protons are stable & have hal# li#e o# about 1* yearR (1) allow e.1/.1* ..(=/* . #ission is when splitting (into two parts releasing energy) takes place and #usion is when joining together takes place (1) nuclei as the active particles (1) + [2] The Windsor Boys' School 26 .+1 '2 1 1.(c) X mass de#ect & mass loss% 1.1K 2.1/0 . (i) (ii) weak (#orce & interaction)R (1) = 1D 1 1 [ +De : = * 11e : $ R (1) (iii) d [ u : e : $ R (+) d [ u gets 1&+ u d [ u : e & X : $ is not in simplest #orm so gets > d baryon reaction *n [ 1p : 1 1 * 11e : $ gets > + [4] 68.=+ Ee4 (+) % (+/J* Ee4) 0 11. % +/J* .1* kg) + so energy loss % gm c (1) 1=* K + '/'J .uivalent marks #or other hadrons and & or other relevant points any J [5] 67.=' Ee4 u giving =/.1/00 . (1) (% */**+ 0K u) 1+2 then either+ mass loss in kg % */**+ 0K . 1 '/**(J) .1* _ : ' [11] 66.1* _ (1) or : */**+ 0Ku % */**+ 0K ..1* ) 11= % '/** .1* (1) 1=* (% '/'J .1/.1* .=* 1 .

o % e % */*1K= (1) 1' 70. (a) (b) 7ero (do not allow 8small9) (1) =** G #or 1 watt there#ore =** G .* (1) + + P J =* % CV N +J % +J .* : 'J* : 10+* % +10* (f_) (1) (b) (i) (ii) (c) (i) Lirchho##9s second law BC conservation o# energy (1) Lirchho##9s #irst law BC conservation o# charge (1) time constant % CR (1) 10 % 2/J .:C % 0 (4) (1) energy & f_ % > CV (1) %>-J-0 % .+* #or +* G 0*** G (1) 1 1 The Windsor Boys' School 27 .o e − (1) + [19] .&.1* .+** *** % 1/J (s) (1) ' !C !C % 0 (4) (1) % 'J* (1) % 10+* (1) + . = .0 %1J* (f!) (1) =* : 1J* % a 1* 1K* (f!) (1) % .:C C 1K*&1* % 1K (4) (1) $ach boI correctly calculated scores (1) : (1) #or > CV (ii) 1 1K 4 : 0 4 % +' (4) (1) 2 1K* (fj!) (1) 3 1K* & +' % 2/J (1) 4 . (a) (i) capacitor capacitance & fF charge & f! p/d/ & 4 % .69. ' 1 1 + (ii) .

uires a resultant (#orward) #orce&F % ma idea (1) 5rrow in direction o# motion&to right (1) (t % s&v % =/*&*/0* %) J/* s (1) F % m (v 1 u)&tR % J** .uid nitrogen (1) other sensible suggestion (1) D.+/* .$ % m - ' (iii) circular paths #or both ions (1) "1+=J ion with slightly smaller radius (1) paths curving upwards (1) = [16] 71.(c) e/g/ i# run at .1/+&J/*R % 1+* (3) ec& b (iii) (=) 11 + + 1 1 = (ii) (iii) (iv) The Windsor Boys' School 28 .+ L there is a danger that superconductivity will cease as a result o# a slight temperature rise (1) a 1J L di##erence provides a sa#ety region (1) 22 L is the boiling point o# li.1/00 .% <.$ (1) $+ (1) r r % m$&<.1* kg (1) +=J × 1/00 × 1* −+2 × K/= × 1* J r% % 1/J1 m (1) 1/=' × 1/0 × 1* −1. <.EFDGD (') + (d) (i) area o# crossAsection o# wire % 1* m (1) 10 + K 1+ current % 1* m . (1) 1+2 m % +=J .1* 5 m (1) % +** 5 (*) 1/+0 × 1* −0 × +** × =+** (1) + × */=* % 1/=' 6 (1) <= 10 + + (ii) + 1 (e) (i) (ii) . (a) (b) (mv %) =**R kg m s or 3 s (+) (i) (6he speed o# the bar increases so) it is accelerated #orwards&5GR (1) this re.

0/J . + (ii) 1&+mv % '/K .uent times (+) + + (c) (i) + (ii) = [11] 73.1* (!) (+) 6he total capacitance o# each circuit is the same (namely 1** .1* .1/0 .1* m s ) (+) ' . (a) (i) (ii) J/* (4) (1) 1*/* (4) (1) 1= 1 1 (b) (i) (ii) Q % !4R% 1/* .1* 1+0 _) (+) + .+/= .F)R (1) because capacitors in series add as reciprocals& in parallel add& supply voltage is the same and Q % 4! etc/ (1) max ' marks 51 will give the same reading as 5+R because the two ammeters are (1) connected in series &5G (1) answer only in terms o& exponential decrease &or a maximum o& % mark 5' will show the same reading as 5+ at all timesR (1) 5= will show hal# the reading o# 5+ initiallyR and at all subse. giving r % mv&BQ % +/= .1* + 112 % ('/K .1* &(*/12 .1/0 .(c) k ray sourceR (1) the only radiation with su##icient penetrating power&ability to discriminate between di##erent thicknesses&5G (1) + [11] 72.1* )R (1) r % JJ mmRso distance % +r % */11 m (+) + + 1 J [13] The Windsor Boys' School 29 . (a) Hositive as $A#ield is downwards&top plate is positive&like charges repel&5G (1) 11.1* R + + (c) (d) $ % 4&dR so d % 4&$ % 0**&' . 112 1 (b) (i) k/e/ % Q4R % =** .1* % */*1J m (+) (i) (ii) semicircle to right o# hole (1) ec&(a)* (a) and d(i) to be consistent mv &rR % BQvR (+) 1+0 ' 11.1* ' 11 (giving v % 0/'0 .1* R % */J .v so v % '/12 .

1* += s (1) 1 = 5 % O3R 3 % 0/*+ .1* kg)R (1) + 11' 11= $ % c TmR % . .uency o# the a/c/ signal doubles&period halves&5G (1) 4 doubles when the number n o# turns on the coil doublesR (1) when n doubles there is twice as much #luI linking the coil&5GR (1) the #re.#luI where 3 is the number o# turns o# the coil (1) Quality o# Gritten !ommunication maI J + [7] 76. sine or cosine wave o# regular period and amplitude (1) 4 doubles when the speed v o# rotation o# the coil doublesR (1) when v doubles the rate o# change o# #luI linking the coil doublesR (1) the #re.=&10** .=/10 .=/2 .2/.11* % */11 _ L R (+) Q&s % */*+=' _R so t % */11&*/*+=' % '/2 s (+) ' [13] 75.uals 3 .11* l: (+) 11 giving l % */+1= L s R and t % 1&l % '/2 s (+) 11 or Q % mclR Q&L % */**1 . (a) (i) (ii) 1=K (1) K0 (1) 2 111 11 1 1 (b) (i) (ii) O % */0.1* % 1/' . Faraday9s law: the em#&voltage induced across a coil&component&circuit is (1) proportional to the rate o# change o# #luI (linkage) through it &5G (1) magnetic #luI % B5R (1) meanings o# B and 5 i/e/ #luI density or #ield strength and area ( ⊥ to it) (1) magnetic #luI linkage re#ers to the #luI linking&passing through a coilR (1) and e. (1) 1=* (c) Tm % */**J= u (% K/K .1* (_) (+) 1* 11= = (d) Q % mclR so */K . .1* % 2/.K/K .1* B.74.uency&period o# the signal is unchangedR (1) without iron core #luI linking coil is much less&#luI would spread in all directions&#luI not channelled through low reluctance path&5G (1) amplitude o# output voltage is smaller (1) actually is tiny:negligible:mV rather than V Quality o# Gritten !ommunication maI 2 + [9] The Windsor Boys' School 30 .1* &++0R evidence o# calculation to give =/0 or (+) 1* =/2 .1* % */**1 .1* . .

1* ec# (1) 12 = density % K/' . (i) volume % '( (1* ***) &= % '/+ .77. an$ 4 fro & end o# D burning&red giant&supergiant (1) onset o# De #usion&#usion o# heavier nuclei (1) gravitational collapse o# core (1) supernova eIplosion& star eIplodes (1) suitable mass limit (chanderasekha limit 1/'E) (1) supported against gavity by neutron gas pressure& re# to Fermi pressure (1) internal structure protons and electrons combined& very thin atmosphere& metallic crust (1) ' [4] 78.1* kg&m (1) any two #rom density (very) much greater than material on $arth (1) ' 1= .1* & '/+ .uotes typical density on $arth 1 1 1* kg m (1) atomic structure collapsed & density same as atomic nucleus (1) = 1+ = (ii) + [5] 79. (i) (ii) energies&temperatures irreproducible on $arth & laws o# Hhysics break down (1) temperature decreases (1) universe eIpanding&work done against attractive #orces& energy converted to mass (1) an$ 3 #rom protons and electrons separate initially (1) matterAradiation e.uilibrium&charge prevents passage o# em waves (1) protonAelectron recombination &#ormation o# atoms (1) gamma& em waves no longer absorbed (1) 1 + (iii) = [6] The Windsor Boys' School 31 .1* (1) =* 1+ density % =/J .

uired % 4 Q t % 1+ .=0** % 1/= .1* _ (1) 1 (b) + The Windsor Boys' School 32 . = (ii) any two #rom universe eIpands to a limit& #lat universe (1) but never reaches that limit (1) density o# universe % critical density (1) curve: passes through H (1) curves over and back to time aIis (1) "niverse not so old (no ec# #rom (iii)& "niverse will end in big crunch (no ec# #rom iii) & universe has #inite li#etime (1) + (iii) + (iv) 1 [8] 83.1* s & =0J .1* s (1) t* % '/1= .1* y (1) 12 1* 12 1.uare law) or 6he area o# panel re. (i) D* % 2J & =/1 .J .1* (1) t* % 1 & D* % '/1= .80.uired would be too large&massive to launch (i) $nergy re.+' .0* (1) J % '/=+ . isotropic (1) homogenous (1) + [2] 82. (a) 6he intensity o# sunlight is too small (inverse s.1+* . an$ 5 #rom: starAlight shows red shi#t (1) galaIies (stars) receding #rom $arth (1) recessional velocity proportional to distance (1) cosmological microwave background radiation (!EBC) (1) uni#orm intensity in all directions (1) small ripple (1) (black body temperature) +/2 L (=L) (1) Digh ratio o# helium to hydrogen (1) Qndicates very high temperatures eIisted (1) ratio too high to originate #rom stellar #usion (1) J [5] 81.

uired % ('/=+ .+' .1* _ alphas per day % */'=+ E_ & K . & KK .1* += % 1/* .1* seconds) 3umber o# nuclei re.uired % 1/* .1* (1) (allow mark #or #ormula 5 % O3) += += Eass re.=0J .1* .1* & +' .1* sec (+) .=0** alphas per sec) + (c) Fecay constant o# Hu +=K % */0.1/0 .1* % K/* . (1) 11= 11= (or */'=+E_ & K .J % 0*G #or +h so only JG #or +'h i# 1**Z e##icient but % J & */+J % +*G) 0 11.=0** (+) % +* G (1K/JG i# */'* E_ used) (or H % 4Q % 1+ .1* B.1**&+J) m +' .(ii) Steady power re.1* (1) % '* gms % */*'* kg (1) 1= 11* (1) 0 (d) Bn launch the rocket gives the spacecra#t a huge kinetic energy (in order to escape) Failure at this point could cause spacecra#t and contents to nburn upo in atmosphere But plutonium would still be radioactive and being vaporised it could be ingested/ Sensible comment on danger periods o# launch (or reAentry) Sensible comment on mechanism o# ingesting Hlutonium 5llow one sensible comment on no risks in the isolation o# deep space + [15] The Windsor Boys' School 33 .=0** 11* 11 % +/J . & 6> % */0.uired % 5 & O % +/J .1* ) 1= % +/J . 11= J + (iii) $nergy carried by alpha % J .1* . (allow mark #or conversion o# KK years to +/2K .1* & +/J .1* .1* _ (1) 11= 5ctivity re.+=K & 0/*+ .uired % +* m (K .

(1) + 1+ 11 (ii) with gel more ultrasound enters body & without gel most ultrasound is re#lected (1) most ultrasound is re#lected (without gel) when the di##erence in a is large or most ultrasound enters body when the di##erent in a is small (1) + The Windsor Boys' School 34 .uation leading to F % */.uicker & less PArays needed (1) so less eIposure (1) to axi # of 8 K [8] 85..84. PAray (photons penetrate patient (1) attenuation by di##erent media & bones attenuate more than so#t tissue (1) less PAray reach #ilm under bone & shadow e##ect (1) intensity o# PArays is proportional to darkening o# #ilm & re#/ 6o #ogging or blackening (1) PAray photons hit crystals & atoms in intensi#ying layer (1) atoms become eIcited & #luorescence occurs (1) emitting light (photons) (1) detail: as they return to ground state (1) so eItra #ogging o# #ilm (1) detail: metal backing stops PArays passing through & #ilm more sensitive to light than PArays & most PArays pass through the #ilm & double sided & photographic #ilm & more contrast but not clearer (1) Cesponse is .1* (kg m s ) (1) Substitution into e.. (kg m s ) and 0 1+ 11 a #or skin is 1/21 . (a) (i) a #or air is '+. (i) (ii) position o# = lower oIygen ions closer to positive plate (1) re#/ to change in dimension & shape & distort& it gets longer (1) 1 1 [2] 87.uency (1) allow re#erence to resonance o# crystal + [2] 86. alternating voltage or alternating $A#ield across crystal (1) at resonant #re.

(a) similar mass means large momentum trans#er (in collision)R (1) hence #ewer collisions are neededR (1) neutron colliding with heavy nucleus bounces o## with similar speed & k/e/ scores 1&+ maI/ neutron colliding with similar mass nucleus trans#ers large k/e/ & speed scores 1&+ maI/ +=0 11* 1+1 1 .uarks are: up down strange top bottom charmR (1) either up & u has .+" : *n [ 'JCh : '25g + (b) : J *n 1 no neutrons *&+ incorrect number o# neutrons > 1 J J *3 gets 1&+ maI/ *n gets *&+ i# 1 * missing #rom neutron symbol 1&+ maI/ : *n [ 1 11* 'JCh +=0 .1* (1) s % 0/1+ cm (1) ec& i& speed is wrong &+ % =/*0 cm (1) ' [8] 1J 1J 1J 88.uarks are #undamental particlesR (1) #or every .uarks are held together by strong #orce & gluons (1) . % (:)+&= < % (:)1&=R or down & d has .+" [ 'JCh : '25g : J *n (+) +=J 1 11* 1+1 allow .1/J .uark there is an anti.uark) reactions (1) any ' J [5] The Windsor Boys' School 35 . < and = (compared to .1 .uark) (1) .uarks have opposite values o# . % 11&= < % (:)1&=R (1) .(b) 1. 5t least = #ield lines inside solenoid parallel to aIisR (1) Mines e. neutron is udd & proton is uudR (1) .+" : 1+1 '25g : 0 *n gets > 1 + [4] 90.1* s (1) s % vt or 4080 .uarkR (1) anti.ually spaced over some o# length o# solenoid/ (1) 5rrows on lines pointing le#t to right/ (1) = [3] 89.5 cm .1* % 1/J . < and = are conserved in (.

1* _ (1) omits multiplication by + and = 1&= maI/ = (ii) (b) reaction + generates more energy (than reaction 1)R (1) 1 initial mtm/ % #inal mtm/ so * % mD $D : mn $n (1) * % (' mn)$D : mn $n so $n % ' $D (1) k/e/ o# +De % > mD $D k/e/ o# *n % > mn $n either or 1 1 *n 1 + ' + + k/e/ e.1* % =/* . % =/+2 .+ (% +/++) +/J2 .1* ) % 1/KK Ye4 ans/ (1) allow 1/.1* ) .1* 11= % J/+(=) .1/0 . (i) Qn _: 4 % m c (1) 1+2 K + 11* % (+ . Ye4 uses only one mass can get +&= maI/ + = (ii) particle mass increases with energy & speedR (1) accelerating voltage gets out o# step with passage o# particle between electrodes & i# voltage out o# synch/ proton energy cannot increase or 5GR (1) 1/KK Ye4 is high enough to cause (signi#icant) mass increaseR (1) = [6] The Windsor Boys' School 36 . (a) (i) calculates b/e/ per nucleus: 1/11 . Qn Ye4: =/* .1/02 .+/++ (% =/+2 Ee4) (1) 0 11.(=/* .1* & (1/0 . .1* .1* _) subs/ (1) 11* 11* 11.= (% 2/21) both expressions (1) so energy released % 2/21 1 + .1* .91.1* ) (% =/* .(k/e/ o# De) has K*Z o# total energy (1) K*Z unsupported scores 1&J k/e/ stated to be proportional to 1&(mass) scores +&J i# correct answer obtained [9] 92.uation applied (to n or De) (1) + + + % > ('mn) $D % + mn $D % > mn ('$D) % K mn $D alg/ (1) J k/e/ o# *n % ' .

% .* (>) so . ' 11J + (c) F % Q$ & 1/0 .' day ) (1) t % 2/K days (1) 10 11 so */1 % e (1) ln (*/1) % 1*/+.1* & Hu to rise to */= . can get +&' maI/ i# using */= (not +/2) [7] 94.*/*' ec& (c) or alternative method by constant acceleration #ormulaeR + 1' 2 11 (either method giving v % +/1 .1* t (1) J J t % 0/20 . (a) e.1* 4 m ) 11.uality mark ' 11 = (b) $ % 4&dR % 0**&*/*'R(% 1/J .1* m s ) 2 11 + (e) S+v % +/*J .1* & (+' .1* + .' t or 1*/+.=0**) % 2/K days (1) +* +* ' calculates time #or 3p to #all to +/2 .1* .' t / % ln + & (+/=0 .1* (m s ) 1 The Windsor Boys' School 37 .1* R% +/' .* % (>) t % 2/K days (1) or t&2> t&2> +* (1) lg (*/1) % t&+/=0 lg (*/J) (1) 11 lg(.&.=0**) % =/'1 .1/J . % .uired % time #or 3p nucleus to #all to */=* .1* and v % 1/'J .93.1*eIp(10) t 10 */1 % e ln (*/1) % 1=/'1 .1* R (1) then either .*) % t&2> (lg */J) 1/t uses .1* s % 0/20 .0** or % +/' .* e where / % ln + & +/=0 (% */+.ually spaced hori7ontal parallel lines #rom plate to plateR arrows towards BR . (a) 3p graph: graph has eIponential shape & there is eIponential decay o# 3p nuclei & number (o# 3p nuclei) is halved in +/= days & constant time & in its hal# li#eR (1) Hu graph: sum o# Hu : 3p nuclei % =/* .ualR (1) and hal# li#e o# Hu ii & much bigger than hal# li#e o# 3pR (1) any ' (') = +* (b) time re.1* at all timesR (1) either because one 3p nucleus decays to one Hu nucleus or rate o# decay o# 3p and #ormation o# Hu are e.1* s (1) 1=/'1 .1* 11.1* .&.1* % */=0 day gets * 1 1 1 % =&' uses 2> #or plutonium can get +&' maI/ attempts to use repeated halving o# . (3) 11J + (d) 1&+mv % Fd or Q4R % 1/0 .+' .

K ._) = + + + + (iii) (iv) 6 % C! % (*/*')R C % */*'&K/*. (i) (ii) ! % Q&4 or gradient o# graph & % +' .1* (p) ec& a(i) idea o# eIponential&constant ratio in e.+' . % J/* . (i) (take lns o# both sides) appreciate ln e or when multiplying logs add 11 3 1Ot % 1OtR and ln !&!o % ln ! 1 ln !o + (ii) gradient % */*J0 h allow H ?.!&=4R % K/* (.FR 1&!s % 1&+! : 1&!R % =&+! giving !s % +!&= % (+ .F) + sets o# (= in series) in parallel& = sets o# (+ in parallel) in series = + [5] 97.uired)R so current will #all (to 7ero i# beam is taken to be monoenergetic) + [12] 95.=R % =0 (.F) $ % > !4 & % > . h = [5] The Windsor Boys' School 38 .??' h R 6 % ln+&O % ln+&gradient % ln+&*/*J0 hR 6 % 1+/' h allow H ?.(#) #ewer electrons will reach grid B or ! (as higher initial speed re. (i) number o# decays&atoms&nuclei decaying per second&unit time in the source&5G count (rate) without source present&5G distance o# detector #rom source&dimensions o# source or detector window&e##iciency o# detector&rate o# emission v detection e/g dead time correction&other sensible suggestionR reason&e##ect on count rate 1 1 (ii) 1 1 [4] 98.= R % =0 (. (i) (ii) !p % ! : ! % 0 .ual timesR which is independent o# 1t&C! initial value&5G or argued mathematically in terms o# Q&Qo % e gi$e % mark &or statement that time depends only on time constant:RC + + [8] 96._) ec& a(i) or > Q4 & % > .

mass change&charge change&range&speed o# emission&monoenergetic v range o# speed&alpha emitted #rom only high mass nuclei&number o# particles in the decay&other sensible suggestion or #urther detail any three = [3] 100.*/*+0R % 0/J .1* Gb ec& (a)i * a point where curve crosses tAaIis 1J 1J + = 1 1 1 1 1 = [11] (b) (i) (ii) voltage is proportional to the rate o# change o# #luI linking the coilR rate o# #luI change is 7ero&very small when the #luI linking the coil is a maIimum sinusoidal curveR o# double the amplitudeR and hal# the period (iii) 101.1* R Gb&6 m B5 sin 'Jq&B5cos 'Jq % '/0 . (a) uni#orm intensity detected in all directions& isotropic 1 The Windsor Boys' School 39 . proves eIistence o# a nucleus to the atomR containing most o# the atomic massR because o# bouncing backR o# very small si7eR because o# #ew scattered through any angles at allR containing charged particlesR because the scattering is consistent with the pattern predicted by !oulomb&electrostatic repulsionR electrons have opposite&smaller chargeR and a much smaller massR a di##raction pattern is observed (superimposed on the Cuther#ord scattering curve)R as the electrons behave like wavesR with a O o# the order o# d #or signi#icant scattering&having a de Broglie wavelengthR pattern&si7e o# ring enables radius o# the nucleus to be #ound max 7 Quality o# Gritten !ommunication 1 + + 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 + [9] 102. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) B5 & % */*J .*/*J .99.

1* 12 t ? ' . (i) H % Q4 (1) % =/* .1* s 11K 1 1 1 [5] 105.1* s t ? 1& +/J . 11 1 1 1 (b) Do % 2J& = .(b) Dydrogen and helium in early stars and sun Sun has greater proportion o# helium than early stars& D changed to De by #usion in sun/ 4irtually no higher elements in #irst stars& sun contains traces o# higher elements (accept speci#ic eIamples up to iron) 1 1 1 [4] 103. (a) 5ny two stars rotate around galactic centre star with velocity component towards $arth re#erence to motion&shape o# galaIy or other valid points eg blue shi#t 1. 5ny J #rom red shi#t data #or galaIies (accept stars) calculate velocity #rom red shi#t galaIies& stars receding #rom $arth distance data #or galaIies& stars velocity @ distance & v&r % constant & vAr graph straight line universe began at a single point 1 1 1 1 1 1 [5] 104.1+ % =0 G (1) + The Windsor Boys' School 40 . critical density is that #or #lat universe density i p* universe closed&contracts&big crunch density c p* universe open& eIpands #orever any + #rom #ate unknown because si7e&mass&density universe uncertain #ate unknown because p* & D* not known 1 1 1 1 1 [5] 106.

+" each correct product nucleus gets (1) + (c) (i) +'*** years & 2/J2 .ual (1) crosses e&s #orce line at point vertically above 3R (1) generally correct shape entirely above strong lineR (1) + + + = (d) (i) (F %) Q &\'(I*(x) ] allow (F %) Q1 Q+ &\'(I*(x) ] (1) 11.) undergoes XAdecay (1) any ' (i) (ii) alpha particle (1) +=.0 Hp (1) Qp % Hs & */. (a) either produced in a nuclear (#ission) reactor or bombard (natural) uranium with neutrons (1) uranium +=K (nucleus) absorbs & captures a neutron (1) product (uranium +=.4p (1) % =0 & (*/.0 .(ii) Hs % */.1* \d] ) subs/ (1) 11J 3%" d % =/*(=) .1* m allow 3 J %? m (1) + [11] 108. .1* ) & ('( .K/KJ . + 11+ + 1 (ii) +J % (1/0 .'Hu + 1 (b) [ +De : ' +=J .1* s (1) 11 1 The Windsor Boys' School 41 .ual9 correct point HR (1) at H electrostatic and strong #orces balance (or 5G)R (1) 1 + (ii) + (c) crosses aIis at HR allow H on either curve i# #orces e.uilibriumR (1) any 1 not just 8#orces e.+=*) % */10= 5 (1) = [5] 107.0 . (a) (b) repulsion&attraction correctly labelled on aIisR (i) correct point 3 A where strong line crosses distance aIisR at 3 (resultant) #orce is 7eroR (1) so neutrons must be at e.

(1/0 .1* +0 ' 1+2 +0 11.***) +* (% =/KJ . % . % '* . .1* (1) 1' 1' % 0/.*** % 1K*** years (1) so total time % .1* ) 1J +* */=2J % J .1* _) (1) or ' 1+2 1+2 mass o# +De % ' . 0 = ) (% 1/J* .1* eIp(1+/K.*** years % ') e.+K/' .1* &(J .(ii) either / % */0.1* (% 0/0K .1/0 .1* ) (1) == +0 and energy generated % 1/J* .1* ) + (iii) initial momentum % #inal momentum or e.ual numbers a#ter another .0/*+ .=&+'*** % +/K.=/*2 .1* (% 1/J1 .K/KJ . % .* (>) .1* ) . 11+ 11= 1 + = 1 + (ii) pe % (1/0 .***&+'*** e1uation(s) (1) subs/ (1) % J .1* ) (1) so total energy % 1/J1 .1/0 .1/02 .uivalent (1) m u 1 (+m) $ % * (so u % +$) (1) + The Windsor Boys' School 42 .+=.*** : 1K*** % +2*** years (1) +* +* + 1 = [12] 109..1* .1* y 1/t .* e +* 1J 11 or .1* ) % K (1) (ratio a#ter . 11.1* (>) +* (% =/KJ .1* .1* .1* _ (accept 0/K . either ' += +0 number o# atoms o# +De in 1/* kg % (1 & */**') . .uation 1D : 1D [ +De (: energy) (1) (i) ke o# nuclei converted to (electric) potential energy (1) all ke is converted (1) 11. .1* kg) so number o# +De in 1/* kg % 1 & (0/0K .1* ) & ('( . (a) (b) e.1* .1* e4) (1) == 11.*** : .1* _) .1* _ 1' % 0/K .1* _ (1) = [3] 110.+'* & .+K/' Ee4 (% '/+J .1* ) (d) (i) (ii) ratio % '/* (1) original ratio . % '/+J .1* .1* correct charge subs/ (1) correct remaining subs/ (1) 110 (% 2/J .

1* _) (1) 110 11J + ' [11] 111. (a) hadron neutron proton electron neutrino ' lines correct +&+: = lines correct 1&+: + or 1 line correct *&+ (+) (b) (i) (ii) 1*11J minutes A any value within range (1) weak #orce & interaction (1) 1 1 baryon lepton + 1 1 (iii) d [ u : e : r (Abar) (u) (u) (d) (d) 1 + 1 omits e or r loses 1 each (+) + (iv) charge: 1 &= (: &= 1 &=) [ &= (: &= 1 &=) 11 (:*) (1) baryon number: &= (: &= : &=) [ &= (: &= : &=) : * (:*) (1) nuclear $alues: charge * % 1 1 1 (: *) and baryon no/ 1 % 1 : * gets 1&+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + 1 + (c) (i) (ii) arrowed line plus 8resultant9 & pr label antiA (1) neutrino (1) is emitted carried away some momentum (1) shows neutrino momentum vector (1) 1 any = = [12] The Windsor Boys' School 43 .1* % */+J .1* % */J* .1* _) 110 11J ke o# deuterium % 1&= .2/J .(iv) ke % > m v (1) + + ke o# deuterium % > (+ m) v (% m v ) + + ke o# hydrogen % > m (+v) (% +m v ) so deuterium has 1&= o# total ke ) + hydrogen has &= ) working (+) so ke o# hydrogen % +&= .2/J .

(1/0 . .=0 .+" : 1*n [ J0Ba : =0Lr : = *n 3% mark per error + (c) g$ % c gmR gm % */1K0 u (% =/*.1* kg)R (+) 10 1+2 111 g$ % . (a) the splitting o# a nucleus into two (or more) smaller nuclei&particles& #ragments (spontaneously&a#ter absorption o# a neutron) +=J 1'1 .J0 .1* (3) (+) = ' [10] 113.$ + + + 1 + 1 (b) (iii) (iv) F % mv &rR Bev % mv &rR (+) 1+2 2 11.1* . . (a) B % F&Ql with symbols eIplained or appropriate statement in wordsR (1) eIplicit re#erence to Q and B at right angles&de#ine #rom F % BQv etc (1) (i) (ii) arrow towards centre o# circle #ield out o# paperR Fleming9s M/D/ rule&moving protons act as conventional current F % Bev allow <.1/00 .1* . B % mv&er % 1/02 . + ) &(1/= .uired to maintain the same radius (1) + [13] The Windsor Boys' School 44 .0*)R % */**+0R 6 (=) 3' allow Kb m J (v) the #ield must be doubledR (1) B h v (as m e and r are #iIed)&an increased #orce is re.+ 1 1 (b) .112.1/J .1* % +/2K . .1* .*/1K0 .1* .1* 11' + ) R % +/2(') . 11.1* &(1/0 .1* .1* (_) (1) + + 1+K = (d) F % kQ1Q+&r R Q1 % J0e Q+ % =0eR (+) F % .

uare law in air& order o# kms (1) @ absorbed by paper X absorbed by thin& 1 mm 5l sheet k up to cm o# Hb sheet (1) @ strongly ionising X weakly ionising k hardly ionising at all (1) any other sensible comparison (1) max # marks Quality o# written communication 0 + [8] 115. @ helium nucleus X electron k photon&eAm radiation&energy (1) @ charge :(+e) mass 'mp&'u X charge 1(e) mass me k charge * mass * (+) @ emission energy = 1 2 Ee4 X emission energy 1 1 + Ee4 k emission energy about 1 1 + Ee4 or all o# the same order o# magnitude&5G (1) @ monoenergetic #rom given nuclide X range o# emission energies #rom given nuclide #rom 7ero to a maIimum k monoenergetic #rom given nuclide or comparison in terms o# velocities (1) @ range = 1 2 cm o# air X range 1 1 + m o# air k range inverse s. range&penetration&absorption&de#lection eIperiment suggested (1) but no &urther progress made to answer 1uestion otherwise+ suitable arrangement and choice o# apparatus all can be shown on a diagram (+) e range&penetration&absorption eIperiment: @ place detector very close& +cm #rom sourceR measure count rate use paper screen or move back to 1* cm or more measure count rate interpret resultR contrast to background count level& other emissions #rom same source (=) X place detector e/g/ 1* cm #rom source measure count rate add thin sheets o# 5l until count drops to very low or almost constant valueR interpret result (+) k place detector e/g/ 1* cm #rom source measure count rate add thin sheets o# Hb until count drops to very low&background levelR interpret result (+) max # marks aliter de#lection eIperiment: needs vacuum #or @ eIperimentR (1) source #or radiation passes through region o# $A or BA #ieldR (1) de#lection or not o# particles detected by detector to distinguish emissionsR (1) detail o# directionsR all 3 correct 3 ' marks can only score max o& % mark unless $acuum mentioned (+) amount o# curvature determines energy o# emissionR and nature o# particle (1) max # marks e 0 + [8] Quality o# written communication The Windsor Boys' School 45 .114.

\2+ .1* m (1) Yraph: any ' points plotted correctly (1) all correct (1) graph: draw curve reasonable attempt (1) $ither point where star moves perpendicular to line o# sight (1) time % 2+ h W (1)h (ec# read value #rom their graph W 1 h) (1) = 111 =* + + = (ii) + 1 1 1 (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) r % S(0/2 . K gO % 0J0/= .1* .1* (ignore minus sign) (1) 11' gO % 1/== . (i) v&c % gO & O (1) 1.1* .1* m ec# / (1) (use o# t % 2+h 1&+) + [10] 118. r % 2/2* .ual areas in e.1* .' . Hlanets move in ellipses (Sun at one #ocus) (1) Hlanet sweeps out e. correct re#erence to (1) 5" (1) parallaI o# (1) arcsecond (marks can be gained on labelled diagram) (1) + [2] The Windsor Boys' School 46 .ual times/ (1) + = + = Heriod @ radius & 6 & r % constant (1) = [3] 117.116.=0**] & '( ) ec# (1) .0/1 & = .

"niverse is isotropic& same in all directions (1) homogenous& evenly distributed (1) + [2] 122. (i) Eass % =/K .1* kg s (1) . 5ny 0 #rom 3uclear&hydrogen burning ends (1) Eass i !handrasekhar limit (1) $Ipanding gas&planetary nebular&red giant (1) Yravitational collapse &re#/ to burning De or higher metals (1) !orrect re#/ to (Fermi) pressure& radiation pressure (1) (must have re#/ to pressure or #orce #rom radiation/) 3eutron star (neutron by itsel# not enough) (1) !orrect re#erence to Schwar7schild radius& allow massi =E& allow re#/ critical radius (1) Black Dole (1) 0 [6] 120. 11 +0 K + + (ii) =/K .1* ) (1) Eass % '/+(+) .1* % 1* & time (1) time % K/+(+) .119.1* y (1) . +0 '' + [4] 121. 'n$ 5 fro "ni#orm intensity in all directions& everywhere (1) Structure in background intensity&ripples (1) Hroduced when matter and radiation decoupled (1) Briginally gamma radiation (1) (gamma) redAshi#ted to microwave&originally higher energy (1) $vidence that universe began with big bang/ (1) 6emperature corresponds to +/2L & =L & that predicted by big bang model (1) J [5] The Windsor Boys' School 47 .1* & (= .

1* s (1) 111 & = (1) + [2] Do % +/=0 . 'n$ 2 fro 3o eIperimental evidence& no physical evidence (1) State o# matter unknown& laws o# physics unknown (1) $nergies unreproducible& re#/ to very high temperature (1) + [2] 124.0/02 . (a) Mow energy PArays are absorbed by the skin & undesirable as can cause damage & greater ionising (1) 1 The Windsor Boys' School 48 .1* + 1+0 .K . Bpen: "niverse eIpands #or all time (1) Flat: eIpands to a limit (but never reaches it) (1) !losed: "niverse contracts& collapses back (1) re#erence to role o# gravity& critical density (1) Earks #or a/ can be gained on labelled diagram/ ' [4] 125.( .123.1* 11K 11 126. Do % 1 . 1 each to a e e e e e e e e e e axi # of 7& $lectrons are emitted #rom ! & (hot) cathode/ 6here is a high voltage between ! and 5 d/ or stated p/d/ i1*** 4 d (so) electrons are accelerated towards 5 & anode/ $lectrical energy becomes L$ (o# electron)/ $lectrons undergo a sudden deceleration at 5 & collide with 5 (Some o#) the L$ is converted to PArays & (electromagnetic) radiation 6he PArays are produced by the deceleration & re#erence to bremsstrahlung PArays characteristic o# target produced)/ Eost o# the (kinetic) energy becomes heat & thermal energy/ 6he reason #or the vacuum/ 2 [7] Bther good point (eg anode rotated & inner shell electron o# target atom knocked out & higher pd gives more penetrating PArays&higher energy photons)/ 127.

(a) density (o# medium) (1) speed o# ultrasound (in the medium) (1) or any #actors that a##ect the speed o# ultrasound in the medium e/g/ the Noung modulus + (b) (i) blood: 0 0 + 0 0 + # % (1/J.*/*+J = + (d) + 11' (ii) 1+*** & 2/J .1* (*) K 11 v % 1/.1/0 .1* + 11' */J m v % 1/0 .1* Gm (1) (c) H % Q . .( . (iii) tube current % 2/J . .+0/J . .t) = 10 s % 1/J' .1* 1 1/0= .1* % */1+ 5 (1) 4 .1* ) (*) 1' # % 1/J' .1* : 1/0= .5 (*) 1+ + H % ='2 .1* G (1) (i) H % 1K .Q % 1+*** (1) 4 %1+*** & */1+ % 1** *** 4 or 1** k4 (1) = [13] 128.1* (% 1/0 . .1* (1) muscle: 0 0 + 0 0 + # % (1/2* .1* ) (1) 1= H % 1/*.1* : 1/0= .1* (1) so the medium is muscle (1) bald muscle gets *&' ' (ii) (s % u .1* .1* ms (1) 12 _ % energy o# each electron) (1) + 11.(*/1* .1* .1* % */*'*K m (1) */*'*K & + % */*+* m (1) + The Windsor Boys' School 49 . .1* ) (1) 1' # % '/' .1** & */1J (1) H % 1+*** G (1) 12 (1) ='2 ln Q % ln Qo 1 f I ln Qo % ln ='2 : +J* .(b) Q % Q*e Qo % 1fI (1) e − +J*×*/*+J J 1+ Qo % 1/2.1* ) & (1/J.1* ) & (1/2* .1* 1 1/0= .

J %? m gets &ull credit i& %? penalised in (ii) = 0 + [10] 129.1* % O (1) 1' 37 3 '/' .1+ & +=* % */*1+J 5 (1) + (ii) + [4] 130. (a) (i) either (mass & massAenergy & energy o# separate nucleons) A (mass & massAenergy & energy o# whole nucleus) or 5GR or energy needed to separate & split & break apart neutrons and protons (completely)R or energy released when separate nucleons & protons and neutrons combine to #orm nucleusR but 3B6 energy that binds & holds nucleus together 3B6 energy to break bonds between nucleons 8atoms9 gets * 1 (ii) either high binding energy (& nucleon) means greater stability & less likely to #use or #ission or nuclides (tend to) move to & react towards the lowest potential energy& highest binding energy (&nucleon) can be won in any o# ! " or Fe eIplanations or as separate statementR (1) 1+ 0! can undergo #usionR (1) +=J .+" are both unstable J0 +0Fe gets 1&+ ' is stable & does not eIperience #ission or #usionR (1) (b) (i) either neutron that is at (thermal) e.(iii) 1/J' .+" LB neutrinoM gets ? (1) 1 The Windsor Boys' School 50 .ual & comparable & similar & to energy o# atoms & molecules through which it is passing or slow moving neutron or neutron having low (kinetic) energy & energy o# 1 1 1* e4R +=J 1 +=0 1 (ii) . (i) Q % 4&C % 1+&J* (1) % */+' 5 (1) Hower in primary % power in secondary & Qp4p % Qs4s (1) Qp % */+' .+" : *n [ .uilibrium with medium & substance & material through which it is passing or neutron whose (kinetic) energy is e.+" can undergo #issionR (1) 1+ +=J 0! and .1* m (1) .1* & =/J .

.' .+" [ +=J 1=J J=Q : 1 .' m $D % + m $D t subs/ (1) so (ke o# *n) % ' .+" : *n [ 1=J : .+=J (% 12K0) K/' .(+* : J) (1) K % 1/+ .J 2/0 .1=J (% 11=') K/0 .+": J=Q: ./' Ee4 gets 1 * 1 * % +&' uses +=0 to get 1J2/' Ee4 gets s ' [12] 131.1* .(ke o# De) (so *n has K*Z 1 ' +De 1 has +*Z o# total ke) (1) ' [10] The Windsor Boys' School 51 .N : 0 *n #or 1&1 1 1 (iv) 2/0 J=Q: K/' =.J .J =.J =.1* _ (1) ' no V gets *&' except i# stated 8area under graph % charge9 which gets < area calculation errors eg wrong triangle areas can get s 0 omits 1* can get =&' (b) nuclei have (net) charge but atoms don9tR (1) nuclei would be de#lected by B #ield & atoms are notR (1) (momentum conservation: mD $D % mn $n mD % ' mn so) $n % ' $D (1) ke % > m v (1) ke o# *n % > m (' $D) % K m $D ' + 1 + + + + + (c) t ke o# +De % > .J (% K12) three expressions (1) =.N: so energy released % 11=' : K12 1 12K0 (1) % 10J Ee4 (1) K/' : K/0 1 2/0 % . (a) energy % V F t (1) % V .N : 0 *n J=Q 1 accept +=J .(iii) +=0 .N: K/0 Ee4 read #rom graph nuclides identi#ied with readings (1) total B$: +=J 1=J .(area under FAt graph) (1) 0 % 1/+ .+": 1=J .

uarks unspeci#ied gets 1&+) stability: proton stable inside (stable) nucleusR (1) =+ proton possible decay & hal# li#e % 1* years when #reeR (1) 3? allow any hal& li&e N %? years neutron stable inside (stable) nucleusR (1) neutron hal# li#e % 1*&1J minutes when #reeR (1) any 0 [6] 133.will also be constant BC 5 is proportional to .uark components)R (1) #orces: weak #orce & interactionR (1) electron & positron A (also) electromagnetic & electrostatic #orceR (1) where #ound: electron A in atom outside nucleus or in X decayR (1) positron (rarely) emerging #rom (high mass) radioisotopes & : in X decay & acceleratingAcolliding machinesR (1) neutrino A travelling in space eg #rom Sun or emitted (with electron & positron) in beta decayR (1) allow B3!$ 8resulting #rom high energy particle collisions9 any 0 [6] 1 134. lepton: two eIamples: electronR (1) positronR (1) neutrinoR (1) any ' (+) (allow muon tauon) = particles including one wrong gets 1 only composition: #undamental (A no .uoted including one wrong gets 1&+ only .132. (a) $ % u : at no but i# u is 7ero then $ is proportional to t (1) provided a is constant (1) pV % nR2 not unless 2 is in kelvin (1) and both n and V are constant (R is a constant) (1) 5 % -$ yes i# $ is constant (1) but all three terms can vary so proportion unlikely (1) then $Q6D$C i# $ is constant then 5 and . is directly proportional to r ) (1) + . % (r + 2 The Windsor Boys' School 52 .EFDGD ' yes (( is a constant and . %ar$on: two eIamples protonR (1) neutronR (1) = particles .when going up hills o# di##erent gradient (at constant $) (1) D.uark composition: proton neutron uudR (1) uddR (1) (aware consists o# = .

0 t % =* h J/0. '+** ===' +0'0 2100 1667 1=+= 1050 activity o# nuclide * &B. % .(b) graph must be a straight line (1) graph must go through the origin (1) + [9] 135.* 1 /t e/g/ when .*' % J/.=* (1) */=*11&=* % */*1**' % / O % ln +& / % 0.K' 101. '0** =21= =**+ +'=0 1. '** 379 356 336 317 +.1J 1 / ./* h answers will vary slightly dependent on starting and #inishing times (1) 1Ot = BC The Windsor Boys' School 53 . % +..* e (1) ln .0 283 +1** as #irst #igure to be #illed in #or nuclide ) (1) 1002 (1) 1*J* (1) idea o# subtraction #or nuclide * (1) correct values #or the ones given in nuclide * column (1) J (c) sensible graph plotted (1) eItrapolation done (1) value 2* W J hours (1) . 1=== activity o# nuclide ) &B. % ln . (a) (i) radioactive implies the emission o# ionising radiation (1) BC emits alpha beta and gamma radiation (1) n#clide re#ers to a particular nuclear structure (with a stated number o# protons and neutrons) (1) half(life is the (average) time taken #or the activity to #all to hal# its original value (1) 1 (ii) 1 (iii) 1 (b) time & hour * 0 1+ 1K +' =* =0 (i) and (ii) activity o# material & B.

(d) BC BC (e) separate the two nuclides (be#ore starting the count) (1) by chemical means (i# possible) (1) using a centri#uge or di##usion (i# isotopes) sensible idea about shielding against one o# the emitted particles decay constants or hal# lives are di##erent (1) hal#Ali#e at the start is approIimately that #or ) (1) ) decays more rapidly than * so a#ter a long time the hal#Ali#e is that #or * (1) in between it has a value intermediate between the two (which varies) (1) D.EFDGD 3 dealt with mathematically along the lines o# two separate eIponential decays (1) when added together do not give an eIponential graph (1) with back up maths (1) + = BC [16] The Windsor Boys' School 54 .