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OPERATING PRINCIPLES FOR INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SENSORS

Inductive proximity sensors are used for non-contact detection of metallic objects. Their operating principle is based on a coil and oscillator that creates an electromagnetic field in the close surroundings of the sensing surface. The presence of a metallic object (actuator) in the operating area causes a dampening of the oscillation amplitude. The rise or fall of such oscillation is identified by a threshold circuit that changes the output of the sensor. The operating distance of the sensor depends on the actuator's shape and size and is strictly linked to the nature of the material (Table 1). Click here for inductive sensor product information

Table 1. Sensitivity when different metals are present. Sn = operating distance. Fe37 (Iron) 1 x Sn Stainless steel 0.9 x Sn Brass - Bronze 0.5 x Sn Aluminum 0.4 x Sn Copper 0.4 x Sn Outputs: DC Voltage 2 wire DC: These sensors contain an output amplifier with the function N.O. or N.C. that can pilot a load connected in series. In this system a residual current flows through the load even when in the open state and a voltage drop occurs to the sensor when it is in the closed state. Attention must be paid to these restrictions when selecting relays or electronic controls to be used with these sensors. They are compatible with P.L.C. units.

3 & 4 wire DC: These amplified D.C. sensors contain an output amplifier. They are supplied as 3 wire with function N.O. or NC and as 4 wire with complementary outputs (NO + NC) in the types NPN and PNP. Standard version include protected against short circuit, protected against polarity and peaks created by the disconnection of inductive loads. They are compatible with P.L.C. Units

The difference between these sensors and traditional sensors is the absence of amplifier trigger stages. In this system a residual current flows through the load even when in the open state and a voltage drop occurs to the sensor when it is in the closed state. NAMUR: These are 2 wire non-amplified sensors whose current varies in the presence of a metallic object. Their current and voltage limits allow them to be used in hazardous (explosive) environments when used with approved amplifiers. AC Voltage 2 wire AC: These are two-wire sensors that contain a thyristor output amplifier.L. residual current and voltage drop when selecting low consumption relays or high impedance electronic controls to be used with these sensors. They are compatible with P. Attention must be paid to the minimum switching current.C. ALN2 or similar. In standard applications (normal atmospheres) the sensor must be used with amplifier units ALNC. Units .Analog & Linear: In these 3 wire amplified sensors a current or voltage output varies in proportion to the distance between the sensor and a metallic object.

1 present and closes allowing current flow when an actuator is present.Definitions: NO (normally open): A switch output that is open prohibiting current flow when an actuator is not Fig. This distance does include a ± 10% manufacturing tolerance. NC (normally closed): A switch output that is closed allowing current flow when no actuator is present and opens prohibiting current flow when an actuator is present. Short Circuit Protection: Protection against damage to a sensor if the load becomes shorted.3 in a limited period of time. Fig. PNP Output: Transistor output that switches the positive voltage to the load. Operating Distance (Sn): The maximum distance from the sensor to a square piece of Iron (Fe 37). It is given as a maximum value. Current flows from the device's output. Also known as current sourcing or positive switching. . Tests are performed at 20ºC with a constant voltage supply. which flows through the sensor when it is in the open state. Also known as current sinking or negative switching. Max Peak Current: The Max peak current indicates the maximum current value that the sensor can bear Fig. NPN Output: Transistor output that switches the common or negative voltage to the load. Max Switching Current: The amount of continuous current allowed to flow through the sensor without causing damage to the sensor. Current flows from the load through the output to ground when the switch output is on. that will trigger a change in the output of the sensor. Distance will decrease for other materials and shapes. Residual Current: The current. Voltage Drop: The voltage drop across a sensor when driving the maximum load. through the load to ground when the switch output is on. Power Supply: The supply voltage range that sensor will operate at. The load is connected between output and common. Min Switching Current: It is the minimum current value. which should flow through the sensor in order to guarantee operation. 2 1mm thick with side's = to the diameter of the sensing face. Power Drain: The amount of current required to operate a sensor. The load is connected between the positive supply and the output.

Protection Degree: Enclosure degree of protection according to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is as follows: IP 65: Dust tight. S is the operating distance and m is the diameter of the sensor. this parameter is measured by the dynamic method shown in fig. for side by side refer to fig. See Fig. Hysteresis (%Sn): The distance between the "switching on" point of the actuator approach and the "switching off" point of the actuator retreat. Non-flush mount models can be embedded in metal according to Fig. Repeatability (%Sn): The variation between any values of operating distance measured in an 8 hour period at a temperature between is 15 to 30ºC and a supply voltage with a <= 5% deviation. The frequency is given by the formula in fig. IP 67: Dust tight. This distance reduces false triggering. 4b. 2. 1 with the sensor in position (a) and (b). Protection against the effects of immersion . 4a. 3 Flush Mounting: For side by side mounting of flush mount models refer to Fig. Sn = operating distance. Its value is given as a percent of the operating distance or a distance. According to EN 50010. 4c.Operating Frequency: The maximum number of on/off cycles that the device is capable of in one second. Protection against water jets.

. When the object is at a preset distance from the sensitive side of the sensor.OPERATING PRINCIPLES FOR CAPACITIVE PROXIMITY SENSORS Capacitive proximity sensors are used for non-contact detection of metallic objects & nonmetallic objects (liquid. wooden materials and so on). The rise or the fall of such oscillation is identified by a threshold circuit that drives an amplifier for the operation of an external load. such as detection of full containers and nondetection of empty containers. Capacitive proximity sensors use the variation of capacitance between the sensor and the object being detected. A screw placed on the backside of the sensor allows regulation of the operating distance. The operating distance of the sensor depends on the actuator shape and size and is strictly linked to the nature of the material (Table 1). an electronic circuit inside the sensor begins to oscillate. This sensitivity regulation is useful in applications. plastic.

C. In this system a residual current flows through the load even when in the open state and a voltage drop occurs to the sensor when it is in the closed state.L. residual current and voltage drop when selecting low consumption relays or high impedance electronic controls to be used with these sensors. They are compatible with P. and D. All AC/DC capacitive sensors are short circuit protected (up to 50 Vdc and 250 Vac). Standard version include protected against short circuit. protected against polarity and peaks created by the disconnection of inductive loads.C. Sensitivity when different materials are present.C. They are supplied as 4 wire with complementary outputs (NO + NC) in the types NPN and PNP.C. In this system a residual current flows through the load even when in the open state and a voltage drop occurs to the sensor when it is in the closed state.C.C. They are also protected against transient voltage coming from the power supply or generated by the load.L. Units . Attention must be paid to the minimum switching current. sensors contain an output amplifier. residual current and voltage drop when selecting low consumption relays or high impedance electronic controls to be used with these sensors.5 x Sn Wood ~ 0. They are compatible with P. Metal ~ 1 x Sn Water ~ 1 x Sn Plastic ~ 0. Units AC/DC Voltage These are two-wire sensors that contain a mosfet output amplifier that functions in both A.Table 1. units. They are compatible with P.L. AC Voltage 2 wire AC: These are two-wire sensors that contain a thyristor output amplifier. Sn = operating distance.5 x Sn Glass ~ 0.4 x Sn Outputs: DC Voltage 4 wire DC: These amplified D. Attention must be paid to the minimum switching current.

Current flows from the device's output. 1 is open prohibiting current flow when an actuator is not present and closes allowing current flow when an actuator is present. Power Supply: The supply voltage range that sensor will operate at. The load is connected between output and common. Current flows from the load through the output to ground when the switch output is on. Fig. Max Switching Current: The amount of . Tests are performed at 20ºC with a constant voltage supply. through the load to ground when the switch output is on.Definitions: NO (normally open): A switch output that Fig. Also known as current sinking or negative switching. 1mm thick with side's = to the diameter of the sensing face. Also known as current sourcing or positive switching. Operating Distance (Sn): The maximum distance from the sensor to a square piece of Iron (Fe 37). NC (normally closed): A switch output that is closed allowing current flow when no actuator is present and opens prohibiting current flow when an actuator is present. NPN Output: Transistor output that switches the common or negative voltage to the load.3 and shapes. that will trigger a change in the output of the sensor. This distance does include a ± 10% manufacturing tolerance. Distance will decrease for other materials Fig. The load is connected between the positive supply and the output. 2 PNP Output: Transistor output that switches the positive voltage to the load.

which should flow through the sensor in order to guarantee operation. It is given as a maximum value. The frequency is given by the formula in fig. Short Circuit Protection: Protection against damage to a sensor if the load becomes shorted. S is the operating distance and m is the diameter of the sensor. 1 with the sensor in position (a) and (b). Min Switching Current: It is the minimum current value. Voltage Drop: The voltage drop across a sensor when driving the maximum load. Repeatability (%Sn): The variation between any values of operating distance measured in an 8 hour period at a temperature between is 15ºC -30ºC and a supply voltage with a <= 5% deviation. Residual Current: The current. Operating Frequency: The maximum number of on/off cycles that the device is capable of in one second. Power Drain: The amount of current required to operate a sensor. this parameter is measured by the dynamic method shown in fig. 2. Hysteresis (%Sn): The distance between .continuous current allowed to flow through the sensor without causing damage to the sensor. According to EN 50010. Max Peak Current: The Max peak current indicates the maximum current value that the sensor can bear in a limited period of time. which flows through the sensor when it is in the open state.

Protection Degree: Enclosure degree of protection according to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is as follows: IP 65: Dust tight. for side by side refer to fig. 4c. 4b. This distance reduces false triggering. Protection against the effects of immersion . 4a.the "switching on" point of the actuator approach and the "switching off" point of the actuator retreat. Nonflush mount models can be embedded in metal according to Fig. Protection against water jets. Its value is given as a percent of the operating distance or a distance. Sn = operating distance. 3 Flush Mounting: For side by side mounting of flush mount models refer to Fig. IP 67: Dust tight. See Fig.

Reflection with Reflector (Retro-reflective) . Four types of photoelectric sensors are available. In the case of shiny objects. Thru Beam . Light colors correspond to the maximum distances and vice versa. Reflection with Reflector (Retroreflective) . Photoelectric sensor types: Direct Reflection (Diffused) . as the rays emitted are almost totally reflected towards the receiver. An object is detected when it interrupts the light beam between the sensor and reflector. We offer three types of photoelectric sensors are available. With opaque surfaces.emitter and receiver are housed together and require a reflector. Polarized Reflection with Reflector .emitter and receiver are housed together and use the light reflected directly off the object for detection.emitter and receiver are housed together and use the light reflected directly off the object for detection.similar to Reflection with Reflector. the effect of the surface is more important than the color. these photocells use an anti- . The sensing distance in the technical data is related to matte white paper. it is important to bear in mind the color and the type of surface of the object. These photocells allow longer sensing distances.emitter and receiver are housed together and requires a reflector.Photoelectric sensors use light sensitive elements to detect objects and are made up of an emitter (light source) and a receiver. An object is detected when it interrupts the light beam between the sensor and reflector. OPERATING PRINCIPLES FOR PHOTOELECTRIC SENSORS These sensors use light sensitive elements to detect objects and are made up of an emitter (light source) and a receiver. In the use of these photocells.emitter and receiver are housed separately and detect an object when it interrupts the light beam between the emitter and receiver. the sensing distance is affected by the color of the object. Click here for product information Direct Reflection(Diffused) .

which bases its functioning on a polarized band of light. In the case of photocells. This is to avoid unwanted switching when the unit is powered. NO is light on and NC is dark on. Power On Delay: This is the time lapse between providing power and the operation of the output. For the other types.reflex device. These photocells allow for the longest distances. Thru Beam . This refers to the state of the unit in the absence of the product to be sensed. Voltage Drop: The voltage drop across a sensor when driving the maximum load. the same terminology as inductive and capacitive sensors is used: NO = normally open. In the case of reflector or barrier types. It is given as a maximum value. Outputs: Wiring DC: Wiring AC: Definitions: Light On / Dark On Types Of Output: For the photocell. NO is dark on and NC is light on. The use of such a device. In the case of direct reflection types. Sensing Distance (Sn): The space in which it is possible to sense an object. They are not in the technical data affected by random reflections. offers considerable advantages and secure readings even when the object to be sensed has a very shiny surface. NC = normally closed. Power Drain: The amount of current required to operate a sensor. Power Supply: The supply voltage range that sensor will operate at. light on / dark on is used.emitter and receiver are housed separately and detect an object when it interrupts the light beam between the emitter and receiver. In the case of the direct reflection types. it is the maxi-mum distance between the photocell and the object. . it is the distance between the unit and the reflector or between units. Switching Current (Max): The amount of continuous current allowed to flow through the sensor without causing damage to the sensor.

it is important to bear in mind the color and the reflectiveness of an object can affect the sensing distance. According to EN 50010. In the use of these photocells. such as detection of full containers and non-detection of empty containers. Retro-reflective (reflection with reflector) . These photocells allow for the longest distances.2 Sensitivity when different metals are present (capacitive). This sensitivity regulation is useful in applications.uses the light reflected directly off the object for detection.detects an object when it interrupts the light beam between the emitter and receiver. The rise or fall of such oscillation is identified by a threshold circuit that changes the output state of the sensor. Fig. Photoelectric Diffused-reflective (direct reflection) . Light Immunity: The maximum limit of an incandescent light or sunlight. 2). the photocell may not work correctly due to interference on the receiver. OPERATING PRINCIPLES How do proximity sensors work? Inductive & Capacitive Inductive and Capacitive sensors use a high frequency oscillator that creates a field in the close surroundings of the sensing surface. Through Beam .an object is detected when it interrupts the light beam between the sensor and reflector. Operating Frequency: The maximum number of on/off cycles that the device is capable of in one second. Beyond this limit. The operating distance in the technical data is related to matte white paper. The operating distance of the sensor depends on the actuator’s shape and size and is strictly linked to the nature of the material (Fig. Influence of different material on the operating distance of diffused-reflective sensors only .1 Sensitivity when different metals are present (inductive). A trimming screw placed on the capacitive sensors allows regulation of the operating distance. These photocells allow longer sensing distances. 1 & Fig. Fig. as the rays emitted are almost totally reflected towards the receiver. Select diffusedreflective models have a trimmer for sensitivity adjustment. The presence of a metallic object (inductive) or any material (capacitive) in the operating area causes a change of the oscillation amplitude.Short Circuit Protection: Protection against damage to a sensor if the load becomes shorted.

Influence of different material on the operating distance of diffused-reflective sensors only .