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Electromagnetic induction When the magnetic field through a coil changes, it causes a voltage across the terminals of the

the coil. This voltage is called an induced voltage and the phenomenon is known as electromagnetic induction A voltage can be induced in a conductor by: o Moving the conductor at right angles to a magnetic field o Moving a magnet inside a coil of wire o Switching a nearby electromagnet on or off The diagram below shows a voltage being induced as a magnet is moved into a coil of wire. A current passes if there is a complete circuit.

The size of the voltage can be increased by: o increasing the number of turns on the coil o increasing the area of the coil o moving the magnet faster o increasing the strength of the magnetic field The direction of the induced voltage can be reversed by: o Reversing the direction of movement o Reversing the poles of the magnet

A.C. (Alternating Current) Generator If a coil of wire is rotated within a magnetic field, electromagnetic induction causes a voltage across the connections to the coil. Produces alternating current, or AC, electricity. The diagrams below show an A.C. generator, and a voltage-time graph. It is sinusoidal (i.e. it has the shape of a sine graph), because the current reverses direction regularly (that is why it is called an alternating current):

The slips rings and carbon brushes enable the induced current to pass out of the coil Generators like this are used to provide electricity supply for motor vehicles Power station generators use a rotating electromagnet to produce a changing magnetic field. A voltage is induced in thick copper bars around the electromagnet. The fact that power is generated using AC generators means that our electricity supplies are always in AC Frequency: 50Hz = 50 cycles of the graph per second

Transformers ONLY A.C. currents can be increased or decreased by using a transformer. This is another reason why electricity supplies are always in AC. A transformer is made of a primary/input coil, a secondary/output coil and an iron core. Transformers work on the principle of electromagnetic induction An alternating current in the input or primary coil produces a changing magnetic field This changing field is concentrated in the iron core, so that it passes through the output, or secondary coil The changing magnetic field induces a voltage in the secondary coil The power is the same on both sides (since we assume 100% efficiency and that all the field lines pass through both coils). The size of the output voltage depends on the size of the input voltage and the ratio of the numbers of turns on the coils

You can figure out the number of coils and the voltage with: Output voltage / Input voltage = Turns on output coil / Turns on input coil V2 / V1 = n2 / n1 Input voltage input current = output voltage output current V1 I1 = V2 I2 A step-up transformer increases the voltage it has more turns on the secondary than on the primary A step-down transformer decreases the voltage it has fewer turns on the secondary than on the primary

Transformers are used to make high voltage AC currents. Since power lost in a resistor = R I2, having a lower current will decrease the power loss. Since transmission cables are many kilometres long they have a lot of resistance, so a transformer is used to increase the voltage and decrease the current to decrease power loss. This all makes sense with the equation P=IV. You could reduce the current and increase the voltage, and the power will still be the same. (Consider how 3 x 2 = 2 x 3 = 6) The advantages of high-voltage transmission: less power lost thinner, light, and cheaper cables can be used since current is reduced

D.C. (Direct Current) Motor When a current-carrying coil is in a magnetic field, it experiences a turning effect, due to repeated changes in the polarity of the coil. A D.C. motor runs on a direct current. The coil is made of insulated copper wire. The diagrams below show how this is used to produce rotation in a D.C. Motor:

The purpose of the commutator is to reverse the direction of the current as the coil passes through the vertical position, which is necessary to keep the loop turning in the same direction, because repulsion (pushing away) of the coil (when N to N and when S to S) is required to keep the coil rotating. A change in current direction causes a change in polarity of the coil The motor effect is also used to produce the vibrational movement of a loudspeaker cone A coil of wire within a magnetic field carries an alternating current The force on to coil is reversed, reversing the direction of movement, whenever the current changes direction The diagram below gives a concise explanation:

The turning effect can be increased by: increasing the current using a stronger magnet increasing the number of coils (increases the length of coil) increasing the area of the coil (increases the length of coil) Reversing the rotation can be done by: reversing the battery reversing the poles This equation is not needed but is useful for remembering the ways to increase the turning effect: Force exerted on wire = magnetic field strength current length of wire

Note: Some of this stuff written here is good to know, but might not be absolutely necessary for the exam/syllabus. But the harder stuff was included anyway and should be learnt just in case...You never know, better be safe than sorry...But maybe Im just paranoid....

If you still need any more help or are unsure about anything, feel free to email me: 13wongc1@stconline.edu.hk Good luck with revision, youll need it By the way, there are some revision questions at the back if you want to get some good practice