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Sociocultural influences on Music -derived from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning an irregularly shaped pearl; first used as a term of scorn for works of art, particularly architecture, produced from the end of the !th century to the middle of the "thc -applies to a long period of history and to such diverse countries as Italy, #rance, $ngland, an the vast territories that came under %ermanic influence -all the arts are combined in the opera, or dramma per musica -whole of &aro'ue movement had its inception in Italy as a part of the (ounter-)eformation. -Struggle between )oman (atholics and Protestants over religious issues, political power, and the ownership of land brought about the *+ ,ears- .ar/widening the cultural and musical differences between ).(. and Protestants. 01orthern2 chorale tradition; Southern2 Italian style3 -)oman (atholicism regained political influence -rise of absolute monarchies and the unification of national states played an important part in the creation of national styles, because the monarchs and princes were among the most important patrons of a lavish musical life -spectacular forms such as the opera and intimate music for salon and chapel -worldwide intensive coloni4ation during the 5th and "th centuries gave rise to a wealthy merchant class/.provided a suitable climate for the establishment of a commercial theater and its musical production, the opera 06enice very popular3 -Scholarly in'uiry; the success of scientific e7amination in these fields influenced musicians to apply methods of science to problems of music, and led to a systematic development of the techni'ues and materials of musical art 0art of the fugue, well-tempered tuning3 -8octrine of affections, a philosophical position that assumed that the arousal and sustaining of feelings and affections was the primary purpose of music. 9his e7pected that a consistent emotion be evoked and sustained throughout a movement or composition. :s the doctrine was practiced, numerous musical formulas were devised for the evocation of particular emotions. It was a calculated and planned emotional music - !++- 5;+ usually referred to as <baro'ue,= a term adopted about ;+ years ago from the field of art history. -More recently, some musicians and musicologists have ob>ected to the use of this term, not without reason, as well as to the use of the terms <classical= and <romantic= for later periods. Still, nobody seems to be able to do without some kind of chronological terminology for styles -<&aro'ue= simply as a general name for a musical style -In actual fact, most of the baro'ue music heard today dates from 5++- 5;+, late period. &ach and ?andel were the greatest composers of this period, and among the very good composers were :lessandro Scarlatti and :ntonio 6ivaldi in Italy, #rancois

(ouperin and @ean Philippe )ameau in #rance, 8omenico Scarlatti in Spain, and %eorg Philipp 9elemann in %ermany. II. #unction of Music -:lthough a great deal of religious music was written for purely liturgical purposes, especially for the Autheran church, an increasing amount of religious music for instruments was used for nonliturgical purposes -nonliturgical music used for preludes, postludes for marriage ceremonies, installation of civil or religious officials etc. -substantial portion of this music was instrumental 0household of the aristocracy3 -In the large wealthy courts, ballet and opera were first performed as special entertainment for princes and courtiers. 9he opera soon developed into a very popular form of public entertainment -9he oratorio was the religious counterpart of the opera/ but it found success as a public choral concert -festive occasions 0secular cantata3 -no institutional organi4ation for teaching the musical arts. ,oung boys who showed interest and talent either were taught by their own musical fathers or relatives or were attached to the household of a composer-performer -Instruction in performance and composition was restricted to the aspiring musician and to the household so to the aristocracy and wealthy burghers -Its fascination with the theater. &oth the spoken theater and the opera took great strides in the 5th century, and their impact on people-s minds can be compared to that of the movies and television in the B+th century; kingsC 'ueensC e7travagant setting -9heatricality is a key to the emotional world of baro'ue art, whether in music, the visual arts, or poetry. In baro'ue paintings people tend to be posed in stagelike attitudes. :rchitectural interiors, and even the formal gardens of the time, look like stage sets -9heatrical emotion has the virtues of great intensity, clarity, and focus; it has to, or it would not reach its audience. 9he actor analy4es the emotion he is re'uired to depict, shapes it and probably e7aggerates it, and then methodically pro>ects it by means of his acting techni'ue and craft -how the intensities and sensationalisms of &aro'ue destroyed a finer tradition, that of )enaissance vocal and consort music, supplanted the friendly discourse of democratic e'uals with a new, dictatorial art, hectoring and demagogic in style -: purified (atholicism, and a little later an impregnable Protestantism, both looked to music to dramati4e their glory and their faith -9he &aro'ue (omposer, by dramati4ing magnificence, wrote the music of 5th and "th century absolutism -&aro'ue style spread across $urope through something like an apostolic succession -9he orchestral and general instrumental repertory of the 5 th and "th centuries found enthusiastic players in the Italian academia and in the collegia musica of %erman-speaking $urope which began to spring up in the ! th century. 9he academias of

Italy were intellectual organi4ations whose attitude to the arts was as much scholarly and, in the "th century sense of the term, <scientific,= or aesthetic. 9he collegia musica and music clubs of %erman, :ustria and Swit4erland were gatherings of musicians who wanted to play together -&ishop #uller-s note that when music is suppressed in church it makes its presence felt elsewhere could, however, have been prompted by developments in Dwinglian and (alvinist Swit4erland. 9he banishment or e7treme restrictions of liturgical music led to the formation of musical societies which at first simply performed the music that was no longer heard in church III. Style and Performance Practice -#or the first time in the history of western $uropean music, two styles flourished side by side2 . the )enaissance style, the stile antico or prima prattica, which carried over into the &aro'ue period; and B. the new &aro'ue style itself, often called stile moderno. -(haracteristics 0homophonic, stile concertato-composer used instrumental and vocal forces in compositions that were harmonic or contrapuntal in style. 9he style includes planned contrasts of instruments or voices against one another either as soloists or as groups, stile concitato-or e7cited style, was a practice in which music illustrated the words or moods of the dramatic action. 9he use of tremolo in the strings of the orchestra or rapidly sung syllables to a repeated note by the voice is typical -Ence these composers got hold of a musical idea, they never let go. : prime fact about baro'ue music is its thorough, systematic, even rigorous 'uality -9he harmonic mass effects made by large orchestral groups in the &aro'ue period were a medium through which the composer and performer harangued their audience -&aro'ue music e7ploited not only the principle of monody and its harmonically motivated accompaniment but also a new principle of construction by contrast. 9hese new principles led to musical structures of great strength and power, and they forged a connection with religion, both (atholic and Protestant, because of the status they give to a te7t. 9he monodic stilo recitative was developed as a means of declaiming a te7t, its contours decided by the need to pro>ect words clearly to the listeners. 9he arioso style which grew from recitative was motivated by the same declamatory principle but enriched by the need to intensify the emotional power of the words. ?omophonic passages in block harmony were e'ually considerate to words, and in this respect at least, though its vivid colour and dramatic intensity were not 'ualities dear to the (atholic authorities, it came closer to the principles of the (atholic reformers than did the old music which, with its homogeneity of te7ture and its avoidance of drama and sensationalism, was innately devotional -Multi-choral writing and the intense e7pressiveness at which the &aro'ue style aimed were disastrous to the Aiturgy, which evolved into a musical form rather than an e7pression of the mind and devotion of the church -9he point of a 5th or "th century musician-s life is that when music was wanted, he wrote it, and the regular meetings of music societies meant that a vast amount of music was consumed

a. Formal organization Fcontrapuntal development of thematic material continued to be used in works that were wholly or partially contrapuntalGfugue Fhomophonic forms, particularly in instrumental music, generally depended upon simple statement and contrast of melodic material 0variation principle3 F:s in the )enaissance, te7t continues to dominate vocal musical forms, but in different ways. In the new recitative the te7t was declared in an almost theatrical style thought by them to replicate vocal delivery in the %reek 9heatre Festablishment of the ma>or and minor tonalities led to distinct phrase and period construction in formal design 0se'uencing techni'ue3 Fsingle-mindedness was the baro'ue composer-s basic attitude-a single musical idea, or theme continues throughout the piece with scarcely a moment-s letup; where he did work to achieve contrast was between musical pieces, not within them b. Melody Fvaries from the declamatory style of the recitative to the e7tremely florid style of the late &aro'ue arias and instrumental melodies Fe7tended melodic rangeC vocal displayC e7tended instrumental range Fin homophonic music, melody was essentially one of balanced phrase and period, usually in four or eight measures. :lthough the upper melodic line was dominant, there e7isted a kind of polarity between the melody and the bass line, which was in itself a melodically conceived F:s with )enaissance music, scores rarely were marked with loud and soft indications 0f and p3, and once a dynamic was chosen or set, it continued at about the same level for the whole section-sometimes even for the whole composition; gradual buildups from soft to loud, and the like were not used Fterraced dynamics2 two different dynamic levels were set up in alternation, one after the other Fcomple72 composers like to push melodies to the very limits of ornateness and density; visual comple7ity as well Ffre'uent use of se'uence in several pitch levels; most effective means of forward movement c. Rhythm Frapid change of harmony made for a driving harmonic rhythm, the movement given to music by changes in harmony F$7cept for recitative, repeated metrical units became the standard in &aro'ue music. 9empos were more constant, in part because of the importance of the moving basso continuo, which gave certain driving, almost motoric, feeling to both instrumental and choral works written in contrapuntal style

Fshows up most obviously in its regularity of rhythm; a single rhythm or closely similar rhythms may continue to be heard throughout a whole piece or a ma>or section of a piece; the meter nearly always stands out, emphasi4ed by certain instruments playing in a clear decisive way d. Harmony Fyielded to the ma>or-minor system of tonal relationships Fthe chordal nature of harmony was reflected in a system of numbers placed under the notes of the bass line, called <figured bass.= 9he harmonic figurations of the bass line, suggesting rapid changes of harmony, especially in the works of the late &aro'ue F(hromaticism and dissonance were freely employed for e7pressive proposes. 9empered tuning of keyboard instruments was introduced an made possible the chromatic changes that were necessary for e7tended modulations Fa clear harmonic framework of a tonal nature had to come as the starting point. It is this clear harmonic framework that we hear, essentially, as the feature that distinguishes between baro'ue and !th century polyphony Fthe central importance of harmony appears in the universal practice of figured bass, or basso continuo; these continuo chords are the solid framework against which the contrapuntal lines of baro'ue music trace their intricate airy patterns e. Texture Fhomophonic te7tures began to predominate in vocal and instrumental forms Fthe tendency in purely homophonic forms to include contrapuntal techni'ues and the harmonic richness of contrapuntal forms tended to make the te7ture of most &aro'ue music rather thick and opa'ue Fstandard te7ture is polyphonic or contrapuntal f. Instrumentation and Tone color Fmany of the instruments were forerunners of modern instruments Fwrote for the possibilities and limitations of specific instruments Fsonata 0whose name again belies the instrumentation3 consisted of three instruments2 a melody in instrument, and bass and keyboard instruments which comprised the continuo Flast Period in which improvisation was a definite re'uisite of every performer. ..e7pected FSigns and symbols were increasingly used to designate particular ornaments in the &aro'ue. Performers were e7pected to improvise ornamentation even though it was not marked by the composer. :lthough some of the signs were in common usage, many of them took on the personal meaning of the composers or schools to which they belonged. 9his has given rise to many differences of interpretation in the works of

the &aro'ue. 9empo designations such as allegro, andante, and grave were also introduce but bore imprecise meanings Falmost all composers were recogni4ed as virtuoso performers as well Frecorder, the bright baro'ue organ, the ever-present harpsichord, and the festive orchestra featuring high trumpets and drums