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RESUMEN DE GRAMATICA Proposiciones de relativo.

Describen y definen al nombre al que modifican. Este nombre las precede y no va seguido de coma. Pronombres: Who -sujeto con personas, singular y plural. Tambin puede usarse como objeto en estilo informal o formando parte de un sintagma preposicional. Girls who work in restaurants are called waitresses. A gentleman who works in a government office told me. Mary is the girl who Arthur wants to see.* That is the girl who I'm going out with this evening.*

Whom - con personas, objeto o formando

parte de un sintagma preposicional. Se usa en estilo formal. - Mary is the girl whom Arthur wants to see. - That is the girl whom I'm going out with this evening.

Which - sujeto y objeto con cosas, singular y plural. En estilo culto puede formar parte de un sintagma preposicional.
This is the tram which goes to Duke street. These are the photos which show my house. The towel which you gave me wasn't very clean. The mistake to which he refers is on the fourth page. Papers which contain important information must be locked up.

That - sujeto y objeto con personas y cosas, singular y plural. Puede sustituir a cualquier otro relativo excepto "whose".
Girls that work in restaurants are called waitresses. A gentleman that works in a government office told me. Mary is the girl that Arthur wants to see. That is the girl that I'm going out with these evening. This is the tram that goes to Duke street. These are the photos that show my house. The towel that you gave me wasn't very clean. Papers that contain important information must be locked up.

Whose - relativo posesivo con personas y

cosas*, singular y plural. That's the man whose car I borrowed yesterday. The ladies whose rings they stole were very angry. The house whose roof was damaged has now been repaired.* The houses whose roofs were damaged have now been repaired.*

Where se puede emplear para especificar y definir un lugar como alternativa a un sintagma preposicional. Se puede emplear con antedentes en singular o en plural.
- The office where he works is very big. - The rooms where he slept were horrible.

When - se puede emplear para especificar

y definir un nombre temporal como alternativa preposicional. - The day when he was born was very sunny. He died on the day when his a un sintagma arrived.


(omisin del pronombre) Siempre que el pronombre no realice la funcin de sujeto en la proposicin, puede omitirse. Omitir en los ejemplos anteriores cuando sea posible.

* Las preposiciones. Es importante observar la diferencia de orden de las preposiciones con respecto al castellano.
Aunque posibles, denotan un estilo muy culto construcciones como: - The method by which we make this is a secret. - The office at which he works is very big. - The house of which the roof was damaged has now been repaired. Se prefieren construcciones ms idiomticas: - The method (that) we make this by is a secret. - The office (which) he works at is very big. - The house whose roof was damaged has now been repaired. that y who no van nunca precedidos de preposicin tienen una construccin

Where y When siempre preposicional alternativa.

The The The The

rooms where he slept were horrible. rooms he slept in were horrible. day when he was born was very sunny. day he was born (on) was very sunny.

Son proposiciones que aaden informacin sobre el antecedente sin especificarlo. La informacin adicional va entre comas, parntesis o rayas.

Pronombres: En este tipo de construcciones no se puede omitir el pronombre relativo. Tampoco se emplea "that", "Who" como objeto tiene un uso incluso ms limitado que en proposiciones especificativas.

- Como sujeto: - Con un sustantivo de antecedente: - He got lost on Snowdon, which was enveloped in fog. - Con una oracin de antecedente: - He admires Mrs Brown, which surprises me. - Como objeto - Con un sustantivo de antecedente: - He got lost on Snowdon, which he was exploring. - Con una oracin de antecedente: - He admires Mrs Brown, which I find strange. - Precedido de una preposicin: - Although he has money, with which he can buy most things, he is rather unhappy.

- Como sujeto: - My wife's mother, who lives with us, is a charming lady.

- Como objeto: - Here is a letter from John, whom you've met of course. - Precedido de preposicin: - John's sister, of whom we are very fond, plays tennis very well.

- Mary, whose brother is my best friend, looks like my younger sister. - Miss Brown, in whose office there are six telephones, refuses to have one at home.

- He came to London, where he had been born.

- He died in 1929, when we all were broke. . El pronombre relativo what difiere del resto de pronombres relativos en que no tiene antecedente, por eso no forma parte de proposiciones de relativo propiamente dichas sino de proposiciones sustantivas. - What I want to do is make a fresh start. - That is what I mean. EXERCICES Une las siguientes oraciones formando proposiciones de relativo como en el ejemplo, emplea en cada oracin todos los pronombres posibles. - He's the man. I met him yesterday. He's the man /that/who/whom/0/ I met yesterday. - That's the town. I live there. - She's the cook. She works in the hotel. - These are the gloves. I found them in the train. - Where is the letter? I put it on the shelf. - I met the two actresses. We watched them on TV last night. - These are the cats. They come into our garden.

- That was the summer. I met my husband that summer. - That is the lady. Her bag was stolen. Suprime el pronombre relativo donde sea posible. - The restaurant which we normally go to is closed for decoration. - This is the lady who lives next-door - These are the people that we went on holiday with last year - The concert that you were telling me about is next week - The man whom you met yesterday is my friend Bernard - The man who repairs my car is a keen fisherman - This is the house where I live

La voz pasiva.

La voz pasiva se emplea: a) cuando estamos ms interesados en la accin y en el receptor (qu se hizo y quin lo recibi) que en el agente (quin realiz la accin): Those cars are made in Birmingham. b) cuando no sabemos quin es el agente: My umbrella has been stolen. - Si conocemos el agente, este se expresa precedido de Those letters were typed by Arthur.



Se forma con el verbo

to be

en el tiempo deseado y el

participio pasado del verbo correspondiente.



sends is sending has sent sent was sending had sent will send wo ld send wo ld ha!e sent to send to ha!e sent sending

is sent is "eing sent has "een sent was sent was "eing sent had "een sent will "e sent wo ld "e sent wo ld ha!e "een sent to "e sent to ha!e "een sent "eing sent

2. La estructura de la oracin tambin cambia: - El sujeto de la oracin activa se convierte en complemento agente de la pasiva (Los pronombres no suelen utilizarse como complementos agentes). - El objeto indirecto, o el objeto directo de la oracin activa se convierten en sujeto de la pasiva. - El resto de componentes sintcticos no suele verse alterado. She gave Arthur a present Arthur was given a present A present was given to Arthur The bank has lent Mary some money Mary has been lent some money (by the bank) Some money has been lent to Mary (by the bank) 3. Existen pasivas especiales con verbos como SAY, THINK, EXPECT, KNOW, etc It + verbo pasivo + proposicin = Suj + verb pas + to infinit People say (that) the bridge is unsafe It is said (that) the bridge is unsafe The bridge is said to be unsafe 4. RECUERDA QUE HAY UN NUEVO SUJETO Y EL VERBO TIENE QUE CONCORDAR CON L: We keep the butter in the fridge / the butter is kept in the fridge. They broke the window / the window was broken.

EXERCICES 1. Rewrite these sentences using the passive voice, write two sentences wherever possible: 1. They discussed the bank robbery for two or three days. 2. They sold a record number of books in the second week of March. 3. A gas fire heats the bedroom. 4. Mary is putting away those books. 5. Mr. Steele was stamping the new books. 6. They haven't rebuilt the library yet. 7. They gave the pilot a medal. 8. Someone sent the minister a letter bomb. 9. They think the company is planning a new campaign. 10.People say Ronaldo is a very good football player

Oraciones condicionales.
Existen tres tipos bsicos, aunque son posibles otras combinaciones: Tipo 1: Subordinada: If- present, principal: WILL -IF we DON'T HURRY, the others WILL go without us -A porter WILL come IF you RING the bell.

Tipo 2: Subordinada: If- past, principal: WOULD

- IF I HAD a million pesetas, I WOULD buy a car - It WOULD be awful IF you LOST your passport * Recuerda que COULD y MIGHT son condicionales y no necesitan WOULD - IF we HAD a calculator, we COULD do this quicker. - IF you RANG the bell, someone MIGHT come. * Recuerda la expresin "IF I WERE YOU ...."

Tipo 3:
Subordinada: If- past perfect, principal: WOULD HAVE - IF we HAD TAKEN your advice, we WOULD HAVE saved a lot of time. - IF you HAD RUNG, we COULD HAVE met. * En algunos casos se suele emplear "UNLESS" en lugar de "IF NOT"

EXERCICES Forma oraciones condicionales de los tres tipos como en el ejemplo. - You study / you pass - IF you STUDY, you WILL pass - IF you STUDIED, you WOULD pass - IF you HAD STUDIED, you WOULD HAVE passed - The cat die / Alex be sad

- You forget the map / we lose our way

- You post the letter today / it get there by Thursday

Estilo Indirecto.(Reported speech) Statements:

A) Si el verbo principal est en pasado, el verbo de la subordinada se mueve un punto hacia el pasado: - Present simple - present continuous - present perfect - past simple - will - can - may - must - Past simple - Past continuous - Past perfect - past perfect - would - could - might - must/had to

- "I want to see Peter" She said (that)she wanted to see Peter. B) Si el verbo principal est en presente, o el sentido de la subordinada sigue siendo presente, la regla del pasado no se aplica: - She says (that) the train will be late. - I told him I hate football. C) Adems de TELL y SAY, se pueden utilizar muchos verbos para introducir el estilo indirecto: EXPLAIN, ADMIT, INTERRUPT, COMPLAIN, WARN, ANSWER, etc. D) TELL siempre va seguido de un objeto indirecto: He said (to me) he was coming = He told me he was coming

A) Se aplica tambin la regla del pasado. -"Why have you come here?" < -He asked him why he had come there. B) Se pueden hacer dos grandes grupos de preguntas: B.1.) PREGUNTAS PARCIALES O WH-: Se repite la partcula interrogativa - "Where do you live?" < - She asked me where I lived B.2.) PREGUNTAS TOTALES O YES/NO : Se emplea IF o WHETHER en la subordinada. - "Do you live in Madrid?" < - She asked me IF/WHETHER I lived in Madrid. C) Todas las preguntas indirectas llevan el orden afirmativo (sujeto + verbo) y no necesitan los auxiliares do/did. NO: She asked me where did I live SI: She asked me where I lived

Commands and Requests:

A) No se aplica la regla del pasado. B) Los verbos ms empleados son TELL y ASK pero tambin se pueden emplear URGE, PERSUADE, ADVISE

C) Siguen el siguiente esquema: SUJETO + VERBO PRINCIPAL + OBJETO INFINITIVO - He told them go away - She asked me quiet - Mary urged her mother - She persuaded her son - I advised him smoking

INDIRECTO (not)to to


to help to study to stop

* Es importante recordar que al contar lo que otra persona ha dicho pueden cambiar las circunstancias de lugar y tiempo, si es as esos cambios tendrn que reflejarse en el estilo indirecto. CAMBIOS MAS FRECUENTES: I/my he,she/his,her here, now this,these last week there,then that, those the week before today,tomorrow that day, the next day

EXERCICES Pasa las siguientes oraciones a estilo indirecto, como en el ejemplo. - Peter to Nick: "You must get some exercise" Peter told Nick to get some exercise - Susan to her mother: "It is cold" - Peter to Susan: "please, come with me" - Tracy: "Why is it so difficult?"

- Susan: "I'm coming in a minute" - Mary to her son: "Don't make a noise" - Peter: "Did you go to Madrid?" - The teacher: "Be quiet"