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Chapter 8 Student Prep Questions 1. Which of the following is not one of the specific stages in the negotiation process?

A) B) C) D) Establishing the negotiating range Narrowing the negotiating range The critical stage Ratification

2. How does the negotiation process begin? A) B) C) D) With the issuance of a notice to bargain collectively On notice from the Ministry of Labour On request from the union On request from the employer

3. In which of the negotiation stages do the parties determine their priorities and goals? A) B) C) D) The negotiation stage The pre-negotiation stage The collective bargaining phase The pre-ratification stages

4. In which of the negotiation stages do the parties meet to present their proposals to each other? A) B) C) D) The pre-negotiation stage The negotiation stage Narrowing the bargaining range Establishing the bargaining range

5. What is the intermediary area between the two sets of proposals wherein both parties would rather settle than undertake a strike or lockout called? A) B) C) D) The collective agreement The bargaining zone The zone of agreement The memorandum of settlement

6. During which of the negotiation stages do the parties begin to retreat from their initial positions in order to find an agreement? A) B) C) D) The memorandum of agreement stage The final negotiation stage Establishing the bargaining range Narrowing the bargaining range

7. During which of the negotiation stages must the parties decide whether to settle or use economic sanctions to pressure the other side? A) B) C) D) The memorandum of agreement stage The crisis stage Narrowing the bargaining range Ratification

8. Who controls the ratification process? A) B) C) D) The employer The union Each party controls its own process The process is directed by the relevant labour legislation

9. Which of the following statements best describes the integrative bargaining subprocess? A) B) C) D) A gain for one party is a gain for the other A gain for one party is a loss for the other A process to achieve improved relationships between the parties An attempt to reduce the expectations of the parties

10. What is the term used to describe the competitive behaviours in negotiations that influence the division of limited resources? A) B) C) D) Attitudinal structuring Intra-organizational bargaining Integrative bargaining Distributive bargaining

11. Which of the following best describes the ratification process? A) B) C) D) It allows both side's constituents to have a voice on the resulting collective agreement It ensures that all of the parties' priorities have been achieved It requires unanimous support for the memorandum of settlement to be confirmed All of the above

12. Which of the following best describes the term factional conflict? A) B) C) D) Disputes between chief negotiators on bargaining priorities Disputes within an organization about conflicting demands Disputes between bargaining committees on key issues All of the above

13. The attitudinal structuring sub-process is part of how relationship patterns are established. Which of the following is not one of the characteristics associated with these relationship patterns? A) B) C) D) Motivation to be competitive Level of trust toward the other side History of the relationship Feelings of friendliness or hostility toward the other side

14. In the context of the integrative bargaining sub-process, which of the following is a strategy for identifying problems? A) B) C) D) Convening frequent negotiation sessions at the request of either side Developing agenda items that have the potential for joint problem solving Formulating negotiation subjects as specific problems All of the above

15. In the context of the distributive bargaining sub-process, which of the following is not a strategy used to discover the other side's bottom line? A) B) C) D) Observing non-verbal behavioural cues Using probing and clarifying questions to elicit reactions to proposals Negotiating for long periods of time Using open-ended questions to determine the other side's interests

16. Which of the following is a factor that can affect bargaining power? A) B) C) D) Environmental factors Socio-economic factors Hierarchical factors Demographic factors

17. Which of the following is not a factor that can affect the amount of the employer's bargaining power? A) B) C) D) Size of inventory Inflation rate Competitiveness Labour costs

18. Which of the following is a criterion to consider when analysing the costs of a bargaining process? A) B) C) D) Transaction costs Strike funds Labour rates in the industry All of the above

19. Which of the following is not one of the principles of mutual gains bargaining? A) B) C) D) Separating the people from the problem Focusing on interests rather than positions Insisting that the result be based on some objective standard Emphasizing the wishes of both parties

20. The outcome of the 2010 collective bargaining round involving OPSEU would be best characterized by OPSEU in which of the following statements? A) B) C) D) Win/ win Win/ loss Accepting the lesser of two evils Undetermined

21. When we look at the 'costs of disputes model', which criterion most closely approximates outcomes similar to the attitudinal structuring sub-process? A) B) C) D) Transaction costs Inter-relational problems Recurrence Ultimate resolution costs

22. What is a variable in the negotiations that can determine whether the party gets what it is looking for in an outcome? A) B) C) D) Bargaining team cohesiveness Negotiator compatibility Public opinion Bargaining power

23. What realities work against achieving the goal of maintaining positive relationships in negotiations? A) B) C) D) Historical Economical Institutional All of the above

24. In traditional negotiations the parties generally accept that ________ is a way to obtain desired outcomes. A) B) C) D) Co-operation Concession bargaining Conflict Take away bargaining

25. In Montreal's municipal bargaining the war of figures between the city and the unions has been called a coercive comparison. Why does each side present its own spin on the numbers? A) B) C) D) It helps garner public support It is a way to force the other side to be reasonable To further divide the spoils among the unions To force a strike or lockout

26. What stage marks the exchange of counter proposals? A) B) C) D) Pre-negotiation stage Ratification stage Critical stage The second and third stages

27. What is the purpose of a strike or lockout? A) B) C) D) To cause financial distress To shorten the negotiation process To lengthen the crisis stage To bring speedy resolution to the adversarial process

28. What is crucial to the offer of concessions? A) B) C) D) Amount Type Timing Variety

29. Which industrial relations theorist(s) presents a framework for understanding negotiation behaviour? A) B) C) D) Marx and Engels Walton and McKersie The Webbs John Commons

30. Why do parties meet in the pre-negotiation stage to settle issues of procedure and protocol? A) B) C) D) To get to know each other better So that the negotiations do not get bogged down To set the stage for distributive bargaining To get to win/ loss more quickly

31. It is common for each party to have on a laundry list of proposals some items that are considered essential. A) True B) False 32. During the stage of establishing the bargaining range, both sides start to retreat from their original positions to attempt to find the zone of agreement. A) True B) False 33. The decision whether to settle or invoke economic sanctions can be triggered by disputes over a single issue or by a package deal involving the acceptance of a set of proposals on several interrelated items. A) True B) False 34. In the crisis stage, the distributive bargaining sub-process becomes more apparent as the parties move toward settlement of a collective agreement. A) True B) False 35. Intra-organizational bargaining sees the chief negotiators seeking to convince the other team of the merit of the argument. A) True B) False 36. Environmental factors affecting negotiations include public opinion, legislation, and the economy. A) True B) False 37. The most highly visible negotiation sub-process is the integrative bargaining process. A) True B) False 38. Integrative bargaining is characterized by the notion of win/ loss. A) True B) False

39. A large inventory would give the union more bargaining power since they could tie up that inventory with picketing. A) True B) False 40. Because of the emphasis on the role of bargaining power in determining bargaining outcomes, union-management negotiations are strictly a test of bargaining strength. A) True B) False 41. Describe the typical proceedings that take place at the first formal meeting with the parties. Both parties introduce their bargaining team members and present their proposals Usually, the chief negotiator for each side orally presents the rationale for each proposal to the other side

42. During the establishing the bargaining range stage of negotiations, the chief negotiator for each side orally presents the rationale for their proposals. What are the purposes of these presentations? Purposes of oral presentations:

Establish the bargaining range Demonstrate each sides degree of commitment Provide an opportunity for each side to explain the reasoning behind its proposals and thereby influence the perceptions and expectations of the other side 43. Why is the timing of counter-proposals and concessions during the narrowing the bargaining range stage important? 44. What is the purpose of a strike or a lockout? To get either the employer or employees to accept the proposed changes.

45. Describe the ratification process. The teams return to their constituencies and present the negotiated terms for approval The union will generally conduct a membership vote and management will review the agreement with all relevant stakeholders Bargaining structure is a major influence at this stage negotiated terms must be accepted by all the employers or unions represented in a multiple-employer or multiple-union structure If one side rejects the proposed agreement, the parties must return to the table Once the agreement is ratified, representatives from both sides sign it to bring it into legal effect

46. Describe the bargaining sub-processes known as intra-organizational bargaining and attitudinal structuring. The Intra-Organizational Bargaining Sub-Process

Involves the internal relationships that exist within each organization and thus is distinct from the other three sub-processes, which involve external relationships between the union and management Role conflict (between each sides negotiator) and factional conflict (conflicting demands within an organization) can occur during this sub-process 47. What is the classic definition of bargaining power in the union-management negotiation process? The classic definition of bargaining power is the measure of the ability of one side to secure the other sides agreement to its terms

48. List and describe the factors affecting the employer's bargaining power. Factors affecting the employers bargaining power include the size of its inventory, the structure of its operation, its competitiveness, whether the business is seasonal, whether it can operate during a strike, and its labour costs

49. List and describe the factors affecting the union's bargaining power. Factors affecting the unions bargaining power include the strength of its commitment to specific issues, its access to strike funds, and the timing and effectiveness of a possible strike

50. Describe the transaction costs associated with negotiations. Transaction costs include expenditures of time, money, resources, emotional energy, and lost opportunities, e.g., the costs of striking, locking out, or attempting to operate during a strike

51. What are the four distinct stages of union-management negotiations?

The pre-negotiation stage The stage of establishing the negotiation range The stage of narrowing the negotiation range The crisis stage The ratification stage

52. Describe the four negotiation sub-processes and explain how they interact with the prenegotiation stage. Intra-organizational bargaining each sides negotiators seek to achieve consensus within their bargaining team and within their organization Attitudinal structuring each side forms attitudes toward the other side and toward the relationship between the teams Integrative bargaining the two sides try to resolve some of the issues by identifying common interests in search of win-win solutions Distributive bargaining the two sides compete with one another over the division of limited resources; produces win-lose solutions

53. Discuss the prospects for a more collaborative model of labour relations to develop within the Canadian framework in the next few years. 54. What role does bargaining power play in determining the outcomes of the bargaining process? 55. Why is ratification considered one of the stages through which negotiations proceed?