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1. A.

Information and Communication Technology

is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use of electronic computers, communication devices and software applications to convert, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere anytime.

B. The benefits of ICT in language learning ICTs are a potentially powerful tool for extending educational opportunities, both formal and non-formal ICTs has an ability to transcend time and space. ICTs make possible asynchronous learning, or learning characteri ed by a time lag between the delivery of instruction and its reception by learners. !ith the Internet and the !orld !ide !eb, a wealth of learning materials in almost every sub"ect and in a variety of media can now be accessed from anywhere at anytime of the day and by an unlimited number of people. ICTs also facilitate access to resource persons # mentors, experts, researchers, professionals, business leaders, and peers # all over the world. ICTs in the classroom prepare the current generation of students for a workplace where ICTs, particularly computers, the Internet and related technologies, are becoming more and more ubiquitous. The ability to use ICTs effectively and efficiently is thus seen as representing a competitive edge in an increasingly globali ing "ob market. ICTs such as videos, television and multimedia computer software that combine text, sound, and colorful, moving images can be used to provide challenging and authentic content that will engage the student in the learning process The transmission of basic skills and concepts that are the foundation of higher order of thinking skills and creativity can be facilitated by ICTs through drill and practice. ICTs has also been used to improve access to and the quality of teacher training. $or example, to provide better teacher professional development opportunities to in service teachers. ICTs-supported education can promote the acquisition of the knowledge and skills that will empower students for lifelong learning if designed and implemented properly.

ICT-enhanced learning mobili es tools for examination, calculation and analysis of information for student inquiry. ICT-enhanced learning promotes a thematic, integrative approach to teaching and learning ICT-enhanced learning is student-directed and diagnostic. ICT-enhanced learning recogni es that there are many different learning pathways and articulations of knowledge. C. The weakness of ICT in language learning %s everyone knows, computers are not cheap and even after purchasing, ICT items will at some point, require maintenance to keep them running, which may again prove costly. %nother disadvantage of ICT is the distraction it might cause within the classroom. !hile it&s a positive outcome to get the students to become more interactive and self-competent with the use of technology, it&s also important that use of this technology is constantly monitored by teaching staff to ensure it is being used correctly. % further disadvantage of ICT is the issue of reliability. %s those who use technology on a regular basis know, it is not uncommon for something to fail, meaning it is then unable to perform the task you expected it to. It&s important that the teacher addresses this when planning a lesson and have a backup plan if this is the case. 'ome disadvantage of using ICT in education is the lack of supervision to learners. (efore implementing such skills in education proper brainstorming should take part, a meeting of some sort to discuss the limitations to what the media of instruction should use. The limitation and selection of the website should be imposed. There should be a blockade to any website that is harmful of not suited to education purpose.

2. A. The appropriate ICT media for teaching listening and speaking 'ome ICTs that can be used in the classroom are )odcasting blogs )odbean* http*++www.podbean.com ,ecording %udacity http://audacity.sourceforge.net/ 'creencasts - 'lidecasts - -ideos Animoto http://www.animoto.com/ Text-to-'peech i'peech* http*++www.ispeech.org+free.text.to.speech.tts.software

-oice tools ex .-/C%* http*++www.evoca.com -ideos 0ouTube* http*++www.youtube.com -irtual 1earning .nvironments 2-1.s3 or vClassrooms -yew* http*++vyew. com+site+ -oI) tools 'kype* http*++www.skype.com 'tudies in .nglish as a $oreign 1anguage 2.$13 education have shown that the main benefits of ICT use in the classroom are pupils& motivation for both language learning and linguistic proficiency as well as increased learning competencies The students display an enhanced sense of achievement and increase in self-directed learning, with the ability to communicate, conduct research and present ideas effectively beyond the confines of the class. B. The appropriate ICT media for reading Through technology, students are able to build their overall knowledge base and develop literacy skills. Internet technologies enable the teacher to enhance and expand this curriculum within and beyond the physical classroom. 'tudents& use of text-based computermediated communication, and intensive reading and research using Internet hypertext documents can all improve their learning. In addition, the use of technology enables students to improve skills needed in other areas of the classroom. $or example, guided practice that familiari es students with criteria for evaluating web sites and that takes them through a hypertext document facilitates their acquisition of the cognitive strategies necessary for searching nonlinear texts for research. !hen carefully integrated into the curriculum, technology can provide students with high motivation to develop literacy skills that they will need in the age of information. Teachers are integrating commercially available programs into the reading curriculum. 'ome such programs include The 1earning Company&s 4id )ix and talking book versions of popular children&s stories. The 4id )ix program provided the kindergartens with the opportunity to express their emerging literacy abilities through electronic text. $or example, with the software, they began to make the kinds of speech-to-text connections that young learners make when using more traditional writing materials such as paper and pencils, crayons, or markers. These explorations had the advantage of being easily modified, so that if a child decided that her expression was not exactly what she had hoped for, she could easily change her work or even begin again. /n the other hand, if another child found that what he had created captured what he was attempting to express, he could save it or print it out as a permanent, tangible artifact of the work he had done.

The talking books acted as scaffolds for the children&s developing concepts of print. This occurred in ways similar to traditional adult-child print interactions, with the talking book taking the place of the skilled reader. In talking books, the text of the story is highlighted left to right on the computer screen, while the narrator reads expressively. 5owever, there is an important caveat that must be considered when using such products* most talking books have an option that provides animation, which can distract students and cause them to lose track of the story. 'ome of the animation contributes to the story development, but on occasion it serves only as a diversion, leading to an incoherent sense of narrative. Therefore, if the goal in using this genre of computer software is to develop students& sense of story, the 6play7 option should be turned off, at least initially. %lthough the activities described above were designed with kindergartners in mind, they can be easily modified for use with students throughout the early grades. $or example, students at a number of grade levels can use 4id )ix to respond to stories through graphics and writing. 'uch an extension can be used after students complete their experiences with a talking book, following a traditional activity in which a teacher or older student reads a story aloud, or in response to a print-based text that a student is reading independently. C. The appropriate ICT media for writing $or the first time in history, human interaction takes place in a text-based form, and there is no longer any divide between speech and writing, writing equals speaking, meaning that, while you are writing in fact, you are speaking, of course with two important differences with the normal conversation. $irst of all, the written, computer-mediated mode of the discourse facilitates a special relationship between interaction and reflection, because you can free e any frame you want and focus on it. This creates an excellent environment for a group of people to construct knowledge together by expressing themselves in print and then assessing, evaluating, and reflecting on their own views and those of others in blogs The other appropriate ICT media in teaching writing is tape recorder or C8 player. (y using tape recorder or C8 player, we can dictate by using tape recorder or C8 player and the student will write down what the cassette says D. The appropriate ICT media for teaching integrated skills The use of ICT in the .nglish classroom extends beyond its motivational value to address key outcomes of the syllabus, and allow students to become competent users as well as consumers in .nglish. ,esearch suggests that incorporating ICT into the .nglish curriculum can* improve writing and reading skills

develop speaking and listening skills support collaboration, creativity, independent learning and reflection

ICT enables students to organi e and present information in a variety of forms and compose their own work more easily and professionally. !ord-processing software allows them to access tools professional editors use, and to manipulate text in ways that previously were difficult or unmanageable. 9sing such tools allows students to reflect and self-edit and encourages them to conference on screen and respond critically to other students: writing. )resentation software such as )ower)oint provides useful tools for performance, creates a more fluid environment for communicating a message, and elevates a speech to a more filmic medium. ICT provides the tools for composing and publishing a range of both conventional and multi-media texts so that students read, compose, and transform texts in novel and challenging ways. )roduction of texts might include emailing for a range of communication purposes, word processing written responses, designing websites, using desktop publishing packages and video editing packages, using programs such as )hoto story and ;oviemaker, and using animation software packages. . Internet is important in language learning because It has extensive < diverse resource of materials It is available => hours a day and ? days a week It is suitable for different levels It offers authentic materials It provides audio < video resources It is time- < cost-saving for teachers and learners It is useful tools for many purposes !. The critical issues of utili"ing internet in Indonesia -. %s internet users, we are warned to be more careful to share any information to public with any medium. .ither it is email, blog, even social media account. The government step to create 99 IT. is a good thing. It helps people define how to use internet and share their private information electronically.In )rita case, there is something wrong because procedural examination was not well implemented. 'o it should be reviewed then "udge and prosecutor should do procedural examination based on law. -. )eople should control their children how to share any private information and how to interact with any unknown people. ,ecently criminal things

because of internet are often occurred. %lmost of them are kidnapping or children go with other people that they recogni e via social media such as facebook. They are victim of negligence from their parents. (ut after that, other parents could be more aware that their children should be educated about their interaction with any unknown people in internet. -. (eside that, people should control their children from any pornography thing. %nd the government step to block sites that contain pornography material, it is good. (ut the sites would be more and more if the demand is not decreased. (esides doing any technological way to solve the problem, there should be any social way to solve the problem such as making better moral education to the curriculum. (eside that, parents should take role too to control their children. -. 'peech freedom, larger medium to sociali e, and larger information that could be accessed has not only a good side. It has a bad site too thus something should be done to minimi e it. 1aw is made to limit how people use the internet and share any information there. ;uch software invented to avoid children access bad sites accidentally or deliberately. (ut it would useless when there are no educational purpose about internet and role of parents to their children.