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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES Sta.

Mesa, Manila

SYSTEMS OF THE HUMAN BODY

Lady Sherlyn B. Delen BSA 2-21

Prof. Amy Nuguid 08.31.13

CIRULATORY SYSTEM

Function of the system The cardiovascular system is an organ system comprised of the heart, blood and blood vessels. The cardiovascular system forms a part of the circulatory system, which circulates blood, lymph and oxygen throughout the body. The cardiovascular system works in conjunction with the digestive system to move nutrients throughout the body, and is also closely related to nervous system function. 1. To transport nutrients, gases and waste products around the body 2. To protect the body from infection and blood loss 3. To help the body maintain a constant body temperature (thermoregulation) 4. To help maintain fluid balance within the body

Parts and Function

1. Heart - The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a closed fist that functions as the bodys circulatory pump. It takes in deoxygenated blood through the veins and delivers it to the lungs for oxygenation before pumping it into the various arteries (which provide oxygen and nutrients to body tissues by transporting the blood throughout the body). 2. Blood Vessels - The blood vessels form a complicated system of connecting tubes throughout the body. There are three major types of these vessels. Arteries carry blood from the heart. Veins return blood to the heart. Capillaries are extremely tiny vessels that connect the arteries and the veins. 3. Blood - The blood consists chiefly of liquid called plasma and three kinds of solid particles known as formed elements. Plasma is made up mostly of water, but it also contains proteins, minerals, and other substances. The three types of formed elements are called red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. White blood cells help protect the body from disease. Platelets release substances that enable blood to clot. Platelets thus aid in preventing the loss of blood from injured vessels.

Foods (Good and bad for the system) 1. Green Vegetables Romaine lettuce, green leaf lettuce, red leaf lettuce, arugala, kale, Swiss chard, collard greens, turnip greens, sesame leaves, basil, parsley, mint, broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, green onions, leeks, spinach, zucchini, and Asian greens like bok choy, are the very best foods for your heart and blood vessels. These green vegetables supply a wide array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals that can nourish the cells of your cardiovascular system. And just as important, these green vegetables have virtually no chance of harming your heart and blood vessels. 2. Foods That Are Naturally Rich In Omega-3 Fatty Acids Raw walnuts, freshly ground flax seeds, purslane, wild salmon, anchovies, lake trout, fresh seaweed, organic eggs from birds that are raised in a free range environment, and high quality fish oil are all naturally rich in omega-3 fatty acids and are well tolerated by the masses. Undamaged omega-3 fatty acids have been shown in both clinical and epidemiological studies to reduce one's risk of cardiovascular disease. 3. Foods That Are Naturally Rich In The Full Vitamin C Complex Acerola cherries, black currants, tropical guava, grapefruit, green and yellow kiwis, lychee, longans, oranges, cantaloupe, papaya, persimmons, goji berries,and red currants are all naturally rich in the full vitamin C complex, which includes compounds called flavonoids. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants that can help to protect your heart and blood vessels against damage created by free radicals. Flavonoids can also help to support healthy widening of your blood vessels during times when an area of your body needs increased blood supply.

The worst foods for your heart and blood vessels are those that are concentrated with unhealthy fats and/or sugar/refined carbohydrates. How to take care of the system? 1. Cut Down on Fats and Sweets Reducing your intake of sweets and fats will help decrease your overall cholesterol and triglycerides, two elements that are critical to the health of your cardiovascular system. Work to cut out foods high in saturated fats and those containing trans fats, as these are the least beneficial for your heart. 2. Increase Whole Grains, Fruit and Vegetable Intake In order to raise your HDL or good cholesterol, you need to up your intake of these critical good foods. Eating plenty of antioxidant containing fruits and vegetables like cranberries, tomatoes, onions, red grapes and tomato juice will help decrease inflammation and cleanse your system. 3. Use Extra Virgin Olive Oil for Cooking Containing healthy phytonutrients and monounsaturated fats, olive oil helps to raise HDL cholesterol. Try to get about 25% of your daily intake of calories from healthy fats like the ones in olive oil. 4. Eat Three Portions of Fish Weekly Omega-3 fatty acids reduce triglyceride levels in your blood, decrease blood pressure and reduce blood clots. Eat at least 3 portions of fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, sardines, herring and albacore tuna weekly. 5. Exercise Regularly Increase your blood circulation, build your hearts strength and increase lung capacity and function with regular exercise. The easiest way you can do this is to sweat regularly with exercise. You should work towards 30 minutes of daily walking, in addition to three 20-minute sessions of additional cardiovascular activity weekly. 6. Floss Daily Flossing is critical to heart health, as it eliminates inflammation-causing bacteria that can lead to heart disease. 7. Get Plenty of Sleep Sleep deprivation can increase your resting heart rate and blood pressure, as well as decrease your muscle nerve activity. Prolonged lack of sleep has been connected to disturbed heart rhythms and hypertension. Studies have proven that people who get under 6 hours of sleep nightly have a 50% higher risk of stroke and heart disease.

8. Practice Stress Management Learning to practice relaxing breathing techniques or playing with your children or animals can work to reduce your resting blood pressure and heart rate. By learning to relax and de-stress, you can improve your hearts health significantly.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Function of the system The human digestive system is a series of organs that converts food into essential nutrients that are absorbed into the body and moves the unused waste material out of the body. It is essential to good health because if the digestive system shuts down, the body cannot be nourished or rid itself of waste. The main function of the digestive system is to break down the food that the animal eats into smaller parts and get the nutrients from these foods, which goes towards the performance of various functions in the body. Parts and Function 1. Mouth does not only serve as the entrance but it also functioning in a number of digestive processes. The mouth houses the teeth and tongue, both accessory organs of digestion as well as the saliva. 2. Esophagus is a muscular tube approximately 25 cm long (10 inches) that serves as the passageway of bolus from the mouth to the stomach. 3. Stomach is a hollow organ, or "container," that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food into a usable form. Cells in the lining of the stomach secrete strong acid and powerful enzymes that are responsible for

the breakdown process. When the contents of the stomach are sufficiently processed, they are released into the small intestine. 4. Pancreas produces hormones that regulate blood sugar levels, enzymes that breakdown carbohydrate (amylase), proteins, (trypsin) lipids, (lipase) and nucleic acids, and sodium bicarbonate. 5. Liver assist the pancreas. The liver has multiple functions, but its main function within the digestive system is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. The liver also detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals. It breaks down and secretes many drugs. 6. Gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, and then releases it into the duodenum to help absorb and digest fats. 7. Small Intestine is specially adapted to absorb nutrients. It is a 22-foot long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver. 8. The Large Intestine (colon) is a 6-foot long muscular tube that connects the small intestine to the rectum. Large intestine removes water from the undigested material that is left. It is a highly specialized organ that is responsible for processing waste so that emptying the bowels. 9. Appendix acts as a safe house for good bacteria, which can be used to effectively reboot the gut following a bout of dysentery or cholera. 10. Rectum is an 8-inch chamber that connects the colon to the anus. It is the rectum's job to receive stool from the colon, to let the person know that there is stool to be evacuated, and to hold the stool until evacuation happens. When anything (gas or stool) comes into the rectum, sensors send a message to the brain. 11. Anus is the last part of the digestive tract. It is a 2-inch long canal specialized to detect rectal contents. It lets you know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or solid. Foods (Good and bad for the system) High-fat and fried food Worst Both high-fat and fried food can overwhelm the stomach, resulting in acid reflux and heartburn. High-fat food also can result in pale-colored stool, a phenomenon called steatorrhea, which is essentially excess fat in the feces. Chili peppers Worst This staple of spicy cuisine can irritate the esophagus and lead to heartburn pain. Dairy Worst

You need calcium in your diet, and an easy way to get it is from dairy products such as milk and cheese. But, for the lactose intolerant, these can cause diarrhea, gas, and abdominal bloating and cramps. Alcohol Worst Alcohol relaxes the body, but, unfortunately, it also relaxes the esophageal sphincter. This can lead to acid reflux or heartburn. Berries Worst Berries are good for your health, but ones with tiny seeds can be a problem for people who have diverticulitis, or pockets that develop in the intestine (usually the large intestine) that become inflamed or infected. Chocolate Worst A 2005 study suggested that chocolate may be a problem in those with irritable bowel syndrome or chronic constipation. Coffee, tea, and soft drinks Worst Coffee, tea, and carbonated beverages not only over-relax the esophageal sphincter, which keeps stomach acid confined to the stomach, but they also can act as diuretics, which can lead to diarrhea and cramping. Corn Worst Fiber-rich corn is good for you, but it also contains cellulose, a type of fiber that humans can't break down easily because we lack a necessary enzyme. Yogurt Best You have trillions of bacteria in your gut that help you digest food, and yogurt contains some types of these healthy bacteria. (Although not all yogurts have themcheck for "live and active cultures" on the label.) Kimchi Best Kimchi is a Korean favorite usually made with cabbage, radish, or onion, along with lots of spices. The main ingredient is usually cabbage, which promotes the growth of healthy bacteria in the colon. Lean meat and fish Best Red meats tend to be fattier. Your body can handle lean meats and fish and chicken a whole lot better than prime rib. And lean meats and fish have not been associated with an increased risk of colon cancer like high-fat red meats have.

Whole grains Best Whole grains, such as whole-wheat bread, oats, and brown rice, are a good source of fiber, which helps digestion. Bananas Best Bananas help restore normal bowel function, especially if you have diarrhea (say, from too much alcohol). Ginger Best This spice has been used for thousands of years as a safe way to relieve nausea, vomiting, motion sickness, morning sickness, gas, loss of appetite, and colic. How to take care of the system? 1. Eat foods rich in fiber Fiber is instrumental in ensuring your digestive system runs smoothly. It's a food with a surprisingly large range of digestive health benefits - it helps the body eliminate waste, lowers cholesterol, feeds healthy bacteria and reduces your risks of developing irritable bowel syndrome and colon cancer too. Find your servings of fiber in fruit, vegetables, nuts, beans and whole grains. 2. Eat good amounts of fish Fish contain omega-3 fatty acids which are hailed as being highly beneficial to the digestive system. The essential fatty acids can improve certain digestive problems because of their special anti-inflammatory properties. Choose to eat three to five portions of fish rich in this nutrient each week. 3. Cut out fried and high-fat foods Reduce the amount of fried and fattening foods that you eat. These are hard for you to digest and put extra pressure on your digestive functions. Other processed foods may contain ingredients which irritate the stomach. Instead, choose organic foods when possible - they are simpler and kinder to your system. 4. Take probiotics Probiotics are good bacteria that live in the gastrointestinal system. They maintain its health by keeping bad bacteria at bay and creating a good harmony in your digestion's ecosystem. They have been known to help ease conditions like gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Your probiotic levels will fall dramatically if you are under stress or taking antibiotics. Take a supplement of probiotics for the best support. Doses found in yogurt are minimal at best, and virtually none in flavored yogurts. 5. Develop good eating habits It's important to chew your food well to help it break down sufficiently before it reaches your stomach. Chewing is actually the first stage of digestion as enzymes in your saliva break down carbohydrates in the mouth. Other good practices which support your digestion is taking enough time to eat without rushing, avoiding large meals and avoiding eating a meal before you go to bed so your stomach can digest its food while you're still upright.

6. Exercise regularly Exercise is great for boosting your body's natural functions and can improve the natural rhythm of your digestive system, too. It is also great for helping your food move through the digestive tract. 7. Choose healthy hydration Caffeinated drinks like coffee and acid-producing fluids like soda can cause stomach aggravation, especially to sensitive stomachs. Instead, drink lots of water which prevents and alleviates constipation and generally eases the digestive process.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Function of the system The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete different hormones for the various functions and chemical reactions occurring within the body. The main function is to maintain a stable environment within the body or homeostasis. For example, maintaining the blood sugar levels according to changes occurring in the body is homeostasis. The other function of is promoting the structural changes of the body. For example, the permanent changes occurring in the body over time like height, development of sexual organs, etc. is a part of the structural changes. Parts and Function

Hypothalamus - The hypothalamus is a part of the brain near the optic chiasm. It secretes hormones that stimulate or suppress the release of hormones in the pituitary gland, in addition to controlling water balance, sleep, temperature, appetite and blood pressure. Pineal body - The pineal body is located below the corpus callosum, a part of the brain. It produces the hormone melatonin, a naturally-occurring antioxidant that helps regulate the bodys circadian rhythm. Pituitary Gland - The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain. No larger than a pea, its a gland that controls many functions of the other endocrine glands. Thyroid and parathyroid glands - The thyroid and parathyroid glands are located in front of the neck, below the larynx (voice box). The thyroid plays an important role in the body's metabolism. Both the thyroid and parathyroid glands also play a role in the regulation of the body's calcium balance.

Thymus - The thymus is located in the upper part of the chest and produces Tlymphocytes (white blood cells that fight infections and destroy abnormal cells). Adrenal glands - The two adrenal glands are located on top of both kidneys. They work hand-in-hand with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Pancreas - The pancreas is located across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The pancreas plays a role in digestion, as well as in hormone production. Ovary - A female's ovaries are located on both sides of the uterus, below the opening of the fallopian tubes (tubes that extend from the uterus to the ovaries). In addition to containing the egg cells necessary for reproduction, the ovaries also produce estrogen and progesterone. Testis - A male's testes are located in a pouch that hangs suspended outside his body. The testes produce testosterone and sperm.

Foods (Good and bad for the system) Overall Diet

Generally, eating whole, organic foods with little to no processing best complements your endocrine system. Eat cruciferous vegetables -- broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and cabbage -- to regulate and detoxify your glands. Flaxseed and vitamin B can help balance your hormones. Calcium, vitamins A and C, magnesium and regular exercise help reduce stress and strengthen bones. To help decelerate your aging process, find a way to maintain a spiritual and emotional balance. Vitamin D and Calcium

Endocrine disorders related to diet include osteoporosis, which can be caused by estrogen deficiency, and thyroid disorders. To keep bones strong, eat food high in calcium and vitamin D. Enjoy smoothies -- made from yogurt, a banana and fresh or frozen berries -spinach, kale, sardines and salmon. Eat potassium-rich food, including bananas, tomatoes and orange juice, and lean protein from fish, eggs or dairy products, which also include vitamin D. Avoid caffeine and carbonated beverages. High Fiber, Less Sweets

Diabetes, caused by your body's resistance to insulin, is a hormonal disorder. Your pancreas produces three hormones: insulin, to help your body store glucose; glucagon, to break down and release blood sugar as your body needs it; and somatostatin, which can regulate the process of both. The general diet prescribed for maintaining a healthy balance and avoiding diabetes is to eat plenty of high-fiber plant foods, including fruits, vegetables and nuts; complex carbohydrates, such as steel-cut oats and whole-grain bread; and lean protein. Eat regularly, but watch your portions and cut back on sweets. Iodine

An iodine deficiency can cause thyroid problems including goiter, which is an enlarged thyroid. According to Dr. David Brownstein, author of "Iodine: Why You Need It, Why You Can't Live Without It," Japanese people on average eat more than 100 times the daily amount of iodine we do in the U.S. and have a significantly lower rate of breast, prostate and ovarian cancers. Iodine sources include fish, sea vegetables, yogurt, strawberries and mozzarella cheese. Considerations

Check with your physician before adjusting your diet to remedy health issues. For everyday consideration, avoid plastic to store and reheat your food. The National Resources Defense Council recommends glass containers, as plastic may release synthetic chemicals that are absorbed into the body and disrupt your endocrine system. A sudden influx of calories revs up the endocrine system needlessly

Eating sweets causes an immediate revving up of the endocrine systems of the body and triggers fat storing mechanisms. Eating sweets is like revving up a car engine thats parked in the driveway. Doing that is hard on a car engine and its hard on our endocrine systems. The frequent consumption of empty calories causes obesity, vitamin and mineral loss, adrenal and pancreatic fatigue - all leading to an eventual breakdown in health. Retrain yourself to limit your intake of sweets to infrequent. Sweets comprise 24% of the Standard American Diet and are the cause of more degenerative disease than anything else.

How to take care of the system? Avoid steroids. Steroids interfere with natural hormone production, such as males producing testosterone. Steroid use can cause women to grow facial hair, men to have shrunken testicles and behavioral problems such as aggression and unwarranted anger. Get plenty of rest. Sleep is one of the best things you can do to stay healthy. Our bodies need at least eight hours of sleep every night in order to function properly. While the body is resting, the endocrine system secretes hormones and repairs different parts of the body. Eat a healthy diet. Foods rich in vitamins, iodine, and calcium help to keep hormones at proper levels. Overeating and consuming foods high in fat inhibit functioning of the endocrine glands. Engage in a regular exercise program. People who lead a sedentary life are prone to obesity as inactivity and overeating usually go hand in hand. Obesity retards the influence of insulin and leads to Adult Onset Diabetes.

Relax and slow down. Stress causes illness and disease. Quite often a disorder is the result of long term stress. By the time the patient seeks treatment, the body has already been compromised. Take care of yourself by getting plenty of rest, drinking eight glasses of water daily, exercising, and eating a healthy diet.

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Function of the system There are various functions of the muscular system and some of these are: creation of movement, protection of organs and pumping of blood, and easing of blood flow. The system is also vital in digestion; whereby, smooth muscles in the stomach and intestines process the eaten food. Parts and Function 1. Skeletal muscles: Skeletal muscles are also known as voluntary muscles as they are under our control and they move only when we want them to move. They are also known as striped and striated muscles as they have striations anatomically and can be seen under a microscope.

Skeletal Muscles are also known as Straighted muscles, and these are the muscle fibres that help in the movement of all the bones as the face and the eyes. Through the central and peripheral nervous system, we have conscious control over theseskeletal muscles. Straighted muscle fibres have patterns of dark and light bands, or fibrils in their cytoplasm. Fibrous tissue that envelops and separates muscles is called fascia, which contains the muscles blood lymph and nerve supply. 2. Smooth muscles: Smooth muscles are called as non-striated muscles as these muscles do not contain any striations when observed under a microscope. These are also known asinvoluntary muscles as these muscles are not under our control. The brain does not control its actions voluntarily. Smooth muscles are also known as visceral muscles as these muscles fibres move internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and secretory ducts leading from glands. These smooth muscles are controlled by theautonomic nervous system. These muscles are known as smooth muscles because they have no dark and light fibrils in their cytoplasm. Skeletal muscle fibres are arranged inbundles, while smooth muscle forms sheets of fibres as it wraps around tubes and vessels. Smooth muscles are responsible for the movement of muscular actions of internal organs such as movement of food and wastes along the digestive tract. The other movement is the contraction or dilation of the pupil of the eyes and other countless involuntary movements of the sense and internal organs except the heart. 3. Cardiac muscles: Cardiac muscles are also known as heart muscles. These muscles are specially confined to the region of the heart, so they are known as cardiac muscles. Cardiac muscles are involved in the rhythmic beating and contractions of the heart, which are not under our consciousness, therefore cardiac muscles are also known as involuntary muscles. Cardiac muscles are different from the skeletal muscles in having lateral connection between the muscle fibres. They are under the control of Autonomic Nervous System and are not under self control. Cardiac muscles are straightened in appearance but like smooth muscle in its action. Its movement cannot be consciously controlled. The fibres of cardiac muscles are branching fibres and are found in heart. Foods (Good and bad for the system)

1. Calcium
Calcium helps muscles contract and relax properly. Its also essential for healthy bones and teeth. Citrus fruits, soybeans, tofu, salmon and sardines are naturally high in calcium. While dark green, leafy vegetables like kale and broccoli are good sources, Swiss chard and spinach reduce absorption rates. Dairy products like milk, cheese and yogurt are excellent calcium choices that also provide Vitamin D, which is necessary for the body to use calcium properly. Sunshine is another source of Vitamin D. Men should consume between 1,000 and 1,200 milligrams daily, while women should get 1,200.

2. Potassium
Potassium is essential for sending nerve impulses to the muscles, allowing them to stretch and relax as needed. Good food choices include meats, dairy products, grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes. Men and women should consume 4,700 milligrams of potassium daily.

3. Protein
Protein builds, maintains and repairs muscle tissues. It produces energy and stamina, and it enables muscles to contract properly. A common misconception is that athletes need significantly more protein than nonathletes do. The athletes protein requirement is only slightly higher, since training is responsible for developing muscle size, bulk, shape and strength. Good protein foods include chicken, beef, fish, milk, eggs and most other animal products. Men and women can satisfy their protein requirements by consuming two to three servings of lean meats or meat alternatives daily. Vegetarian alternatives include legumes, seeds, nuts, grains, dark leafy greens and dairy products.

4. Vitamin C
Vitamin C is essential for producing collagen, which is the connective tissue necessary for muscle health. Its readily available in most fruits -- particularly citrus, bell peppers, berries, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, potatoes, spinach and tomatoes. Men should consume 90 milligrams of Vitamin C daily; women need 75 milligrams.

5. Iron, Thiamin, Magnesium, Sodium and Iodine


Iron helps the red blood cells oxygenate your muscles. Its present in poultry, red meats, eggs, green vegetables, fruits and fortified grain products. Men and women under the age of 51 should consume 8 milligrams daily; women over 51 should have 18 milligrams daily. Thiamine (Vitamin B1) helps the body convert foods into the energy needed to produce healthy muscles. Good sources include ham and pork chops, soy milk, acorn squash and watermelon. Men should consume 1.2 milligrams of thiamine daily, and women should have 1.1 milligrams. Magnesium works with calcium to normalize muscle contraction. Good dietary sources include halibut, milk, green vegetables like broccoli and spinach, cashews, legumes, sunflower and other seeds and whole-wheat bread. Men should consume 420 milligrams daily, while women should taken in 320 milligrams. Sodium and iodine are also essential to muscle health and are present in more than sufficient amounts in most commercially processed foods today.

How to take care of the system? 1. Work out with weights. Strength training, sometimes called weight training or resistance training, will improve your muscular strength and endurance. Perform two to three whole-body workouts per week on non-consecutive days to get the most from your training. You can work out by using resistance machines, dumbbells, barbells, resistance bands or body weight exercises--all of which are effective for improving the condition of your muscular system. 2. Stretch your muscles often. Your muscles need to be stretched regularly to keep them in good shape. Stretch all of your major muscles at least after each workout and preferably every day. Muscles often tighten between after exercises, as a result of sitting for long periods and as part of the aging process. Stretching will lengthen your muscles and prevent exercise- and age-related shortening. Stretch your muscles gently, holding each stretch for 30 seconds or more. You might also consider a yoga class, which involves a lot of stretching. 3. Eat a balanced diet. Your muscles need vitamins, minerals, water, protein, carbohydrates and healthy fats so that they can function at their best. Eat a diet rich in natural whole foods such as fruit, vegetables and grains to ensure you are getting adequate nutrients to keep your muscles in good shape. Your muscles are made up of around 70 percent water so make sure you drink at least eight tall glasses of water a day to stay well hydrated.

NERVOUS SYSTEM

The nervous system is responsible for coordinating all of the body's activities. It controls not only the maintenance of normal functions but also the body's ability to cope with emergency situations.

Function of the system The nervous system has three general functions: a sensory function, an interpretative function and a motor function. 1. Sensory nerves gather information from inside the body and the outside environment. The nerves then carry the information to central nervous system (CNS). 2. Sensory information brought to the CNS is processed and interpreted. 3. Motor nerves convey information from the CNS to the muscles and the glands of the body.

Parts and Function The nervous system is divided into two parts: 1. the central nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. These structures are protected by bone and cushioned from injury by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 2. the peripheral system which connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body. 1. Central Nervous System These structures are protected by bone and cushioned from injury by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Brain The brain is a mass of soft nerve tissue, which is encapsulated within the skull. It is made up of grey matter, mainly nerve cell bodies, and white matter which are the cell processes. The grey matter is found at the periphery of the brain and in the center of the spinal cord. White matter is found deep within the brain, at the periphery of the spinal cord and as the peripheral nerves. The brain is divided into: Cerebrum - the largest part of the brain. It is the centre for thought and intelligence. It is divided into right and left hemispheres. The right controls movement and activities on the left side of the body. The left controls the right side of the body. Within the cerebrum are areas for speech, hearing, smell, sight, memory, learning and motor and sensory areas. Cerebral cortex - the outside of the cerebrum. Its function is learning, reasoning, language and memory. Cerebellum - lies below the cerebrum at the back of the skull. Its functions are to control voluntary muscles, balance and muscle tone. Medulla - controls heart rate, breathing, swallowing, coughing and vomiting. Together with the pons and the midbrain, the medulla forms the brainstem that connects the cerebrum to the spinal cord. The spinal cord The spinal cord is about 45 cms long, extending from the medulla down to the second lumbar vertebrae. It acts as a message pathway between the brain and the rest of the body. Nerves conveying impulses from the brain, otherwise known as efferent or motor nerves, travel through the spinal cord down to the various organs of the body. When the impulses reach the appropriate level they leave the cord to travel to the' target organ. Sensory or afferent nerve impulses also use the spinal cord to travel from various parts of the body up to the brain. 2. Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral system connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body. The main divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System are: The autonomic nervous system which controls the automatic functions of the body: the heart, smooth muscle (organs) and glands. It is divided into the fight-or-flight system and the resting and digesting" system.

The somatic nervous system which allows us to consciously or voluntarily control our skeletal muscles. The somatic system contains 12 cranial nerves and 31 spinal nerves. Nerves which are made up of special cells called neurons. Neurons are comprised of a dendrite, a cell body and an axon. Impulses travel to the dendrite into the cell body and then onto the axon. A special sheath called myelin, which increases the conductivity of the neuron, covers some nerves. As messages travel from one neuron to the next they move across a synapse. At each synapse there is a chemical called a neurotransmitter. At various parts of the body specific neurotransmitters facilitate communication, for example dopamine (motor function), serotonin (mood) and endorphins (painkillers). Sensory neurons carry messages from a receptor to the brain. The brain then interprets the message. Motor neurons then send the message to an affector in muscles and glands. Receptor (sensory organ) sends a signal to the sensory neuron which sends a signal to the brain/spinal cord which sends a signal to the motor neuron which sends a signal to the affector (muscle/gland).

The neuron The basic unit of the nervous system, is a specialized cell called the neuron. These nerve cells make up a massive network of specialized cells that transmit messages, very rapidly, from one part of the body to another. Information is transmitted via electrical impulses. The neuron is comprised of a nerve cell and its adjoining processes called an axon and dendrites. Every nerve cell has one or more processes attached to it. Electrical impulses enter the neuron via the dendrites and leave via the axon. The space between the axon of one cell and the dendrites of another is called a synapse. Specialized chemicals called neurotransmitters help conduct impulses through the synapse onto the next cell.

Foods (Good and bad for the system)

Avoid yeast, refined sugars, coffee, tea, tobacco, drugs, poor quality oils and extremely spicy foods as these aggravate the digestion and the nervous system. Favor foods that are warm, heavy, and oily as these nourish the nervous system. Reduce foods that are cold, dry, and hard as these aggravate digestion. Favor foods that are sweet (e.g. wheat, milk, rice), sour (e.g. vinegar, yogurt, umeboshi plums, citrus fruit), and salty as these are all nourishing. Reduce foods that are very spicy, bitter (e.g. coffee, chilies, green leafy vegetables), and astringent (e.g. apples, beans) as these aggravate digestion and disturb the nervous system. Dairy: all dairy products nourish the nervous system. Always boil milk before you drink it, mix with cardamom seeds and drink it warm. Dont take milk with a full meal or with fruit. Use organic milk. If allergic substitute with almond or rice milk. Avoid ice cream, powdered milks and soya milk.

Sweeteners: all sweet flavors are good for nourish the nervous system. Reduce refined white sugar. Avoid all sugars if bloating is present. Oils: all oils reduce dryness and nourish the nervous system. Emphasize Flax, hemp, sesame, ghee, olive, sunflower, evening primrose, borage and fish oils. Use these internally and externally. Grains: rice (basmati, brown, wild), wheat, oats (cooked) and quinoa are very good for nourishing the nervous system. Amaranth is ok. Reduce intake of barley, corn, millet, buckwheat and rye as these are a bit drying and can be difficult to digest creating wind. Avoid the rest. Fruits: favor sweet, sour, or heavy fruits, such as berries, bananas, avocados, grapes, cherries, lemons, limes, fresh figs, peaches, melons, plums, pineapples, mangoes, and papayas. Cooked apples and pears are ok. Soaked prunes and raisins are ok. Avoid dried fruits, uncooked apples, pears, pomegranates, cranberries as these can create wind. Vegetables: asparagus, beets, cucumbers, carrots, and sweet potatoes are the best. Peas, green leafy vegetables, celery, summer squash, winter squash, and potatoes are best well cooked in oil or ghee with mild spices. Seaweeds are very beneficial. Its best to avoid the Brassica family; brussel sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage. Also avoid Solanaceae family; peppers, aubergines, potatoes and tomatoes. Raw vegetables, especially onions are banned as these all create wind. Spices: Most of them, especially; asafoetida, cardamom, cumin, coriander, ginger, fennel, dill, cinnamon, salt, cloves, mustard seed, black pepper all help reduce gas and spasms in the digestive system. Nuts: all nuts and seeds are good in moderation, especially soaked. Beans: avoid all beans, except for marinated tofu and mung lentils and occasionally red lentils. Meat and fish: chicken, turkey, eggs and seafood are fine; beef should be avoided.

How to take care of the system?


Eat only when hungry. Follow the body and not the mind- listen to your body and what it needs. Treat your digestion like a fire; stoke it with easy to assimilate light meals. Eat to less than full capacity. It is recommended to eat until the stomach is 1/2 full with food, 1/4 full with liquid and to leave 1/4 empty for the digestive process to have some space. Eat simple meals. Eat fruit, including juice away from other foods; leave a 2-4 hour gap. Eat in a peaceful environment; not driving, hurrying or standing. Eat warm and cooked food as this is easier to digest. Cold food, raw food, ice, cold water can weaken the digestive process.

Leave 4 hours between breakfast and lunch and 6 hours between lunch and supper. Eating in between meals slows down digestion and must be avoided in intestinal imbalance. Eat the last meal of the day early in the evening. Late eating can cause constipation and indigestion.

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Function of the system MALE:

The purpose of the organs of the male reproductive system is to perform the following functions: To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen) To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system

FEMALE: The female reproductive system is designed to carry out several functions. It produces the female egg cells necessary for reproduction, called the ova or oocytes. The system is designed to transport the ova to the site of fertilization. Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. The next step for the fertilized egg is to implant into the walls of the uterus, beginning the initial stages of pregnancy. If fertilization and/or implantation does not take place, the system is designed to menstruate (the monthly shedding of the uterine lining). In addition, the female reproductive system produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle.

Parts and Function MALE: EXTERNAL PARTS:

Penis: This is the male organ used in sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans, which is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis. The glans, also called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the penis. The penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings. The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three circular shaped chambers. These chambers are made up of special, sponge-like tissue. This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when the man is sexually aroused. As the penis fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sexual intercourse. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodate changes in penis size during an erection. Semen, which contains sperm (reproductive cells), is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When the penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.

Scrotum: This is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below the penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum acts as a "climate control system" for the testes. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than body temperature. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth or farther away from the body to cool the temperature. Testicles (testes): These are oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for generating sperm. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubes are responsible for producing sperm cells. INTERNAL PARTS:

Epididymis: The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It transports and stores sperm cells that are produced in the testes. It also is the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens. Vas deferens: The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra, the tube that carries urine or sperm to outside of the body, in preparation for ejaculation. Ejaculatory ducts: These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles (see below). The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.

Urethra: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. In males, it has the additional function of ejaculating semen when the man reaches orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm. Seminal vesicles: The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugarrich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy to help them move. The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man's ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate. Prostate gland: The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the center of the prostate gland. Bulbourethral glands: Also called Cowper's glands, these are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.

FEMALE: EXTERNAL PARTS: Labia majora: The labia majora enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs. Literally translated as "large lips," the labia majora are relatively large and fleshy, and are comparable to the scrotum in males. The labia majora contain sweat and oil-secreting glands. After puberty, the labia majora are covered with hair. Labia minora: Literally translated as "small lips," the labia minora can be very small or up to 2 inches wide. They lie just inside the labia majora, and surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body). Bartholin's glands: These glands are located beside the vaginal opening and produce a fluid (mucus) secretion. Clitoris: The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the prepuce, which is similar to the foreskin at the end of the penis. Like the penis, the clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can become erect. INTERNAL PARTS:

Vagina: The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal. Uterus (womb): The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus, called the corpus. The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby. A channel through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit. Ovaries: The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones. Fallopian tubes: These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants into the lining of the uterine wall.

Foods (Good and bad for the system) Vegetables

According to Cynthia Staad, a holistic health counselor practicing in New York, green leafy vegetables are reproductive health super foods. Staad states that green leafy vegetables are nature's multivitamins that are filled with everything the body needs to sustain a healthy reproductive system, including high calcium, Vitamin D and magnesium contents. Dr. Maoshing Ni agrees. He states that spinach is an especially potent reproductive food that has a large amount of vital minerals including iron. Dr. Ni also recommends ginger root because it increases circulation and stimulates energy flow throughout the body and garlic because it opens up blood vessels, accelerates blood flow and stimulates the nervous system. Staad suggests eating a green leafy vegetable every day if possible, including spinach as well as dandelion greens, Swiss chard, mustard greens, collard greens, beet greens, green chard and kale. Staad also recommends squash, sweet potatoes, turnips and beans. Dr. Ni recommends black beans because they are loaded with hormones, including the hormone estrogen. Fruits

According to Dr. Ni, orange peels contain a compound called PMF that stimulates the central nervous system, reduces cholesterol and increases circulation, all factors that contribute to a healthy reproductive system. He recommends drying orange peels and making a tea out of them and also adding them to cooked meat dishes. Ayurvedic, or traditional Indian medicine expert Vaidya Mishra agrees that fruits can improve reproductive health. He suggests eating fresh, organic fruits such as pears, peaches, plums and mangos and eating dried fruits such as figs, raisins and dates. Mishra also suggests eating stewed apples for breakfast and bananas cooked in ghee, or clarified butter and cardamom and cinnamon for dessert.

Additional Foods

Mishra also recommends cooking with cumin, black cumin, turmeric and ajwain powder, and including dairy products such as milk to your diet to increase reproductive health. Caffeine

While caffeine doesnt need to be avoided altogether for a healthy reproductive system, consume caffeine in limited quantities if youre trying to become pregnant. This stimulant can interfere with your fertility when ingested in large amounts. It can also raise your anxiety levels, which can further avert the conception process. Therefore, strive to limit your consumption of coffee, soda, caffeinated teas and chocolate. Sugar

Sugar cannot only lead to obesity, which is not good for your reproductive system, but it can also disturb your bodys blood sugar and energy levels. To ensure the best reproductive health, stay away from the baked goods and junk food, and consume sugar in very small amounts. Also, try to limit your intake of artificial sweeteners. Alcohol

Obviously, alcohol is not good for your overall health, and therefore your reproductive system also suffers from the consumption of alcohol. Since alcohol is a depressant, it can mess with your mood and worsen your PMS symptoms. Not only that, it can decrease your chances of becoming pregnant by up to 50%! You should also encourage your partner to limit his alcohol intake, as alcohol can decrease the quality and count of his sperm. If youre trying to get pregnant, you should avoid alcohol altogether to increase your chances of conception, and to be safe in case conception has already happened. If youre not trying to conceive, you should still limit your intake and not consume more than one alcoholic beverage a day. A glass of red wine is always a good choice due to the antioxidants it delivers. Fast-Burning Carbs

Fast carbs, such as white rice, white bread and potatoes, can negatively affect your blood sugar levels and be one of the many culprits of infertility. On the contrary, your reproductive system loves slow-digesting carbs that are packed with fiber and whole grains, such as brown rice and dark bread. Processed Foods

Your body doesnt like processed foods and neither does your reproductive system. In fact, trans fat, which is present in a multitude of processed foods, can contribute to infertility. Therefore, stay away from the packaged, fatty foods, and focus on natural foods. Pesticides

Environmental contaminants, such as xenoestrogens, can cause hormonal imbalances. To prevent these pesticides from harming your reproductive system, thoroughly wash your fruits

and vegetables before consumption. Also, be wary of drinking tap water. You should know where your water supply is coming from and if it contains any chemicals. How to take care of the system? There are a number of ways a person can take care of their reproductive system, whether male or female. Although not limited to just these, ten ways that the reproductive system can be kept healthy is to keep them clean, eating a balanced diet, avoid excess drinking, avoid smoking, have a good exercise regime, drinking plenty of water, practicing safe sex, avoiding infections, visiting a doctor when necessary and wearing the right clothing. Many of these factors are similar to those when taking care of any other part of the body, while others should be considered specifically when keeping a reproductive system healthy. Good hygiene is key to taking care of the reproductive system. Washing daily and being certain that all areas have been cleaned thoroughly is a simple step that can be taken to avoid urinary infections and other bacteria affecting the reproductive system. A balanced diet is essential for taking care of your whole body but a diet that is high in fiber and low in fat particularly helps reproductive organs. Excess drinking and smoking can both have an extremely negative effect on the reproductive system. To ensure that everything works to its highest potential, cutting down on alcohol and smoking is extremely important. Drinking plenty of water helps clear any bacteria and infection from your system and will help prevent any problems that may be caused by dehydration. Safe sex is a very important part of taking care of your reproductive system. Unprotected sex can lead to sexually transmitted diseases that can have long-term effects on reproductive organs. Avoiding infections can be done by using birth control during sex and by being aware of a sexual partner and their history. Wearing the right clothing will help protect your reproductive organs and avoid infections. Avoid tight fighting clothes made from synthetic materials. Finally, have regular checkups from the doctor and visit or consult their advice whenever you are concerned about anything to do with your reproductive system.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. In terrestrial animals, this is accomplished by breathing. The human body needs oxygen to sustain itself. A complete lack of oxygen is known as anoxia and a decrease in oxygen is known as hypoxia. After four to six minutes brain cells without oxygen brain cells are destroyed and an extended period of hypoxia leads to brain damage and ultimately death. Function of the system Your respiratory system is responsible for supplying your blood with oxygen. Your lungs allow you to absorb oxygen and breathe carbon dioxide out. Your trachea filters air you breathe, while your diaphragm -- a rounded muscle -- supports healthy breathing. Medical conditions that may interfere with respiration include bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, emphysema, cystic fibrosis and upper-respiratory infections, such as sinusitis. In addition to healthy lifestyle practices and medications, when necessary, certain foods may help strengthen your respiratory system. Parts and Function The respiratory system consists of the following parts, divided into the upper and lower respiratory tracts: Parts of the Upper Respiratory Tract Mouth, nose & nasal cavity: The function of this part of the system is to warm, filter and moisten the incoming air

Pharynx: Here the throat divides into the trachea (wind pipe) and oesophagus (food pipe). There is also a small flap of cartilage called the epiglottis which prevents food from entering the trachea Larynx: This is also known as the voice box as it is where sound is generated. It also helps protect the trachea by producing a strong cough reflex if any solid objects pass the epiglottis.

Parts of the Lower Respiratory Tract Trachea: Also known as the windpipe this is the tube which carries air from the throat into the lungs. It ranges from 20-25mm in diameter and 10-16cm in length. The inner membrane of the trachea is covered in tiny hairs called cilia, which catch particles of dust which we can then remove through coughing. The trachea is surrounded by 15-20 Cshaped rings of cartilage at the front and side which help protect the trachea and keep it open. They are not complete circles due to the position of the oesophagus immediately behind the trachea and the need for the trachea to partially collapse to allow the expansion of the oesophagus when swallowing large pieces of food. Bronchi: The trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi, one entering the left and one entering the right lung. The left bronchi is narrower, longer and more horizontal than the right. Irregular rings of cartilage surround the bronchi, whose walls also consist of smooth muscle. Once inside the lung the bronchi split several ways, forming tertiary bronchi. Bronchioles: Tertiary bronchi continue to divide and become bronchioles, very narrow tubes, less than 1 millimeter in diameter. There is no cartilage within the bronchioles and they lead to alveolar sacs. Alveoli: Individual hollow cavities contained within alveolar sacs (or ducts). Alveoli have very thin walls which permit the exchange of gases Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide. They are surrounded by a network of capillaries, into which the inspired gases pass. There are approximately 3 million alveoli within an average adult lung. Diaphragm: The diaphragm is a broad band of muscle which sits underneath the lungs, attaching to the lower ribs, sternum and lumbar spine and forming the base of the thoracic cavity

Foods (Good and bad for the system) Yogurt and Kefir Yogurt and kefir are cultured milk products that provide rich amounts of protein, calcium and probiotics -- healthy, or "friendly," bacteria that promote digestive wellness. According to research published in the "British Medical Journal" in June 2001, probiotics may help prevent respiratory infections. For the study, 571 healthy children between ages 1 and 6 were given probiotics or a placebo for seven months. Researchers found that children who consumed probiotics developed fewer respiratory infection symptoms and absences from day

care than children who did not. Probiotics may also help reduce your frequency or severity of cold symptoms. To reap maximum benefits of probiotics, consume yogurt and/or kefir with "live active cultures," such as lactobacillus, routinely. Fruits and Vegetables Fruits and vegetables supply rich amounts of antioxidants -- nutrients that support your immune system's ability to protect your body from infections, disease and toxins associated with cancer. The University of Maryland Medical Center recommends an antioxidant-rich diet for all people with chronic conditions, such as asthma. The antioxidant vitamin C, prevalent in red bell peppers, citrus fruits and juices, papaya, kiwifruit, leafy greens, cabbage and Brussels sprouts, may provide help alleviate inflammation in your respiratory system. In general, incorporate a variety of colorful, whole fruits and vegetables, which tend to provide the greatest antioxidant benefits, into your meals and snacks regularly. Warm Fluids Warm fluids, such as herbal teas, broth, soups and warm water, promote hydration and help your body flush toxins away through urine. Chicken soup provides a valuable dietary remedy for colds, mucus and sore throats linked with respiratory conditions, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. Chicken in soup provides amino acids, which enhance lean tissue repair and physical strength. Additional protein-rich soup additions include beans, lentils, fish and turkey breast. Incorporating vegetables into soups provides additional antioxidant benefits. Opt for broth-based soups most often, since creamy soups may interfere with mucus and congestion. Fatty Fish Fatty fish, such as salmon, albacore tuna, herring, lake trout, flounder, halibut and sardines, are prime sources of omega-3 fatty acids -- healthy fats associated with improved heart health and brain function. Though additional data and analysis is needed, according to a research review conducted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, omega-3 fats may improve breathing difficulty and other asthmatic symptoms. To prevent excessive saturated fat intake, which may worsen inflammation, use low-fat cooking methods, such as broiling, baking and steaming, most often. Avoid Foods That Generate Excess Mucus. Foods that increase mucus in the body are unhealthy for the body and especially the respiratory system. Foods that Increase Mucus: Sugar Dairy White foods, such as sugar, flour, white rice All refined, processed foods

Additives and food coloring Concentrated fruit juices Too many fruits

The body produces mucus to protect itself. When there are too many toxins invading the body, excess mucus is produced, first in the digestive system and then in the other organs in the body, especially the respiratory system. Excess mucus accumulates in the sinuses, bronchioles, throat, and lungs. The tonsils and ears are also frequently affected as well. What was a defense system for the body, now becomes a barrier, disallowing the passage of nutrients and oxygen into the body. This results in a myriad of diseases. Of course cigarette smoke and pollution play an important role in respiratory illnesses, but a healthy diet is of utmost importance. How to take care of the system? 1. Practice deep abdominal breathing. 2. Exercise, especially outside in fresh air. Physical exercise strengthens the muscles as well as the muscles of the diaphragm. It relaxes the body, increasing blood circulation. The body is better able to eliminate waste and toxic materials more quickly, allowing the body to benefit from better quality oxygen. 3. Breathe fresh air as much as possible. Make sure your house is well ventilated, not too dry or too humid, and that your heating/cooling system is clean. 4. Drink plenty of pure water. 5. Eat a healthy diet. 6. Eliminate regularly. We need to have 2 or more bowel movements per day and maintain a healthy intestinal flora. 7. Reduce acidity in the body.

EXCRETORY SYSTEM

Function of the system The excretory system is the system of an organism's body that performs the function of excretion, the bodily process of discharging wastes. It is responsible for the elimination of wastes produced by homeostasis. The human excretory system functions to remove waste from the human body. This system consists of specialized structures and capillary networks that assist in the excretory process. The human excretory system includes the kidney and its functional unit, the nephron. The excretory activity of the kidney is modulated by specialized hormones that regulate the amount of absorption within the nephron. Parts and Functions 1. Kidney- Filters waste from the blood 2. Urinary Bladder- Stores liquid waste 3. Ureters- Carry waste from the kidney to the bladder 4. Urethra- Carry liquid waste of the body 5. Large Intestine- absorbs water and minerals, stores waste 6. Small Intestine- Absorbs nutrients 7. Rectum- From here solid feces pass out of the body through the anus 8. Pancreas- Sends enzymes through a duct into the small intestine 9. Liver- Supplies energy to the body 10. Pharynx- Carries food to the esophagus 11. Trachea- Passes air from the lungs 12. Salivary Glands- Release saliva 13. Gallbladder- Stores bile 14. Stomach- Mixes and mashes food 15. Epiglottis- Prevents food and liquids from entering lungs

16. Diaphragm- Allows lungs to expand 17. Esophagus- Brings food and water from your mouth to your stomach 18. Capillaries- Connects arterioles and venules, enabling the exchange of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other nutrients and waste Foods (Good and bad for the system) Berries Berries may promote urinary tract health and provide protection against infection, according to the Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide. Flavonols in berries, the compounds plants use to fight bacterial infections, may be responsible for the benefits seen in humans. A glass of berry juice once a day may reduce your risk of developing a urinary tract infection by up to 34 percent. One study, published in the July-August issue of the "Journal of Medicinal Food" found that cranberry juice cocktail prevents bacteria from sticking to the lining of the urinary tract, thereby lowering infection risk. Participants drank 16 ounces of cranberry juice cocktail and within two hours samples of their urine showed decreased adhesive ability. The effects of the cranberry juice continued to increase for at least eight hours. Yogurt Eating yogurt and other fermented dairy products regularly may decrease your risk of urinary tract infection by up to 80 percent. Yogurt also helps prevent bladder cancer, according to a long-term study of 82,000 volunteers published in the October 2008 issue of the "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition." Participants who ate two or more servings of yogurt, sour cream or other cultured milk products showed the lowest incidence of bladder cancer. By contrast, milk and cheese did not lower bladder cancer risk. Researchers concluded that fermented dairy products may help prevent this type of cancer. Garlic Garlic exhibited potential benefits against bladder cancer in a tissue culture study published in the January-February 2011 issue of the journal "Molecular Medicine Reports." Garlic extract induced cell death in bladder cancer cells and inhibited cancer cells from migrating and metastasizing. Researchers concluded that garlic may offer potential benefits in the treatment and prevention of bladder cancer. Garlic also shows possible protective effects for the kidneys, according to a laboratory animal study on chronic kidney failure published in the 2011 issue of the journal "Renal Failure." Supplementation with garlic for three weeks reduced inflammation and decreased white blood cell levels. Further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. Antioxidants Proanthocyanidin antioxidants in cocoa, apples, grapes, peanuts and cinnamon may help maintain the health of your urinary tract, notes Dr. Shweta Rastogi, in her book "Eat Right to Stay Bright: Manage Diet to Manage Disease." Grape seed extract, obtained from grape juice or wine or by eating grapes with seeds, may prevent kidney disease by prolonging the life of kidney cells and protecting against oxidation, according to a study published in the May 2012 issue of the journal "Nephrology." How to take care of the system? 1. Drink Water

Water has a dual role in the detox process. First, it flushes your body systems, removing toxins and carrying them out of the body. Second, it helps deliver the nutrients your cells need to perform all functions, inducing detox, according to the Mayo Clinic. If you're not constantly replenishing your body's water supply, your body reserves its water for its most essential functions. Drink eight glasses of water each day to keep your excretory system nourished and functioning properly. 2. Exercise Your skin is an important part of the excretory system. One of the ways your body excretes toxins is through sweat. When you exercise, you sweat more and you also need more water. Sweat is made up of some of the processes of respiration, such as dead cells, according to the Franklin Institute. Exercise also provides a fresh, highly oxygenated blood supply to the major organs of the excretory system. Aim to get 30 to 60 minutes of exercise three to five times per week. 3. Eat a Healthy Diet Like all systems of the body, your excretory system needs a plentiful supply of vitamins, minerals and energy to regulate kidney and liver function and to keep all systems working properly. This is best accomplished by eating a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole grains are some of the most nutrient-rich foods you can give your body. Lean proteins and low-fat dairy can also provide essential nutrients to your diet. Avoid fast food, processed foods, junk food and empty calories to keep your excretory system working as it should. Aside from being less nutrient dense, these foods typically contain additives and preservatives that your excretory system has to work hard to process. 4. Avoid Toxins The more toxins you ingest, the bigger the workload your excretory system has to handle. There are some parts of even healthy foods that the body cannot process and some byproducts of bodily function that occur naturally. Then there are the additional elements of waste your system must process. Some ways to avoid these excess toxins are to avoid drugs, alcohol and smoking. Be conscious of the lotions and body-care products you use. In many cases, slathering these on have the same effect as ingesting them--they enter your blood stream and must be processed by the liver. Choose organic foods whenever possible to decrease the amount of pesticides you consume.

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

The integumentary system is the largest of the body's organ systems. In humans, this system accounts for about 12 to 15 percent of total body weight and covers 1.5-2m2 of surface area. It distinguishes, separates, and protects the organism from its surroundings. Small-bodied invertebrates of aquatic or continually moist habitats respire using the outer layer (integument). This gas exchange system, where gases simply diffuse into and out of the interstitial fluid, is called integumentary exchange.

Function of the system The integumentary system has multiple roles in homeostasis. All body systems work in an interconnected manner to maintain the internal conditions essential to the function of the body. The skin has an important job of protecting the body and acts as the bodys first line of defense against infection, temperature change, and other challenges to homeostasis. Functions include:

Protect the bodys internal living tissues and organs Protect against invasion by infectious organisms Protect the body from dehydration Protect the body against abrupt changes in temperature, maintain homeostasis Help excrete waste materials through perspiration

Act as a receptor for touch, pressure, pain, heat, and cold Protect the body against sunburns by secreting melanin Generate vitamin D through exposure to ultraviolet light Store water, fat, glucose, and vitamin D Maintenance of the body form Formation of new cells from stratum germinativum to repair minor injuries

Parts and Functions The human skin (integument) is composed of a minimum of 3 major layers of tissue: the epidermis; dermis; and hypodermis. The epidermis forms the outermost layer, providing the initial barrier to the external environment. Beneath this, the dermis comprises two sections, the papillary and reticular layers, and contains connective tissues, vessels, glands, follicles, hair roots, sensory nerve endings, and muscular tissue. The deepest layer is the hypodermis, which is primarily made up of adipose tissue. Substantial collagen bundles anchor the dermis to the hypodermis in a way that permits most areas of the skin to move freely over the deeper tissue layers. The human skin is composed of three layers of tissue: the epidermis; dermis; and hypodermis. The epidermis is the top layer of skin and does not contain blood vessels. This layer consists mostly of keratinocytes, or basal cells, as well as melanocytes, Merkel cells, and Langerhans' cells. While it is only about one-tenth of a millimeter thick, the epidermis is made of 40 to 50 rows of stacked squamous cells. Keratinocytes produce keratin, a fibrous, water-proofing protein. The majority of the skin on the body is keratinized, meaning waterproofed, with the exception of the lining of skin on the inside of the mouth. Keratin is also a key component of hair and nails. The skin sheds millions of dead keratinocytes every day. The dermis is the middle layer of skin and it actually has two layers. The Papillary layer, which consists of the areolar connective tissue, and the Reticular layer, which is the deep layer of the dermis and consists of the dense irregular connective tissue. These layers provide elasticity, allowing for stretching while also working to fight wrinkling and sagging. The dermal layer provides a site for the endings of blood vessels and nerves. The structures for hair in humans and feathers in birds are in this layer of skin. Lymph vessels, which supply the clear fluid containing white blood cells of the immune system, are also housed in this layer to skin tissue to help ward off infections and other foreign bodies. The dermis is also home to the sweat glands and oil glands, which are attached to hair follicles.

The hypodermis also called subcutaneous tissue is the deepest layer of the skin. It helps to insulate the body and cushion internal organs. The hypodermis is composed of a connective tissue called adipose tissue that stores excess energy as fat. Blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves and hair follicles also run through this layer of skin.

Foods (Good and bad for the system) Everyone has a favourite face cream or treatment, but beautiful skin starts with nourishment from within. Older cells are constantly shed and replaced by younger ones and a steady supply of micronutrients is essential to support this rapid growth. Eat the correct balance of foods and you'll feed your skin the vital nutrients it needs to help it stay soft, supple and blemish-free. Fruit and vegetables contain powerful antioxidants that help to protect skin from the cellular damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are caused by smoking, pollution and sunlight and can cause wrinkling and age spots. Eat a rainbow of colourful fruit and vegetables and aim for at least five portions a day. Betacarotene, found in pumpkin, carrots and sweet potatoes, and lutein, found in kale,papaya and spinach are potent antioxidants, important for normal skin cell development and healthy skin tone. Vitamin C is also a super antioxidant. It is needed for a strong immune system, radiant skin and helps blemishes heal properly. The best sources are blackcurrants, blueberries, broccoli, guava, kiwi fruits, oranges, papaya, strawberries and sweet potatoes. They all help to produce collagen that strengthens the capillaries that supply the skin. Selenium is a powerful antioxidant. It works alongside other antioxidants such as vitamins E and C and is essential for the immune system. Studies suggest that a selenium-rich diet can help to protect against skin cancer, sun damage and age spots. One way to boost your intake is to eat Brazil nuts. Just four nuts will provide the recommended daily amount (RDA). Mix Brazil nuts with other seeds rich in vitamin E as a snack or salad sprinkle. Other good sources are fish, shellfish, eggs, wheat germ, tomatoes and broccoli. Vitamin E protects skin from damage and supports healthy skin growth. Foods high in vitamin E include almonds, avocado, hazelnuts, pine nuts and sunflower and corn oils.

How to take care of the system? 1. Bathe every day and wash your hands regularly. Keep your skin and nails clean to prevent infections. Avoid using harsh soaps, hair treatments and other irritating chemicals, as they will cause excessive dryness. Water that's too hot will have the same effect, so use warm water in the shower or bath. Cut your fingernails and toenails straight across after bathing to avoid hangnails. Apply sunscreen before you spend time outdoors. Choose a formula that protects against both UVA and UVB radiation and has an SPF of 15 or higher. Over time, too much sun exposure contributes to wrinkles, skin cancer, freckles, aging and dilated blood vessels. Avoid using tanning beds because they are also damaging to your skin.

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Eat a healthy well-balanced diet. Foods that are rich in antioxidants are good for your skin, according to Georgia Health Info, but consuming a lot of meat can contribute to wrinkles. Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables, nuts and fish. Remember to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water. Examine your entire body on a regular basis. Check for abnormal growths, signs of skin cancer, and anything else that looks out of the ordinary in your skin. See a dermatologist right away if you have an unusual sore that isn't healing properly. You should also consult a doctor about a mole that is larger than 1/4 of an inch across or has an irregular border, uneven coloring or a rough surface. Avoid wearing things that are too tight on your body. Pick shoes that fit your feet properly, because a tight fit can cause ingrown toenails that become painful and infected. Clothes and jewelry that are too constricting may interfere with blood circulation. Don't put rubber bands in your hair too tightly, or they will break individual strands of hair. Don't smoke cigarettes. Smoking causes wrinkles and ages your skin. It constricts blood vessels, which prevents your integumentary system from getting the nutrients it needs in order to be healthy.

SKELETAL SYSTEM

Function of the system Support The skeleton provides the framework which supports the body and maintains its shape. The pelvis, associated ligaments and muscles provide a floor for the pelvic structures. Without the rib cages, costal cartilages, and intercostal muscles, the lungs would collapse. Movement The joints between bones allow movement, some allowing a wider range of movement than others, e.g. the ball and socket joint allows a greater range of movement than the pivot joint at the neck. Movement is powered by skeletal muscles, which are attached to the skeleton at various sites on bones. Muscles, bones, and joints provide the principal mechanics for movement, all coordinated by the nervous system. Protection The skeleton protects many vital organs:

The skull protects the brain, the eyes, and the middle and inner ears. The vertebrae protect the spinal cord. The rib cage, spine, and sternum protect the human lungs, human heart and major blood vessels.

The clavicle and scapula protect the shoulder. The ilium and spine protect the digestive and urogenital systems and the hip. The patella and the ulna protect the knee and the elbow respectively. The carpals and tarsals protect the wrist and ankle respectively.

Blood cell production The skeleton is the site of haematopoiesis, the development of blood cells that takes place in the bone marrow. Storage Bone matrix can store calcium and is involved in calcium metabolism, and bone marrow can store iron in ferrotin and is involved in iron metabolism. However, bones are not entirely made of calcium, but a mixture of chondroitin sulfate and hydroxyapatite, the latter making up 70% of a bone. Endocrine regulation Bone cells release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood sugar (glucose) and fat deposition. Osteocalcin increases both the insulin secretion and sensitivity, in addition to boosting the number of insulin-producing cells and reducing stores of fat.

Parts and Functions Skull The skull is composed of 22 bones that are fused together except for the mandible. These 21 fused bones are separate in children to allow the skull and brain to grow, but fuse to give added strength and protection as an adult. The mandible remains as a movable jaw bone and forms the only movable joint in the skull with the bone. The bones of the superior portion of the skull are known as the cranium and protect the brain from damage. The bones of the inferior and anterior portion of the skull are known as facial bones and support the eyes, nose, and mouth. Hyoid and Auditory Ossicles The hyoid is a small, U-shaped bone found just inferior to the mandible. The hyoid is the only bone in the body that does not form a joint with any other boneit is a floating bone. The hyoids function is to help hold the trachea open and to form a bony connection for the tongue muscles. The malleus, incus, and stapesknown collectively as the auditory ossiclesare the smallest bones in the body. Found in a small cavity inside of the temporal bone, they serve to transmit and amplify sound from the eardrum to the inner ear.

Vertebrae Twenty-six vertebrae form the vertebral column of the human body. They are named by region:

Cervical (neck) - 7 vertebrae Thoracic (chest) - 12 vertebrae Lumbar (lower back) - 5 vertebrae Sacrum - 1 vertebra Coccyx (tailbone) - 1 vertebra

With the exception of the singular sacrum and coccyx, each vertebra is named for the first letter of its region and its position along the superior-inferior axis. For example, the most superior thoracic vertebra is called T1 and the most inferior is called T12. Ribs and Sternum The sternum, or breastbone, is a thin, knife-shaped bone located along the midline of the anterior side of the thoracic region of the skeleton. The sternum connects to the ribs by thin bands of cartilage called the costal cartilage. There are 12 pairs of ribs that together with the sternum form the ribcage of the thoracic region. The first seven ribs are known as true ribs because they connect the thoracic vertebrae directly to the sternum through their own band of costal cartilage. Ribs 8, 9, and 10 all connect to the sternum through cartilage that is connected to the cartilage of the seventh rib, so we consider these to be false ribs. Ribs 11 and 12 are also false ribs, but are also considered to be floating ribs because they do not have any cartilage attachment to the sternum at all. Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb The pectoral girdle connects the upper limb (arm) bones to the axial skeleton and consists of the left and right clavicles and left and right scapulae. The humerus is the bone of the upper arm. It forms the ball and socket joint of the shoulder with the scapula and forms the elbow joint with the lower arm bones. The radius and ulna are the two bones of the forearm. The ulna is on the medial side of the forearm and forms a hinge joint with the humerus at the elbow. The radius allows the forearm and hand to turn over at the wrist joint. The lower arm bones form the wrist joint with the carpals, a group of eight small bones that give added flexibility to the wrist. The carpals are connected to the five metacarpals that form the bones of the hand and connect to each of the fingers. Each finger has three bones known as phalanges, except for the thumb, which only has two phalanges. Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb

Formed by the left and right hip bones, the pelvic girdle connects the lower limb (leg) bones to the axial skeleton. The femur is the largest bone in the body and the only bone of the thigh (femoral) region. The femur forms the ball and socket hip joint with the hip bone and forms theknee joint with the tibia and patella. Commonly called the kneecap, the patella is special because it is one of the few bones that are not present at birth. The patella forms in early childhood to support the knee for walking and crawling. The tibia and fibula are the bones of the lower leg. The tibia is much larger than the fibula and bears almost all of the bodys weight. The fibula is mainly a muscle attachment point and is used to help maintain balance. The tibia and fibula form the ankle joint with the talus, one of the seven tarsal bones in the foot. The tarsals are a group of seven small bones that form the posterior end of the foot and heel. The tarsals form joints with the five long metatarsals of the foot. Then each of the metatarsals forms a joint with one of the set of phalanges in the toes. Each toe has three phalanges, except for the big toe, which only has two phalanges. Microscopic Structure of Bones The skeleton makes up about 30-40% of an adults body mass. The skeletons mass is made up of nonliving bone matrix and many tiny bone cells. Roughly half of the bone matrixs mass is water, while the other half is collagen protein and solid crystals of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. Living bone cells are found on the edges of bones and in small cavities inside of the bone matrix. Although these cells make up very little of the total bone mass, they have several very important roles in the functions of the skeletal system. The bone cells allow bones to:

Grow and develop Be repaired following an injury or daily wear Be broken down to release their stored minerals

Foods (Good and bad for the system) Good Foods are calcium-rich foods. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons recommends that men and women get at least 1,000 mg of calcium each day. This is especially true for people over age 40, when natural bone replacement slows down. Milk, cheese and other dairy products contain calcium. Broccoli, kale, sardines, salmon, Brazil nuts, almonds, oranges and calcium-fortified foods are good sources of calcium as well. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons indicates that getting 1,000 mg of calcium through diet alone may be difficult and therefore suggests a vitamin supplement as well. Eat foods with vitamin D to assist in calcium absorption. Adults need 15 mcg of vitamin D a day. Foods with vitamin D include dairy, eggs, fatty fish such as salmon or tuna and fortified

orange juice and cereal. Exposure to the sun triggers vitamin D synthesis to produce vitamin D, as well.

How to take care of the system? Here are some steps that can help in taking care of our skeletal system. 1. Eat calcium-rich foods. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons recommends that men and women get at least 1,000 mg of calcium each day. This is especially true for people over age 40, when natural bone replacement slows down. Milk, cheese and other dairy products contain calcium. Broccoli, kale, sardines, salmon, Brazil nuts, almonds, oranges and calcium-fortified foods are good sources of calcium as well. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons indicates that getting 1,000 mg of calcium through diet alone may be difficult and therefore suggests a vitamin supplement as well. 2. Eat foods with vitamin D to assist in calcium absorption. Adults need 15 mcg of vitamin D a day. Foods with vitamin D include dairy, eggs, fatty fish such as salmon or tuna and fortified orange juice and cereal. Exposure to the sun triggers vitamin D synthesis to produce vitamin D, as well. 3. Perform at least 30 minutes of weight-bearing exercise at least twice a week. Building muscle increases bone density to build healthy bones and prevent osteoporosis. You don't necessarily need weights or equipment to build muscle. Pushups, squats and planks strengthen muscles over most of the body. As you get stronger, using dumbbells increases the resistance to maintain your strength. 4. Avoid smoking and drinking. The MayoClinic.com reports that tobacco use and consuming more than two alcoholic drinks a day may contribute to weak bones and osteoporosis. 5. Discuss potential side effects of medication with your doctor. Some medicines can weaken bones and increase your risk of osteoporosis. Your doctor will be able to prescribe bone-boosting medication if needed. 6. Protect the body. Wear your seat belt when driving and a helmet when using a motorcycle. Use headgear when engaged in sports that could lead to brain damage such as football, in-line skating, bicycling and horseback riding.