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Childrens Literature

Kimberley Reynolds


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Arabic Language Translation Copyright 2014 Hindawi Foundation for Education and Culture.
Childrens Literature
Copyright Kimberley Reynolds 2011.
Childrens Literature was originally published in English in 2011. This translation is published by arrangement with Oxford University Press.
All rights reserved.


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(1) Private collection/The Bridgeman Art Library.


(2) Courtesy of the Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington,
Indiana.
(3) Private collection/photo: Gen Larose.

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(1) By permission of the Rare Book and Texana Collections, University


of North Texas Libraries, Denton, Texas.
(2) Reproduced with permission from The Red Tree, by Shaun Tan.
Lothian Childrens Books, an imprint of Hachette Australia, 2001.

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102

(1) The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford (Harding A236 (1787


edition), p. 48).
(2) From My Naughty Little Sister, by Dorothy Edwards. Text copyright
Dorothy Edwards 1952. Illustration copyright Shirley Hughes 1952.
Published by Egmont UK Ltd. London and used with permission.
(3) First published in the UK by Orchard Books, an imprint of Hachette
Childrens Books, 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH2.

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(1) The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford (1419 g.248, frontispiece and title page).
(2) The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford (25210 d.1215, pp.
67).
(3) The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford (27842 e.444, plate
facing p. 121); The Heartfield Community of Heirs/V. G. Bild-Kunst,
Bonn and DACS, London 2011.

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(1) Bettmann/Corbis.
(2) Published by Julia Macrae. Used by permission of the Random
House Group Ltd.

133

In PMLA vol. 126, January 2011, pp. 20916, Marah Gubar details the
problems that have resulted in a series of failed attempts to define
childrens literature, suggests a definition is unnecessary for good
scholarship, and proposes that such efforts be abandoned.
Walter Benjamin discusses childrens books in Old Forgotten Childrens
Books, in Marcus Bullock and Michael W. Jennings (eds.), Walter
Benjamin: Selected Writing, Vol. I, 19131926 (Cambridge, MA:
Belknap of Harvard University Press, 1996 [1924]), pp. 40613.
Works cited: Jacqueline Rose, The Case of Peter Pan, or, The Impossibility
of Childrens Fiction (London: Macmillan, 1984).

:
More information about individual works, writers, printers, and publishers for children mentioned throughout can be found in the following,
many of which are referred to in this chapter: Brian Alderson and Felix de Marez Oyens, Be Merry and Wise: Origins of Childrens Book


Publishing in England, 16501850 (London: British Library and New
Castle; Delaware: Oak Knoll Press, 2006); Brian Aldersons edition
of F. J. Harvey Dartons Childrens Books in England: Five Centuries
of Social Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982 [1932]);
Humphrey Carpenter and Mari Prichard, The Oxford Companion to
Childrens Literature (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press,
1984); J. S. Bratton, The Impact of Victorian Childrens Fiction (London:
Croom Helm, 1981); Patricia Demers (ed.), From Instruction to Delight:
An Anthology of Childrens Literature to 1850, 2nd edn. (Ontario: Oxford University Press, 2004); Peter Hunt (ed.), Childrens Literature:
An Illustrated History (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press,
1995); Seth Lerer, Childrens Literature: A Readers History from Aesop
to Harry Potter (London and Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
2008); Percy Muir, English Childrens Books, 16001900 (London: B.
T. Batsford, 1954); John Rowe Townsend, Written for Children: An
Outline of English-Language Childrens Literature, 5th edn. (London:
Bodley Head, 1995 [1965]); Jack Zipes (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia
of Childrens Literature (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).
Digital versions of many early childrens books can be read at,
for example, Eighteenth-Century Collections Online (information at
http://gale.cengage.co.uk/product-highlights/history/
eighteenthcentury-collections-online.aspx), the Hockcliffe Collection (http://www.cts.dmu.ac.uk/hockliffe/) and Project Gutenberg
(http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/).
The importance of radical Protestantism in relation to childrens literature
is considered in C. John Sommerville, The Discovery of Childhood in
Puritan England (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1992).

136


For information about the materials made by Jane Johnson, see Evelyn
Arizpe, Morag Styles, and Shirley Brice Heath, Reading Lessons from
the Eighteenth Century (Lichfield: Pied Piper Press, 2006).
Charles Lamb is quoted by Nicholas Tucker in Suitable for Children?
Controversies in Childrens Literature (London: Chatto & Windus for
Sussex University Press, 1976), p. 116.
The quote from George Crabbe appears in Mary Trim, A Rediscovery of
John Bunyans A Book for Boys and Girls, in International Review of
Childrens Literature and Librarianship, 8.3, pp. 14967, p. 150.
Attention to marginalia and other evidence of how books were used and
valued by the child readers has been discussed by Brian Alderson and
Felix de Marez Oyens (as above) and more by M. O. Grenby, The Child
Reader, 17001840 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
Henry Jamess views and their impact on childrens literature are discussed in Felicity A. Hughes, Childrens Literature: Theory and Practice, in Peter Hunt (ed.), Childrens Literature: The Development of
Criticism (London and New York: Routledge, 1990 [1978]), pp. 7190.
A useful discussion of the century of the child appears in Hugh Cunningham, Children and Childhood in Western Society since 1500 (London:
Longman, 1995).
The quote from Myles McDowell comes from Fiction for Children and
Adults: Some Essential Differences, in Geoff Fox (ed.), Childrens
Literature in Education, 4.1 (March 1973), pp. 5063, p. 58.
Peter Hunt has written insightfully about books that are and books
that were for children in Passing on the Past, Childrens Literature
Association Quarterly, 21.4 (1996), pp. 2002.
For details about reading levels and Potters books, see http://
americanenglishdoctor.com/wordpress/.

137


Rumer Goddens invented exchange of letters between Beatrix Potter and
an American publisher committed to simple language in childrens
texts deserves to be read: An Imaginary Correspondence, in Horn
Book Magazine, 38 (August 1963), pp. 197206.
Works cited: Erik Erikson, Childhood and Society (New York: W. W.
Norton, 1993 [1950]); Maria Nikolajeva, Power, Voice and Subjectivity
in Literature for Young Readers (London: Routledge, 2009); Perry
Nodelman,

The

Hidden

Adult:

Defining

Childrens

Literature

(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008); Barbara Wall,


The Narrators Voice: The Dilemma of Childrens Fiction (London:
Macmillan, 1991); Torben Weinreich, Childrens LiteratureArt or
Pedagogy? (Copenhagen: Rothskilde University Press, 2000).

:
Discussions of the relationship between childrens literature and critical
theory are contained in Peter Hunt, Criticism, Theory and Childrens
Literature (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1991); Roderick McGillis, The
Nimble Reader: Literary Theory and Childrens Literature (New
York: Twayne, 1996); David Rudd (ed.), The Routledge Companion
to Childrens Literature (London and New York: Routledge, 2010)
and David Rudd, Theorizing and Theories: The Conditions of
Possibility of Childrens Literature, in Peter Hunt (ed.), International
Companion Encyclopedia of Childrens Literature, 2nd edn. (London
and New York: Routledge, 2004), where more detailed discussions of
individual critical approaches can also be found.
The quote from T. S. Eliot is taken from Margaret Drabbles The Pattern in
the Carpet: A Personal History with Jigsaws (London: Atlantic Books,
2009), p. 56.

138


The references from Spufford occur in the first chapter of The Child that
Books Built (London: Faber and Faber, 2002).
The quote from F. J. Harvey Darton (Aldersons 1982 revised edition as
above) appears on p. 260.
Emer OSullivan discusses Hazard and the founding of comparative childrens literature in Peter Hunt (ed., 2004), as above, pp. 1325.
Discussions of the more open style of writing used by some writers when
addressing children are found in Hamida Bosmajian, Psychoanalytic
Criticism, in Peter Hunt (ed., 2004), as above, pp. 12939; James R.
Kincaid, Child Loving: The Erotic Child and Victorian Culture (London:
Routledge, 1992); Catherine Robson, Men in Wonderland: The Lost
Girlhood of the Victorian Gentleman (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton
University Press, 2001), and Jacqueline Rose (as above).
For more on Jungian theory and childrens literature, see Susan Hancock,
The Child that Haunts Us: Symbols and Images in Fairy Tales and
Miniature Literature (London and New York: Routledge, 2008).
Discussion of Jacqueline Roses The Case of Peter Pan can be found
in Karn Lesnik-Oberstein, Childrens Literature: Criticism and
the Fictional Child (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994); Kimberley
Reynolds, Radical Childrens Literature: Future Visions and Aesthetic
Transformations (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007); David
Rudd and Anthony Pavlik (eds.), The (Im)possibility of Childrens
Fiction: Rose Twenty-Five Years On, Childrens Literature Association
Quarterly, 35.3 (2010).
For a detailed analysis of progressive childrens literature during the McCarthy era, see Julia L. Mickenberg, Learning from the Left: Childrens
Literature, the Cold War, and Radical Politics in the United States (New
York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

139


The quote from Peter Hunt comes from How Not to Read a Childrens
Book, in Childrens Literature in Education, 26.4 (1995), pp. 23140,
p. 239.
The quote from Aidan Chambers appears in Peter Hunt (ed.), Childrens
Literature: The Development of Criticism (London and New York:
Routledge, 1990 [1985]), pp. 91114, p. 91.
The quote from C. Walter Hodges is taken from David Rudd (2004) as
above.
Comics Scholarship on the Net: A Brief Annotated Bibliography is accessed
at http://www.dr-mel-comics.co.uk/sources/academic.html).
Works cited: Brian Alderson and Felix de Marez Oyens, Be Merry and
Wise (as above); Bruno Bettelheim, The Uses of Enchantment: The
Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales (London: Thames and
Hudson, 1976); Aidan Chambers, The Reader in the Book, in
Booktalk: Occasional Writing on Literature and Children (Stroud:
Thimble Press, 1977), pp. 3458; Karen Coats, Looking Glasses and
Neverlands: Lacan, Desire and Subjectivity in Childrens Literature
(Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2004); F. J. Harvey Darton (see
Brian Alderson, above); Jane Doonan, Looking at Pictures in Picture
Books (Stroud: Thimble Press, 1992); Stanley Fish, Is There a Text in
this Class? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980); Gretchin
R. Galbraith, Reading Lives: Reconstructing Childhood, Books and
Schools in Britain, 18701920 (New York: St Martins Press, 1997); M.
O. Grenby, Childrens Literature: Birth, Infancy, Maturity, in Janet
Maybin and Nicola J. Watson (eds.) (2009) as below; D. W. Harding,
Psychological Processes in the Reading of Fiction, in British Journal
of Aesthetics 2, 2 (1962), pp. 11347; Norman Holland, 5 Readers
Reading (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975); Peter Hollindale,

140


Signs of Childness in Childrens Books (Stroud: Thimble Press, 1997);
Wolfgang Iser, The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response
(London: Routledge, 1978); U. C. Knoepflmacher and Mitzi Myers,
Cross-Writing and the Reconceptualizing of Childrens Literary
Studies, Childrens Literature, 25 (New Haven: Yale University Press,
1997), pp. viixvii; Karn Lesnik-Oberstein, Childrens Literature:
Criticism and the Fictional Child (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994);
David Lewis, Reading Contemporary Picturebooks: Picturing Text
(London: Routledge Falmer, 2001); Scott McCloud, Understanding
Comics: The Invisible Art (New York: HarperCollins, 1993); Margaret
Mackey, Literacies Across Media: Playing the Text (London and New
York: Routledge, 2007 [2002]); Kerry Mallan, Gender Dilemmas in
Childrens Fiction (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009); Janet
Maybin and Nicola J. Watson (eds.), Childrens Literature: Approaches
and Territories (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan with the Open
University, 2009); Margaret Meek, Aidan Warlow, and Griselda
Barton (eds.), The Cool Web: The Pattern of Childrens Reading
(London: Random House, 1977); William Moebius, Introduction
to Picturebook Codes, in Word and Image, 2, 2 (1986), pp. 636;
Beverley Naidoo Through Whose Eyes? Exploring Racism: Reader,
Text and Context (Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books, 1992); Maria
Nikolajeva (as above); Maria Nikolajeva and Carole Scott, How
Picturebooks Work (New York: Garland, 2001); Perry Nodelman,
Words about Pictures: The Narrative Art of Childrens Picture Books
(Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988); Perry Nodelman,
The Other, Orientalism, Colonialism, and Childrens Literature, in
Childrens Literature Association Quarterly, 17.1 (1992), pp. 2935;
Nicholas Orme, Medieval Children (New Haven: Yale University Press,

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2001); Jacqueline Rose (as above); Louise Rosenblatt, Literature
as Exploration (New York: Appleton-Century, 1938); Margaret and
Michael Rustin, Narratives of Love and Loss: Studies in Modern
Childrens Literature, revised edn. (London and New York: Karnac,
2001); Edward Said, Orientalism (London: Routledge and Kegan
Paul, 1978); Zohar Shavit, The Poetics of Childrens Literature
(Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1986); Francis Spufford,
The Child that Books Built (London: Faber and Faber, 2002); John
Stephens, Language and Ideology in Childrens Fiction (London:
Longman, 1992) and Ways of Being Male: Representing Masculinity
in Childrens Literature and Film (London: Routledge, 2002); Maria
Tatar, Enchanted Hunters: The Power of Stories in Childhood (New
York: W. W. Norton, 2009); Nicholas Tucker, The Child and the Book:
A Psychological and Literary Exploration (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1991 [1981]); Barbara Wall (as above).

:
Discussions of the effects of new media on how children read and how
new media are represented in childrens literature are found in Noga
Applebaum, Representations of Technology in Science Fiction for
Young People (New York and London: Routledge, 2009); Peter Hunt,
Futures for Childrens Literature: Evolution or Radical Break?, in
Peter Hunt (ed.), Childrens Literature: Critical Concepts in Literary
and Cultural Studies, Vol. 1 (London: Routledge, 2006), pp. 23745;
Gunther Kress, Literacy in the New Media Age (London: Routledge,
2003); Sonia Livingstone, Young People and New Media (London:
Sage, 2002).

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The quotes from Henry Jenkinss Convergence Culture: Where Old and
New Media Collide (New York and London: New York University Press,
2008 [2006]) appear on pp. 186, 2, and 21.
Remediation is a term coined by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin in
Remediation: Understanding New Media (Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press, 1999). For a discussion of remediation in relation to
childrens literature, see Lisa Sainsbury, Rousseaus Raft: The Remediation of Narrative in Romain Victor-Pujebets CD-ROM Version
of Robinson Crusoe, in Fiona M. Collins and Jeremy Ridgman (eds.),
Turning the Page: Childrens Literature in Performance and the Media
(Bern: Peter Lang, 2006), pp. 20726.
The quote from Button Sound Books is found at http://www
.buttonsoundbook.com.
For more on the narrative qualities of Assassins Creed I and II, see Marcello Arnaldo Picucci, A New Dimension of Childrens Literature: Exploring Narratives in the Video Games of the Twenty-First Century,
unpublished M.Litt thesis for Newcastle University, UK, 2010.
Works cited: Andrew Burn, Multi-Text Magic: Harry Potter in Book, Film
and Videogame, in Fiona M. Collins and Jeremy Ridgman (eds.),
Turning the Page: Childrens Literature in Performance and the Media
(Bern: Peter Lang, 2006), pp. 22749, and Potterliteracy: CrossMedia Narratives, Cultures and Grammars, in Papers: Explorations
into Childrens Literature, 14.2 (2004), pp. 517; Margaret Mackey,
Media Adaptations, in David Rudd (ed., 2010) as above, pp. 11224;
Maria Tatar, as above; Jacquelyn Ford Morie and Celia Pearce, Uses
of Digital Enchantment: Computer Games as the New Fairy Tales
(n.d.) can be read online at http://www.lcc.gatech.edu/~cpearce3/
PearcePubs/MoriePearceFROG-FINAL.pdf (accessed 04/11/2010).

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: :
Details of the development of the individual genres discussed are found
in Peter Hunt (ed., 2004) as above; discussions of the family/domestic
story are found in M. O. Grenby, Edinburgh Critical Guide: Childrens
Literature (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008); Nicholas
Tucker and Nikki Gamble, Family Fictions (London: Continuum, 2001).
For a discussion of childrens literature as a genre, see Perry Nodelman
(2008) as above.
The quote from Jacqueline Rose (1984, as above) appears on p. 44.
Works cited: Kimberley Reynolds (2007) as above; Andrew OMalley, The
Making of the Modern Child: Childrens Literature and Childhood in
the Late Eighteenth Century (New York and London: Routledge, 2003).

:
Works that raise questions about messages contained in childrens
literature include: Herbert R. Kohl, Should We Burn Babar?: Essays
on Childrens Literature and the Power of Stories (New York: The
New Press, 1995), and Joseph Zornado, Inventing the Child: Culture,
Ideology and the Story of Childhood (London: Garland, 2000).
A detailed study of recent dystopian childrens fiction is Clare
Bradford, Kerry Mallan, John Stephens, and Robyn McCallum,
New World Orders in Contemporary Childrens Literature: Utopian
Transformations (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).
The quote is from Chapter 26 of Uncle Toms Cabin.
The quote from Trease is from the 2009 edition (London: Elliott and
Thompson), p. 102.
The quotes from Mitchison appear on pp. 5 and 11.

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Other works that show adolescents as victimized include Gillian Rubensteins Galax-Arena (1992), Koushun Takemis Battle Royale (1999,
also released as a film and serialized in manga form), and Suzanne
Collinss Hunger Games trilogy (200810).
Works cited: Farah Mendlesohn, The Inter-Galactic Playground: A
Critical Study of Childrens and Teens Science Fiction (Jefferson,
NC: McFarland, 2009); Julia Mickenberg (2006), as above; Julia
Mickenberg and Philip Nel (eds.), Tales for Little Rebels: A Collection
of Radical Childrens Literature (New York: New York University
Press, 2008); Ted Nordhaus and Michael Shellenberger, Break
Through: From the Death of Environmentalism to the Politics of
Possibility (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2007).

:
Italian Fascism and childrens literature are discussed in Lindsay Myers,
Meos FistsFighting For or Against Facism? The Subversive Nature of Text and Image in Giovanni Bertinettis I pugni de Meo, in
International Research in Childrens Literature, 1.1 (2008), pp. 115.
The quote from The New Pioneer Story Book is taken from Paul C. Misher,
Communism for Kids: Class, Race and Gender in Communist Books
in the United States, in Anne Lundin and Wayne A. Wiegand (eds.),
Defining Print Culture for Youth: The Cultural Work of Childrens
Literature (Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2003), pp. 2741, p. 31.
Lisa Sainsbury is currently writing a monograph on the relationship between philosophical thinking and childrens literature. She explores
aspects of this material in A Boys Duty: Ethics and Masculinity in
B.B.s Brendon Chase and Nina Bawdens The Real Plato Jones, in Paola
Bottala and Monica Santini (eds.), What Are Little Boys and Girls Made
Of? (Padua: Unipress, 2009), pp. 6785.

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For more on the similarities between children, servants, and animals, see
Seth Lerer (2008) as above, and Kristina Straub, In the Posture of
Children, in Andrea Immel and Michael Witmore (eds.), Childhood
and Childrens Books in Early Modern Europe, 15501800 (New York
and London: Routledge, 2006), pp. 12752.
The quote from Mao Tse-tung is taken from Hsing, Chia Hui, Gained in
Translation: The Effects of Translators Gender on English-Language
Childrens Literature as Translated in China and Taiwan, unpublished PhD thesis submitted to the University of Newcastle, UK, 2011,
p. 15.
For discussions of writing about the Holocaust for children, see Hamida
Bosmajian, Sparing the Child: Grief and the Unspeakable in Youth
Literature about Nazism and the Holocaust (New York: Routledge,
2002); Adrienne Kertzer, My Mothers Voice: Children, Literature and
the Holocaust (Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 2001); Lydia Kokola, Holocaust Narratives and the Ethics of Truthfulness, in
Bookbird, 45.4 (2007), pp. 512.
Works cited: Roberta Seelinger Trites, Disturbing the Universe: Power and
Repression in Adolescent Literature (Iowa City: University of Iowa
Press, 2000); Maria Nikolajeva (2009) as above.

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