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History

Elizabeth Blackwell was born on February 3, 1821 in Bristol, England to Hannah and Samuel Blackwell She had eight other siblings !n 1832, her "amily mo#ed to $ew %ork &ity so her "ather could o'en a sugar re"inery !n 1838, her "amily mo#ed to &incinnati and her "ather dies a"ter the mo#e Elizabeth, along with her older siblings, o'ened a boarding school to hel' make ends meet !n (arch o" 18)), she began to teach at another school in *entucky She did not kee' her +ob as she was disgusted by the sla#ery in the south Elizabeth returned home and met her sick neighbor, (ary ,onaldson ,onaldson ins'ired her to study medicine as she had cancer and "elt embarrassed to be treated by a male doctor She was not "inancially stable at the time o" her decision to become a doctor so she acce'ted a teaching +ob in $orth &arolina to sa#e money ,uring her time at the school, Blackwell wrote to numerous doctors asking "or their ad#ice on a''lying to medical school -ll o" the doctors dissuaded her "rom a''lying and encouraged her to become a nurse instead Some e#en suggested she go to a Euro'ean medical school disguised as a man Blackwell a''lied to 28 medical schools and was re+ected by all o" the schools be"ore being acce'ted by .ene#a &ollege in $ew %ork She began her medical education on $o#ember /, 18)0 Blackwell graduated at the to' o" her class on 1anuary 23, 18)2 Following her graduation, Blackwell tra#eled to Euro'e to "urther her education She contracted a disease that caused her to lose sight in her le"t eye She e#entually had it re'laced with a glass eye She tra#eled back to $ew %ork in -ugust 1831 to o'en her own 'ractice !t was di""icult "or her to "ind o""ice s'ace as no one trusted a women to o'en a medical 'ractice She e#entually o'ened the $ew %ork ,is'ensary "or 4oor 5omen and &hildren in 1833 Her sister, Emily, arri#ed to hel' the clinic "ollowing her own graduation "rom medical school 6he Blackwell sisters o'ened a hos'ital 7$ew %ork !n"irmary8 +ust "or women on (ay 12, 1830 6he hos'ital was constantly blamed "or the women who died during childbirth !n 1838, Blackwell tra#eled to England to gi#e s'eech9s to encourage British women to start medical careers 6he ne:t year she tra#eled back to $ew %ork a"ter declining a +ob as the director o" a nursing school established by Florence $ightingale 6he ci#il war halted Blackwell9s 'lans "or e:'anding the hos'ital !nstead, she organized nurses "or the union ;n $o#ember 2, 18/8, the 5omen9s (edical &ollege o" the $ew %ork !n"irmary was o'ened Blackwell had a di""erent curriculum "or the school< students would study "or 3 years 7instead o" 1= months8, clinical e:'erience was included, and there would be graded courses 6he school started with 10 women and 11 'ro"essors !n 1801, Blackwell "ormed the $ational Health Society to 'romote better hygiene She 'assed out soa', disin"ectants, and 'am'hlets on health care She once again tra#eled to England to o'en the >ondon School o" (edicine "or 5omen in 180) She was the 'ro"essor o" gynecology at the school !n 1802, Blackwell and her ado'ti#e daughter mo#ed into a cottage in Britain 'ermanently Her "ailing health caused her to gi#e u' her 'ractice in 182) Blackwell died o" a stroke on (ay 31, 121=

Why was Elizabeth Blackwell important to U. S. History?


Elizabeth Blackwell is im'ortant to ? S History because o" all contributions she made She o#ercame obstacles and became the "irst "emale doctor in the ?nited States She o'ened a hos'ital dedicated to ser#ing women and children des'ite their "inancial status Blackwell o'ened 'eo'le9s eyes to 'ro'er sanitation by distributing the necessities to get started >astly, she o'ened a medical school so young women could "ollow in her "ootste's and become doctors

What changes were brought about by Elizabeth Blackwell?


Elizabeth Blackwell changed the how 'eo'le #iewed women 6hey were able to see that women were ca'able o" doing more then what was e:'ected o" them 5ith the 'ro'er dedication and determination, women could accom'lish as much as Elizabeth Blackwell did (ore and more women were acce'ted to medical school as a result o" Blackwell

How was the U.S. changed?


6he #iew o" women in the ? S was changed dramatically because o" Elizabeth Blackwell Socially, it became more acce'table to see a woman in the work"orce and in the medical "ield Blackwell had been the "irst woman to graduate "rom medical school -t the time o" her death in 121=, there were 0,322 registered "emale doctors in the ?nited States alone

How would America be di erent i Elizabeth Blackwell had not been born?
!" Elizabeth Blackwell had not been born then women would ha#e entered the medical "ield at a later 'oint in time or not at all 5omen and children would not ha#e recei#ed "ree medical attention "rom the $ew %ork !n"irmary Sanitation would still be a ma+or issue in the country i" she had not "ounded the $ational Health Society 6here would not ha#e been as many trained nurses "or the -merican &i#il 5ar

Who was a ected by Elizabeth Blackwell!s actions?


5omen around the world were a""ected by Blackwell9s decision to become a doctor She o'ened u' o''ortunities that women thought they may ne#er ha#e She made it easier "or other women to 'ursue a medical career -s a result o" her actions, more women were acce'ted into medical school to 'ursue their dreams and break the barrier between men and women She 'ro#ed that it was 'ossible "or women to become doctors Blackwell broke away "rom the normal standards "or the women o" her time 'eriod

Why did you choose Elizabeth Blackwell?


! chose Elizabeth Blackwell because she is an ins'iration to women e#erywhere She broke the barriers that se'arated men and women9s career 'aths E#en a"ter she accom'lished her main goal o" becoming a doctor, she continued to make a di""erence in the world ,es'ite her initial humiliation she stayed strong and determined So many 'eo'le told her that she would ne#er accom'lish her goal and Blackwell 'ro#ed e#eryone wrong when she became a doctor Someday, ! ho'e to make as big o" a di""erence in the world as Elizabeth Blackwell did

"amily
4arents< Hannah and Samuel Blackwell Siblings< -nna, (arian, Emily, Ellen, Samuel, Henry, 1ohn, .eorge Sister in laws< >ucy Stone, -ntoinette Brown .rand'arents< Samuel and Elizabeth Blackwell

#ublished Books
1801< 6he @eligion o" Health 1808< &ounsel to 4arents 1823< 4ioneer 5ork in ;'ening the (edical 4ro"ession to 5omen 12=2< Essays in (edical Sociology

Accomplishments
First Female ,octor First 'ri#ate medical 'ractice run by a "emale doctor $ew %ork !n"irmary "or the 4oor 5omen and &hildren ;rganized &i#il 5ar nurses First woman listed in the British (edical @egister First allAwomen medical college< 5omen9s (edical &ollege o" the $ew %ork !n"irmary First Bisiting $urse 4rogram &oA"ounder o" the British $ational Health 'rogram &oA"ounder o" the >ondon School o" (edicine "or 5omen Established the $ational Health Society

$ime %ine
February 3, 1821A Elizabeth is born in Bristol, England 1832A Family mo#es to $ew %ork &ity, so Samuel Blackwell can establish a sugar re"inery 1838A Family mo#es to &incinnati -ugust 1838A Elizabeth9s "ather, Samuel Blackwell Sr dies (arch 18)2A Elizabeth begins to work at a school in *entucky, but later Cuits as she can not stand the sla#ery in the south (ay 18)0A Elizabeth mo#es to 4hiladel'hia to a''ly to the "our medical schools in the city She is re+ected by all "our schools 18)0A18)2AElizabeth a''lied to a total o" 22 medical schools was re+ected "rom e#ery single school e:ce't .ene#a &ollege in $ew %ork $o#ember /, 18)0A Elizabeth9s "irst day o" medical school at .ene#a &ollege 1anuary 23, 18)2A Elizabeth graduates "rom .ene#a &ollege with to' honors Her brother, Henry, was her escort -'ril 18)2A Elizabeth sailed to England (ay 18)2A Elizabeth tra#els to 4aris, where she contracts 4urulent ;'hthalmia, causing her to lose sight in her le"t eye She was only allowed to 'ractice in the ;bstetrics de'artment in French hos'itals ;ctober 183=A Elizabeth tra#els to >ondon to study at St Bartholomew9s She could 'ractice in all o" the de'artments -ugust 1831A Elizabeth arri#es in $ew %ork and starts searching "or o""ice s'ace to o'en a 'ri#ate 'ractice She has some di""iculty as 'eo'le are reluctant to rent s'ace to a woman doctor Summer 1833A Emily Blackwell, Elizabeth9s sister, comes to work "or Elizabeth a"ter graduating medical school She lea#es at the end o" summer and ,r (arie Dakrewska re'laces her 183)A Elizabeth ado'ts *itty Barry (ay 12, 1830A 6he $ew %ork !n"irmary "ormally o'ens to the 'ublic 6he hos'ital treated o#er a million 'atients 1838A Elizabeth tra#eled to England to gi#e s'eech9s and 'romote her book She was o""ered a 'osition at a nursing school by Florence $ightingale She declines 1une 1832A Elizabeth tra#els back to $ew %ork to run her in"irmary 18/3A - riot in $ew %ork "orces Elizabeth to shut down the in"irmary tem'orarily 6he hos'ital was hiding black 'atients 18//A1802A Elizabeth worked with ,r @ebecca &ole 72nd -"rican -merican Female ,octor8 to 'ass out soa', disin"ectant, and 'am'hlets on sanitation $o#ember 2, 18/8A 6he 5omen9s (edical &ollege o" the $ew %ork !n"irmary was "ormally o'ened 1uly 18/2A Elizabeth tra#eled back to England to hel' women o#ercome career barriers 1801A Founded the $ational Health Society 180)A Elizabeth "ounded the >ondon School o" (edicine "or 5omen with So'hia 1e:ABlake and Elizabeth .arrett 1802A Elizabeth and *itty mo#ed into the @ock House in Britain 182)A Elizabeth ga#e u' her medical 'ractice due to her age and health issues

Summer 12=/A Elizabeth9s last #isit to the ? S (ay 31, 121=A Elizabeth died because o" a stroke She is buried in *ilmun, a Scottish #illage