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6, 2010

537

J. Lettl and J. Bauer Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract The presented paper compares in light of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

with the supply network three frequency converter topologies that are being used for supplying of induction machines. The topic of the EMC of the converters becomes very important in these days, because some of the semiconductor converters can be ranked as the worse supply network polluters. These negative side eects of the converters were previously overlooked, but with the widespread of power electronics they can not be ignored more. That is why the test beds of these three frequency converter input parts were realized and experimental results obtained by the measurement were analyzed and discussed.

1. INTRODUCTION

Nowadays the indirect frequency converter is typically used for the induction motor feeding. This converter consists of the input rectier, DC-link capacitor, and output inverter. The control algorithm of the output inverter has substantial inuence on the induction machine behaviour. The weakness of the indirect frequency converter consists in its input part. As the input rectier usually acts a three phase diode rectier or sometimes a controlled thyristor rectier that allows the DC-link voltage control. In case of the diode rectier energy can ow through in one direction only, therefore energy recuperation is not possible. The rectier also does not allow the power factor control and it consumes the non sinusoidal current. As a result the supply network is loaded by higher harmonics and reactive power. In recent years especially the traction vehicles are equipped by rectiers that allow bidirectional power ow, so called Compatible Rectiers or Active Front End. The rectier has an inductor on the input and it is controlled mostly by PWM strategy. The rectier controlled in this way consumes current of required waveform, which is mostly sinusoidal. It works with a given phase displacement between the consumed current and supply voltage, i.e., the power factor can be controlled. The energy recuperation is also possible and the converter has in such case minimal inuence on the supply network. The direct frequency converters are not so widespread because their control requires more complex control algorithms that were not realizable till now without powerful microprocessors. Matrix Converter belongs to the direct frequency converters category. The name Direct Frequency Converter comes out of the fact that they do not need the DC-link. The output voltage is produced by direct switching of the input phases to the output phases. In consequence the maximal output voltage value is limited to 86% of the input voltage amplitude. To the main advantages of matrix converter belongs operation in all four quadrants, therefore the recuperation is possible. The converter has high dynamics, enables power factor control, and consumes nearly sinusoidal current from the supply network. It means that the matrix converter does not load supply network with higher harmonics and it can work with given power factor. As mentioned above, the converter has no DC-link, which is the great advantage of the converter, because the accumulation element in the DC-link is mostly very large, takes large room, and usually is very heavy.

2. INDIRECT FREQUENCY CONVERTER

Block diagram of the common indirect frequency converter is in Fig. 1. The converter consists of input rectier, DC link, and output inverter. When the recuperation is not possible, the DC link must be also equipped with the braking chopper that converts excessive energy into the heat.

2.1. Diode or Thyristor Rectier

Indirect frequency converter with 6 pulse diode rectier on its input is the most used variant. Rectier made of diodes is robust and failure-free. But it does not allow recuperation and due to non-linear characteristic the turning-on delays causes the phase shift between the supply voltage

538

rst harmonic and the consumed current rst harmonic. This shift leads to power factor degradation and the reactive power is consumed. Another problem lies in the shape of the consumed current waveform. The non-linearity of semiconductor switches and commutation leads to high content of higher harmonics. Fig. 2 shows the voltage and current waveforms of one phase of the diode rectier. The harmonic analysis of the input current proves high content of the higher harmonics. These harmonics cause the voltage drop on the supply networks inductances and degradation of the network voltage waveform. It can lead to failures of other devices supplied from the network. The situation in case of the thyristor rectier is less convenient because of the thyristors phase control, which is used for regulating mean value of output voltage. It causes phase shift between input current rst harmonic and input voltage. The phase shift depends on the rectier control angle. The waveforms taken from the thyristor rectier are shown in Fig. 3.

2.2. PWM Rectier

To eliminate the side eects of the diode rectier the idea of pulse width modulation was implemented to rectier control algorithm. To use the PWM control, it is necessary to equip the converter with switches that can be both turned-on and moreover turned-o, and can transfer high electric power. This condition was fullled with development of IGBTs. The rectier can be then controlled to consume nearly sinusoidal current and to operate with chosen power factor, or the PWM rectier can be controlled in such a way to be able partly compensate the non-harmonic consumption of the other devices connected to the supply network.

539

The rectier is made of input inductance and IGBT switches. Fig. 4 shows one phase PWM rectier. The inductance on the input creates two separated sinusoidal voltage phasors. Therefore the direction of the power ow depends on the phase angle between these two phasors (see Fig. 4). Usually the rectier is controlled to consume sinusoidal current and to work with power factor equal to unity. The input current and voltage waveforms of the rectier with PWM control are shown in Fig. 5. The simple control algorithm can be derived from transferred power. In order to maintain the output rectied voltage constant the powers on the both sides of the inductor must be equal (1). PSR = (Us Ur /Xs ) sin = Us Is cos (1)

After several adaptations of Equation (1) and with help of phasor diagram in Fig. 4, we obtain the two nal Equation (2) for the simple control of the PWM rectier. = arctg

3. MATRIX CONVERTER

LIs(1)m Usm

and z =

Ur(1)m UdAV

(2)

The converter belongs to the direct frequency converters category. The output voltage is produced by direct switching of the input phases to the output phases. This means that the converter has no DC-link. The absence of the DC-link means that the output voltage amplitude is limited to 86.6% of the input voltage amplitude at consideration of the sinusoidal input currents. Higher voltages can be achieved by overmodulation that causes input current distortion. The matrix converter is controlled by indirect space vector modulation method. The method is based on the virtual DC-link idea. The converter is virtually divided into two parts: a rectier part and an inverter part (see Fig. 6). This method generates a desired output voltage vector and at the same time it consumes from the supply network a current space vector that keeps constant input displacement factor cosin (see Fig. 7).

540

Because of the absence of the accumulation elements in the DC-link the rectier and the inverter parts are not completely independent. The converter transfer function can be expressed as (3). uout = Mu Mi uin (3)

Figure 8 shows the input current, input and output voltage waveforms of the matrix converter.

4. RESULTS COMPARISON

The dierent waveforms currents consumed by the converters can be seen from the oscillograms. Mathematically can be the non-sinusoidal shape of the input current waveforms expressed by the harmonic coecients (4). These coecients show amount of the harmonics content in the consumed

current.

541

I(1) = , I

T HD =

2 I( n)

I(1)

kz =

2 I( n)

(4)

Calculated coecients for all three converter types are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1: Harmonic coecients. Coecient THD kz Diode rectier 92,83% 40,16% 37.16% Thyristor rectier 87,45% 55,36% 48,43% PWM rectier 99,78% 2,12% 2,12% Matrix converter 99,98% 1,70% 1,70%

5. CONCLUSION

The harmonic coecients that are summarized in Table 1 and taken oscillograms show the differences between these four converter topologies. The worse supply network polluter is thyristor rectier. This is caused by phase control of the rectier. Little bit better are the waveforms obtained form diode rectier. But the greatest disadvantage of these two topologies is the fact that they do not support recuperation. The next two topologies, the rectier with PWM control and the matrix converter look more promising. Both of them do not load supply network with reactive power, they consume sinusoidal current and are capable of recuperation. This was also proved by the performed harmonic analysis. From these two topologies, the topology of the matrix converter looks more promising. Compared to indirect frequency converter it does not need the DC-link.

REFERENCES

1. Lettl, J. and R. Dolecek, EMC increasing of PWM rectier in comparison with classical rectier, Radioengineering, Vol. 17, No. 4, 93100, 2008.

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