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Why does the metal need to be electrically conductive? 4.

Macroscale level and current technology LSP solutions Table 3. List of Companies, processes and products related to composite fabricated for LSP Table 4. LSP solutions summary 4.1. Metal meshes for LSP Composite structures apply metal screen (copper or aluminium) over the composite outer structure Screen could take the form of foil (Note: flat and thin piece of metal, or a woven or non-woven mesh) (Note: Foils are not used because contradicting sa definition na screen could take the form of foil. WHY?)

Two types of metal meshes: FIGURE! Woven: machine weaving, higher mechanical strength, uses alloyed metals, higher resistivity at the cross points due to localized double thickness and non-uniform thickness, heavier layer, eg. Boeing 787 uses interwoven wires. Non-woven: produced from pure metals for maximum electrical conductivity, four geometric properties LWD, SWD, thickness and strand width. Geometric properties will change electrical conductivity. Non-woven mesh can be flattened to decrease the thickness of the expanded metal to the original foil thickness, which will reduce the volume and weight of resin needed to fill the mesh and will also produce a smoother surface on the composite. Advantage: will not unravel or have loose strands (NOTES: problem in pre-preg a composite already impregnated by resin or matric, which contains the metal mesh material or during lay-up each layer stacked on top of each other), the design remains homogenous and has a smooth shape to ensure constant conductivity when forming the material and around shapes and contours.

4.2 Metal mesh properties Characterized by geometric parameters, electrical properties, and manufacturing processes Weight geom param, adding a metal mesh for LSP increases the overall weight of the aircraft, reduces fuel savings, minimize by increasing the open area of the mesh geometry or reduce thicknesshowever, prev expts, thin aluminium 10microns thickness can be vaporized by high current lightning strikes. Vaporization is desired if it is to protect underlying structure LSP : sacrificial layer Shielding effectiveness permittivity and permeability

Electrical conductivity withstand lightning current (HOW?) and prevent damage the structure Manufacturing factors: price, purity (overall electrical conductivity, and mesh type

4.3 Metal meshes adhesion metal meshes need resins, adhesives or surface films to remain attached to the composite substructure Bonding methods: piling separate products, pre-impregnation, or by designing a ply-integrated solution FIGURE 6 (NOTES: Explanation)

4.4 Metal mesh lightning test results Can handle 200 kA of current if they have enough available mass and conductive enough. FIGURE 7 (NOTES: Explanation) FIGURE 8 (NOTES: Explanation)

4.4 Metal fibers and other existing solutions Advanced Fiber Nonwovens (AFN) Group o produced lightning protection fabric. o Consist of a network of Ni coated carbon fibers connected to each other o Removes the need for an isolation layer preventing galvanic corrosion o NOTES: Test for Zone 1.. Hexcel, HexPly Thorstrand o Aluminized E-glass structural fabric o Electrically and thermally conductive o Electromagnetic shielding even at short wavelengths due to its high weave density

5. Advanced LSP solutions (more study needed) Possible way to provide enough electrical conductivity to LSP: Change a non-conductive material into a conductive one. How? o Use coatings with sufficient thickness to provide enough conductivity for LSP o Insulating materials (e.g. polymers) - place conductive materials into a linked network inside the composite (nanocomposite)

5.1 Metal material coating and painting technology Metal can be coated on various substances such as mica, glass, carbon particles or structures using methods such as Physical Vapor Deposiition (PVD), Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), or Flame Spray with aluminium (FIG 9). (where is electroless plating categorized?) NOTES: Definition of the methods

5.2 LSP through additives and their percolation networks LSP using micro or nanoscale particles (NOTE: Different interaction mechanism than in macroscale) o Factors to consider to ensure high electrical conductivity and concentration in the resulting composite material: Dimension Aspect ratio Size

(NOT SURE KUNG ISASAMA PA TONG EPT) Electrical Percolation Threshold (EPT): measure using amount of particles in material (vol% and wt%) o Obtained at critical concentration o Carbon nanotube (CNT) EPT o FIGURE 10 (NOTES: EPT + Explanation) o EPT value and dispersion/distribution required depends on the particle used o Particle Dimensions: 1D, ,2D, 3D (NOTES: In-depth explanation)

5.2.1 CNT properties effects on EPT and electrical conductivity (Kasama pa ba to? Medyo di ko gets, bangag na ko. -_-) 5.2.2 Metallic nanowire nanocomposites 5.2.3 Lightning test on advanced LSP solution of CNT paper with Ni nanostrands FIGURE 12. (NOTES: Explanation)

6. Conclusions (From paper) Recommedations (Meron ba? O.o)