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Final Report

ABSTRACT
Bharti airtel limited is is Indias leading private sector provider of telecommunications services .It has been at the forefront of technology and has revolutioni ed !ith its !orld class services. It"ll enable customers to communicate# share data# voice resulting is shared resources $ effectives e%change of information on a very less time consuming basis. The pro&ect involved installation and maintenance data net!or'. Apart from this regular all site surveys and report management is also to be handled !hile on the training for ensuring efficient !or' flo!.

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COMPANY PROFILE

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Final Report B2ARTI T34353*T6R3S

"As we spread wings to expand our capabilities and explore new ori!ons" t e #unda$ental #ocus re$ains unc anged% see& out t e best tec nolog' in t e world and put it at t e ser(ice o# our ulti$ate user% our custo$er)" Sunil Bharti Mittal (Chairman and Group Managing Director)

Bharti Tele 7ventures limited !as incorporated on 8uly -# )99+ for promoting investments in telecommunications services. Its subsidiaries operate telecom services across India. Bharti Tele: ventures is Indias leading private sector provider of telecommunications services based on a consisting of appro%imately 1.;- million total customers !hich constitute# appro%imately -.0million mobile and appro%imately -./#... fi%ed line customers# as of 8une ;.# ,../.

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OVER VIEW OF

Bharti 3nterprises# Indias leading telecom conglomerate has been at the forefront of technology and has revolutioni ed !ith its !orld class services. 3stablished in )9-0# Bharti 3nterprises has been a pioneering force in the telecom sector !ith many firsts and innovations to its credit. <or'ing on the principle of providing end to end communication solution across the telecom value chain from manufacture of hard!are to development of telecom soft!are and from fi%ed line to cellular and !ireless services# e: commerce# broadband# domestic long distance# undersea cable# infrastructure development and business solutions. Bharti 3nterprises under cable chairmanship of Sunil Bharti =ittal is the only company to have brought to India the e%cellence and e%pertise of leading Telecom players of the !orld# Bharti Telecom# the manufacture division of Bharti is the largest sets under the brand name Beetel. Bharti televentures# the services division of Bharti has ma&or interests in Basic# long >istance and Cellular# Broadband and Infrastructure ?perations in the country. National long distance# !hich comprises@

Setting up infrastructure for carrying long distance traffic. Carrying voice and data traffic !ithin the country.

International long distance# !hich comprises@

Setting up a landing station to connect to international submarine cable systems developed by other infrastructure providers to facilitate transmission of international data traffic.

Aroviding international long distance services to carry voice and data traffic. / Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

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Final Report Fixed line ser(ices# !hich comprises@

Aroviding !ith the landline phone under the unified license

According to the TRAI# the national long distance mar'et generated revenues of appro%imately Rs.),/ billion B6SC,.0 billionD in the year ended =arch ;)# )999# !ith an estimated +/E of the revenues from inter:circle traffic and the balance from intra:circle traffic. The TRAI also estimates that this mar'et !ill gro! to appro%imately Rs.,/. billion B6SC+ billionD by the year ended =arch ;)# ,..+. The Company believes that the follo!ing factors !ill contribute to the gro!th of the national long distance mar'et in India@

?verall gro!th in the Indian economy leading to increased corporate and residential demand for national long distance servicesF Reduced tariffs for national long distance calls resulting from increased competitionF Improved service Guality and the e%pected introduction of ne! services# such as pre:paid calling cards and value added servicesF

Increased usage of lease:line and toll:free calling services by businesses Increasing globali ation of Indian businesses leading to increased international voice and data transmission through national long distance net!or's to international gate!ays.

Bharti Tele:5entures has entered into a license !ith the >oT to provide national long distance voice and data services across India and is deploying an advanced fiber optic net!or' across India to provide such services to corporate and residential customers. Bharti Tele:5entures has launched its national long distance services for data transmission services and for voice transmission services under the name Airtel : long distance services.

The Company has constructed a submarine cable landing station at Chennai# !hich connects the submarine cable system being deployed by its affiliate to the other submarine cable systems in Sonu (rover + Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report order to provide access to international band!idth. ?n 8uly )9# ,.., the Company launched IndiaHs first private international long distance service. The map belo! depicts the location of# and provides certain mar'et information for# Bharti Tele: 5enturesH e%isting fi%ed:line circles in India@

B)D Area estimates are from the *ational Census# ,..). B,D Aopulation estimates are from the *ational Census# ,..) and are as of =arch )# ,..).

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Final Report B;D >34s as on =arch ;)# ,..,. Based on data released in Aarliament Guestions and (overnment statistics as per The Financial 3%press dated 8une ).# ,..,.

The table belo! indicates certain 'ey demographics of Bharti Tele:5enturesH fi%ed:line circles. The information is not representative of Bharti Tele:5enturesH mar'et share or net!or' coverage@ Bharti Circles Aarameters Area in the licensed area BsGuare 'ilometers# in thousandsDB)D Aopulation in the licensed area Bin millionsDB,D =ar'et >34s in the licensed area Bin millionsDB;D *umber of vehicles in the licensed areaBin thousandsDB/D =adhya Aradesh 2aryana $ Chattisgarh //;#//0 //#,), >elhi Circles Tamil Iarnata' as Aercentage *adu a of all India ,+E

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T3C2*ICA4 >3AART=3*T

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*EC+NICAL ,EPAR*MEN* +IERARC+Y

*EC+NICAL,EPAR*MEN* ,EPAR*MEN* *EC+NICAL

N33 N33

OPERA*IONAN, AN,MAIN*AINENCE MAIN*AINENCE0O1M2 0O1M2 OPERA*ION

OPERA*ION"MAIN*AINENCE MAIN*AINENCE1 1CON*ROLLIN/ CON*ROLLIN/0OMC2 0OMC2 OPERA*ION"

NE*-OR.PLANNIN/ PLANNIN/ NE*-OR.

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Final Report MAIN PAR*3 OF *ELECOMM4NICA*ION% *3T<?RI S<IT2I*( T3C2*?4?(J TRA*S=ISSI?* =3>IA TRA*S=ISSI?* C2A**34 BR?A>BA*> ACC3SS A*> S3R5IC3 <IR343SS NE*-OR. If there !ere only three or four telephone lines in a locale# it !ould ma'e sense to connect each phone to all other phones and find a simple method of selecting the desired one. If there are three or four thousands lines in a locale then it is appropriate to connect each phone to some central office and perform s!itching there. this s!itching could be a simple manual operation using plugs and soc'ets or could be done !ith electronics as !e connect these telephone lines to central office# !e have star configurationF all lines are particular to one and only one stationBcentral officeD. These connections are called local e%change plant and Telephone Company handling these functions is called local e%change carrier B43CD.The connection themselves called Klocal loopsLF In technical terms the section closest to customer premises is called distribution plant. 3-I*C+IN/ *EC+NOLO/Y The public s!itch telephone net!or' BAST*D has a star configuration. 4ocal loops Busually one per subscriberD terminate in central office BC?D.This C? completes one local loop to another local loop or from local to trun' that terminates on some other C?.

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Final Report The manual system reGuired# of course# constant attention from operators. In the late )1..s# telephone calls connected manually at C?. <hen a call came in# an attendant !ould plug into a hori ontal bar line. 2e then yells to the operator !ho handled the customer being called# and that second operator !ould connect to bar and finish setting up the call. <hen the call !as completed# another operator !ould yell to all in the room that the line !as clear again. The step by step system# !hich still in operation in many parts of the country# utili ed is 'no!n as the STR?<B3R 3MC2A*(3. <hen the electronics came along# the electromechanical control of the common control system !as replaced !ith electronics# and the net!or' or matri% !as replaced !ith the tiny glass encapsulated reed s!itches. 2ence only a part of s!itch !as electronic. In the ne%t generation# the stored program operation of the digital computer !as applied to the s!itch# although the net!or' remained a comple% of reed s!itches. In the final generation# called digital s!itch# the tal'ing path !as no longer electronically continuous circuitF rather the s!itch being carried !as digiti ed into a stream of K)sL and K.L. There is# ho!ever# a different 'ind of connectionF !e see it today in a number of applications@ Credit:card verification Automated teller machine Internet and !orld !ide !eb

*RAN3MI33ION ME,IA There are four types of media that can be used in transmitting information in the telecommunication !orld@ Copper !ire Coa%ial cable Fiber <ireless

In the days of old# copper !ire !as only media for transmitting information. Technically 'no!n as unshielded t!isted pair B6TAD# this consisted of a large number of pairs of copper !ire of varying

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Final Report si es in a cable. The cable did not have a shield therefore the signal primarily the high freGuency signal !as able to lea' out. Also# the t!isting on cable is very casual# designed as much to identify !hich !ires belonged to a pair as to handle transmission problem

Coa%ial cable consists of a single strand of copper running do!n the a%is of the cable. This . is separated from the outer shielding by an insulator made of foam or other dielectrics. A conductive shield covers the cable. 6sually an outer insulating cover is applied to overall cable:this has nothing to do !ith the carrying capacity of cable. Because of the construction of cable# obviously coa%ial in nature# very high freGuency can be carried !ithout lea'ing out. In fact do en of T.5. channels# each 0 =2 !ide can be carried on a single cable. Fiber is the third transmission media# and it is unGuestionably the transmission medium of choice. <hereas transmission over copper utili es freGuency in the megahert range# transmission fiber utili es a freGuency millions time higher. This is the !ay saying that the predominant difference bet!een the electromagnetic !aves and light !aves is the freGuency. This difference in turns# permits transmission speeds of immense magnitude. Transmission speeds of as high as 9.9 (bps have become common place in the industry today. At this speed the entire )+:volumes of encyclopedia Britannica can be transmitted !ell in one second <ireless communication is the final option as a transmission media. This can ta'e several forms@ In case of a synchronous satellite transmission can ta'e place across the deserts or oceans. And !ith the micro!ave there is no need of plant cable. NEE, FOR 3-I*C+ <e 'no! that the concept of communication has been started from the days !hen drumbeats !ere used to a stage !hen electrical signals are used. To support the long distance communication# first came the point:to:point communication. In this type of communication# all the subscribers !ere connected to each other directly and at all times. It !or'ed in very small net!or's because as the net!or' gre! it became cumbersome. For e.g. if !e had + subscribers and all of them are connected to each other then the total no of lin's reGuired !ould be )..This is presented belo!@ Sonu (rover ), Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

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In general# if !e have n number of subscribers# the first subscriber !ould reGuire Bn:)D no. of lin's# the second subscriber !ould reGuire Bn:,D no of lin's and so on. Then the total no. of lin's !ould be@ Bn:)D N Bn:,D N :::::::::::::::::::: N ) N . O PnBn:)D QR, So for +. subscribers# !e !ould reGuire ),,+ lines# !hich become very comple%. To overcome this difficulty# s!itches came into e%istence. A s!itch is a device that connects t!o subscribers only !hen it is reGuired and is as'ed for. The basic function of a s!itch is depicted belo!@

SWITCH

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The above diagram sho!s the connection bet!een S, and SBn:)D. It also sho!s that the no. of lin's are eGual to the no. of subscribers. The connections are made only !hen the calling subscribers !ants. S!itching System

=anual 3lectromechanical Step by Step BStro!gerD Crossbar

Automatic 3lectronic BStored ArograControlD Space division Time division >igital Space S!itch Time S!itch Analog

Combination S!itch

The Auto$atic S!itching system is divided into 3lectromechanical system and electronic system. The electro$ec anical system includes Stro!ger system and crossbar system ) 3trowger system use s!itching elements in the system to perform control function Bestablishing $ releasing connectionD. Crossbar has hard:!ired control sub system# !hich use relays and latches. In Electronic s!itching system# a computer or a processor performs the control functions. 2ence these systems are called Stored Arogram Control BSACD System. The s!itching scheme used by electronic !itching system may be either space division or time division s!itching. In 3pace di(ision s!itching# a dedicated path is established bet!een the calling and the called subscribers for the entire duration of the call. A s!itching matri% having relays and latches does this. In *,3# sampled values of speech signals are transferred at fi%ed intervals. T>S may be analog or digital. In Analog s!itching# the sampled voltage levels are transmitted as they are and in ,igital# first they are converted to binary form and then transmitted. If the coded values are transferred during the same time interval from input to output# the techniGue is called space Sonu (rover )/ Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report s!itching. If the values are stored and then transferred to the output at a later time interval# the techniGue is called ti$e s!itching. The time division digital s!itch may also be designed by using a comb. of space and time s!itching techniGues. 8A3IC *ERM3 43E, IN 3-I*C+ 8us' +our@ Four consecutive )+ min. Intervals of a day !ith the highest traffic load. 8us' +our Call Atte$pts@ The number of calls attempts a net!or' element must be able to handle. Erlang@ The 3rlang is a unit of traffic density in a telecommunications system. ?ne 3rlang is the eGuivalent of one call Bincluding call attempts and holding timeD in a specific channel for ;0.. seconds in an hour. The ;0.. seconds need not be# and generally are not# in a contiguous bloc'. Circuit 3witc ing@ A communication the duration of the call. Me$or' 3witc ing@ The user information of a call is divided into bloc's Bpac'ets or cellsD. These bloc's are individually through connected !ith buffering in the s!itching elements. *i$e 3witc ing@ Time s!itching is carried out by means of t!o stores# each having a storage address for every channel of the AC= frame. The speech store contains the data of each of the incoming time:slots Bi.e. its speech sampleD at a corresponding address 3ach address of the connection store corresponds to a time:slot on the outgoing high!ay. It contains the number of the time:slot on the incoming high!ay !hose sample is to be retransmitted in that outgoing time:slot Information is read into the speech store cyclically# in synchronism !ith the incoming AC= systemF ho!ever# random:access read:out is used. The connection store has cyclic read:out# but !riting in is non:cyclic method# !hich establishes a dedicated channel for

3pace 3witc ing% Connection can crosspoint matri% Sonu (rover )+ Roll *o. +,-./+0.1 be made bet!een incoming and outgoing AC= high!ays by means of a

Final Report 2o!ever# different channels of an incoming AC= frame may need to be s!itched by different crosspoints in order to reach different destinations Boutgoing AC= high!aysD. The crosspoint is therefore a t!o:input A*> gate. ?ne input is connected to the incoming AC= high!ay and the other to a connection store that produces a pulse at the reGuired instants. The connection store for each column of crosspoints is a memory !ith an address location for each time:slot# !hich stores the number of the crosspoint to be operated in that time:slot. This number is !ritten into the address by the controlling processor in order to set up the connection. This numbers are read out cyclically# in synchronism !ith the incoming AC= frame .In each time:slot# the number stored at the corresponding store address is read out and decoding logic converts this into a pulse on a single lead to operate the relevant crosspoint. Since a crosspoint can ma'e a different connection in each of the n time slots# it is eGuivalent to n crosspoints in a space:division net!or'.

Time 7 Space 7 Time S!itching

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,LC 0,igital Loop Carrier2%


>4C is the basic element of the !hole net!or' design !hich carries the digital loop throughout the net!or'.>4C carries the !hole >igital 4oop through special standard as 3) here at airtel. 3) stands for 3uropean standard. The local loop is the physical connection bet!een the main distribution frame in the userHs premises to the telecommunications net!or' provider. >igital loop carrier B>4CD technology ma'es use of digital techniGues to bring a !ide range of services to users via t!isted:pair copper phone lines

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8)6 8asics o# ,LC in (oice and data% 9oice% For communication bet!een t!o people the band!idth reGuired at media is :;<< +!) After ta'ing all the errors concerned !e round off the figure to =<<< +!) According to *yGuist criteria minimum freGuency of carrier signal should be t!ice the signal. 2ence# carrier freGuency O , S /... O 1... 2 ) 2 O ) cps O 1 bitRsec or 1 bps

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Final Report 2ence f O 1 S 1... bps O 0/... bps O 0/ Ibps. 2ence# !e conclude minimum band!idth reGuired for electronic communication bet!een t!o nodes !ill be 0/'bps ?ne 3) contains such ;, channels. Therefore# Complete Band!idth carried by 3) is ;, S 0/ Ibps i.e. ,./1 Ibps O , =bps +ence 5 E5 can carr' bandwidt o# 6 Mbps and $axi$u$ o# :6 parallel >= & lin&s) ?ut of these ;, channels only ;. are used for communication purposes. These ;. channels are named as bearer channels i.e. B channels. ?ut of remaining t!o channels first channel is meant for synchroni ation i.e. all the data or content reaches both the ends at synchroni ed order. The second channel i.e. at )0th position of all ;, handles signaling of the communication. Signaling can be e%plained !ith analogy of !atchman to a building. As the !atchman has all the information about the building people and their locations. Similar is the !or' of delta i.e > channel. It has all the information of channels associates !ith 3). It ta'es )0 Ibps of band!idth unli'e others. ?ne 3) has t!o pairs of cable or you can say a / !ire set. T!o pair signify the full duple% connectivity bet!een the ends# full duple% means there is a special pair transmitting signal and separate pair for receiving thats !hy on phone !e can hear and spea' at same time unli'e "!al'y tal'y sets !hich carry half duple% communication# in those sets you could only spea' or listen. 3ach pair of cable is a t!isted pair to minimi e electric and magnetic losses in the net!or'.

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Final Report For communication !e use 5+., protocol here. This provisions us to put almost ,.. users through one 3)# i.e. ,.. users !ill feed on ;. channels. As someone !ill try to dial some other number. Itll be randomly assigned a channel out of ;. B channels. And if ;)st user comes to dial the line parallel itll get response message from system KAll lines in this route are busy please dial after sometimeL. 6sers are defined on 3) after monitoring the traffic at particular area.

I3,N 8RI and PRI %


I3,N BIntegrated Services >igital *et!or'D@ IS>*# as the name suggests it is used for carrying integrated services through a digital net!or'. It can be used for carrying both data and voice. It has various applications as 5ideo conferencing# data connectivity at distant places# up to ).. voice connections through one line. It has , parts@ )D 8RI BBasic Rate InterfaceD ,D PRI BArimary Rate InterfaceD C)6)5) 8RI 08asic Rate Inter#ace2% In this !e give t!o channels of 3) to customer. As one channel is for 0/ Ibps# hence , !ill amount to ),1 Ibps. These channels are referred as B channels Bbearer channelD. Apart from this channel one > channel is also provided along the B channel. > stands for >elta Channel. This > channel corresponds to )0 Ibps band!idth. D channel is used for signaling, that is it sends information about all the channels and their positions# > channel has 'no!ledge of all !hos !ho of 3). ) > channel can support up to )... data channels i.e. B channels. 2ence it is also referred as ,B N >. Installation Arocedure@

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Final Report For BRI !e use BRI card at >4C. As customer is to be provided !ith t!o data channels hence t!o >*s B>ialing numbersD are configured at 5oice S!itch end. Throughout# line carries ":90 volts till customer end unli'e :/+ in case of voice FMS line. At customer end first IS>* eGuipment to be installed is *T) B*et!or' TerminatorD. It converts our one pair cable to t!o pair cable. *T) is only converter i.e. terminates one pair net!or' to t!o pair net!or'. After *T) a t!o pair cable can be terminated accordingly to needs@ To carry voice !e employ TA BTerminal AdapterD# its function is to convert "analog signal to "digital signal and vice versa. From this device !e can ta'e t!o lines and install t!o landline phones. To carry data and for connectivity !e terminate t!o pair cable to 3thernet router at IS>*BRI port# no!. router dials remote location and connectivity is established C)6)6 PRI 0Pri$ar' Rate Inter#ace2% 6nli'e BRI this is a complete , =bps lin' i.e. all the ;, channels of 3) !ill be used here for carry integrated services. At airtel !e provide ).. F44 BFi%ed 4andlineD nos at one ARI# these can also be increased according to need and traffic. In this !e give ;. B channels to customer and one > channel. 2ence# sometimes ARI line is also referred as ;.BN>.

Installation@
For this !e ta'e one 3) from s!itch and complete the loop till customer premises. ?n the !ay to prevent losses !e install "modulators and demodulators i.e. =?>3=. (enerally one modem is installed at our node end i.e. RT and second one !ill be installed at customer end. From the modem at customer end !e ta'e electrical drop as 3) and terminate to customer eGuipment li'e 3ABM or any local e%change. Its totally up to customer ho! to use , =bps band!idth.=?>3=s used for this purpose !ere generally AS=I# RA> etc C.,.;. 4ease 4ine Commissioning@ Another dimension of ? $ = handles "4ease 4ine commissioning. The application at customer for lease line can be understood as a dedicated lin' bet!een t!o distant points. This Sonu (rover ,) Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report is much more beneficial than IS>* because it does not involve role of voice s!itch for connectivity. It has better performance in terms of "do!n time and losses along the line Installation and Basics@ 4ease 4ine is configured end to end from one customer to other end at customer premises. For this purpose in one lease line !e give complete one 3) to customer i.e. , =bps to customer. 2ere also to prevent losses =?>3=s are installed according to distance. Connectivity is from CT to RT to customer end and similarly at other CT to RT to customer end. Connectivity is established bet!een both end CTs to complete the loop. *et!or' design can differ according to ISA from !hom !e have feasibility in particular location. 2ere also modems used are li'e AS=I# RA>. In some cases !e install 5.;+ modems at customer premises for 5.;+ port at router end for connectivity to other end.This is one of the most reliable connectivity solutions available at the latest.

C):) Networ& Planning and *roubles ooting %


? $ = also handles all the issues related to net!or' planning and troubleshooting net!or' errors. Any changes or e%pansion in net!or' are to be handled here at ? $ =. <hile !or'ing during training# there !as a ma&or net!or' policy to be implemented for providing , =bps data for internet to customers. <e had to loo' into ma%imum speeds !hich could be handled by our A>S4 ports. So there !as a proper monitoring period held for monitoring if there !asnt any cho'ing in net!or'. =ean!hile there !ere lots of net!or' e%pansions during the period li'e setting up of CT).# CT))# =1B# AIC# A).# =IB etc. Troubleshooting issue are related to IS>*# 4ease 4ine and static issues. There are defined guidelines to be adopted for the purpose @ C):)5 I3,N 8RI @ Firstly loop at customer end is chec'ed i.e. if there is any issue li'e copper cut or any similar physical problem. Then voltage is chec'ed !hich should be :90 5. If issue is none of the Sonu (rover ,, Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report above then !e chec' the line from s!itch end i.e. >*s configured at the BRI port for customer is correct or not. (enerally problem !ill fall under these issues. Aractically problem !e faced during troubleshooting !as li'e# everything !as coming correct listed above but still there !as no dial tone . Issue !hich turned out !as band!idth cho'ing at 3)# so !e had to refresh the !hole 3) by shifting the traffic to other 3) and the results came out positive. C):)6 I3,N PRI @ ARI line didnt have many problems to be seen. (enerally problems are physical connectivity issues and configuration at s!itch end.?ther issues contain faulty modems in:bet!een# these are only dealt after replacing from A3S BAirtel 3nterprise ServicesD.

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MY DEPARTMENT PLANNING

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E1 INTRODUCTION

<ithin the 3uropean system ,../1=bitRs is the basic building bloc' of the global digital net!or' and this presentation !ill cover the theory at the local e%change from speech to speech connections.

<hen telephony began more than ).. years ago# only one speech connection at a time could be made# using a specific pair of copper !ires. Speech !as transmitted as analogue electrical signals# corresponding to its tonal variations. Sonu (rover ,0 Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

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As technology progressed# digiti ation !as introduced into telephony# improving transmission reliability and resulting in better use of cables. 2o!ever signals from subscribers are transmitted in analogue form# ma'ing a digiti ing process necessary.

The human voice uses the air as a transmission medium. <hen !e tal' the vibrations causes the air pressure to change in !aves !hich the ear converts into electrical signals for the brain. (raphic representations of a sound !ave@ : BAD BBD BCD Air at eGuilibrium# in the absence of a sound !ave Compressions and rarefactions that constitute a sound !ave Transverse representation of the !ave# sho!ing amplitude and !avelength

The telephone !as designed for an analogue# human speech and optimi ed accordingly. In particular# the freGuency response of the telephone transmission system is matched to the spectrum of speech# !hich has most of it po!er concentrated bet!een about ;.. 2 to ;./ I2 . >iagram above sho!s the po!er density spectra of speech.

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At the local e%change the processes can be bro'en do!n into three parts. The local loop consists of the t!o !ires from the subscriber# !hich is connected to the line card. Aart of the line card is the C?>3C !hich encodesRdecodes the speech signal into digital signal and bac' from a digital signal into the analogue speech signal. The digital multiple%er puts multiple AC= signals on to one digital circuit. The 4ine Termination carries out various processes but in the case !e !ill be loo'ing bat line coding. Additional In#or$ation >rop is the effect that can occur !hen data is conveyed over a channel# !hich has ero >.C. offset. *ominally# constant voltage levels can then drift up or do!n as a result of capacitors charging and discharging. >rop results in a "!andering of the signal levels# !hich is 'no!n as baseline !ander.

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Final Report The analogue signal BspeechD from the telephone is converted to a AA= BAulse Amplitude =odulatedD signal using a process called Sampling. Then using Tuanti ation and 3ncoding this sampled analogue BAA=D signal is converted to a digital signal BAC= SignalD.

Sampling is the periodical measurement of the value of the analogue signal. A sampled signal contains all the information if the sampling freGuency is at least t!ice the highest freGuency of the signal to be sampled. As the analogue signals in telephony are band:limited from ;.. to ;/.. 2 # a sampling freGuency of 1... 2 7every ),+Sec:is sufficient. Furt er In#or$ation The general problem of transmission of information in a sampled form !as studied in detail in the late )9/.s BShannon# )9/1D. A simplified statement of Shannons famous sampling theorem is as follo!s@ If the freGuency components present in a continuous signal e%tend from . to 2 # then the signal can be completely represented by# and reconstructed from# a seGuence of eGually spaced samples# provided that the sampling freGuency e%ceeds ,B samples per second.

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Before coding# each sample of the analogue signal must be allocated to one of the finite number of Guanti ation levels. <ith an 1:bit# !ord there can be ,+0 different Guanti ation levels.

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POI AND TRANSMISSION DEPARTMENT

A?I and Transmission

Planning of Wiring

Detection of Faulty Media

Media Migration

POI Testing

Fault Management

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FAULT DETECTION AND MANAGEMENT


>ip is do!n

3scalated by ?=C

Identification of path# slots and upset numbers

*o

4ocal loop given and chec'ed

Jes

B Fault Code is observed

A 4oop fro m subseGuent hop is chec'ed and analy ed

4?F $ 4?S

R>I

Fault at remote end chec'ed

Balun is chec'ed if need be reversed and terminated point is chec'ed Jes *o 3scalated to concerned engineer and efforts are made to rectify the fault

=edia is o'

>ip is !or'ing

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3*A8ILI*Y *E3*
Stability Testing is done !hen AC= is fluctuated. <e can chec' stability of any AC= .This can be done !ith help of AR?B3R. This testing helps to chec' errors. This test is done for particular hours. (enerally for /1 or -, hours# If errors are on large scale then !e either migrate or s!ap the media. For this testing !e give loop to remote end !ith >TA and also at other end loop is given. And !e calculate errors.

POI *E3*IN/
A?I Testing is reGuirement of BS*4. This testing is done to chec' some parameters i.e. return loss# attenuation# &itter etc. These parameters must satisfy the limiting values !hich are specified by BS*4 for any AC=.

,I/I*AL ,I3*RI84*ION FRAME 0,,F2


>igital distribution frame may be classified as follo!ing@ ). The one !ay by !hich !e classify is a. <rapping type b. Irone type ,. The second classification is based on ohm type a. ),. ohm@ 2ere !e have a balanced line b. -+ ohm@ 2ere !e have unbalanced line *YPE3 OF CONNEC*OR3 M= Connector% These connectors are used at >>F. 8AL4N Connector% BA46* means balancedRunbalanced. These are used to convert ),. ohm balanced line to -+ ohm unbalanced line. 8NC Connector% This connector is used at SIA3 radio. 8anana Connector% These connectors are used in >TA. 4 7LIN. Connector% These are used at >>F. R? =@ Connector% These are used in =?>3=. ;/ Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Sonu (rover

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IN3*R4MEN*3 43E, IN *RAN3MI33ION ,*A 0,I/I*AL *RAN3RECIE9ER ANALY3ER2% TA is a combined transmitter and receiver. It offers ,=bRs#nS0/'bRs# 0/'bRs co:directional measurement facilities for signal Guality# pulse mas'# &itter# freGuency and level. The instrument consists of a processor board# a po!er supply board# a 'eypad and a graphic display. The vast ma&ority of the generation and measurement is performed by the processor board and interaction of its constituent parts are as sho!n in bloc' diagram belo!@

Ieypad Arocessor $ Signal Arocessing >isplay

Ao!er Bus

LE,As IN ,*A There are seven 43>s on >TA. The significance of each is described here. 3ignal Loss LE,% <hen this 43> is lit# it indicates that no data transitions are present at receive input or there is loss of signal. Alar$ LE,% <hen lit# 43> indicates that an alarm condition e%ists. Error LE,% This 43> is lit !hen an error has been detected. +istor' LE,% <hen lit# this 43> indicates that an alarm or error has been detected. Low 8atter' LE,% <hen lit# the battery reGuires charging. 3tartB3top LE,% This green 43> is a lit during a measurement gating period. ,C in LE,% It lit !hen !e give po!er supply to it to charge battery. ;+ Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

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LOOP% The most common use of >TA is for chec'ing loop. A loop:bac' is manually applied to the net!or' eGuipment to return test signal# if all 43> that are on eGuipment does not glo! then !e get the loop $our media is correct. In case any 43> glo!s this means !e did not get the loop. The general diagram for chec'ing loop is as follo!s@

>TA

4ine 3Guipment

4ine 3Guipment

The loop may be classified as@ 5) Local loop% 2ere !e chec' the media to!ards our end. This can be chec'ed by Transmission analy er or s!itch. 6) Re$ote loop% 2ere !e chec' the media up to remote end. This can be chec'ed by S!itch or >TA. ;. 3o#t loop% In case of soft loop a person has to log in a particular ST=. This type of loop can be chec'ed at *?C B*et!or' ?peration CenterD. 2ere !e chec' media of any even. Basically this is soft loop. /. A,9@ <e can chec' the media of any even by simply giving a command. +. +ard loop% This is an electrical loop. 2ere !e give loop at >>F for chec'ing media. This is given !ith help of loop cord# BA46* BBalanced:to:6nbalancedD. A 8AL4N is a device that &oins a balanced line Bone that has t!o conductors# !ith eGual currents in opposite directions# such as a twisted pair cableD to an unbalanced line Bone that has &ust one conductor and a ground# such as a coaxial cableD. A balun is a type of transformer@ itHs used to convert an unbalanced signal to a balanced one or vice versa. Baluns isolate a Sonu (rover ;0 Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report transmission line and provide a balanced output. A typical use for a balun is in a television antenna. The term is derived by combining balanced and unbalanced. In a balun# one pair of terminals is balanced# that is# the currents are eGual in magnitude and opposite in phase. The other pair of terminals is unbalancedF one side is connected to electrical ground and the other carries the signal. Balun transformers can be used bet!een various parts of a wireless or cable communications system. The follo!ing table denotes some common applications.

8alanced Television receiver Television receiver FM !roadcast receiver Di"ole antenna Parallel#wire transmission line Parallel#wire transmission line Parallel#wire transmission line

4nbalanced coaxial cable network Coa ial antenna system Coa ial antenna system Coa ial transmission line Coa ial transmitter out"ut Coa ial receiver in"ut Coa ial transmission line

Some baluns provide impedance transformation in addition to conversion bet!een balanced and unbalanced signal modesF others provide no impedance transformation. For )@) baluns Bno impedance transformationD# the input and output are usually both +. or -+. The most common impedance:transformation ratio is )@/ Balternatively /@)D. Some baluns provide other impedance:transformation ratios# such as )@9 Band 9@)D# )@). Band ).@)D# or )@)0 Band )0@)D. Impedance:transformer baluns having a )@/ ratio are used bet!een systems !ith impedances of +. or -+ ohms BunbalancedD and ,.. or ;.. ohms BbalancedD. =ost television and F= broadcast receivers are designed for ;..:ohm balanced systems# !hile coa%ial cables have characteristic Sonu (rover ;Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report impedances of +. or -+ ohms. Impedance:transformer baluns !ith larger ratios are used to match high:impedance balanced antennas to lo!:impedance unbalanced !ireless receivers# transmitters# or transceivers.In order to function at optimum efficiency# a balun must be used !ith loads !hose impedances present little or no reactance. Such impedances are called Upurely resistiveL. As a general rule# !ell:designed communications antennas present purely resistive loads of +.# -+# or ;.. ohms# although a fe! antennas have higher resistive impedances. The UbalancedU terminals of some baluns can be connected to an unbalanced system. ?ne terminal of the balanced pair Binput or outputD is connected to ground# !hile the other is connected to the active system element. <hen this is done# the device does not operate as a true balun# because both the input and the output are unbalanced. A balun used in this !ay has been called a Uun:unU Bfor Uunbalanced:to:unbalancedUD. Some baluns can !or' as an impedance transformer bet!een t!o unbalanced systems if there is little or no reactance. But certain types of baluns do not !or' properly !hen connected in this manner. It is best to chec' the documentation provided !ith the device# or contact the manufacturer# if Uun:unU balun operation is contemplated.

75-ohm dual-coax G.703 terminations to 120-ohm twisted-pair G.703 terminations

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,,F 0,I/I*AL ,I3*RI84*ION FRAME32 FOR COACIAL CA8LE


A digital distribution frame is the interface bet!een the e%change and the transmission eGuipment in a fi%ed net!or'. In a mobile net!or' the digital distribution frame acts as an interface bet!een the =SC B=obile Services S!itching CenterD or BSC BBase Station ControllerD# and the transmission eGuipment. >igital distribution frames are intended for termination# cross connection and inter:connection of cables# as !ell as measuring of transmission signals.

The >>F frame for -+ ohm coa%ial cable is pre:assembled including 9 panels and a number of u: lin's !ith test &ac'. The 90 system frame can be e%panded using e%pansion 'its. Aairs the last 4AI B4ine !ireD !ith the ne! 4AI. If they are the same# it means that the =S has not changed 4AS B4ine Server and does not need to inform the net!or'.

Location 4pdating" 3a$e M3CB9LR


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If an =S detects a change in 4AI on the BCC2# it informs the net!or'. <hen the =S sends !hether it is an =S !hich is already registered# or if it is an =S visiting from another =SCR54R

T$e
4ocation 6pdating message# the =SCR54R determines@ ). The =S listens to BCC2 in the ne! cell to determine the 4AI. The ne! 4AI is compared to the old one. If they differ# a location update is necessary. ,. The =S establishes a connection !ith the net!or' via S>CC2. Authentication is performed. ;. If authentication is successful# the =S sends a 4ocation 6pdating ReGuest to the system. /. The system ac'no!ledges 4ocation 6pdating and reGuests RBS and =S to release the signaling channel. Location 4pdating" New M3CB9LR <hen an =S roams into a ne! 4A# location updating is performed. 2o!ever# un'no!n to the =S# the 4A may belong to a ne! =SCR54R. <hen the 4ocation 6pdate ReGuest is received by the ne! 54R# it e%ecutes the procedure belo!@ ). Authentication is performed. If authentication is successful# the 54R chec's its database to determine !hether or not it has a record for this =S. ,. <hen the 54R finds no record for the =S# it sends a reGuest to the subscribers 24R for a copy of the =Ss subscription. ;. The 24R passes the information to the 54R and updates its location information for the subscriber. The 24R instructs the old 54R to delete the information it has on the =S.

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Final Report /. The 54R stores its subscription information for the =S# including the latest location and status BidleD. The 54R sends ac'no!ledgement to the =S. Location updating" t'pe Periodic Registration Aeriodic registration is a feature !hich forces =Ss to send a registration message to the net!or' at predefined intervals. If an =S should miss such a registration# the net!or' !ill mar' the =S as detached. This may occur if an =S is out of the area of coverage and ensures that needless paging is not performed. If the net!or' uses periodic registration# the =S !ill be informed# on the BCC2 of ho! often periodic registration must be performed. Aeriodic registration has an ac'no!ledgment message. The =S tries to register until it receives this message. ,E*AC+IN/ FROM *+E NE*-OR. IM3I ,etac % I=SI detach enables the =S to indicate to the net!or' that it is s!itched off. At po!er off# the =S sends an I=SI detach message to the net!or'. ?n reception# the 54R mar's the corresponding I=SI as detached. The 24R is not informed. *o ac'no!ledgement is sent to the =S. I$plicit ,etac % If the =S sends an I=SI detach message to the system and the radio lin' Guality is poor# the system might not be able to decode the information. Because no ac'no!ledgment is sent to the =S# no further attempt is made. In this case# the system still regards the =S as attached. If periodic registration is in use# the system !ill soon determine that the =S is detached. The 54R then performs an implicit detach# mar'ing the =S as detached. M3 Purging% =S purging is used to inform the 24R that the 54R is about to remove a subscriber record from the 54R. The 24R then sets the =S purged flag and treats the subscriber as unreachable. This saves unnecessary net!or' signaling and database loo'up. For e%ample# a 6I =S travels to Australia and performs a location update in an =SCR54R in Australia. 4ater# the subscriber travels bac' to the 6I# !hich ta'es some time. >uring this period# the subscriber is not active. If =S purging is not used# !hen a caller ma'es a call to the =S# the 24R identifies the =S as registered in the Australian =SCR54R and routes the call to it. The =SCR54R then informs the 24R that the subscriber is unreachable. If =S purging is used# the 6I subscribers record !ill have been purged from the Australian =SCR54R. <hen a call is

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Final Report made to the subscriber# the 24R identifies the =S as unreachable and does not contact the Australian =SCR54R. M3 IN AC*I9E MO,E An =S is in active mode !hen there is a call Bspeech# fa% or dataD# or a call set up procedure ta'ing place.

5) CALL FROM AN M3 This section describes !hat happens !hen a mobile subscriber !ants to set up a voice call to a subscriber in the AST*. >ata and te%t message calls are described separately.

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). The =S uses RAC2 to as' for a signaling channel. ,. The BSCRTRC allocates a signaling channel# using A(C2. ;. The =S sends a call set:up reGuest via S>CC2 to the =SCR54R. ?ver S>CC2 all signaling preceding a call ta'es place. This includes@ =ar'ing the =S as KactiveL in the 54R The authentication procedure Start ciphering eGuipment identification Sending the B:subscribers number to the net!or' Chec'ing if the subscriber has the service KBarring of outgoing callsL activated

/. The =SCR54R instructs the BSCRTRC to allocate an idle TC2. The RBS and =S are told to tune to the TC2. +. The =SCR54R for!ards the B7number to an e%change in the AST*# !hich establishes a connection to the subscriber. 0. If the B:subscriber ans!ers# the connection is established. 6) CALL *O AN M3

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Final Report The ma&or difference bet!een a call to an =S and a call from an =S is that in a call to an =S the e%act location of the mobile subscriber is un'no!n. Therefore# the =S must be located using paging before a connection can be established. Belo! is the description of the call set:up procedure for a call from a AST* subscriber to a mobile subscriber. A call from an =S to a mobile subscriber operates according to the same process# the only difference being that the (=SC is contacted by another =SCR54R instead of by a AST* node.

). The AST* subscriber 'eys in the =Ss telephone number B=SIS>*D. The =SIS>* is analy ed in the AST* !hich identifies that this is a call to a mobile net!or' subscriber. A connection is established to the =Ss home (=SC. ,. The (=SC analyses the =SIS>* to find out !hich 24R the =S is registered in# and Gueries the 24R for information about ho! to route the call to the serving =SCR54R. ;. The 24R translates =SIS>* into I=SI# and determines !hich =SCR54R is currently serving the =S. The 24R also chec's the service# KCall for!arding to C7numberL. If the service is activated# the call is rerouted by the (=SC to that number. /. The 24R reGuests an =SR* from the serving =SCR54R. Sonu (rover // Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report +. The =SCR54R returns an =SR* via 24R to the (=SC 0. The (=SC analyses the =SR* and routes the call to the =SCR54R. -. The =SCR54R 'no!s !hich 4A the =S is located in. A paging message is sent to the BSCs controlling the 4A. 1. The BSCs distribute the paging message to the RBSs in the desired 4A. The RBSs transmit the message over the air interface using AC2. To page the =S# the net!or' uses an I=SI or T=SI valid only in the current =SCR54R service area. 9. <hen the =S detects the paging message# it sends a reGuest for a S>CC2. ).. The BSC provides a S>CC2# using A(C2. )). S>CC2 is used for the call set:up procedures# as in a call from an =S. A TC2 is allocated and the S>CC2 is released. ),. The mobile phone rings. If the subscriber ans!ers# the connection is established.

A.6 BHARTI AIRTELS DSL ARCHITECTURE (voice and data)


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(Network Dia ra!)

%TH

Fi!re -ink

MI,I DS-.M
%4 -I,5 %4 -I,5 Fi!re -ink

I,T%&,%T

CISCO (*)+ %&' ())


F.ST%TH%&,%T

MI,I DS-.M

M.,T&. &O0T%&

%4 -I,5

MI,I DS-.M
%4 -I,5

%4 -I,5

MI,I DS-.M
%4 -I,5

cascade dslam
%4 -I,5

MI,I DS-.M

0nis"$ere Sd S%&3%&

%4 -I,5

MI,I DS-.M
Co""er

MI,I DS-.M MI,I DS-.M

CP% /DS-&O0T%&1 MOD%M2

Clent PC

A. DSL Techonolgy :
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A)5) IN*RO,4C*ION *O ,3L


a) ,3L 0,igital 3ubscriber Line2 is a technology for bringing high:band!idth information to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone lines. x,3L refers to different variations of >S4# such as A>S4# 2>S4# and RA>S4. Assuming your home or small business is close enough to a telephone company central office that offers >S4 service# you may be able to receive data at rates up to 0.) megabits Bmillions of bitsD per second Bof a theoretical 1.//1 megabits per secondD# enabling continuous transmission of motion video# audio# and even ;:> effects. =ore typically# individual connections !ill provide from ).+// =bps to +), Ibps do!nstream and about ),1 Ibps upstream. A >S4 line can carry both data and voice signals and the data part of the line is continuously connected. >S4 installations began in )991 and !ill continue at a greatly increased pace through the ne%t decade in a number of communities in the 6.S. and else!here. CompaG# Intel# and =icrosoft !or'ing !ith telephone companies have developed a standard and easier:to:install form of A>S4 called (.4ite that is accelerating deployment. >S4 is e%pected to replace IS>* in many areas and to compete !ith the cable modem in bringing multimedia and ;:> to homes and small businesses. A)5)5) 3OME 3ALIEN* FEA*4RE3 OF ,3L) Arovides al!ays:on# high:speed data services over e%isting copper !ires to residences $ businesses 7 A?TS service and >S4 coe%ist on same copper line. 4o!er rate %>S4 Bup to ).+ =bpsD is gaining popularity in the residential mar'etF !ill get faster and cheaper. 2igh performance %>S4 Bup to +, =bpsD targets business and high:end users.

,3L7based ser(ices provide performance advantages for net!or' service users as compared to other net!or' access methods. In addition# >S4:based services provide operational improvements for campus net!or' operators. The Service 6ser Bendpoint locationD gains access to a *SA net!or' through a *et!or' Access Arovider net!or')

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>S4# much li'e traditional T) or3)# uses a much broader range of freGuencies than the voice channel. Such an implementation reGuires transmission of information over a !ide range of freGuencies from one end of the copper !ire loop to another complementary device !hich receives the !ide freGuency signal at the far end of the copper loop. Residential users are being forced to loo' for Internet access solutions that are faster than traditional dial:in services to match the ever:increasing computing po!er of home ACs# the arrival of interactive games# and the trend to do!nload content such as =A; music files and videos from the Internet. The ensuing "last mile bottlenec' can be ideally eliminated by use of >S4 technology. Throughout the !orld the mass rollout of >S4 offers e%cellent business returns !hen targeted to!ards residential users. The reason is as simple as this@ residential users are !illing to pay a premium for the ability to access the Internet much faster than before. In a nuts ell" ,3L can be described b' t e #ollowing #eatures %

8roadband Access *ec nolog':

Broadband is defined as the provision of

subscriber access at bit rates in e%cess of , =bitRs Bor ).+ =bitRs in the 6nited StatesD. Broadband services are the facilities Bs!itched or non:s!itchedD that a net!or' Sonu (rover /1 Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report operator provides to support broadband applications via an integrated subscriber access# that is# a single net!or' port that provides access to all services.. 3i$ultaneous Access o# bot internet and telep one ser(ices%7 >S4 provides a dedicated band!idth that can be up to ,-1 times faster than a ,1.1:'bitRs modem# or 0, times faster than IS>*# and up to four times faster than a T) line connection. The real advantage >S4 modems have over e%isting dial:up modems is their ability to accommodate voice and data on a line at the same time. +ig 3peed Internet Access%7 A >S4 path consisting of t!o modems on each end of a t!isted:pair telephone line can transfer data rates as high as +, =bitsRs. A)5)5)5 *+E *RAN3MI33ION RA*E ,EPEN,3 ON 3E9ERAL FAC*OR3% The particular >S4 technology used for connection. The distance from the central office# sometimes referred to as the last mile or local

loop. The !ire gauge used in the local loop.

A)5)5)6 8A3IC RED4IREMEN*3 OF 43IN/ ,3L% Computer:?S:<in 91 S3B=inimum StandardD Aentium , ),1 =B RA=

6SBR4A* Aort A)6 ,3L *EC+NOLO/IE3% a) A,3L % A>S4 is called UasymmetricU because most of its t!o:!ay or duple% band!idth is devoted to the do!nstream direction# sending data to the user. ?nly a small portion of Sonu (rover /9 Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report band!idth is available for upstream or user:interaction messages. 6sing A>S4# up to 0.) megabits per second of data can be sent do!nstream and up to 0/. Ibps upstream. b. 2>S4 @ 2>S4 B2igh bit:rate >igital Subscriber 4ineD# one of the earliest forms of >S4# is used for !ideband digital transmission !ithin a corporate site and bet!een the telephone company and a customer. The main characteristic of 2>S4 is that it is symmetrical@ an eGual amount of band!idth is available in both directions. 2>S4 can carry as much on a single !ire of t!isted: pair cable as can be carried on a T) line Bup to ).+// =bpsD. c) RA,3L % RA>S4 BRate:Adaptive >S4D is an A>S4 technology form in !hich soft!are is able to determine the rate at !hich signals can be transmitted on a given customer phone line and ad&ust the delivery rate accordingly. It delivers from 0/. Ibps to ,., =bps do!nstream and from ,-, Ibps to )..11 =bps upstream over an e%isting line. d) 3,3L% S>S4 BSymmetric >S4D is similar to 2>S4 !ith a single t!isted:pair line# carrying ).+// =bps B6.S. and CanadaD or ,../1 =bps B3uropeD each direction on a duple% line. ItHs symmetric because the data rate is the same in both directions e) 9,3L % 5>S4 B5ery high data rate >S4D is a developing technology that promises much higher data rates over relatively short distances Bbet!een +) and ++ =bps over lines up to )#... feet or ;.. meters in lengthD. ItHs envisioned that 5>S4 may emerge some!hat after A>S4 is !idely deployed and co:e%ist !ith it. The transmission technology BCAA# >=T# or otherD and its effectiveness in some environments is not yet determined. A number of standards organi ations

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Final Report ,A*A RA*E 0,ownstrea$E4pstrea$2 ,I3*ANCE LIMI* ).+// =bps at )1#... feetF ,../1 =bps at ).+ to 0.) =bps )0#... feetF do!nstreamF 0.;), =pbs at )0 to 0/. Ibps upstream ),#... feetF 1.//1 =bps at 9#... feet ).+// =bps duple% on t!o t!isted:pair linesF ,../1 =bps duple% on three t!isted:pair lines ),#... feet on ,/ gauge !ire

,3L *YPE

,E3CRIP*ION

APPLICA*ION 6sed for Internet and <eb access# motion video# video on demand# remote 4A* access

A,3L

Asymmetric >igital Subscriber 4ine

+,3L

2igh bit:rate >igital Subscriber 4ine

T)R3) service bet!een server and phone company or !ithin a companyF <A*# 4A*# server access

3,3L

Symmetric >S4

).+// =bps duple% B6.S. and CanadaDF ,../1 =bps B3uropeD on a single duple% line do!nstream and upstream

),#... feet on ,/ gauge !ire

Same as for 2>S4 but reGuiring only one line of t!isted: pair

9,3L

5ery high >igital Subscriber 4ine

),.9 to +,.1 =bps do!nstreamF ).+ to ,.; =bps upstreamF ).0 =bps to ,.; =bps do!nstream

/#+.. feet at ),.90 =bpsF ;#... feet at ,+.1, =bpsF )#... feet at +).1/ =bps

AT= net!or'sF Fiber to the *eighborhood

RA,3L

Rate:Adaptive >S4

Adapted to the line# 0/. Ibps to ,., =bps do!nstreamF ,-, Ibps to )..11 =bps upstream

*ot 'no!n

Similar to A>S4

ALARM3% >ISA4AJ A4AR= STAT6S Sonu (rover +) Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report This system displays the current alarm status of ob&ects. Input format ?B83CT A4AR= ?B83CT This parameter specifies the alarm ob&ect. *ote@ : If one parameter is omitted# all its values !ill be ta'en into consideration. This parameter allo!s entry of a single value# or of multiple values lin'ed !ith $. 4T( 4I*3 TR6*I (R?6A >46 >I(ITA4 4I*3 6*IT S* S<ITC2I*( *3T<?RI =B =3SSA(3 B6FF3R C4?CI C3*TRA4 C4?CI (3*3RAT?R SJA SJST3= AA*34 CCS C?==?* C2A**34 SI(*A4I*( SI(4I*I SI(*A4I*( 4I*I C6 C3*TRA4 6*ITS 4*4CI?6T 4I*3 4?CI?6T =A4 =AI*T3*A*C3 A4AR= SA4 S3R5IC3 A4AR= T(A4 TR6*I (R?6A A4AR= TI=I*S3C TI=3 I*S3C6R3 SJ?A CA44 F?R SJST3= ?A3RAT?R 3A43MC2 3MT3R*A4 3MC2A*(3 A4AR= 3A4>46 3MT3R*A4 >46 A4AR= ?54> ?53R4?A> A4AR= R3C?5 R3C?53RJ A4AR= A>=I*A4 A>=I*ISTRATI?* A4AR=

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*RAN3MI33ION
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IN*RO,4C*ION *O *RAN3MI33ION In any communication system# it is often necessary to interconnect points that are some distance apart from each other. Transmission means transmitting of information from one point to another .i.e. from source to destination and vice versa. This can be done !ith the help of Transmission lines and Transmission media. Transmission lines are the means of conveying signal or po!er. 2o!ever# if the properties of these lines must be ta'en into account# the lines might as !ell be arranged in some simple# constant pattern. This !ill ma'e the properties much easier to calculate# and it !ill also ma'e them constant for any type of transmission line. Thus all practical transmission lines are arranged in some uniform patternF this simplifies calculations# reduces costs and increases convenience. The bloc' diagram is as follo!s. The arro! represents Transmission line. Information Source

Transmitter

=edia

>estination

Receiver

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Final Report Transmission lines are considered to be impedance:matching circuits designed to deliver po!er from the transmitter to the antenna# and ma%imum signal from the antenna to the receiver. Any system of !ires can be considered as forming one or more transmission lines. *YPE OF *RAN3MI33ION LINE3 There are t!o types of commonly used transmission lines. The parallel:!ire BbalancedD line and the co:a%ial BunbalancedD line. Parallel7wire 0balanced2 line Balanced lines reGuire the use of three terminals rather than t!o. ?ne conductor BshieldD !ill be connected to ground# and the signal !ill be carried by t!o identical conductors !hich carry the same voltage but !ith opposite polarity !ith respect to ground. The line is said to be balanced since the t!o signal carrying conductors are of eGual Bthough oppositeD potential Balanced lines are useful for eliminating un!anted noises. Balanced lines have an impedance of 56< o $) Coaxial 0unbalanced2 line An unbalanced line uses only t!o conductors !ith one being at or near ground potential# !hile the other conductor is the hot or high side of the line. The line is said to be unbalanced because the t!o conductors are of uneGual potentials !ith respect to ground.. 6nbalanced lines have an impedance of -+ o $) Transmission lines used in AIR*EL is a standard of V/)F<: !hich has an Indoor coa%ial cable a distance of ,.. m is possible B0.. m !ith a high performance cableD. <ith a , pair cable a distance up to ).+ 'm is possible. *RAN3MI3ION ME,IA The Transmission media used in AIR*EL are@ ). =ICR?<A53 ,. ?ATICA4 FIB3R ;. C?AA3R CAB43

MICRO-A9E Sonu (rover ++ Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report Radio lin' is the name for a micro!ave radio connection bet!een t!o points. Radio lin' is typically available for ,# /# 1# )0# ;/# )/. and )++ BS>2D =bitRs capacities. The 3ricsson radio lin' product is called =I*I:4I*I and is used e%tensively in mobile net!or's in the Asia:Aacific region. It is #urt er di(ided into two parts% Intercit'% 2ere !e have a radio lin' from city to city .RF is lo!. >iameter of antenna is large $ 2op distance is more. Intracit'% 2ere !e have a radio lin' !ithin city. RF is high. >iameter of antenna is small $ 2op distance is less.

COPPER CA8LE Relatively short repeater distances characteri e metal cable systems. T!o common cable types are pair cable and coa%ial cable. The factor limiting the repeater distance in t!isted pair cable systems is interference bet!een AC= Signals# !hereas in coa%ial systems it is the attenuation of the signal. For out:doors applications pair cable is pre:dominant# !hereas coa%ial cable is mainly used for in:door applications. In general# pair cable is used for longer distances and coa%ial cable for shorter distances. For both cables the possible distance decreases !ith higher capacity. OP*ICAL FI8ER ?ptical fiber offers high capacity# lo! attenuation and is insensitive to electromagnetic disturbances. The t!o !avelengths mainly used in fiber optical systems are );). nm and )++. nm as the fiber attenuation is minimal at these t!o !avelengths. ?ptical fibers are usually divided into multi and single mode fibers Single mode fibers are used e%tensively in telecommunication connections. Transmission system is Aart of a communication system organi ed to accomplish the transfer of information from one point to one or more other points by means of signals. The basic elements of a transmission system are transmitter# receiver and transmission media..BThe voice telephone Sonu (rover +0 Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report systems are generally referred to as the AST* Aublic:S!itched Telephone *et!or'.D.Transmitter is the source or generator of any signal on a transmission medium. Receiver is the sin' or terminator of any signal on a transmission medium. Transmission may ta'e place over guided mediaBcopper cables and fiber:optic cablesDor unguided media B!ireless radio# micro!ave and infraredD. The purpose of transmission net!or' is to multiple% together multiple lo! bit rate digital traffic streams into higher bit rate traffic streams for efficient transport between access points)

T!o types of transmission systems are there Analog transmission system >igital transmission systems.

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Final Report The ma&or difference bet!een these t!o is in ho! the audio signals# e.g. your voice# are transmitted bet!een the phone and base station. UAnalogU and U>igitalU refer to this transmission mechanism. Thin' of it as audio cassettes versus C>s 7 audio cassettes are analog and cds are digital. In either system# the audio at the microphone al!ays starts out as a voltage level that varies continuously over time. 2igh freGuencies Bhigh pitchD cause rapid changes and lo! freGuencies cause slo! changes. <ith analog systems# the audio is modulated directly onto a carrier. This is very much li'e Bif not identical toD F= radio !here the audio signal Bin this case musicD is translated to an RF signal. <ith digital systems# the audio is converted to digiti ed samples at about 1... samples per second or so. The digital samples are numbers that represent the time:varying voltage level at specific points in time. These samples BnumbersD are no! transmitted as )s and .s. At the other end# the samples are converted bac' to voltage levels and Usmoothed outU so that you get about the same audio signal. BThere is some loss# but it may be unnoticeable : depending ?n ho! itHs done.D <ith analog transmissions# interference BRF noise or some other anomaly that affects the transmitted signalD gets translated directly into the recovered signal : there is no Uchec'U that the signal ma'es sense. The neat thing about digital is that the )s and .s can not be easily confused or distorted during transmission# plus e%tra data is typically included in the transmission to help detect and correct any errors. ,igital *rans$ission 3'ste$ The development of digital transmission systems started in the early -.s# and !as based on the Aulse Code =odulation BAC=D method. P4L3E CO,E MO,4LA*ION Aulse code modulation is one of the methods of digital pulse modulation. AC= also use the sampling techniGue# but it differs from the other analog pulse modulation BAulse amplitude modulation and pulse time modulationD in the fact that is a digital process# means that instead of sending a pulse train capable of continuously varying one of the parameters# the AC= generator Sonu (rover +1 Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report produces a series of numbers# or digits Bhence the name digital processD. 3ach one of these digits# almost al!ays in binary code# represents the appro%imate amplitude of the signal sample at that instant. The appro%imation can be made as close as desired# but it is al!ays &ust that an 7 appro%imation. 3a$pling To sample a signal means to e%amine it at some point in time# as sho!n in Figure ). Sampling usually happens at eGually separated intervalsF this interval is called the sampling interval. The reciprocal of sampling interval is called the sampling freGuency or sampling rate. The unit of sampling interval is second. The unit of sampling rate is 2 # !hich means cycles per second. In Figure )# the sampling interval is ) usec B).W:0 secD# or in other !ords the sampling freGuency is ) =2 B).W0 2 D. This means that the A>C samples this sine !ave every ) usec. Assume the analog signal has the highest freGuency of fF to reconstruct the original analog signal faithfullyF the sampling rate must be at least ,f. This is also called the sampling theorem. In Figure )# the freGuency of this sine !ave is ,%).W/ 2 # and the sampling freGuency is ).W0 2 # !hich is much greater than ,%,%).W/ 2 . So this sine !ave !ill be faithfully reconstructed bac' to an analog signal.

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Because human hearing is limited to a range of ,. 2 to ,.:'2 # the sampling freGuency for C> Guality is often //.) '2 . Since human speech is only limited to ,. 2 to ;... 2 # an 1... 2 sample freGuency is high enough for telephony Guality audio. Duanti!ation To Guanti e a signal means to determine the signalHs value to some degree of accuracy. Figure , sho!s the same analog signal being Guanti ed. The digital signal is defined only at the points at !hich it is sampled. The height of each vertical bar can ta'e on only certain values# sho!n by hori ontal dashed lines# !hich are sometimes higher and sometimes lo!er than the original signal# indicated by the dashed curve. In Figure ,# )) Guanti ation levels are used# and hence / bits are needed to encode each sample.

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If the height of each bar is translated into a digital number# then the signal is said to be represented by pulse:code modulation# or AC=. The difference bet!een a Guanti ed representation and an original analog signal is called the quantization noise. <ith more bits for Guanti ation of a AC= signal# the signal sounds clearer. 6sing higher sampling freGuency and more bits for Guanti ation !ill produce better Guality digital audio. But for the same length of audio# the file si e !ill be much larger than the lo! Guality audio. For e%ample# the C>:Guality audio uses //.) '2 sampling rate and )0 bits amplitude. The resulting aggregated bit rate Bbits per secondD of a stereophonic B, channelsD C>:audio stream is thus //.)S)0S,O)#/))., 'bps. ?n the other Sonu (rover 0) Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report hand# the telephony Guality audio uses 1 '2 sampling rate and 1 bits amplitude. The file si e of one second speech is only 1S1O0/ Ibits AC= audio encoding method is an uncompressed audio format. Real:!orld reGuirements may ma'e it impossible to handle the full bit stream of# for e%ample# C>:Guality audio. In the follo!ing !e !ill introduce some other audio encoding methods that are used to compress digital audio. Ot er Encoding 3c e$es AC= audio encoding method is an uncompressed audio format. Real:!orld reGuirements may ma'e it impossible to handle the full bit stream of# for e%ample# C>:Guality audio. In the follo!ing !e !ill introduce some other audio encoding methods that are used to compress digital audio. A-law and -law Encoding For speech signals# a system# !hich !or's !ith a Guanti ation step si e that increases logarithmically !ith the level of the signal# is !idely used. This allo!s a larger range of values to be covered !ith the same number of bits. The International Telecommunication 6nion : Telecommunication Standardi ation Sector BIT6:TD Recommendation (.-)) codifies the A:la! and X:la! encoding scheme. For A:la! encoding# the formula is yOA%R B)NlnAD# !here B.YO%YO)RAD# And yO B)NA%DR B)NlnAD# !here B)RAYO%YO)D. For X:la! transmission# the signal is encoded according to y O ln B)N X%DRln B)N XD# !here B.YO%YO)D. In standard telephone !or'# X is set to ,++. The result is an 1:bit per sample signal that produces the dynamic range appro%imately associated !ith ),:bit AC=.

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Final Report Origin o# P,+ In the early 1.Hs digital systems became more and more comple%# yet there !as huge demand for some features that !ere not supported by the e%isting systems. The demand !as mainly to high order multiple%ing through a hierarchy of increasing bit rates up to )/. =bps or +0+ =bps in 3urope. The problem !as the high cost of bandwidth and digital devices. The solution that !as created then !as a multiple%ing techniGue# allo!ed for the combining of slightly non: synchronous rates# referred to as plesiochronous# !hich lead to the term plesiochronous digital hierarchy BA>2D.The plesiochronous digital hierarchy BA>2D has t!o primary communication systems as its foundation. These are the T) system based on )+//'bitRs that is recommended by A*SI and the 3) system based on ,./1'bitRs that is recommended by IT6:T. The T) system is used mainly in 6.S.A# Canada and 8apan. 3uropean and certain non:3uropean countries use the 3) system.

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The special features and characteristics of the 3) system are described in the follo!ing pages.

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AC= FRA=I*(
Arinciples of =ultiple%ing

Pri$ar' Fra$e 3tructure The primary frames consist of ;, code !ords called timeslots and are numbered . to ;). A AC=;) frame comprises of ;) timeslots used for traffic and ) timeslot used for synchroni ation.

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In a AC=;. system the frame comprises of ;. timeslots used for traffic and , code !ords that are used for synchroni ation and signaling purposes.

Frame alignment The transmitting and receiving sides are synchroni ed to the AC= frame alignment signal BFASD !hich is transmitted in the timeslot . of every second frame. The not frame alignment signal B*FASD is transmitted in timeslot . of alternate frame.

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Fra$e Align$ent 3ignal

8it 5% 3i is reser(ed #or international use in PCM:< or PCM:5 or C is used #or trans$itting t e CRC di(ision re$ainder in PCM :<C or PCM :5C 8its6 to G% FA3 * e recei(ing side o# t e PCM s'ste$ deter$ines t e ti$eslot o# t e PCM #ra$e on t e basis o# t e recei(ed #ra$e align$ent signal" so t at t e recei(ed bits can be assigned to t e (arious c annels in t e correct seHuence) The FAS is transmitted in timeslot . of every even AC= frame i.e. frame numbers .#,#/#0 and so on. it is al!ays a -:bit !ord !ith the binary seGuence .. )) .) starting at bit ,. Sonu (rover 0Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

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Bit ) in time slot . is 'no!n as the Si bit and is reserved for international use. It is normally set the ) e%cept in systems that use CRC. 2ere the division remainder !hich results from the comparison is transmitted to the receiving side using this bit. *ot Frame Alignment Signal. The *FAS is used to carry information about the status of the lin' and to provide control signals #or pri$ar' rate $ultiplexers

Bit) Si is reserved for international use# in pcm;. or pcm;) or = is used for transmitting the CRC 7=ultiframe Alignment Signal in AC= ;.C or AC= ;)CF Bit,@ is set to ):prevents simulation of the FAS Bit ;@ a sho!s the remote alarm indication Bit/ to 1@sa/ to sa1 are additional spare bits !hich can be used as follo!s. IT6:T recommendations allo! for bits sa/ to sa1 to be used in specific point to point applications Be.g. for transcoder eGuipmentD !ithin national borders. <hen these bits are not used and on lin's crossing an international border they should be set to ). Bit sa/ may be used as a message 7based data lin' for operations# maintenance and performance monitoring .this channel originates at the point !here the frame is generated and terminates !here the frame is split up.

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Considering the multiple%ers in he above diagram. AC= multiple%ers b !ill synchroni e on to the incoming bit stream multiple%er a under the follo!ing conditions. ). Correct FAS# Si . . ) ) . ) )# is received in time slot . of a frame. ,. Bit , in time slot . B*FASD of the ne%t frame received must be )# i.e. Si# ) a sa/# sa+# sa0# sa-# sa1 is received in timeslot .. ;. FAS# Si . . ) ) . ) ) is received in timeslot . of the subseGuent frame. The multiple%er is synchroni ed on to the incoming frames only if all three conditions are full filled. Signaling In AC= ;. and AC= ;.Csystems timeslot )0 is used for channel 7associated signaling BCASD. The information necessary for s!itching and routing all ;. telephone channels Bsignaling and status codesD are interleaved and transmitted in this timeslot )0. Channel Associated Signaling

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Final Report Interchange as signaling in the for!ard and bac' !ard direction is accomplished using bits that only change sate slo!ly. Is therefore sufficient to transmit these relatively static signaling bits at a rate of ,'bps for each subscriber. As a result# the 0/ 'bps capacity of time slot )0 is divided bet!een the ;. subscriber channels and , au%iliary channels for synchroni ation alarms. A signaling multiframe is formed !hich comprises )0 normal AC= frames. 3ach signaling timeslot of the multiframe has a transmission capacity of /'bps B0/ 'bps divided into )0 framesD each of the timeslots is sub:divided to include , subscriber channels# giving a signaling rate per channel of ,'bps. Signaling =ultiframe

The first four bits in timeslot )0 of the first frame Bframe.D of the signaling multiframe are used to transmit the multiframe alignment signal B=FASD O . . . .. The last four bits contain the not Sonu (rover -. Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report multiframe alignment signal B*=FASD O M J M M. the signaling multiframe structure is a sho!n in the table belo!. . . . . O multiframe alignment signal M O reserved bit normally set to ). J O distant multiframe alarm bit.

Aulse >ialing
Since only timeslot )0 is used for CAS and )0 AC= frame s are lin'ed together to form a signaling multiframe.it follo!s that multiframe ha s length of )0S ),+ microseconds O , m s this means that the signaling information for all ;. subscribers are transmitted in a period of ,ms and that the signaling information for each subscriber is updated every ,ms.thsis is sufficient # since the shortest signaling pulses are the dialing pulses !hich have a pulse length to pause ratio of /. to 0. ms !hich is long in comparison to the ,,ms sampling interval.

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Cyclic Redundancy Chec' <ith the introduction of IS>* Bintegrated services digital net!or'D# subscribers are provide !ith transparent 0/ 'bps channels for speech or data transmission .transparent in third sense means that the binary signal transmitted by the subscriber is transmitted over the entire signal path !ithout being altered in any !ay by analogue Rdigital conversion or other means# !ith the bit seGuence integrity preserved. There is danger !ith this type of data communication that the subscriber may intentionally or unintentionally transmit the bit pattern ) .. ) . )) !hich correspond s to the FAS. This may lead to the AC= multiple%er re:synchroni ing to these apparent FAS# !ith the result that all of the AC= channels !ill be incorrectly assigned.

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Final Report To avoid this disastrous malfunction of the system #IT6:T recommendation (.-./ specifies the use of the CRC:/ cyclic redundancy chec' for ,./1'bps these are also 'no!n as AC= ;)c systems.

CRC:/ =ethod The transmitting side of the AC= multiple%er forms a CRC chec' bloc' Bbloc':nD form eight consecutive AC= frames .this bloc' containedZs ,./1 bits B1S,+0 bitsD .the chec' bloc' is multiplied by % raise to po!er four and then divided by the generator polynomial % rise to po!er four N % N).

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The remainder form the division process is also called the system signature and comprises of / bits .these are !ritten into bit ) in the frame alignment signals of the ne%t data bloc' BnN)D ads the bits designated c)#c,#c;# and c/.

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After this data bloc' n is transmitted to the receiving side and again sub&ected to the same multiplication and division process from !hich get a /:bit remainder. <hen data bloc' nN) is transmitted the remainder from dividing data bloc' n on the transmitting side is also transmitted to the receiving side. <here it is compared !ith the reminder from dividing data bloc' n on the receiving side. If the t!o remainders are identical# no bit errors have occurred during transmission. If there is a difference bet!een the t!o remainders# it can only mean that the received bloc' has been degraded by one or more bit errors during transmission.

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Transmission of the remainder reGuires a capacity that is obtained by ma'ing use of the other!ise redundant bit ) in the FAS of each even numbered frame# to locate the four chec' bits c)# c,# c;# c/ ma'ing the reminder a CRC multiframe is formed. The crc:/ multiframe consists of )0 AC= frames &ust li'e the signaling multiframe and therefore also has a duration of ,ms.this multiframe is divides into t!o 1 framed sub multiframes I and II. A CRC multiframe alignment signal BCRC =FASD is used to synchroni e the receiving side to this multiframe.

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Final Report The CRC =FAS is a 0:bit signal of .. ) . )) and is inserted bit by bit into the first bit of the *FAS in frames )# ;# +# -# 9 and )). The first bits of frames ); and )+ are called the 3 bits and are used to indicate the data bloc's !ith bit errors bac' to the transmitting side. if the e bit frame );O.it indicates that there is a CRC error in the data contained in sub:multiframe I and if the e bit frame )+ is . it indicates the same situation for sub:multiframe II.these 3 bit errors are also called remote distant CRC errors. As each CRC multiframe comprised Zs 1 standard AC= frames it is therefore 1S),+microseconds O)ms long so the system carries out )... CRC comparisons per second. <hen compared !ith the monitoring of the FAS as carried out in systems !ithout CRC the CRC system has the advantage of greater degree of certainty in the detection of possible errors because all of the transmitted data is monitored. The system !ithout CRC monitors only a small part of the signal# namely -- bits for every +.+ bits. The CRC method does not ho!ever detect all possible errors. a multiple error in a CRC bloc' may lead to the formation of the correct signature #even though the bloc' contains errors. Since the CRC remainder is a /:bit !ord# it follo!s that )R)0 the or 0.,+E of the bloc's may contain errors# desoit a correct signature. In other !ords the certainty !ith !hich an error can be detected is 9;.-+E of the total number of errors. The standard procedure used in that communications of repeating any that bloc's containing errors is not possible in AC= transmissions since the data is not buffered at any point. The CRC method cannot accurately determine single errors as it is not possible to say ho! many errors !ere the causes of an incorrect reminder in the chec' sum. The result is therefore a greater then result !hich is sufficient# since the continuous monitoring ma'es it possible to 'eep a constant !atch on the transmission Guality. Frame Synchroni ation B!ith CRC:/D A transmission system utili ing CRC:/ carries out CRC comparisons every second. If the number of negative BincorrectD comparisons e%ceeds a threshold of 9)/ in )...B9)./ED the system goes out of synchroni ation. Resynchroni ation ta'es place in the follo!ing manner. ). *ormal synchroni ation of the AC= system. aD Frame alignment signal correctly received. bD Second bit in the *FAS must be ). cD *e%t FAS also received correctly. Sonu (rover -Roll *o. +,-./+0.1

Final Report ,D Synchroni ation of the CRC multiframe Bit position ) of the *FAS contained in the frames of the CRC multiframe is chec'ed for the CRC multiframe alignment signal of . . ) . )) CRC multiframe synchroni ation is achieved !hen at least , CRC =FAS have been correctly received !ithin a period of 1ms B/crc multiframeD bet!een these t!o correct CRC =FAS here must be ,ms or multiples thereof. ?nly !hen the conditions ) and , above are fulfilled is the system synchroni ed and CRC calculations commence.

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Conclusions:
Aractical 'no!ledge and hands:on e%perience increased our prior 'no!ledge of communication. 4earned advance concepts in net!or'ing. In depth 'no!ledge of IS>* BRI and ARI. 3%perience of !or'ing on *=S B*et!or' =anagement SystemD. Configuring static ip for the customers gave hands:on e%perience on 3thernet s!itches. 3%perience of !or'ing on Transmission. 4earned about designing and implementing security to net!or'. FreGuent field visits for 4ease 4ine and IS>* troubleshooting issues infused a lot of confidence for the 8ob. To conclude# overall it !as a good e%perience# !or'ing in industry !ith real life Aarameters have infused a confidence boost for !or'ing in a tele:communication industry and I li'e to give my sincere gratitude to!ards Mr) 8alIinder sing and Mr) Mandeep 3ing !ho have been guiding me at all the possible points in pro&ect semester training.

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8ibliograp '
5) 8OO.3% ACTI53 4IBRARJ 3MA4?R3R BA43MD 3RICSS?* =A*6A4S =obile Cellular Telecommunications BAnalog $ >igital SystemsD by <I44IA= C.J. 433. ,. LO//E, *O% !!!.airtelindia.com !!!.airtel!orld.com

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