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3G Mobile Services

IMT 2000, WCDMA & CDMA 2000, and Quality & Services in 3G

3G Services

!I"# IMT 2000

3G Services

W$at is 3G%
T$e current cellular syste& is re'erred to as 2G cellular# It di''ers 'ro& t$e t$e 'irst (eneration cellular in t$at t$e syste& is 'ully di(ital and )rovides roa&in( on a national or re(ional basis T$e ne*t (eneration cellular, 3G, is envisioned to enable co&&unication at any ti&e, in any )lace, +it$ any 'or&, as suc$, it +ill,
allo+ (lobal roa&in( )rovide 'or +ider band+idt$s to acco&&odate di''erent ty)es o' a))lications su))ort )ac-et s+itc$in( conce)ts

T$e IT. na&ed t$is vision, IMT/2000 !International Mobile Teleco&&unications 2000" +it$ t$e $o)e o' $avin( it o)erational by t$e year 2000 in t$e 2000M01 ran(e#

3G Services

IMT 2000 2ision


Co&&on s)ectru& +orld+ide !2#3 4 2#2 G01 band" Multi)le environ&ents, not only con'ined to cellular, enco&)asses, cellular, cordless, satellite, 5A6s, +ireless local loo) !W55" Wide ran(e o' teleco&&unications services !data, voice, &ulti&edia, etc#" 7le*ible radio bearers 'or increased s)ectru& e''iciency Data rates o', 8#9:b)s or $i($er 'or (lobal !&e(a cell", ;;:b)s or $i($er 'or ve$icular !&acro cell", 33;:b)s or $i($er 'or )edestrian !&icro cell" and u) to 2Mb)s 'or indoor environ&ents !)ico cell" Global sea&less roa&in( <n$anced security and )er'or&ance 7ull inte(ration o' +ireless and +ireline

3G Services

Ma=or 3G Tec$nolo(ies >ro)osed 'or IMT 2000


W/CDMA bac-+ard co&)atible +it$ GSM !called .MTS by t$e <TSI" T$e IS/8? standard !CDMA@ne" is evolvin( its o+n vision o' 3G, CDMA2000 T$e IS/ 39 standard is evolvin( its o+n &i(ration to 3G, .niversal Wireless Co&&unications, .WC/ 39 or IS/ 39 0S

3G Services

W$o +ill be 'irst to o''er IMT 2000%


T$e Aa)anese are leadin( t$e )ac- +it$ t$eir W/CDMA i&)le&entation# It is bein( rolled out in t$e year 200 # T$e :oreans )lan to $ave CDMA2000 u) an runnin( be'ore t$e +orld cu) in 2002# T$e <uro)eans are )us$in( $ard to .MTS u) soon but t$e current )us$ is 'ro 2#?G, a &iddle o' t$e road to )rotect current in'rastructure invest&ents# In t$e .S no &a=or )us$ yet, so&e service )roviders are 'ollo+in( in t$e 'ootste)s o' t$e <uro)eans by )us$in( a 2#?G solution#

3G Services

IMT 2000 ServicesBCa)abilities B2


All +$at 2G su))ort includin(,
Ce(istration, aut$entication and encry)tion SMS <&er(ency callin(

Dit rates,
;;:b)s or $i($er 'or ve$icular !&acro cell", 33;:b)s or $i($er 'or )edestrian !&icro cell" and u) to 2Mb)s 'or indoor environ&ents !)ico cell"

Dillin(Bc$ar(in(Buser )ro'iles
S$arin( o' usa(eBrate in'or&ation bet+een service )roviders Standardi1ed call detail recordin( Standardi1ed user )ro'iles
3G Services E

IMT 2000 ServicesBCa)abilities 2B2


Su))ort o' (eo(ra)$ic )osition 'indin( services
7or t$e &obile 7or t$e net+or-

Su))ort o' &ulti&edia services


QoS Asy&&etric lin-s 7i*ed and variable rate Dit rates o' u) to 2M)bs

Su))ort o' )ac-et services Internet Access !+ireless cellular I>"


3G Services 3

IMT 2000 7a&ily Conce)t


T$e IMT 2000 'a&ily conce)t de'ines so&e basic intero)erability ca)abilities bet+een di''erent IMT 2000 tec$nolo(ies to enable (lobal roa&in(F Di''erent Cadio Access 6et+or-s !CA6s",
CDMA2000 W/CDMA .WC/ 39

Di''erent Core 6et+or- standards


IS ; GSM ISD6

3G Services

C$allen(e 'or t$e 7a&ily Conce)t


Wit$ IMT 2000 Standard Inter'aces and Ca)abilities,
Any 7a&ily CA6 could inter'ace +it$ any 7a&ily Core 6et+or'or so&e &ini&u& set o' 'eatures#

More advanced 'eatures are )ossible in li&ited re(ions +$ere t$e 7a&ily CA6 and t$e 7a&ily Core 6et+or- are o)ti&ally &atc$ed T$e Core 6et+or- 'unctionality s$ould be -e)t inde)endent o' t$e Cadio tec$nolo(y# Dy &aintainin( inde)endence, eac$ can evolve se)arately based on needs .ser Identity Modules !.IM" >lu(/In &odules could be used in locally rented $andsets 'or Global Coa&in( +it$ at least t$e &ini&u& 'eature set# !si&ilar to GSM SIMs"
3G Services 0

.IM Coa&in(
.IM cards s$ould allo+ a subscriber to obtain,
Any IMT 2000 serviceBca)ability basic 'eature set on Any IMT 2000 6et+or- 'a&ily &e&ber !W/CDMA, CDMA2000 and .WC/ 39"

.IM Card, +ill be a su)erset o' t$e current GSM SIM


Contains all necessary in'or&ation about t$e userGs service subscri)tions Su))orts user identity se)arate 'ro& $andset identity,
Allo+s a user to use di''erent $andsets, +it$ all usa(e billed to t$e sin(le user Allo+s a user to rent a $andset in a 'orei(n countryBnet+or- and obtain instant service
3G Services

To reac$ t$e IMT 2000 vision


>$ysical inter'aces are bein( standardi1ed,
.IM to $andset inter'ace CadioBAir inter'aces CA6 to Core 6et+or6et+or- to 6et+or- Inter'aces !66I" bet+een Core 6et+or-s

Cadio inde)endent 'unctions are bein( standardi1ed,


.IM to $andset 0andset to Core 6et+or 66I
3G Services 2

:ey Tec$nolo(y Conce)ts 'or 3G


0i($er bit rates reHuired /I &ore band+idt$ >ac-et and circuit s+itc$ed services Co$erent de&odulation TDD Arc$itectin( 'or &ini&u& reHuired <bBIo Control <b 5i&itBCancel Io S&art antennas
3G Services 3

0i($er bit rates /I lar(er band+idt$s


6o 'ree lunc$FFF 7or a CDMA syste&J
7or 2/;Mb)s you need around 20M01 c$annel 7or /2Mb)s you need around 0M01 c$annel 7or 2?9:b)s/ Mb)s you need around ?M01 c$annel

3G Services

>ac-et and Circuit S+itc$ed Services


CS c$annels, 32 4 33; :b)s >S c$annels, 9;:b)s to 2Mb)s Circuit &ode versus )ac-et &ode 'or data services,
Circuit &ode
)rovides a dedicated c$annel 'or t$e duration o' t$e call Can &u* control +it$ data in sa&e c$annel, can be a )roble& 'or data i' bit stealin( is used

>ac-et &ode
CeHuires a sc$edulin( sc$e&e to control access to t$e s$ared c$annel Generally su))orts a se)arate control c$annel

CDMA >ac-et Mode, t+o &ain a))roac$es


.sers s$are a dedicated c$annel !code",
SeHuential access or sc$eduled on a need basis

.sers s$are t$e allo+able total inter'erence 'or t$e carrier,


<ac$ user (ets a uniHue code .sers &ust be sc$eduled and trans&issions controlled to li&it t$e load in t$e syste&

Co&bination o' t$e above t+o

3G Services

Co$erent vs 6on co$erent de&odulation


6on co$erent de&odulation 4 +$ere t$e receiver $as no re'erence )$ase +it$ +$ic$ to co&)are t$e received si(nal Co$erent de&odulation 4 +$ere t$e receiver does $ave a re'erence )a$se, su))lied by t$e trans&itted
A continuous >ilot ! or Ce'erence" c$annel trans&itted alon( +it$ t$e si(nal !e#(# )ilot c$annel in IS/8? 'or do+nlin-" A -no+n seHuence o' >ilot !or Ce'erence" sy&bols !or bits" e&bedded, )eriodically, in t$e si(nal bit strea& !e#(# )ro)osed 'or W/CDMA in bot$ u)lin- and do+nlinc$annels, also CDMA2000 incor)orates a )ilot c$annel in reverse direction"
3G Services 9

TDD
All t$e standards naturally su))ort 7DD
Sy&&etric c$annels 'or u) and do+n lin-s

TDD can be added to allo+ trans&ission and rece)tion in sin(le 'reHuency band#
Aa)anese W/CMDA su))orts an asy&&etric TDD c$annel in addition to t$e 7DD su))ort

TDD allo+s 'or 'le*ible s)ectru& usa(e, does not reHuire )aired 'reHuency bands Si&)ler, lo+er cost $andsets 4 no need 'or du)le* 'ilters More co&)le* sync$roni1ation, t$e c$annel 'li)s bacand 'ort$ bet+een u)lin- and do+nlin-#
3G Services E

Arc$itectin( 'or Mini&u& CeHuired <bBIo


<bBIo vs <bB6o vs CBSIC or S6C,
T$e 'or&er t+o re'er to t$e ener(y )er bit and are t$ere'ore &ore a))licable to di(ital syste&s# T$e latter t+o are (enerally used to re'er to analo( syste&s# .sin( I vs 6 basically $as to do +it$ +$at t$e noise source is, in cellular syste&s it is )ri&arily due to inter'erence so KKIL is t$e )re'erred ter&# > is t$e )o+er )er bit in units o' ener(yBsec C is t$e si(nal bit rate in bitsBsec

<b M>BC

<b is t$e received ener(y )er bit o' t$e si(nal, Io is t$e inter'erence )o+er density <b is directionally )ro)ortional to t$e received )o+er o' t$e si(nal 7or CDMA, <bBIo M !>&BItot" * !WBC" M SIC * >rocessin( Gain <bBIo is t$e -ey )ara&eter in deter&inin( t$e )robability o' receivin( a bit correctly !I#e#, t$e D<C"
3G Services 3

Tec$niHues to -ee) <bBIo lo+ +it$ $i($er bit rates


Ma*i&i1e 7reHuency diversity 4 +ider bands /I $i($er )rocessin( (ains Ma*i&i1e Ti&e diversity 4
Ca-e receivers /I &ulti)le si(nals +it$ di''erent delays at receiver, interleavin( +it$ 7<C

Ma*i&i1e S)ace diversity 4


diverse receive antennas at base station, ra-e receivers /I di''erent si(nal )at$s

.se 7<C !'or+ard error correction" All o' t$e above tec$niHues co&e at a cost,
0i($er band+idt$ More co&)le* receivers !ra-e, &ulti)le antennas" More over$ead bits !7<C" )er si(nal

3G Services

Controllin( <b
More )o+er is reHuired 'or t$e trans&ission o' bits at $i($er bit rates over t$e sa&e distance
5i&it t$e distance over +$ic$ $i($ bit rates &aybe sent

.sin( better antennas t$at +ill 'ocus t$e bea& so t$at,


T$e trans&itter ai&s at t$e tar(et +it$out +astin( ener(y in all directions T$e receiver ca)tures &ore o' t$e si(nal as it is 'ocused on a narro+ bea&

7ast )o+er control to counteract c$an(es in inter'erence due to


C$an(in( loads C$an(in( environ&ents
3G Services 20

5i&it Io
.se better antennas +it$ 'ocused bea&s in con=unction +it$ sectors .se inter'erence cancellation /I receive all si(nals and subtract all but t$e desired one 'ro& t$e total .se &ore accurate and 'asted )o+er control tec$niHues To not trans&it si(nals +$en t$ere is a silence in t$e si(nal
3G Services 2

S&art Antennas
S+itc$ed bea&s,
Several antenna bea&s used to receive t$e si(nal .se t$e antenna t$at receives t$e stron(est si(nal 6ot +ell suited to CDMA,
S+itc$in( +ill cause c$i) errors S+itc$in( could disturb sync$roni1ation and de&odulation Wor-s a(ainst t$e conce)t o' t$e Ca-e receiver

Ada)tive Arrays,
6arro+ bea& antenna +$ic$ is steered to 'ollo+ t$e &obile!s" Detter suited to CDMA but still $ave t$e Ca-e receiver )roble&

3G Services

22

!II"# WCDMA and CDMA 2000

3G Services

23

Ce)resentative Wireless Standards


GSMBTDMA
Ti&e Division Multi)le*in( based access

CDMA
Code Division Multi)le*in( based access

@7DM
@rt$o(onal 7reHuency Division Multi)le*in(

3G Services

2;

TDMAB7DMA
Frequency 1 Frequency 2 . . . Frequency n Frequency 1 Frequency 2 . . . Frequency n slot 1 Circuit Circuit slot 2 Circuit Circuit ... Slot n Circuit Circuit Downlink Path Circuit Circuit Circuit Circuit Circuit Circuit Circuit Circuit Circuit Uplink Path Circuit Circuit Circuit

Frequency Domain

3G Services

2?

CDMA
t F req: C hips

user 1 user 2 usern S eparated by P N codes t

III

M essage

R esulting S ignal

C$anneli1ation code, Se)arate *&issions 'ro& a sin(le source 'ro& eac$ ot$er Scra&blin( code, se)arate di''erent sources 'ro& eac$ ot$er S)readin( Code M C$anneli1ation code * Scra&blin( code

3G Services

29

Multi)at$ Arrival o' Si(nals


Y Y

Transmitted symbol received signal at each time delay Modified with the channel estimate combined symbol

finger #1 finger #2 finger #3

3G Services

2E

CDMA Ca-e Ceceiver


Input signal (from RF) correlator I phase rotator Q SUM Q code generator channel estimator Finger 1 Finger 2 Finger 3 Timing (Finger allocation) Combiner Q delay equalizer SUM I I

Matched filter

3G Services

23

@rt$o(onal 7reHuency Division Multi)le*in( !@7DM"


Successor to 7reHuency 0o))in( and Direct SeHuence CDMA Ca)ability to cancel &ulti)at$ distortion in a s)ectrally e''icient &anner +it$out reHuirin( &ulti)le local oscillators !302# a and 302# 9" Dased on use o' I77T and 77T 7reHuency ort$o(onality as co&)ared to code ort$o(onality in CDMA usin( Wals$ Code

3G Services

28

3G Services
2MHz video conferencing telemedicine Video on demand electronic newspaper Mobile TV

Internet Bandwidth audio conferencing

radio paging

messaging

Mobile radio

Fax voice 1KHz bi-directional unidirectional Broadcast/ multicast

3G Services

30

:ey Mobility Services


Multi&edia Messa(in( Services !MMS"
Te*t, sounds, i&a(es, and video Transition 'ro& S$ort Messa(e Service !SMS" @)en Internet standards 'or &essa(in(

Web A))lications
In'or&ation )ortals Wireless Mar-u) 5an(ua(e !WM5" +it$ si(nals usin( Wireless A))lication >rotocol !WA>"

5ocation Co&&unications Services


5ocation A+areness Dased

>ersonali1ation o' in'or&ation )resentation 'or&at


Service ca)ability ne(otiations !M<*< environ&ent"
3G Services 3

Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic (CAMEL)


CAM<5 M I6 O Service )ortability !incl &obility and roa&in(" 2irtual >rivate 6et+or- !2>6"
Mobile user P/I IS> P/I cor)orate server Mobility, Security, Ca)acity and Huality

>re)aid, .sa(e 5i&itations, Advanced Coutin( Services 2irtual 0o&e <nviron&ent !20<"
Subscriber )ro'ile, c$ar(in( in'or&ation, Service in'or&ation, nu&berin( in'or&ation Inte(ration o' array o' services, content conversion to $etero(eneous services, net+or- user )ro'ile, location a+are services
3G Services 32

GSM 6et+orSCP
>ST6BISD6

SSP STP IN

gsm SCF
HLR AuC

ISUP

Gw-MSC

C, D

Billing Center SMS-GW

VLR

MSC
GSM 04.08 A

DSS

.<

Circuit domain

3G Services

33

GSM & G>CS


SCP
>ST6BISD6

SSP STP IN

gsm SCF
HLR AuC

IP Services
Gi Gc

>D6

ISUP

Gw-MSC

GGSN Billing Center SMS-GW CGw


Ga Gr Ga Gn Data, voice, video call

C, D VLR GSM 04.08+

MSC
A Gb

SGSN
GSM 04.08+

DSS

.<

Circuit domain

3G Services

Packet domain

3;

WCDMAB.MTS
gsm SSP SCF STP IN, CAMEL
C C+, D+ HLR+ AuC

SCP

>ST6BISD6 ISUP

IP Services
Gi+ Gc+

>D6

Gw-MSC

GGSN Billing Center SMS-GW CGw


Gr+ Ga+ Ga+ Gn+ Data, voice, video call

VLR

3G-MSC
GSM 04.08++ Iu-cs Iu-ps

3G-SGSN
GSM 04.08++

.TCA6

.<

Circuit domain

3G Services

Packet domain

3?

GSM/UMTS Bit rate, Mobility and Services

High (Car / Train)

GSM 0SCSD G>CS


Text Messaging Voice

Mobility

<DG<
CS Da a !a"

.MTS

Low (s a i#nar$) 9.6 14.4 76.0 GPRS HSCSD


3G Services

Dit Cate, :b)s


384.0 EDGE UMTS 2 Mb/s

39

3G <volution
2#?G
GSM HSCSD 15.2 kbps TDMA CDPD 43.2 kbps PDA/PDC-P 14.4 kbps GPRS 170 kbps EDGE 473 kbps EDGE Ph2 GRAN 473 kbps TD-SCDMA Ph 2 2 Mbps WCDMA TDD 2 Mbps WCDMA HSDPA 10 Mbps

3#?G

TD-SCDMA 284 kbps WCDMA FDD 2 Mbps CDMA2000 1x 307 kps HyperLAN2 54 Mbps IEEE 802.11 a/h 54 Mbps
3G Services

1XEV-DO (HDR) 2.4 Mbps 1XEV-DV (HDR) 5.4 Mbps Harmonized HyperLAN2 And IEEE 802.11a

cdmaOne 76.8 kbps WLAN IEEE 802.11b 11 Mbps

WiMANB0y)erMA6 also in t$e &i*


3E

So&e Ce)resentative Current Wireless @)tions


3G Cellular !WCDMA" 7reHuency Division Du)le* !7DD", .)lin- and Do+nlin- are se)arated in 'reHuency 4 !Qsy&&etricL" Ti&e Division Du)le* !TDD", .)lin- and Do+nlin- are se)arated in ti&e 4 allo+s Qasy&&etricL tra''ic !ad=ust ti&e slots in u)lin- and do+nlin-" 3G Cellular !CDMA2000" Wi 7i 302# a and 302# bJ 0y)er5A62 2#; G01 band WiMAN 302# 9d !'i*ed"J 302# 9e !Q)ortableL" ?#3 G01 bandJ 0 4 20 Mb)s sy&&etrical DW Dlue Toot$ C7 based 5A6 tec$nolo(yJ 20/30 'eet covera(e 2#; G01 band

3G Services

33

3G WCDMA
Celease 88 Celease ; Celease ? Do&ains, >rotocols, and C$annels Cadio Cesource Mana(e&ent 6et+or- Di&ensionin( and @)ti&i1ation Quality o' Service !QoS0 and 5ocation Services
3G Services 38

Celease 88
Cadio Dearer 6e(otiations Tra''ic Classes Co&)le* Scra&blin( S)eec$ Codec 4 !ei($t" Ada)tive Multi Cate !AMC" Dattery 5i'e Trans&ission Qs)atialBantennaL diversity Co&)ressed Mode Measure&ents in &ulti)le 'reHuency .se o' trans&ission ti&e reduction tec$niHues R >D> Conte*ts )er I> Address Q>S:J co$erent detectionJ Ca-e receiver S$ort and 5on( S)readin( Codes Multicall 4 several si&ultaneous CS calls +it$ dedicated bearers o' inde)endent tra''ic and )er'or&ance c$aracteristics Custo&i1ed A))lication 'or Mobile net+or- <n$anced 5o(ic !CAM<5" >$ase 3

3G Services

;0

Celease ;
Dearer Inde)endent Core 6et+orTande& 7ree @)eration !T7@", Transcoder 7ree @)eration !Tr7@", and @ut o' Dand Transcoder Control !@oDTC" 5o+ C$i) Cate TDD @)eration 6et+or- Assisted Cell C$an(e 7DD Ce)eater 6odeD Sync$roni1ation 'or TDD I>v9 )ac-et s+itc$ed net+or- su))ortin( bot$ real ti&e and non/ real ti&e tra''ic
Session Initiated >rotocol !SI>" re)lacin( SSE

0o&e Subscriber Server !0SS" MSCB25C /I MSC server !&obility &ana(e&ent" and MGW !Connection &ana(e&ent subtas-s" Multi&edia Messa(e Service !MMS" environ&ent
3G Services ;

Celease ?
I> Trans)ort in .TCA6 0i($ S)eed Do+nlin- >ac-et Access !0SD>A" !u)to 0 Mb)s" Intra Do&ain Connection to Multi)le C6 6odes !Iu'le*" I> Multi&edia C6 Subsyste& !IMS" QGuaranteedL <nd to <nd !<2<" QoS in t$e >S do&ain Global Te*t Tele)$ony Su))ort 'or Ceal Ti&e Services in )ac-et do&ain CAM<5 >$ase ;

3G Services

;2

0SD>A
>ea- Data rate I 0 Mb)s Sa&e s)ectru& by bot$ voice and data
.) to 2 s)readin( codes 'or 0i($ S)eed DSC0 !0S/DSC0" 7ast lin- Ada)tation Dot$ code and ti&e division 'or c$annel s$arin(

Trans&ission Ti&e interval 2 &s 0ybrid Auto&atic Ce)eat reQuest !0ACQ"


Auto&atic o)ti&i1ations to C$annel Quality Indicator !CQI"

Q>S: and 9 QAM &odulation at 3#3; M$1 sy&bolJ s)readin( 'actor 'i*ed to 9 Incre&ental Cedundancy or c$ase co&binin( !C0" 6e+ D>CC02 in u)lin- )ri&arily 'or 0ACQ c$annel state in'o

3G Services

;3

WCDMA Do&ains
Hom e Network Dom ain [Zu] Cu Uu Iu [Yu]

Serv ing Network Dom ain USIM Dom ain Mobile Equipm ent Dom ain User Equipm ent Dom ain Access Network Dom ain Core Network Dom ain Infrastructure Dom ain

Transit Network Dom ain

Standardi1ation o' arc$itecture !do&ains" and standardi1ation o' )rotocols !strata(ies"


3G Services ;;

WCDMA >rotocol 5ayers


Radio Network Layer Control Plane Application Protocol User Plane Data Stream(s)

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Control Plane

Transport Network User Plane

ALCAP(s) Signalling Bearer(s) Signalling Bearer(s) Data Bearer(s)

Physical Layer

3G Services

;?

WCDMA 5 , 52, and CCC Sub5ayer


C -p la n e s ig n a llin g GC Nt DC U -p la n e in fo rm a tio n D u p lic a tio n a v o id a n c e GC Nt DC

L3
c o n tro l RRC PDC P

U uS bo undary

L 3 /R R C
PDC P

con tro l

con tro l

con con tro l tro l

L 2 /P D C P
BM C

L 2 /B M C

R LC R LC R LC R LC R LC R LC R LC

R LC

L 2 /R L C

L o g ic a l C h a n n e ls M AC

L 2 /M A C
T ra n s p o rt C h a n n e ls

PHY

L1

3G Services

;9

WCDMA C$annels
Logical Channels Control BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH SHCCH Traffic DTCH CTCH Mac -b -c/sh -d

Common Transport Channels BCH PCH

FACH

RACH

UL CPCH DSCH

Dedicated DCH

Physical Channels

Mapped to Transport Channels PCCPH SCCPCH

PRACH

PCPCH

PDSCH

DPDCH

DPCCH

Dedicated SCH CPICH AICH PICH CSICH


CD/CA-ICH

Trans)ort C$annels, $o+ in'or&ation trans'erred over t$e radio inter'ace 5o(ical C$annels, Ty)e o' in'or&ation trans'erred over t$e radio inter'ace

3G Services

;E

Ma))in( Det+een C$annels


U p lin k CCCH DCCH DTCH PCCH BCCH D o w n lin k CCCH CTCH DCCH DTCH L o g ic a l C h a n n e ls

RACH

CPCH

DCH

T ra n s p o r t C h a n n e ls

PCH

BCH

FACH

DSCH

DCH

PRACH

PCPCH

DPDCH DPCCH

M apped P h y s ic a l C h a n n e ls

PCCPCH

SCCPCH

PDSCH DPDCH DPCCH

D e d ic a te d P h y s ic a l C h a n n e ls

SCH C P IC H A IC H P IC H C S IC H C D /C A - IC H

3G Services

;3

WCDMA C$annel .sa(e <*a&)les


Uplink/ Downlink Code Usage Dedicated channels DCH Both According to maxm bit rate Yes Yes Medium or large data amounts Shared channels CPCH DSCH USCH Uplink Downlink Uplink, only in TDD Fixed Fixed Fixed Codes Codes codes per codes per codes per shared shared cell cell cell btw users btw users No No Yes Yes No No No No No No Small Small Small or Medium Medium data data medium or large or large amounts amounts data data data amounts amounts amounts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Common channels FCH RACH Downlink Uplink

Fast Power control Soft handover Suited for

Suited for bursty data

No

3G Services

;8

Cadio Cesource Mana(e&ent


>o+er Control 0andover Access Control 5oad and Con(estion Control >ac-et Sc$edulin(

3G Services

?0

WCDMA >o+er Control !near M 'ar"


Keep received power levels P1 and P2 equal

Y Y

Power control commands to the UEs

UE1

NodeB UE2
.)lin- and do+nlin- ! ?00 01" @)en 5oo) >o+er Control Closed 5oo) >o+er Control @uter 5oo) >o+er Control

3G Services

WCDMA 0andovers
So'ter
s e c to r 1
T h e s a m e s ig n a l is s e n t f ro m b o th s e c to rs to U E

Y R N C

s e c to r 2

So't

Y Y

RNC
macro diversity combining in uplink

NodeB1 Y Y

The same signal is sent from both NodeB's to UE, except for the power control commands

NodeB2

0ard and Inter/'reHuency $andovers Intersyste& cell/reselection Q<Huivalent >5M6 &odeL !autono&ous cell re/selection !)ac-et" idle &ode"
3G Services ?2

0andover Al(orit$&
T T T Pilot E c /I O of cell 1
R eporting_range + H ysteresis_event 1B R eporting_range - H ys teresis_event 1A H ysteresis_event 1C

Pilot E c /I O of cell 2

P ilot E c /I O of cell 3
C onnected to cell 1 Event 1A - add cell2 Event 1C = replac e cell1 with cell3 Event 1B = rem ove cell3

3G Services

?3

6et+or- Di&ensionin( and @)ti&i1ation


Di&ensionin( Criteria
Covera(e, Ca)acity, Quality o' Service

Di&ensionin(
5in- bud(et, ca)acity !$ard and so't" and load 'actor <sti&ation o' avera(e inter'erence )o+er Covera(e end @uta(e )robabilities

@)ti&i1ation
>er'or&ance CeHuire&ents Antenna ad=ust&ents, nei($bor lists, scra&blin( codes

3G Services

?;

WCDMA Quality o' Service !Qos"


Dyna&ic 6e(otiations o' )ro)erties B Services o' radio bearer
T$ru)ut, trans'er delay, data error rate Aut$entications
Traffic class Fundamental characteristics Conversational class Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream Conversational pattern (stringent and low delay) voice, videotelephony video games Streaming class Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream Interactive class Request response pattern Preserve data integrity Background Destination is not expecting the data within a certain time Preserve data integrity

Examples of the application

Streaming multimedia

Web browsing, network games

Background download of emails

3G Services

??

UTRAN

5ocation Services !5CS"


Node B LMU type B Iub SRNC
SMLC

Uu

HLR Iu Lh MSC Lg Le Gateway MLC Lc A/ (Gb)/ (Iu) External LCS client

UE Um
BTS LMU LMU <- alternative -> type B

Abis

BSC Ls
<- alternative -> Lb
(R98 and 99)

type A GERAN

SMLC Lp SMLC gsmSCF

Cell ID based @bserved Ti&e Di''erence Arrival 4 Idle >eriod Do+nlin- !@TD@A/I>D5" 6et+or- Assisted G>S

3G Services

?9

W$y Move To+ards ;G%


5i&itation to &eet e*)ectations o' a))lications li-e &ulti&edia, 'ull &otion video, +ireless telecon'erencin(
Wider Dand+idt$

Di''icult to &ove and intero)erate due to di''erent standards $a&)erin( (lobal &obility and service )ortability >ri&arily Cellular !WA6" +it$ distinct 5A6sGJ need a ne+ inte(rated net+or5i&itations in a))lyin( recent advances in s)ectrally &ore e''icient &odulation sc$e&es 6eed all all di(ital net+or- to 'ully utili1e I> and conver(ed video and data

3G Services

?E

W$ere Do We Want to Go%


Sea&less Coa&in( Inte(rated QstandardL 6et+or-s Mobile Intelli(ent Internet @n+ards to !.ltra" Wideband Wireless I> 6et+or-s

3G Services

?3

.)co&in(
3#? G
<volved radio Inter'ace I> based core net+or-

;G
6e+ Air Inter'ace 2ery $i($ bit rate services Conver(ence o' Wireline, Wireless, and I> +orlds

3G Services

?8

3G All/I> Ce'erence Arc$itecture


Applications & Services SCP Alternative Access Network CAP Gr SGSN Gn Iu TE R MT Uu UTRAN Iu Gp Gn SGSN GGSN Other PLMN 3G Services 90 MGW Mc MSC Server Nc Nb HSS HLR Cx Gc Gi R-SGW Mh Ms CSCF Mr MRF Gi GGSN Gi MGW Mc GMSC Server T-SGW MGCF Mc PSTN/ Legacy/External T-SGW Mg Gi CSCF Mw Mm Legacy mobile signaling Network Multimedia IP Networks

Signalling Interface Signalling and Data Transfer Interface

WCDMA 3G <volution to All/I> 6et+or>ST6BISD6 Wireless Data Server www, email IP IP Firewall InternetBIntranetBIS>

>ST6BISD6

HLR HSS AuC 3G/MSC PCM SS7 ATM !G"MSC Server MGW

GGS6

CSC7

MGC7

SGW

IP SGS6

MGW MC7

GTP+/IP

GGS6

C6C C6C Iub 6SD 6SD 3G Services Iur Iub

UTRAN
9

3#?G Cadio 6et+or- <volution


0i($ Data rate, lo+ latency, )ac-et o)ti&i1ed radio access Su))ort 'le*ible band+idt$ u)to 20 M01, ne+ trans&ission sc$e&es, advanced &ulti/antenna tec$nolo(ies, and si(nalin( o)ti&i1ation Instantaneous )ea- D5 00 MbBs and .> ?0 MbBS +it$in 20 M01 s)ectru& Control )lane latency o' P 00 &s !ca&)ed to active" and P ?0 &s !dor&ant to active" I 200 users )er cell +it$in ? M01 s)ectru& S)ectru& 'le*ibility 'ro& #2? M01 to 20 M01 <li&inate QdedicatedL c$annelsJ avoid &acro diversity in D5 Mi(rate to+ards @7DM in D5 and SC/7DMA in .5 Su))ort voice services in t$e )ac-et do&ain Ada)tive Modulation and Codin( usin( C$annel Quality Indicator !CQI" &easure&ents
3G Services 92

3#?G WCDMA <volved Syste& Arc$itecture GERAN


Gb Iu

GPRS Core
S7 S3 S4

PCRF
Rx+

UTRAN

HSS
S6 S1

Evolved RAN

MME UPE

S5

Inter AS Anchor

Gi

Evolved Packet Core


S2 S2

Op. IP Serv. (IMS, PSS, etc)

non 3GPP IP Access

WLAN 3GPP IP Access

* Color coding: red indicates new functional element / interface

3G Services

93

:ey 3G and ;G >ara&eters


Attribute Major Characteristic Network Architecture Frequency Band Component Design Bandwidth Data Rate Access Forward Error Correction Switching Mobile top Speed IP Operational 3G 4G Predominantly voice- data as Converged data and VoIP add-on Wide area Cell based Hybrid integration of Wireless Lan (WiFi), Blue Tooth, Wide Area 1.6 - 2.5 GHz 2 8 GHz Optimized antenna; multiband adapters 5 20 MHz 385 Kbps - 2 Mbps WCDMA/CDMA2000 Convolution code 1/2, 1/3; turbo Circuit/Packet 200 kmph Multiple versions ~2003
3G Services

Smart antennas; SW multiband; wideband radios 100+ MHz 20 100 Mbps MC-CDMA or OFDM Concatenated Coding Packet 200 kmph All IP (IPv6.0) ~2010
9;

:ey ;G Mobility Conce)ts


Mobile I>
2oI> Ability to &ove around +it$ t$e sa&e I> address I> tunnels Intelli(ent Internet

>resence A+areness Tec$nolo(y


:no+in( +$o is on line and +$ere

Cadio Couter
Drin(in( I> to t$e base station

S&art Antennas
.niHue s)atial &etric 'or eac$ trans&ission
3G Services 9?

3G WCDMA and CDMA2000 Standards


UMTS-WCDMA "No' Backward Compatibility Cell Sites not synchronized Each cell site with different scrambling code for spreading Complex soft Hand Over Scrambling code 38,400 chips; frame of 10 ms OVSF Codes CDMA2000 Backward compatibility with CDMAOne Cell sites synchronized thru' GPS timing Adjacent cell sites use diffferent time offset of same scrambling code for spreading Simple Soft Hand Over Preudo Random (PN) sequence of length 15 2 - 1 chips; period of 26.67 ms; different site offset of 64 chips Walsh Codes

3G Services

99

Cd&a2000 5ayered Structure


Packet Data Application
U pper Layers (O SI 3-7 )

P acket Data A pplication U DP

P acket Data A pplication H ig h Sp eed C ircuit Netw o rk L ayer Services

Signaling Serv ices

TC P

IP PP P

LA C

LAC Protoco l

Null LAC

Link Layer (O SI 2)

M AC C ontrol S tate M AC M ultiplex ing

Best Effort Deliv ery RLP

Q o S Con trol

Physical layer (O S I 1)

Physical Layer

3G Services
Unique to cdm a2000

9E

.MTS S)ectru& Allocation


IMT-2000 TDD GSM 1800 DL DECT IMT-2000 UL IMT-2000 TDD MSS UL IMT-2000 DL MSS DL

Europe
IMT-2000 DL

PHS

IMT-2000 UL

Japan
IS-95 DL IMT-2000 UL IMT-2000 DL

Korea

PCS/UL

PCS/DL

USA

1800

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

2100

2150

2200

3G Services

93

WCDMA Circuit S+itc$ed >rotocols


CM MM RRC RRC RLC RANAP MAC Phy-up ALCAP NBAP NBAP ALCAP MAC Q.2630.1 Phy-up Iu UP Q.2150.1 MTP3b SCCP MTP3B SCCP MTP3B Q.2150.1 MTP3b Iu UP Q.2630.1 RANAP CM MM

CODEC RLC

FP SSCF-UNI SSCF-UNI SSCOP PHY PHY AAL2 AAL5 ATM PHY AAL5 SSCOP

SSCF-UNI SSCF-UNI FP SSCOP AAL5 SSCOP AAL5 ATM PHY AAL2 AAL2

SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 ATM PHY SSCOP AAL5

SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 SSCOP AAL5 ATM PHY AAL2

UE

Node B

RNC

Core

3G Services

98

WCDMA PACKE C!" #!L PLA"E P#! !C!L$

Uu

Iub

Iu-ps

SM GMM CCC C5C MAC/cd >0T/u) 7> SSSAC AA52 A5CA> SAA5 AA5? ATM >0T 6DA> SAA5 AA5? 6DA> SAA5 AA5? A5CA> SAA5 AA5? ATM >0T

>0T CDMA

>0T CDMA

CCC C5C MAC/cd >0T/u) 7> SSSAC AA52

.<BMT<

6@D< D

C6C

SGS6

3G Services

E0

WCDMA PACKE %$E# PLA"E P#! !C!L$

Uu
I> >DC> C5C MAC >0T/u) 7> >0T CDMA >0T CDMA AA52 A5CA> SAA5 ATM >0T

Iub

Iu-ps

>DC> C5C MAC >0T/u) A5CA> SAA5 7> AA52 ATM >0T

.<BMT<

6@D< D

C6C

SGS6

3G Services

0SD>A >rotocol Arc$itecture


RLC MAC MAC-c/sh MAChs HSDSCH FP L2 HSDSCH FP L2 HSDSCH FP RLC MAC-D HSDSCH FP

L2

L2

PHY

PHY

L1

L1

L1

L1

Uu

Iub

Iur

3G Services

E2