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Bahan kajian MK. Manajemen Agroekosistem FPUB Maret 2010 Diabstraksikan oleh Prof Dr Ir Soemarno MS Dosen !r "anah FPUB

Konsep Ekosistem
S!at! #K$SIS"#M mer!%akab lingk!ngan biologis &ang ter'iri atas sem!a organisme hi'!% 'alam s!at! area tertent!( serta kom%onen abiotik 'an kom%onen fisik 'ari lingk!ngan &ang berinteraksi 'engan organisme( se%erti !'ara( tanah( air 'an ra'iasi matahari. #kosistem ini meli%!ti sem!a organisme 'alam s!at! area tertent!( berinteraksi 'engan faktor)faktor abiotik * mer!%akan s!at! kom!nitas biologis 'engan lingk!ngan fisikn&a. Ecosystem: Complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and all their interrelationships in a particular unit of space. An ecosystem's abiotic (nonbiological) constituents include minerals, climate, soil, ater, sunlight, and all other nonliving elements! its biotic constituents consist of all its living members. " o ma#or forces lin$ these constituents: the flo of energy and the cycling of nutrients. "he fundamental source of energy in almost all ecosystems is radiant energy from the sun! energy and organic matter are passed along an ecosystem's food chain. "he study of ecosystems became increasingly sophisticated in the later %&th century! it is no instrumental in assessing and controlling the environmental effects of agricultural development and industriali'ation. (http:(( .ans*+ix''*f%hC,o$b) Definisi Ekosistem Sistem ekologi 'a%at 'i'efinisikan sebagai s!at! kom!nitas t!mb!han 'an binatang &ang saling berinteraksi beserta lingk!ngan abiotik ata! alamiahn&a. #kosistem)ekosistem 'a%at 'ikelom%okkan ber'asarkan +egetasi 'ominann&a( to%ogra%h&( iklim ata! bebera%a ,riteria lainn&a. -oreal forests, for example, are characteri'ed by the predominance of coniferous trees! prairies are characteri'ed by the predominance of grasses! the Arctic tundra is determined partly by the harsh climatic 'one. .n most areas of the orld, the human community is an important and often dominant component of the ecosystem. Ecosystems include not only natural areas (e.g., forests, la$es, marine coastal systems) but also human)constructed systems (e.g., urban ecosystems, agroecosystems, impoundments). /uman populations are increasingly concentrated in urban ecosystems, and it is estimated that, by the year %&*&, 0& percent of the orld's population ill be living in urban areas. S!at! bentang)lahan ter'iri atas mo-aik ekosistem)ekosistem( termas!k kota) kota( s!ngai( 'ana!( s&stem %ertanian( 'sb. Batas)batas &ang te%at 'i antara ekosistem)ekosistem terseb!t seringkali s!lit 'iteta%kan.

A f!n,tional s&stem that in,l!'es an e,ologi,al ,omm!nit& of organisms together .ith the %h&si,al en+ironment( intera,ting as a !nit. #,os&stems are ,hara,teri-e' b& flo. of energ& thro!gh foo' .ebs( %ro'!,tion an' 'egra'ation of organi, matter( an' transformation an' ,&,ling of n!trient elements. "his %ro'!,tion of organi, mole,!les ser+es as the energ& base for all biologi,al a,ti+it& .ithin e,os&stems. "he ,ons!m%tion of %lants b& herbi+ores /organisms that ,ons!me li+ing %lants or algae0 an' 'etriti+ores /organisms that ,ons!me 'ea' organi, matter0 ser+es to transfer energ& store' in %hotos&ntheti,all& %ro'!,e' organi, mole,!les to other organisms. 1o!%le' to the %ro'!,tion of organi, matter an' flo. of energ& is the ,&,ling of elements. All biologi,al a,ti+it& .ithin e,os&stems is s!%%orte' b& the %ro'!,tion of organi, matter b& a!totro%hs /organisms that ,an %ro'!,e organi, mole,!les s!,h as gl!,ose from inorgani, ,arbon 'io2i'e* see ill!stration0. More than 334 of a!totro%hi, %ro'!,tion on #arth is thro!gh %hotos&nthesis b& %lants( algae( an' ,ertain t&%es of ba,teria. 1olle,ti+el& these organisms are terme' %hotoa!totro%hs /a!totro%hs that !se energ& from light to %ro'!,e organi, mole,!les0. In a''ition to %hotos&nthesis( some %ro'!,tion is ,on'!,te' b& ,hemoa!totro%hi, ba,teria /a!totro%hs that !se energ& store' in the ,hemi,al bon's of inorgani, mole,!les s!,h as h&'rogen s!lfi'e to %ro'!,e organi, mole,!les0. "he organi, mole,!les %ro'!,e' b& a!totro%hs are !se' to s!%%ort the organism5s metabolism an' re%ro'!,tion( an' to b!il' ne. tiss!e. "his ne. tiss!e is ,ons!me' b& herbi+ores or 'etriti+ores( .hi,h in t!rn are !ltimatel& ,ons!me' b& %re'ators or other 'etriti+ores.


1odel aliran energy melalui e$osistem. .ans*+ix''*f%e2 rp,

#kosistem 'arat /terrestrial e,os&stems0( &ang meli%!ti 604 %erm!kaan b!mi( men&!mbangkan sekitar se%ar!h 'ari total %ro'!ksi global bahan organi, fotosintetik7 sekitar 80 9 101: gram karbon %er tah!n. ;a!tan( &ang meli%!ti <04 %erm!kaan b!mi menghasilkan bahan organi, sekitar :1 9 101: g 1 setia% tah!n. Jaring-jaring Makanan

$rganisme 'a%at 'iklasifikasikan ber'asarkan ban&akn&a transfer energ& melal!i ajring)jaring makanan. Pro'!ksi bahan organi, se,ara foto)a!totrofik men,erminkan transfer energ& &ang %ertama 'i 'alam s!at! ekosistem 'an 'iklasifikasikan 'enagai P=$DUKSI P=IM#=. Kons!msi s!at! t!mb!han oleh b& a herbi+ora mer!%akan transfer energi ke '!a ( sehingga herbi+ore menem%ati tingkat trofik ke '!a( j!ga 'ikenal sebagai P=$DUKSI S#KU>D#=. $rganiske kons!men &ang mer!%akan transfer ke sat!( '!a ata! tiga 'ari foto)a!totrof 'ikelom%okkan sebagai kons!men %rimer( sek!n'er( 'an tersier. Bergerak melal!i s!at! jarring)jaring makanan( energ& hilang selama %roses transfer sebagai %anas( sebagaimana 'ijelaskan 'engan ?!k!m "ermo'inamika ke '!a. $leh karena it!( j!mlah total transfer energ& jarang &ang melebihi em%at ata! lima* 'engan a'an&a kehilangan energ& selama setia% %roses transfer( maka se'ikit sekali energ& &ang terse'ia !nt!k men'!k!ng organism &ang bera'a %a'a tingkat tertinggi 'ari s!at! jaring)jaring makanan. Energy flo drives the ecosystem, determining limits of the food supply and the production of all biological resources. 3ight energy from the sun is captured by green plants and converted to chemical energy. Energy is stored in plants as carbohydrates and used by the plant to support all functions such as vegetative gro th, fruit maturation and respiration. 4ther organisms use and convert this chemical energy to various forms through food chains. A food chain is a succession of organisms in a community that constitutes a feeding se5uence in hich food energy is transferred from one organism to the next as each consumes a lo er number and in turn is preyed upon by a higher number. At the bottom of the chain is a photosynthesi'ing plant, usually follo ed by an herbivore, a successions of carnivores, and finally decomposers. At each step, some of the chemical energy is assimilated and used by the organism and the rest is released in respiration and aste products. aring)jaring makanan /Food web) mer!%akan rantai)rantai makanan &ang saling berkaitan se,ara @r!mitA 'alam s!at! kom!nitas. Str!kt!r trofik / Trophic structure) mer!%akan serangkaian keterkaitan 'alam s!at! jaring)jaring makanan &ang men'eskri%sikan transfer energ& 'ari s!at! tingkat n!tritional ke tingkat berik!tn&a. Sasaran %ro'!ksi tanaman a'alah memaksim!mkan energ& ekosistem ke 'alam hasil) %anen* %engg!naan energ& tanaman oleh hama ti'ak 'i%erl!kan karena hal ini berarti mengambil energ& 'ari %ro'!ksi tanaman.

6alam suatu si$lus biogeo$imia, unsure)unsur hara anorgani$ yang diperlu$an untu$ pertumbuhan dan per$embangan organism bersir$ulasi dari $omponen abioti$ $e $omponen biotic dan $embali lagi $e $omponen abioti$ dari e$osistem (7ource 8lint, 1.3 and 9. :ouveia, %&&*) 7umber: http:(( .$no ledgeban$ ecology;.. diunduh %<(=(%&**

6iagram #aring)#aring ma$anan dalam alfalfa. 7etiap tanda panah mencermin$an transfer ma$anan, atau energy dari satu organism $e organism lainnya. >aring)#aring men#adi lebih $omple$s $alau sema$in banya$ spesies yang dimasu$$an $e dalam system. (8lint, 1.3. and 9. :ouveia. %&&*). 7umber: http:(( .$no ledgeban$ ecology;.. diunduh %<(=(%&**

Organisme hidup membentuk jaring-jaring makanan

"he living organisms in an agro)ecosystem are the biotic component. "he organisms can be analy'ed as a food eb that represents the transfer of material and energy from one group of organisms to another. 8or a food eb analysis, organisms are grouped by their function in the flo of energy and nutrients rather than by their classification into genus and species. All the plants in an agro)ecosystem ma$e up the primary producers and provide the basis of the food eb. 9lants capture solar energy through their leaves and in combination ith ater and nutrients from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air generate plant material. "he next level of organisms is the herbivores that live off the nutrients and energy provided by plants or primary producers. 1any different types of organisms can be herbivores ) birds, insects, nematodes, fungi, bacteria and virus. .n turn, the energy and nutrients in herbivores are exploited for gro th and reproduction by another group of organisms called secondary consumers. Animals that live off the energy and nutrients in the substance of secondary consumers are called tertiary consumers. 1any different types of organisms can also be primary, secondary and tertiary consumers.

Sumber: diunduh !/"/ #$$

Sumber: .. diunduh !/"/ #$$ "he soil food eb has many organisms feeding both on living and dead plant material. "hus, the many organisms derive energy to gro and reproduce and eventually nutrients tied up in plant and animal material is available again for plant gro th.

Sumber: .. diunduh !/"/ #$$

Sik us !iogeokimia
In ,ontrast to energ&( .hi,h is lost from e,os&stems as heat( ,hemi,al elements /or n!trients0 that ,om%ose mole,!les .ithin organisms are not altere' an' ma& re%eate'l& ,&,le bet.een organisms an' their en+ironment. A%%ro2imatel& B0 elements ,om%ose the bo'ies of organisms( .ith ,arbon( o2&gen( h&'rogen( nitrogen( an' %hos%hor!s being the most ab!n'ant. If one of these elements is in short s!%%l& in the en+ironment( the of organisms ,an be limite'( e+en if s!ffi,ient energ& is a+ailable. In %arti,!lar( nitrogen an' %hos%hor!s are the elements most ,ommonl& limiting organism "his limitation is ill!strate' b& the .i'es%rea' !se of fertili-ers( .hi,h are a%%lie' to agri,!lt!ral fiel's to alle+iate n!trient limitation.

"he movement of energy from one level of the food eb to the next. "he proportion of energy at one level of the food eb that ma$es it to the next level is called ecological efficiency ) this is usually less than *&?. .n an agroecosystem, e also care about ho ell the energy consumed by organisms, usually either the crop plants (the producers, ith energy from the sun) or livestoc$ (herbivores, ith energy from feed or pasture), is converted into body tissue ) this is conversion efficiency.


7umber:*=&(Class@esources(CaseA7tudies(Case ,AEnergy(Case,A6irections.htm ;.. diunduh %<(=(%&**

1arbon ,&,les bet.een the atmos%here an' terrestrial an' o,eani, e,os&stems. "his ,&,ling res!lts( in %art( from %rimar& %ro'!,tion an' 'e,om%osition of organi, matter. =ates of %rimar& %ro'!,tion an' 'e,om%osition( in t!rn( are reg!late' b& the s!%%l& of nitrogen( %hos%hor!s( an' iron. "he ,omb!stion of fossil f!els is a re,ent ,hange in the global ,&,le that releases ,arbon that has long been b!rie' .ithin the #arth5s ,r!st to the atmos%here. 1arbon 'io2i'e in the atmos%here tra%s heat on the #arth5s s!rfa,e an' is a major fa,tor reg!lating the ,limate. "his alteration of the global ,arbon ,&,le along .ith the res!lting im%a,t on the ,limate is a major iss!e !n'er in+estigation b& e,os&stem e,ologists.

Siklus %arbon
4rganic chemicals are made from carbon more than any other atom, so the Carbon Cycle is a very important one. Carbon bet een the biological to the physical environment as it moves through the carbon cycle. Earth's atmosphere contains &.&,0? carbon dioxide, C4%, and the biological environment depends upon plants to pull carbon into sugars, proteins, and fats. Bsing photosynthesis, plants use sunlight to bind carbon to glucose, releasing oxygen (4%)in the process. "hrough other metabolic processes, plants may convert glucose to other sugars, proteins, or fats. Animals obtain their carbon by eating and digesting plants, so carbon moves through the biotic environment through the trophic system. /erbivore eat plants, but are themselves eaten by carnivores. Carbon returns to the physical environment in a number of ays. -oth plants and animals respire, so they release C4% during respiration. 3uc$ily for animals, plants #ust happen to consume more C4% through photosynthesis than they can produce. Another route of C4% bac$ to the physical environment occurs through the death of plants and animals. Chen organisms die, decomposers consume their bodies. .n the process, some of the carbon returns to the physical environment by ay of fossili'ation. 7ome of it remains in the biological environment as other organisms eat the decomposers. -ut by far, most of the carbon returns to the physical environment through the respiration of C4%.

Sumber:' #(cology/S&S ' #chemcycles/cycle)carbon.htm ..... diunduh !/"/ #$$

Siklus *itrogen
9roteins, nucleic acids, and other organic chemicals contain nitrogen, so nitrogen is a very important atom in biological organisms. Ditrogen ma$es up E<? of Earth's atmosphere, but most organisms can not use nitrogen gas (D%). D% enters the trophic system through a process called nitrogen fixation. -acteria found on the roots of some plants can fix D% to organic molecules, ma$ing proteins. Again, animals get their nitrogen by eating plants. -ut after this point, the nitrogen cycle gets far more complicated than the carbon cycle. Animals releases nitrogen in their urine. 8ish releases D/,, but D/, hen concentrated, is poisonous to living organisms. 7o organisms must dilute D/, ith a lot of ater. 3iving in ater, fish have no problem ith this re5uirements, but terrestrial animals have problems. "hey convert D/, into urine, or another chemical that is not as poisonous as D/,. "he process of releases D/, is called ammonification. -ecause D/, is poisonous, most of the D/, hich is released is untouchable. -ut soil bacteria have the ability to assimilate D/, into proteins. "hese bacteria effectively eats the D/,, and ma$e proteins from it. "his process is called assimilation. 7ome soil bacteria does not convert D/, into proteins, but they ma$e nitrate D4,) instead. "his process is called nitrification. 7ome plants can use D4,), consuming nitrate and ma$ing proteins. 7ome soil bacteria, ho ever, ta$es D4,), and converts it into D%, returning nitrogen gas bac$ into the atmosphere. "his last process is called denitrification, because it brea$s nitrate apart.

Sumber:' #(cology/S&S ' #chemcycles/cycle)carbon.htm ..... diunduh !/"/ #$$

Siklus +hosphorus
9hosphorus is the $ey to energy in living organisms, for it is phosphorus that moves energy from A"9 to another molecule, driving an en'ymatic reaction, or cellular transport. 9hosphorus is also the glue that holds 6DA together, binding deoxyribose sugars together, forming the bac$bone of the 6DA molecule. 9hosphorus does the same #ob in @DA. Again, the $eystone of getting phosphorus into trophic systems are plants. 9lants absorb phosphorous from ater and soil into their tissues, tying them to organic molecules. 4nce ta$en up by plants, phosphorus is available for animals hen they consume the plants. Chen plants and animals die, bacteria decomposes their bodies, releasing some of the phosphorus bac$ into the soil. 4nce in the soil, phosphorous can be moved *&&s to *,&&&s of miles from ere they ere released by riding through streams and rivers. 7o the ater cycle plays a $ey role of moving phosphorus from ecosystem to ecosystem. .n some cases, phosphorous ill travel to a la$e, and settle on the bottom. "here, it may turn into sedimentary roc$s, limestone, to be released millions of years later. 7o sedimentary roc$s acts li$e a bac$, conserving much of the phosphorus for future econs.

Sumber:' #(cology/S&S ' #chemcycles/cycle)carbon.htm ..... diunduh !/"/ #$$

Sikl!s hara 'alam s!at! agroekosistem melibatkan tanaman( ikan 'an ternak. Salah sat! jal!r !tama aliran hara a'alah jal!r tanaman)ternak)tanah. K$lam ikan( jal!r !taman&a a'alah tanaman 'an ternak. Dalam bebera%a kas!s 'alam s&stem %ertanian tra'isional 'i Asia(( limbah man!sia 'an r!mahtangga menja'i in%!t %enting bagi tanaman 'an kolam ikan( se'angkan limbah 'a%!r %enting bagi ternak 'an kolam ikan.

7umber: Ed ards (*<<,) (http:((<Fe(y0&<Fe&0.htm ..... diunduh %(E(%&**)

Aliran hara 'i antara kom%onebn 'alam agroekosistem 'an antara agroekosistem 'engan s&stem eksternaln&a a'alah sebagai berik!t.

7umber: 3e and @ambo (*<<,) (http:((<Fe(y0&<Fe&0.htm ..... diunduh %(E(%&**)

$rganisme 'an f!ngsi s!at! sel hi'!% bergant!ng %a'a %erse'iaan energi &ang tak henti)hentin&a( s!mber energi ini tersim%an 'alam molek!l)molek!l organik se%erti karbohi'rat. $rganisme heterotrofik se%erti ragi 'an kita sen'iri( hi'!% 'an t!mb!h 'engan memas!kkan molek!l)molek!l organik ke 'alam sel)seln&a. Unt!k t!j!an %raktis( sat!)sat!n&a s!mber molek!l bahan bakar &ang menja'i tem%at bergant!ng sel!r!h kehi'!%an ialah fotosintesis. Fotosintesis men&e'iakan makanan bagi ham%ir sel!r!h kehi'!%an 'i '!nia baik se,ara langs!ng ata! ti'ak langs!ng. $rganisme mem%eroleh sen&a.a organik &ang 'ig!nakan !nt!k 'an rangka karbon 'engan sat! ata! '!a ,ara !tamaC n!trisi a!totrofik ata! heterotrofik. A!totro 'a%at 'iartikan bah.a 'a%at men&e'iakan makanan bagi 'iri sen'iri han&a 'alam %engertian bah.a a!totrof 'a%at mem%ertahankan 'irin&a sen'iri tan%a memakan 'an meng!raikan organisme lain. A!totrof memb!at molek!l organik mereka sen'iri 'ari bahan mentah anorganik &ang 'i%eroleh 'ari lingk!ann&a. $leh karena alasan inilah( %ara ahli biologi men&eb!t a!totrof sebagai %ro'!sen biosfer. 4rganisme heterotrof memperoleh materi organi$ melalui cara pemenuhan nutrisi $edua. Getida$mampuan dalam membuat ma$anan mere$a sendiri, menyebab$an hererotrof ini hidup tergantung pada senya a yang dihasil$an oleh organisme lain! heteritrif merupa$an $omponen biosfer. 7ebagian autotrof meng$onsumsi sisa)sisa organisme mati, mengurai$an dan meme$an sampah seperti bang$ai, tin#a dan daun)daun yang gugur. /eterotrof ini di$ena$ sebagai pengurai. 7ebagian besar fungi dan banya$ #enis ba$teri memperoleh ma$ana dengan cara seperti ini. /ampir seluruh heterotrof, termrasu$ manusia, benar)benar tergantung pada fotoautotrof untu$ mrndapat$an ma$anan dan #uga untu$ mendapat$an o$sigen, yang merupa$an produ$ samping fotosintesis. Ja ur Fotosintesis Dengan kebera'aan ,aha&a( bagian)bagian t!mb!han &ang ber.arna hija! menghasilkan bahan organik 'an oksigen 'ari karbon 'ioksi'a 'an air. Dengan mengg!nakan r!m!s molek!l( %ersamaan kimia fotosintesis a'alahC "#$% & '% (%$ & energi caha)a -----* #"('%$" & "$% & "(%$ Karbohi'rat #"('%$" ialah gl!kosa. Air m!n,!l %a'a ke'!a sisi %ersamaan it! karena 12 molek!l 'ikons!msi 'an 8 molek!l terbent!k lagi selama fotosintesis. Persamaan it! 'a%at 'ise'erhanakan 'engan mem%erlihatkan selisih kons!msi airC "#$% & "(%$ & energi caha)a ----* #"('%$" & "$% Dalam bakteri berfotosintesis( sebagai %engganti ?2$ 'i%akai -at %ere'!ksi &ang lebih k!at se%erti ?2( ?2S 'an ?2= /= a'alah g!g!s organik0. Persamaan reaksin&a a'alahC %#$% & %(%+ -----* %#%$ & $% &%+ Bakteri mengg!nakan ?2= 'an mengg!nakan hi'rogen !nt!k memb!at g!la. Dari reaksi kimia terseb!t 'a%at 'ikatakan bah.a sem!a organisme fotosintetik memb!t!hkan s!mber hi'rogen( teta%i s!mber it! berma,am)ma,am.

Tempat !er angsungn)a ,roses Fotosintesis Di 'alam t!mb!han( %roses fotosintesis %a'a !m!mn&a berlangs!ng 'alam organel kh!s!s &ang 'iseb!t %lasti'. Plasti' mengan'!ng sen&a.a( &ait! klorofil. Sem!a bagian &ang ber.arna hija! %a'a t!mb!han( termas!k batang hija! 'an b!ah &ang bel!m matang( memiliki kloro%las( teta%i 'a!n mer!%akan tem%at !tama berlangs!ngn&a fotosintesis %a'a sebagian besar t!mb!han. "er'a%at D setengah j!ta kloro%las tia% milimeter %ersegi %erm!kaan 'a!n. Earna 'a!n berasal 'ari klorofil( %igmen .arna hija! &ang ter'a%at 'alam kloro%las. #nergi ,aha&a &ang 'isera% klorofil inilah &ang mengg!nakan sintesis molek!l makanan 'alam kloro%las. Sebagian besar s%esies t!mb!han( ter%a,! %ert!mb!han 'an %erke,ambahan 'alam kea'aan terang. >am!n biji j!ga 'a%at terhambat %erke,ambahan&&a oleh ,aha&a. Panjang gelombang merah ja!h 'ari sinar matahari ham%ir selal! mer!%akan %anjang gelombang &ang %aling menghambat. 1aha&a bir! j!ga ka'ang menghambat. Biji &ang memb!t!hkan ,aha&a !nt!k berke,ambah 'iseb!t foto'orman. Biji &ang biasan&a berke,ambah 'alam gela% akan terhambat oleh ,aha&a. Biji &ang biasa berke,ambah 'alam gela% akan mengalami 'ormansi ata! fase istirahat saat terkena ,aha&a 'alam tingkat intensitas tertent!. 1aha&a tam%ak sebagai s!mber energi &ang 'ig!nakan t!mb!han !nt!k fotosintesis mer!%akan bagian s%ektr!m energi ra'iasi. =eaksi ,aha&a 'alam fotosintesis mer!%akan bagian akibat langs!ng %en&era%an foton oleh molek!l %igmen se%erti klorofil. "i'ak sel!r!h foton mem%!n&ai tingkat energi &ang ,o,ok !nt!k menggiatkan %igmen 'a!n. Di atas <80 nm foton ti'ak memiliki ,!k!% energi 'an 'i ba.ah 630 nm foton memiliki terlal! ban&ak energi( men&ebabkan ionisasi 'an ker!sakan %igmen. ?an&a foton 'engan %anjang gelombang antara 630 'an <80 nm memiliki tingkat energi &ang ,o,ok !nt!k fotosintesis. Karena %enggiatan %igmen mer!%akan akibat langs!ng interaksi antara foton 'an %igmen( %eng!k!ran ,aha&a &ang 'ig!nakan 'alam fotosintesis seringkali ber'asarkan 'ensitas aliran foton( 'an b!kan ber'asarkan energi. Densitas aliran foton ialah j!mlah foton &ang men!mb!k s!at! l!as %erm!kaan tertent! %er sat!an .akt!. Karena %anjang gelombang antara B00 'an <00 nm it! %aling efisien 'ig!nakan 'alam fotosintesis( %eng!k!ran ,aha&a !nt!k fotosintesis biasan&a 'i'asarkan %a'a 'ensitas aliran foton 'alam %anjang gelombang B00 'an <00 nm terseb!t /Mi,hael(133B0.


http://ecology#, #$$)#-)#$)archi.e.html . /iunduh !/"/ #$$

Kesehatan Ekosistem It is im%ortant to re,ogni-e the inherent 'iffi,!lties in 'efining Fhealth(F .hether at the le+el of the in'i+i'!al( %o%!lation( or e,os&stem. "he ,on,e%t of health is some.hat of an enigma( being easier to 'efine in its absen,e /si,kness0 than in its %resen,e. Perha%s %artiall& for that reason( e,ologists ha+e resiste' a%%l&ing the notion of FhealthF to e,os&stems. Get( e,os&stems ,an be,ome '&sf!n,tional( %arti,!larl& !n'er ,hroni, stress from h!man a,ti+it&. For e2am%le( the 'is,harge of n!trients from se.age( in'!strial .aste( or agri,!lt!ral r!noff into lakes or ri+ers affe,ts the normal f!n,tioning of the e,os&stem( an' ,an res!lt in se+ere im%airment. #2,essi+e n!trient in%!ts from h!man a,ti+it& .as one of the major fa,tors that se+erel& ,om%romise' the health of the ;a!rentian Hreat ;akes /;ake #rie an' ;ake $ntario0 an' regions of the !%%er Hreat ;akes /;ake Mi,higan0. Unfort!natel&( 'egra'e' e,os&stems are be,oming more the r!le than the e2,e%tion. "he st!'& of the feat!res of 'egra'e' s&stems( an' ,om%arisons .ith s&stems that ha+e not been altere' b& h!man a,ti+it&( makes it %ossible to i'entif& the ,hara,teristi,s of health& e,os&stems. ?ealth& e,os&stems ma& be ,hara,teri-e' not onl& b& the absen,e of signs of %atholog&( b!t also b& signs of health( in,l!'ing meas!res of +igor /%ro'!,ti+it&0( organi-ation( an' resilien,e. Iigor ,an be assesse' in terms of the metabolism /a,ti+it& an' %ro'!,ti+it&0 of the s&stem. #,os&stems 'iffer greatl& in their normal ranges of %ro'!,ti+it&. #st!aries are far more %ro'!,ti+e than o%en o,eans( an' marshes ha+e higher %ro'!,ti+it& than 'eserts. ?ealth is not e+al!ate' b& a%%l&ing one stan'ar' to all s&stems. $rgani-ation

,an be assesse' b& the str!,t!re of the bioti, ,omm!nit& that forms an e,os&stem an' b& the nat!re of the intera,tions bet.een the s%e,ies /both %lants an' animals0. In+ariabl&( health& e,os&stems ha+e more 'i+ersit& of biota than e,ologi,all& ,om%romise' s&stems. =esilien,e is the ,a%a,it& of an e,os&stem to maintain its str!,t!re an' f!n,tions in the fa,e of nat!ral 'ist!rban,es. S&stems .ith a histor& of ,hroni, stress are less likel& to re,o+er from normal %ert!rbations s!,h as 'ro!ght than those s&stems that ha+e been relati+el& less stresse'. ?ealth& e,os&stems ,an also be ,hara,teri-e' in e,onomi,( so,ial( an' h!man health terms. ?ealth& e,os&stems s!%%ort a ,ertain le+el of e,onomi, a,ti+it&. "his is not to sa& that the e,os&stem is ne,essaril& self)s!ffi,ient( b!t rather that it s!%%orts e,onomi, %ro'!,ti+it& to enable the h!man ,omm!nit& to meet reasonable nee's. Ine+itabl&( e,os&stem 'egra'ation im%inges on the long)term s!stainabilit& of the h!man e,onom& that is asso,iate' .ith it( altho!gh in the short)term this ma& not be e+i'ent( as nat!ral ,a%ital /e.g.( soils( reso!r,es0 ma& be o+ere2%loite' an' tem%oraril& enhan,e e,onomi, ret!rns. Similarl&( .ith res%e,t to so,ial .ell)being( health& e,os&stems %ro+i'e a basis for an' en,o!rage ,omm!nit& integration. ?istori,all&( for e2am%le( nati+e ?a.aiian gro!%s manage' their e,os&stem thro!gh a .ell)'e+elo%e' so,ial ,ohesi+eness that %ro+i'e' a high 'egree of ,oo%eration in fishing an' farming a,ti+it&. Kesehatan -gro-ecos)stem $ne of the basi, h&%otheses in the resear,h %ro%osal is that the agro)e,os&stem health %ara'igm .ill %ro+i'e a s!%erior ,on,e%t!al frame.ork than agri,!lt!ral s!stainabilit&( .hi,h has remaine' 5.itho!t m!,h em%iri,al ,ontent be,a!se of the la,k of a ,om%rehensi+e 'efinition an' anal&ti,al metho'olog&5 /I;=I 133J0. $f ,o!rse( it is %ossible to 'isting!ish bet.een the t.o ,on,e%ts( b!t for the %ra,ti,al %!r%oses of this resear,h %ro%osal the& are f!n'amentall& similar( essentiall& s&non&mo!s /this ,om%arison is 'e+elo%e' in more 'etail in Smit an' Smithers /133B0. $n,e the term 5agro5 is a%%en'e' to 5e,os&stem5 .e ha+e e2%li,itl& in,l!'e' h!man ,om%onents( s!,h that 5agro)e,os&stem5 is f!n'amentall& eK!i+alent to a broa' 'efinition of 5agri,!lt!re5( .hi,h in,l!'es e,ologi,al an' h!man ,om%onents. @S!stainable agri,!lt!reA telah 'i'efinisikan 'engan berbagai ,ara 'an s!'!t %an'ang /Smit an' Brkla,i,h 13J3* 1ai an' Smit 133B* Smit an' Smithers 133B0( teta%i keban&akan melingk!%i sifat)sifat esensial &ang sama. Misaln&a '!a 'efinisi berik!t iniC Agri)food systems that are economically viable, meet society's need for safe and nutritious foods, hile conserving natural resources and the 5uality of the environment for future generations (7CC *<<%), Agricultural system that can indefinitely meet demands for food and fibre at socially acceptable economic and environmental costs (Crosson *<<%). Dalam ke'!a hal terseb!t 'i atas( %ertanian berkelanj!tan 'i'efinisikan 'engan mem%erhatikanC Keb!t!han ata! %ermintaan so,ial atas %angan( termas!k gi-i( 'an men,erminkan kesehatan man!sia Kela&akan ekonomis( menga,! ke%a'a %emeliharaan s&stem %ro'!ksi K!alitas lingk!ngan( &ang 'iarahkan %a'a kon'isi s!mber'a&a biofisik.

Definisi @keberlanj!tanA j!ga mem%erhatikan sifat)sifat ini atas .akt! /5generasi men'atangA ata! 5in'efinite50. Definisi kesehatan agro)e,os&stem melingk!%i sifat)sifat esensial &ang sama( &ait!C 1. Kesejahteraan man!sia 2. Keragaan ekonomis( 'an 6. Kon'isi ekologis. Pa'a ken&ataann&a( esensi 'ari %ers%ektif kesehatan agroekosistem /agro) e,os&stem health( A#S?0 a'alah bah.a ia men,erminkan eksistensi 'an interrelationshi%s 'i antara bebera%a 'omain s&stem %ertanian /e,onomi( man!sia 'an ekologi0( 'an bah.a kesehatan s&stem se,ara kesel!r!han mer!%akan f!ngsi 'ari kon'isi 'an inter'e%en'ensi 'i antara kom%onen)kom%onen ini. A sim%le ,on,e%t!alisation of agro)e,os&stem health in'i,ates three main 'imensions( .hi,h intera,t /hen,e o+erla%%ing sets0( .hi,h manifest at 'ifferent s,ales /hen,e the 'ifferent si-es of sets0( an' .hi,h ,an be em%lo&e' in n!mero!s a%%li,ations( in,l!'ing a0 !sing in'i,ators to ,om%are s&stems or 'o,!ment ,hanges in A#S?( b0 i'entif&ing an' s%e,if&ing relationshi%s among 'imensions to !n'erstan' '&nami,s an' 'eterminants of A#S?( an' ,0 assessing res%onses in A#S? to stresses( both those asso,iate' .ith e2ternal en+ironments /s!,h as ,limati, +ariations or ma,ro) e,onomi, ,on'itions0 an' those refle,ting inter+entions or %oli,ies.

Kesehatan Agro)e,os&stemC S!at! tela'an re%resentasi 'iagramatik. ;an'asan konse%t!al 'ari '!a %ara'igm ini( A#S? 'an agri,!lt!ral s!stainabilit& /AS0( %a'a hakekatn&a sinonim. Ke'!an&a bersifat e+al!ati+e 'ari kesel!r!han kon'isi lingk!ngan %e'esaan( ekonomi( 'an man!sia. Sehingga sasarann&a j!ga meli%!ti kom%onen iniC Peningkatan ketahanan %angan

Pengentasan kemiskinan Melestarikan k!alitas lingk!ngan &ang baik.

.n other respects as ell, AE7/ and A7 are very similar. -oth are applicable at different spatial and temporal scales. 8or both, considerable effort has been expended in developing indicators, and similar $inds of indicators (often very long lists) have been proposed. .ndicators can ta$e a ide variety of forms, including state and functional indicators, diagnostic and early arning indicators. "here are also many examples of particular empirical studies employing indicators, especially of sustainable agriculture . /o ever, neither of these frame or$s can supply a single, comprehensive measurable indicator hich can ade5uately capture the scope of these systems. Dor do either of them provide a specific set of analytical steps to document change, assess responses, or evaluate interventions in these systems. "he note orthy contribution of the agro) ecosystem health concept is a metaphor, providing a broad frame or$ hich facilitates the consideration of multiple dimensions and the interactions among them. .ndikator kesehatan agro-ecos)stem Ehat is the ro!te b& .hi,h a meta%hor or ,on,e%t ,an be a%%lie' to something so that resear,hers or %ra,titioners ,an !se in the fiel'L For e2am%le( there is the interest in in'i,ators( or meas!rable %ro%erties .hi,h in'i,ate the health of an agro) e,os&stem. For in'i,ators( .hi,h re%resent onl& one element of an& anal&sis( three 'istin,t a%%roa,hes ha+e been trie'. (o istik "his a%%roa,h( of .hi,h se+eral +ersions ha+e been %ro%ose'( aims to 'efine a set of +er& generi, 5,riteria5( essentiall& from first %rin,i%les( .hi,h .ill be a%%li,able to all 'imensions. "h!s( .e get s!,h 5holisti, in'i,ators5 as integrit&( effi,ien,&( resilien,e( effe,ti+eness( res%onse ,a%abilit&( balan,e( ri,hness( transformation abilit&( self) reg!lator& ,a%a,it&( fle2ibilit&( stabilit&( an' so on. A %arti,!lar a%%eal of this a%%roa,h is the e2%e,tation that the sele,te' ,riteria .ill lea' to meas!rable eK!i+alent in'i,ators on ea,h of the 'imensions.

7umber: http:((

A conceptual frame or$ for agro)ecosystem health. ..... diunduh %<(=(%&**

Terintegrasi / Disaggregated In this a%%roa,h( the in'i,ators of the +ario!s 'imensions of agro)e,os&stem health are s!%%lie' b& s,ientists an' %ra,titioners in ea,h of the 'is,i%lines in+ol+e'. In'i,ators 'e+elo%e' +ia this ro!te ten' to refle,t the +ariables .hi,h are ,on+entionall& anal&se' in the +ario!s 'is,i%lines. "h!s( e,onomists %ro+i'e in'i,ators s!,h as gross margins( benefit M,ost ratios( or net in,ome. So,iologists .ill list meas!res of ho!sehol' an' ,omm!nit& str!,t!re( relations( eK!it&( gen'er roles( an' so on. From the h!man health an' n!trition fiel's ,ome in'i,ators of morbi'it&( longe+it&( other %h&siologi,al feat!res an' meas!res of n!tritional stat!s or f!n,tionalit&. From the geo%h&si,al an' biologi,al s,ien,es ,ome eK!all& long lists of e,os&stem +ariables .hi,h ha+e been of theoreti,al interest or ha+e been !se' before. "his a%%roa,h ,ertainl& generates an am%le smorgasbor' of in'i,ators. "he .eaknesses of this a%%roa,h are that the lists are im%ra,ti,all& long( there are no establishe' %rin,i%les for sele,ting from among the man& %ossibilities /the& ma& all be 5s,ientifi,all& +ali'50( an' the& often are not rea'il& !n'erstoo' b& the %eo%le in the agro)e,os&stems. !erbasis Komunitas / #ommunit)-based "he essen,e of this a%%roa,h /also ,alle' stakehol'er)'eri+e'0 is that the in'i,ators are i'entifie' .ith the a,ti+e %arti,i%ation of the %eo%le .ho li+e in the agro) e,os&stem. A +ariet& of metho's are a+ailable for this kin' of %arti,i%ator& a%%roa,h( in .hi,h the resear,hers ne,essaril& %la& at least a fa,ilitator& role( b!t .here the in'i,ators are ,ertainl& meaningf!l to lo,al %eo%le as .ell as to the anal&sts. "hese in,l!'e a %ra,ti,al an' effi,ient .a& of sele,ting ke& in'i,ators( resear,hers to learn abo!t ,omm!nities5 %riorities an' alternati+e meas!rements /sometimes s!%%lie'

'ire,tl& b& resi'ents0( an' %romotion of %eo%le5s in+ol+ement in /an' 5o.nershi% of50 both anal&sis of agro)e,os&stems an' an& management initiati+es to im%ro+e their health.

!agaimana Ekosistem Sehat menjadi ,ato ogis

Stress from h!man a,ti+it& is a major fa,tor in transforming health& e,os&stems to si,k e,os&stems. 1hroni, stress from h!man a,ti+it& 'iffers from nat!ral 'ist!rban,es. >at!ral 'ist!rban,es /fires( floo's( %erio'i, inse,t infestations0 are %art of the '&nami,s of most e,os&stems. "hese %ro,esses hel% to FresetF e,os&stems b& re,&,ling n!trients an' ,learing s%a,e for re,oloni-ation b& biota that ma& be better a'a%te' to ,hanging en+ironments. "h!s( nat!ral %ert!rbations hel% kee% e,os&stems health&. In ,ontrast( ,hroni, an' a,!te stress on e,os&stems res!lting from h!man a,ti+it& /e.g.( ,onstr!,tion of large 'ams( release of n!trients an' to2i, s!bstan,es into the air( .ater( an' lan'0 generall& res!lts in long)term e,ologi,al '&sf!n,tion. ;ima s!mber !tama ,ekaman /stress0 antro%ogenik /akibat 'ari kegiatan man!sia0 terha'a% ekosistem( &ait!C reka&asa str!kt!r fisik( %anen berlebihan( limbah resi'!al( mas!kn&a s%esies eksotik( 'an %er!bahan global. +eka)asa Struktur Fisik Akti+itas)akti+itas se%erti 'rainage ra.a)ra.a( %enger!kan 'asar 'ana!( %emben'!ngan s!ngai( 'an %embang!nan jalan ra&a( berarti %roses fragmentasi bentang lahan 'an meng!bah serta mer!sak habitat)habitat kritis. Akti+itas) akti+itas ini j!ga menggangg! sikl!s hara 'an men&ebabkan hilangn&a bio'i+ersitas. ,anen ber ebihan $+ere2%loitation is ,ommon%la,e .hen it ,omes to har+esting of .il'life( fisheries( an' forests. $+er long %erio's of time( sto,ks of %referre' s%e,ies are re'!,e'. For e2am%le( the giant re'.oo's that on,e thri+e' along the 1alifornia ,oast no. e2ist onl& in remnant %at,hes be,a!se of o+erhar+esting. Ehen 'ominant s%e,ies like the giant re'.oo's /arg!abl& the .orl'5s tallest tree7one s%e,imen .as re,or'e' at 110 meters tall .ith a ,ir,!mferen,e of 16.B meters0 are lost( the entire e,os&stem be,omes transforme'. $+erhar+esting often res!lts in re'!,e' bio'i+ersit& of en'emi, s%e,ies( .hile fa,ilitating the in+asion of o%%ort!nisti, s%e,ies. 0imbah 1 +esidu2 Dis,harges from m!ni,i%al( in'!strial( an' agri,!lt!ral so!r,es into the air( .ater( an' lan' ha+e se+erel& ,om%romise' man& of the earth5s e,os&stems. "he effe,ts are %arti,!larl& a%%arent in aK!ati, e,os&stems. In some lakes that la,k a nat!ral b!ffering ,a%a,it&( a,i' %re,i%itation has eliminate' most of the fish an' other organisms. Ehile the +is!al effe,t a%%ears benefi,ial /.ater ,larit& goes !%0 the im%a,t on e,os&stem health is 'e+astating. S&stems that on,e ,ontaine' a +ariet& of organisms an' .ere highl& %ro'!,ti+e /biologi,all&0 be,ome 'e+oi' of most lifeforms e2,e%t for a fe. a,i')tolerant ba,teria an' se'iment)'.elling organisms. .ntroduksi Spesies Eksotik

"he s%rea' of e2oti,s has be,ome a %roblem in almost e+er& e,os&stem of the .orl'. "rans%orting s%e,ies from their nati+e habitat to entirel& ne. e,os&stems ,an .re,k ha+o,( as the ne. en+ironments are often .itho!t nat!ral ,he,ks an' balan,es for the ne. s%e,ies. In the Hreat ;akes Basin( the a,,i'ental intro'!,tion of t.o small %elagi, fishes( the ale.ife an' the rainbo. smelt( ,ombine' .ith the sim!ltaneo!s o+erhar+esting of nat!ral %re'ators( s!,h as the lake tro!t( le' to a signifi,ant 'e,line in nati+e fish s%e,ies. "he intro'!,tion of the sea lam%re&( an eel)like %re'a,io!s fish that atta,ks larger fish( into ;ake #rie an' the !%%er Hreat ;akes f!rther 'estabili-e' the nati+e fish ,omm!nit&. "he sea lam%re& ,ontrib!te' to the 'emise of the 'ee%.ater benthi, fish ,omm!nit& b& %re&ing on lake tro!t( .hitefish( an' b!rbot. "his ,ontrib!te' to a shift in the fish ,omm!nit& from one that ha' been 'ominate' b& large benthi,s to one 'ominate' b& small %elagi,s /fish fo!n' in the !%%er la&ers of the lake %rofile0. "his shift from bottom)'.elling fish /benthi,0 to s!rfa,e)'.elling fish /%elagi,0 has no. been %artiall& re+erse' b& &et another a,,i'ental intro'!,tion of an e2oti,C the -ebra m!ssel. As the -ebra m!ssel is a highl& effi,ient filter of both %ht&o%lankton an' -oo%lankton( its %resen,e has re'!,e' the a+ailable foo' in the s!rfa,e .aters for %elagi, fish. ?o.e+er( .hile the benthi, fish ,omm!nit& has gaine' ba,k its 'ominan,e( the %referre' benthi, fish s%e,ies ha+e not &et re,o+ere' to the 'egree of initial 'egra'ation. $+erall( the in,reasing 'ominan,e b& e2oti,s not onl& altere' the e,olog&( b!t also re'!,e' signifi,antl& the ,ommer,ial +al!e of the fisheries. ,erubahan 3 oba =a%i' ,limate ,hange /or ,limate .arming0 is an emerging %otential global stress on all of the earth5s e,os&stems. In e+ol!tionar& time( there ha+e of ,o!rse been large fl!,t!ations in ,limate. ?o.e+er( for the most %art these fl!,t!ations ha+e o,,!rre' gra'!all& o+er long %erio's of time. =a%i' ,limate ,hange is an entirel& 'ifferent matter. B& altering both a+erages an' e2tremes in %re,i%itation( tem%erat!re( an' storm e+ents( an' b& 'estabili-ing the #l >iNo So!thern $s,illation /#>S$0( .hi,h ,ontrols .eather %atterns o+er m!,h of the so!thern Pa,ifi, region( man& e,os&stem %ro,esses ,an be,ome signifi,antl& altere'. #2,essi+e %erio's of 'ro!ght or !n!s!all& hea+& rains an' floo'ing .ill e2,ee' the toleran,e for man& s%e,ies( th!s ,hanging the bioti, ,om%osition. Floo'ing an' !n!s!all& high .in's ,ontrib!te to soil erosion( an' at the same time a'' to n!trient loa' in ri+ers an' ,oastal .aters. "hese anthro%ogeni, stresses ha+e ,om%romise' e,os&stem f!n,tion in most regions of the .orl'( res!lting in e,os&stem 'istress s&n'rome /#DS0. #DS is ,hara,teri-e' b& a gro!% of signs( in,l!'ing abnormalities in n!trient ,&,ling( %ro'!,ti+it&( s%e,ies 'i+ersit& an' ri,hness( bioti, str!,t!re( 'isease %re+alen,e( soil fertilit&( an' so on. "he ,onseK!en,es of these ,hanges for h!man health are not in,onsi'erable. Im%o+erishe' bioti, ,omm!nities are nat!ral harbors for %athogens that affe,t h!mans an' other s%e,ies.

Kesehatan Ekosistem dan Kesehatan Manusia

An im%ortant as%e,t of e,os&stem 'egra'ation is the asso,iate' in,rease' risk to h!man health. "ra'itionall&( the ,on,ern has been .ith ,ontaminants( %arti,!larl& in'!strial ,hemi,als that ,an ha+e a'+erse im%a,ts on h!man 'e+elo%ment( ne!rologi,al f!n,tions( re%ro'!,ti+e f!n,tions( an' that a%%ear to be ,a!sati+e agents in a +ariet& of ,ar,inomas. In a''ition to these serio!s en+ironmental ,on,erns /.here the reme'ies are often te,hnologi,al( in,l!'ing engineering sol!tions to re'!,e the release of

,ontaminants0( there are a large n!mber of other risks to h!man health stemming from e,ologi,al imbalan,e. #,os&stem 'istress s&n'rome res!lts in the loss of +al!e' e,os&stem ser+i,es( in,l!'ing floo' ,ontrol( .ater K!alit&( air K!alit&( fish an' .il'life 'i+ersit&( an' re,reation. $ne of the major signs of #DS is in,rease' 'isease in,i'en,e( both in h!mans an' other s%e,ies. ?!man %o%!lation health sho!l' th!s be +ie.e' .ithin an e,ologi,al ,onte2t as an e2%ression of the integrit& an' health of the life)s!%%orting ,a%a,it& of the en+ironment. #,ologi,al imbalan,es triggere' b& global ,limate ,hange an' other ,a!ses are res%onsible for in,rease' h!man health risks.

(ubungan keterkaitan antara jasa-jasa ekosistem4 aspek kesejahteraan manusia dan Kesehatan Manusia

7umber: http:(("hreats<dec&0.htm ;.. diunduh *(E(%&**

"ekanan)tekanan terha'a% ekosistem 'a%at mengakibatkan gangg!an &ang ti'ak ter'!ga %a'a as%ek kesehatan masa men'atang. Bebera%a masalah &ang sangat seri!s a'alah (7umber: http:(( . s(releases(%&&0(pr=E(en(index.html:) Hi-i 'an >!trisiC Degra'asi ekosistem %erikanan 'an ekosistem %ertanian mer!%akan fa,tor)faktor %en&ebab mal)n!trisi &ang 'ialami J00 j!ta man!sia 'i sel!r!h '!nia. A'a ban&ak %en'!'!k lainn&a &ang mengalami 'efisiensi kronis mikro)n!trient.

Air min!m &ang amanC Eater)asso,iate' infe,tio!s 'iseases ,laim 6.2 million li+es( a%%ro2imatel& 84 of all 'eaths globall&. $+er one billion %eo%le la,k a,,ess to safe .ater s!%%lies( .hile 2.8 billion la,k a'eK!ate sanitation( an' relate' %roblems of .ater s,ar,it& are in,reasing( %artl& '!e to e,os&stem 'e%letion an' ,ontamination. Ketergant!ngan %a'a bahan bakar %a'atC Sekitar 64 'ari beban gangg!an %en&akit global 'isebabkan oleh %en,emaran !'ara @in'oorA( %en&ebab !tama %en&akit %ernafasan. Ban&ak %en'!'!k '!nia mengg!nakan bahan bakar %a'at !nt!k memasak makanan 'an menghangatkan r!angan( mer!%akan %en&ebab !tama %engg!n'!lan h!tan. ,erubahan .k im dan 5ektor ,en)akit

"he global infe,tio!s 'isease b!r'en is on the or'er of se+eral h!n're' million ,ases %er &ear. Man& +e,tor)borne 'iseases are ,limate sensiti+e. Malaria( 'eng!e fe+er( hanta+ir!s %!lmonar& s&n'rome( an' +ario!s forms of +iral en,e%halitis are all in this ,ategor&. All these 'iseases are the res!lt of arthro%o')borne +ir!ses /arbo+ir!ses0 .hi,h are transmitte' to h!mans as a res!lt of bites from bloo')s!,king arthro%o's. Hlobal ,limate ,hange7%arti,!larl& as it im%a,ts both tem%erat!res an' %re,i%itation7is highl& ,orrelate' .ith the %re+alen,e of +e,tor)borne 'iseases. For e2am%le( +ir!ses ,arrie' b& mosK!itoes( ti,ks( an' other bloo')s!,king arthro%o's generall& ha+e in,rease' transmission rates .ith rising tem%erat!res. St. ;o!is en,e%halitis /S;#0 ser+es as an e2am%le. "he mosK!ito Culex tarsalis ,arries this +ir!s. "he %er,entage of bites that res!lts in transmission of S;# is 'e%en'ent on tem%erat!re( .ith greater transmission at higher tem%erat!res. "he tem%erat!re 'e%en'en,e of +e,tor)borne 'iseases is also .ell ill!strate' .ith malaria. Malaria is en'emi, thro!gho!t the tro%i,s( .ith a high %re+alen,e in Afri,a( the In'ian s!b,ontinent( So!theast Asia( an' %arts of So!th an' 1entral Ameri,a an' Me2i,o. A%%ro2imatel& 2.B billion %eo%le li+e in areas of risk( .ith some 6:0 million ne. infe,tions o,,!rring ann!all&( res!lting in a%%ro2imatel& 2 million 'eaths( %re'ominantl& in &o!ng ,hil'ren. Untreate' malaria ,an be,ome a life)long affli,tion7general s&m%toms in,l!'e fe+er( hea'a,he( an' malaise. "he ,limate sensiti+it& of malaria arises to the nat!re of the intera,tions of %arasites( +e,tors( an' hosts( all of .hi,h im%a,t the !ltimate transmission rates to h!mans. "he gestation time reK!ire' for the %arasite to be,ome f!ll& 'e+elo%e' .ithin the mosK!ito host /a %ro,ess terme' s%orogon&0 is from eight to thirt&)fi+e 'a&s. Ehen tem%erat!res are in the range of 20O1 to 2<O1( the gestation time is re'!,e'. =ainfall an' h!mi'it& also ha+e an infl!en,e. Both 'ro!ght an' hea+& rains ten' to re'!,e the %o%!lation of mosK!itoes that ser+e as +e,tors for malaria. In 'rier regions of the tro%i,s( lo. rainfall an' h!mi'it& restri,ts the s!r+i+al of mosK!itoes. Se+ere floo'ing ,an res!lt in s,o!ring of ri+ers an' 'estr!,tion of the bree'ing habitats for the mosK!ito +e,tor( .hile interme'iate rainfall enhan,es +e,tor %ro'!,tion. Ketidak-seimbangan Eko ogis 1holera is a serio!s an' %otentiall& fatal 'isease that is ,a!se' b& the ba,teri!m Vibrio cholerae. Ehile not nearl& so %re+alent as malaria( ,ases are nonetheless n!mero!s. In 1336( there .ere 238(208 ne. ,ases of ,holera re%orte' in So!th Ameri,a* 3(2J0 ,ases .ere re%orte' in Me2i,o* 82(38B ,ases in Afri,a* an' 8B(:33

,ases in Asia. Most o!tbreaks in Asia( Afri,a( an' So!th Ameri,a ha+e originate' in ,oastal areas. S&m%toms of ,holera in,l!'e e2%losi+e .ater& 'iarrhea( +omiting( an' ab'ominal %ain. "he most re,ent %an'emi, of ,holera in+ol+e' more regions than at an& %re+io!s time in the t.entieth ,ent!r&. "he 'isease remains en'emi, in In'ia( Bangla'esh( an' Afri,a. Vibrio cholerae has also been fo!n' in the Unite' States7in the H!lf 1oast region of "e2as( ;o!isiana( an' Flori'a* the 1hesa%eake Ba& area* an' the 1alifornia ,oast. "he in,rease in %re+alen,e of V. cholerae has been strongl& linke' to 'egra'e' ,oastal marine en+ironments. >!trient)enri,he' .armer ,oastal .aters( res!lting from a ,ombination of ,limate ,hange an' the !se of fertili-ers( %ro+i'es an i'eal en+ironment for re%ro'!,tion an' 'issemination of V. cholerae. =e,ent o!tbreaks of ,holera in Bangla'esh( for e2am%le( are ,losel& ,orrelate' .ith higher sea s!rfa,e tem%erat!res. V. cholerae atta,h to the s!rfa,e of both fresh.ater an' marine ,o%e%o's /,r!sta,eans0( as .ell as to roots an' e2%ose' s!rfa,es of ma,ro%h&tes /aK!ati, %lants0 s!,h as the .ater h&a,inth( the most ab!n'ant aK!ati, %lant in Bangla'esh. >!trient enri,hment an' .armer tem%erat!res gi+e rise to algae blooms an' an ab!n'an,e of ma,ro%h&tes. "he algae blooms %ro+i'e ab!n'ant foo' for ,o%e%o's( an' the in,reasing ,o%e%o' an' ma,ro%h&te %o%!lations %ro+i'e V. cholerae .ith habitat. S!bseK!ent 'is%ersal of V. cholerae into est!aries an' fresh .ater bo'ies allo.s ,onta,t .ith h!mans .ho !se these .aters for 'rinking an' bathing. Hlobal 'istrib!tion of marine %athogens s!,h as V. cholerae is f!rther fa,ilitate' b& ballast .ater 'is,harge' from +essels. Ballast .ater ,ontains a +irt!al ,o,ktail of %athogens( in,l!'ing V. cholerae. ".o other e2am%les of ho. e,ologi,al imbalan,es lea' to h!man health b!r'ens ,on,ern the in,rease' %re+alen,e of ;&me 'isease an' hanta+ir!s %!lmonar& 'isease. ;&me 'isease( soname' be,a!se it .as first %ositi+el& i'entifie' in ;&me( 1onne,ti,!t( is a ,ri%%ling arthriti,)t&%e 'isease that is transmitte' b& s%iro,hete)infe,te' I2o'es ti,ks /'eer ti,ks0. "i,ks a,K!ire the infe,tion from ro'ents( an' s%en' %art of their life ,&,le on 'eer. "hree fa,tors ha+e ,ombine' to in,rease the risk to h!mans of ,ontra,ting ;&me 'isease( %arti,!larl& in >orth Ameri,aC /10 the elimination of nat!ral 'eer %re'ators( %arti,!larl& .ol+es* /20 reforestation of aban'one' farmlan' has ,reate' more fa+orable habitat for 'eer* an' /60 the ,reation of s!b!rban estates( .hi,h the 'eer fin' i'eal habitat for bro.sing. "he net res!lt is a rising 'eer %o%!lation( .hi,h in,reases the ,han,es of h!mans ,oming into more ,onta,t .ith ti,ks. +esistensi -ntibiotik dan ,raktek ,ertanian Antibioti, resistan,e is a threat to %!bli, health. Antibioti, resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae( a ,ommon ba,terial %athogen in h!mans an' a lea'ing ,a!se of man& infe,tions( in,l!'ing ,hroni, bron,hitis( %ne!monia( an' meningitis( ha+e greatl& in,rease' in %re+alen,e sin,e the mi')13<0s. In some regions of the .orl'( !% to <0 %er,ent of ba,terial isolates taken from %atients %ro+e' resistant to %eni,illin an' other b)la,tam antibioti,s. "he !se of large K!antities of antibioti,s in agri,!lt!re an' aK!a,!lt!re a%%ears to ha+e been a ke& fa,tor in the 'e+elo%ment of antibioti, resistan,e b& %athogens in farm animals that s!bseK!entl& ma& also infe,t h!mans. $ne of the most serio!s risks to h!man health from s!,h %ra,ti,es is +an,om&,in)resistant entero,o,,i. "he !se of a+o%ar,in( an animal %romoter( a%%ears to ha+e ,om%romise' the !tilit& of +an,om&,in( the last antibioti, effe,ti+e against m!lti)'r!g)resistant ba,teria. In areas .here a+o%ar,in has been !se'( s!,h as on farms in Denmark an' Herman&( +an,om&,in)resistant ba,teria ha+e been 'ete,te' in meat sol' in s!%ermarkets. A+o%ar,in .as s!bseK!entl& banne' b& the #!ro%ean Union. Another e2am%le is the !se of oflo2a,in to %rote,t ,hi,kens from infe,tion an' thereb& enhan,e their "his 'r!g is ,losel& relate' to ,i%roflo2a,in( one of the

most .i'el& !se' antibioti,s in the &ear 2000. "here ha+e been ,ases of resistan,e to ,i%roflo2a,in 'ire,tl& relate' to its +eterinar& !se. In the Unite' King'om( ,i%roflo2a,in resistan,e 'e+elo%e' in strains of ,am%&loba,ter( a ,ommon ,a!se of 'iarrhea. M!lti) 'r!g)resistant strains of salmonella ha+e been tra,e' to #!ro%ean egg %ro'!,tion. Ketahanan ,angan dan -ir2 Praktek %ertanian j!ga 'a%at menimb!lkan sej!mlah an,aman bag!i kesehatan mas&arakat. Sebagian 'ari hal ini berh!b!ngan 'engan jelekn&a %engolaan limbah( &ang mengakibatkan sej!mlah %arasit 'an bakteri memas!ki %erairan 'an s&stem s!%lai air min!m. ?al &ang lain a'alah melibatkan transfer lintas s%esies %athogen)%atogen &ang 'a%at men&erang binatang 'an man!sia. "he most recent and spectacular example is mad co disease, $no n as variant Creut'feldt)>a$ob disease in humans, a neuro)degenerative condition that, in humans, is ultimately fatal. "he first case of -ovine 7pongiform Encephalopathy (-7E), the animal form of the disease, as identified in 7outhern England in Dovember *<F*. -y the fall of %&&&, an outbrea$ had also occurred in 8rance, and isolated cases appeared in :ermany, 7 it'erland, and 7pain. 1ore than one hundred deaths in Europe ere attributed to hat has come to be commonly called mad co disease. Pengelolaan %!%!k kan'ang &ang ti'ak te%at telah ber'am%ak %a'a m!n,!ln&a gangg!an E. coli 01:<C?< 'i Ealkerton( $ntario( 1ana'a. =isiko kesehatan lainn&a &ang berh!b!ngan 'engan mal)f!ngsi agroe,os&stems a'alah a'an&a gangg!an %erio'i, ,r&%tos%ori'iosis( %en&akit %arasitis &ang 'isebarkan oleh lim%asan %erm!kaan /r!noff0 &ang terkontaminasi oleh kotoran ternak &ang sakit /terinfeksi0. Parasit ini men&ebabkan gangg!an %en&akit %er!t 'an 'iarrhea %a'a orang)orang &ang imm!ne) ,om%etent 'an 'iarrhea)%arah 'an kematian %a'a orang)orang &ang imm!ne) ,om%romise'. +estorasi Ekosistem Patologi ekosistem 'alam bebera%a kas!s 'a%at 'engan m!'ah 'iatasi 'engan jalan menghilangkan s!mber)s!mber stress. Misaln&a 'alam kas!s)kas!s 'egra'asi ekosistem &ang 'iakibatkan oleh %enambahan bahan kimia toksik( maka %enghilangan stress ini 'a%at mem!lihkan kembali kesehatan ekosistem.

Restorasi Agroekologis
Agroecological restoration is the practice of re-integrating natural systems into agriculture in order to maximize sustainability, ecosystem services, and biodiversity. This is one example of a way to apply the principles of agroecology to an agricultural system. Farms cannot be restored to a purely natural state because of the negative economic impact on farmers, but returning processes, such as pest control to nature with the method of intercropping, allows a farm to be more ecologically sustainable and, at the same time, economically viable. Agroecological restoration works toward this balance of sustainability and economic viability because conventional farming is not sustainable over the long run without the integration of natural systems and because the use of land for agriculture has been a driving force in creating the present world biodiversity

crisis. ts efforts are complementary to, rather than a substitute for, biological conservation. !"biodiversity is #ust as important on farms and in fields as it is in deep river valleys or mountain cloud forests.$ FA%, &' %ctober ())* Agriculture creates a conflict over the use of land between wildlife and humans. Though the domestication of crop plants occurred &),))) years ago, a '))+ increase in the amount of pasture and crop land over the last three hundred years has led to the rapid loss of natural habitats. n recent years, the world community acknowledged the value of biodiversity in treaties, such as the &,,( landmark -onvention on .iological /iversity. Reintegration The reintegration of agricultural systems into more natural systems will result in decreased yield and produce a more complex system, but there will be considerable gains in biodiversity and ecosystem services. Biodiversitas The Food and Agriculture %rganization of the 0nited 1ations estimates that more than *)+ of earth2s land surface is currently used for agriculture. And because so much land has been converted to agriculture, habitat loss is recognized as the driving force in biodiversity loss 3FA%4. This biodiversity loss often occurred in two steps, as in the American 5idwest, with the introduction of mixed farming carried out on small farms and then with the widespread use of mechanized farming and monoculture beginning after 6orld 6ar . The decline in farmland biodiversity can now be traced to changes in farming practices and increased agricultural intensity. Peningkatan keaneka-ragaman 7eterogeneity 3here, the diversity or complexity of the landscape4 has been shown to be associated with species diversity. For example, the abundance of butterflies has been found to increase with heterogeneity. %ne important part of maintaining heterogeneity in the spaces between different fields is made up of habitat that is not cropped, such as grass margins and strips, scrub along field boundaries, woodland, ponds, and fallow land. These seemingly unimportant pieces of land are crucial for the biodiversity of a farm. The presence of field margins benefits many different taxa8 the plants attract herbivorous insects, will which attract certain species of birds and those birds will attract their natural predators. Also, the cover provided by the no cropped habitat allows the species that need a large range to move across the landscape. Monokultur n the absence of cover, species face a landscape in which their habitat is greatly fragmented. The isolation of a species to a small habitat that it can2t safely wander from can create a genetic bottleneck, decreasing the resilience of the particular population, and be another factor leading to the decline of the total population of the species. 5onoculture, the practice of producing a single crop over a wide area, causes fragmentation. n conventional farming, monoculture, such as with rotations of corn and soybean crops planted in alternating growing

seasons, is used so that very high yields can be produced. After the mechanization of farming, monoculture became a standard practice in cornbeans rotation, and had broad implications for the long-term sustainability and biodiversity of farms. 6hereas organic fertilizers, had kept the soil2s nutrients fixed to the ecosystem, the introduction of monoculture removed the nutrients and farmers compensated for that loss by using inorganic fertilizers. t is estimated that humans have doubled the rate of nitrogen input into the nitrogen cycle, mostly since &,9'. As a result, the biological processes that controlled the way crops used the nutrients changed and the leached nitrogen from farmland soils has become a source of pollution. Pertanian Organik %rganic farming is defined in different legal terms by different nations, but its main distinction from conventional farming is that it prohibits the use of synthetic chemicals in crop and livestock production. %ften, it also includes diverse crop rotations and provides non-cropped habitat for insects that provide ecosystem services, such as pest control and pollination. 7owever, it is merely encouraged that organic farmers follow those kinds of wildlife friendly practices, and as a result there is a great difference between the ecosystem services that similarly sized but distinctly managed organic farms provide. A recent review of the 9: studies concerning the relationship between biodiversity and organic farming listed three practices associated with organic farming that accounted for the higher biodiversity counts found in organic farms as compared to conventional farms. &. ;rohibition<reduced use of chemical pesticides and inorganic fertilizers is likely to have a positive impact through the removal of both direct and indirect negative effects on arable plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. (. =ympathetic management of non-crop habitats and field margins can enhance diversity and abundance of arable plants, invertebrates, birds and mammals. >. ;reservation of mixed farming is likely to positively impact farmland biodiversity through the provision of greater habitat heterogeneity at a variety of temporal and spacial scales within the landscape. Degradasi Ekosistem Degra'asi ekosistemC Degra'asi ata! 'estr!ksi lingk!ngan alam sekala l!as. Kala! s!at! ekosistem mengalami gangg!an akibat 'ari %eristi.a alam ata! kegiatan man!sia maka sangat s!lit !nt!k menghit!ng 'am%ak &ang 'ialami oleh sel!r!h alam. Kala! '!a ata! lebih ekosistem mengalami 'egra'asi maka %el!ang terja'in&a 'estr!ktif sinergistik akan berli%at)gan'a. #,osistem)ekosistem 'i ban&ak 'aerah akan teran,am( 'engan segala keka&aan biologisn&a 'an %otensi manfaat materialn&a. /So!r,eC EP=0 Degradasi Ekosistem6 Tanggungjawab Mora terhadap , anet !umi ?egiatan manusia telah berdampak pada degradasi ekosistem. ?arena planet, binatang dan lingkungan semuanya saling berinteraksi, maka perubahan yang berlangsung dalam ekosistem akan mempunyai dampak negative terhadap

kehidupan dan planet bumi ini. %leh karena itu, kita semua wa#ib untuk mengendalikan kegiatan-kegiatan manusia guna mewu#udkan kelestarian planet bumi di masa mendatang yang lebih nyaman dan lebih aman. ?ita semua manusia perlu bernafas dalam udara segar, hal yang tidak mungkin ter#adi kalau pembakaran bahan bakar fosil masih berlebihan. 7al ini akan menyesakkan nafas berbagai spesies oprganisme dan mengakibatkan perubahan iklim yang men#adi ekstrim. Aktivitas manusia telah mengakibatkan perubahan pola lingkungan hidup dunia. Aktivitas lainnya yang #uga menyebabkan kerusakan ekosistem adalah perikanan, pemanfaatan air tawar, dan penebangan <penggundulan huitan. ;enebangan hutan telah mengakibatkan kandungan -%( atmosfir meningkat dan mengakibatkan punahnya beberapa spesies. =iklus lingkungan telah mengalami perubahan drastic akibat kegiatan manusia. Ada kerusakan parah pada lapisan ozon. .agaimana kita akan dilindungi dari bahaya radiasi ultraviolet@ .agaimana kita harus melindungi lapisan ozon ini@ 5asing-masing dari kita semua , harus mengambil rtanggung-#awab ini untuk mereduksi emisi -%( dengan #alan menanam lebih banyak pohon sehingga #alur-#alur hi#au melindungi semua kehidupan. %leh karena itu penyelamatan planet bumi dari kepunahan berada di tangan kita manusia semuanya. 3=umber8 http8<<<>9B*(('4

Hambar berik!t ini men!nj!kkan keterkaitan antara tekanan %en'!'!k( fenomena kekeringan( %roses)%roses 'egra'asi( 'esertifi,ation( 'an kerentanan %angan2

7umber: http:((ag.ari' ;.. diunduh %(E(%&**

Keterkaitan antara Ketahanan %angan r!mahtangga 'an Ketahanan ;ingk!nganC Sikl!s Kemiskinan)Degra'asi ;ingk!ngan

7umber: http:((ag.ari' ;.. diunduh %(E(%&**

Mencegah Degradasi Ekosistem Mem!lihkan kembali 'egra'asi ekosistem sangatlah s!lit( 'an ban&ak sekali risiko kesehatan man!sia telah berm!n,!lan akibat 'ari hilangn&a kesehatan ekosistem( %en'ekatan &ang %al!ing efektif sebenarn&a a'alah men,egah terja'in&a ker!sakan ekosistem. Akan teta%i %en'ekatan se%erti ini ti'ak m!'ah 'ilaksanakan( a'a beragam ken'ala mengha'ang. Di >egara)negara se'ang berkembang 'an >egara)negara maj! a'a inklinasi &ang k!at !nt!k melanj!tkan %ert!mb!han ekonomin&a( meski%!n 'engan bia&a mahal ber!%a ker!sakan lingk!ngan &ang %arah. "erle%as 'ari moti+asi ego) keman'irian( arg!mentasi &ang 'iambil ialah bah.a %ert!mb!han ekonomi mem%!n&ai ban&ak manfaat n&ata bagi kesehatan( se%erti %en&e'iaan sarana &ang lebih efisien !nt!k 'istrib!si %angan( %en&e'iaan %angan &ang lebih baik( 'an %en&e'iaan la&anan kesehatan &ang elbih bag!s( serta %en'anaan !nt!k %enelitian mem%erbaiki stan'ar' kehi'!%an. Ini sem!an&a memang manfaat 'ari %embang!nan ekonomi( 'an telah berhasil meningkatkan stat!s kesehatan %en'!'!k '!nia. ?o.e+er( at the 'a.n of the t.ent&)first ,ent!r&( the %ast is not ne,essaril& the best g!i'e to the f!t!re. "he h!man %o%!lation is at an alltime high( an' asso,iate' %ress!res of h!man a,ti+it& ha+e le' to in,reasing 'egra'ation of the earth5s e,os&stems. As !ltimatel& health& e,os&stems are essential for life of all biota( in,l!'ing h!mans( ,!rrent global an' regional tren's are omino!s. Un'er these ,ir,!mstan,es( a tra'eoff bet.een imme'iate material gains an' long)term s!stainabilit& of h!mans on the %lanet ma& be the onl& o%tion. If so( the sol!tion to s!staining h!man health an' e,os&stem health be,omes one of 'e+ising a ne. %oliti, that %la,es s!staining lifes!%%ort s&stems as a %re,on'ition for betterment of the h!man ,on'ition.

,ertanian / -gricu ture The word agriculture is the Anglish adaptation of Catin agricultra, from ager, Da fieldD, and cultra, DcultivationD in the strict sense of Dtillage of the soilD. Thus, a literal reading of the word yields Dtillage of a field < of fieldsD. -gricu ture is the ,!lti+ation of animals( %lants( f!ngi an' other life forms for foo'( fiber( an' other %ro'!,ts !se' to s!stain life. Agri,!lt!re .as the ke& im%lement in the rise of se'entar& h!man ,i+ili-ation( .hereb& farming of 'omesti,ate' s%e,ies ,reate' foo' s!r%l!ses that n!rt!re' the 'e+elo%ment of ,i+ili-ation. "he st!'& of agri,!lt!re is kno.n as agri,!lt!ral s,ien,e. Agri,!lt!re is also obser+e' in ,ertain s%e,ies of ant an' termite( b!t generall& s%eaking refers to h!man a,ti+ities. "he histor& of agri,!lt!re 'ates ba,k tho!san's of &ears( an' its 'e+elo%ment has been 'ri+en an' 'efine' b& greatl& 'ifferent ,limates( ,!lt!res( an' te,hnologies. ?o.e+er( all farming generall& relies on te,hniK!es to e2%an' an' maintain the lan's s!itable for raising 'omesti,ate' s%e,ies. For %lants( this !s!all& reK!ires some form of irrigation( altho!gh there are metho's of 'r&lan' farming* %astoral her'ing on rangelan' is still the most ,ommon means of raising li+esto,k. In the 'e+elo%e' .orl'( in'!strial agri,!lt!re base' on large)s,ale mono,!lt!re has be,ome the 'ominant s&stem of mo'ern farming( altho!gh there is s!%%ort for s!stainable agri,!lt!re /e.g. %erma,!lt!re or organi, agri,!lt!re0. Mo'ern agronom&( %lant bree'ing( %esti,i'es an' fertili-ers( an' te,hnologi,al im%ro+ements ha+e shar%l& in,rease' &iel's from ,!lti+ation( b!t at the same time ha+e ,a!se' .i'es%rea' e,ologi,al 'amage an' negati+e h!man health effe,ts.PBQ Sele,ti+e bree'ing an' mo'ern %ra,ti,es in animal h!sban'r& s!,h as intensi+e %ig farming ha+e similarl& in,rease' the o!t%!t of meat( b!t ha+e raise' ,on,erns abo!t animal ,r!elt& an' the health effe,ts of the antibioti,s( hormones( an' other ,hemi,als ,ommonl& !se' in in'!strial meat %ro'!,tion. "he major agri,!lt!ral %ro'!,ts ,an be broa'l& gro!%e' into foo's( fibers( f!els( an' ra. materials. In the 21st ,ent!r&( %lants ha+e been !se' to gro. biof!els( bio%harma,e!ti,als( bio%lasti,s( an' %harma,e!ti,als. S%e,ifi, foo's in,l!'e ,ereals( +egetables( fr!its( an' meat. Fibers in,l!'e ,otton( .ool( hem%( silk an' fla2. =a. materials in,l!'e l!mber an' bamboo. $ther !sef!l materials are %ro'!,e' b& %lants( s!,h as resins. Biof!els in,l!'e methane from biomass( ethanol( an' bio'iesel. 1!t flo.ers( n!rser& %lants( tro%i,al fish an' bir's for the %et tra'e are some of the ornamental %ro'!,ts. Sistem ,roduksi Tanaman 1ro%%ing s&stems +ar& among farms 'e%en'ing on the a+ailable reso!r,es an' ,onstraints* geogra%h& an' ,limate of the farm* go+ernment %oli,&* e,onomi,( so,ial an' %oliti,al %ress!res* an' the %hiloso%h& an' ,!lt!re of the farmer.PB<QPBJQ Shifting ,!lti+ation /or slash an' b!rn0 is a s&stem in .hi,h forests are b!rnt( releasing n!trients to s!%%ort ,!lti+ation of ann!al an' then %erennial ,ro%s for a %erio' of se+eral &ears.PB3Q "hen the %lot is left fallo. to regro. forest( an' the farmer mo+es to a ne. %lot( ret!rning after man& more &ears /10)200. "his fallo. %erio' is shortene' if %o%!lation 'ensit& gro.s( reK!iring the in%!t of n!trients /fertili-er or man!re0 an' some man!al %est ,ontrol. Ann!al ,!lti+ation is the ne2t %hase of intensit& in .hi,h there is no fallo. %erio'. "his reK!ires e+en greater n!trient an' %est ,ontrol in%!ts. F!rther in'!striali-ation lea' to the !se of mono,!lt!res( .hen one ,!lti+ar is %lante' on a large a,reage. Be,a!se of the lo. bio'i+ersit&( n!trient !se is !niform an' %ests ten' to b!il' !%( ne,essitating the greater !se of %esti,i'es an' fertili-ers.PBJQ

M!lti%le ,ro%%ing( in .hi,h se+eral ,ro%s are gro.n seK!entiall& in one &ear( an' inter,ro%%ing( .hen se+eral ,ro%s are gro.n at the same time are other kin's of ann!al ,ro%%ing s&stems kno.n as %ol&,!lt!res. In tro%i,al en+ironments( all of these ,ro%%ing s&stems are %ra,ti,e'. In s!btro%i,al an' ari' en+ironments( the timing an' e2tent of agri,!lt!re ma& be limite' b& rainfall( either not m!lti%le ann!al ,ro%s in a &ear( or reK!iring irrigation. In all of these en+ironments %erennial ,ro%s are gro.n /,offee( ,ho,olate0 an' s&stems are %ra,ti,e' s!,h as agroforestr&. In tem%erate en+ironments( .here e,os&stems .ere %re'ominantl& grasslan' or %rairie( highl& %ro'!,ti+e ann!al ,ro%%ing is the 'ominant farming s&stem. "he last ,ent!r& has seen the intensifi,ation( ,on,entration an' s%e,iali-ation of agri,!lt!re( rel&ing !%on ne. te,hnologies of agri,!lt!ral ,hemi,als /fertili-ers an' %esti,i'es0( me,hani-ation( an' %lant bree'ing /h&bri's an' HM$5s0. In the %ast fe. 'e,a'es( a mo+e's s!stainabilit& in agri,!lt!re has also 'e+elo%e'( integrating i'eas of so,io)e,onomi, j!sti,e an' ,onser+ation of reso!r,es an' the en+ironment .ithin a farming s&stem.P:0QP:1Q "his has le' to the 'e+elo%ment of man& res%onses to the ,on+entional agri,!lt!re a%%roa,h( in,l!'ing organi, agri,!lt!re( !rban agri,!lt!re( ,omm!nit& s!%%orte' agri,!lt!re( e,ologi,al or biologi,al agri,!lt!re( integrate' farming an' holisti, management( as .ell as an in,rease' tren''s agri,!lt!ral 'i+ersifi,ation. Sistem ,roduksi Ternak Animals( in,l!'ing horses( m!les( o2en( ,amels( llamas( al%a,as( an' 'ogs( are often !se' to hel% ,!lti+ate fiel's( har+est ,ro%s( .rangle other animals( an' trans%ort farm %ro'!,ts to b!&ers. Animal h!sban'r& not onl& refers to the bree'ing an' raising of animals for meat or to har+est animal %ro'!,ts /like milk( eggs( or .ool0 on a ,ontin!al basis( b!t also to the bree'ing an' ,are of s%e,ies for .ork an' ,om%anionshi%. ;i+esto,k %ro'!,tion s&stems ,an be 'efine' base' on fee' so!r,e( as grasslan' ) base'( mi2e'( an' lan'less. Hrasslan' base' li+esto,k %ro'!,tion relies !%on %lant material s!,h as shr!blan'( rangelan'( an' %ast!res for fee'ing r!minant animals. $!tsi'e n!trient in%!ts ma& be !se'( ho.e+er man!re is ret!rne' 'ire,tl& to the grasslan' as a major n!trient so!r,e. "his s&stem is %arti,!larl& im%ortant in areas .here ,ro% %ro'!,tion is not feasible be,a!se of ,limate or soil( re%resenting 60)B0 million %astoralists.PB3Q Mi2e' %ro'!,tion s&stems !se grasslan'( fo''er ,ro%s an' grain fee' ,ro%s as fee' for r!minant an' monogasti, /one stoma,h* mainl& ,hi,kens an' %igs0 li+esto,k. Man!re is t&%i,all& re,&,le' in mi2e' s&stems as a fertili-er for ,ro%s. A%%ro2imatel& 8J4 of all agri,!lt!ral lan' is %ermanent %ast!res !se' in the %ro'!,tion of li+esto,k. ;an'less s&stems rel& !%on fee' from o!tsi'e the farm( re%resenting the 'e) linking of ,ro% an' li+esto,k %ro'!,tion fo!n' more %re+alentl& in $#1D member ,o!ntries. In the U.S.( <04 of the grain gro.n is fe' to animals on fee'lots. S&ntheti, fertili-ers are more hea+il& relie' !%on for ,ro% %ro'!,tion an' man!re !tili-ation be,omes a ,hallenge as .ell as a so!r,e for %oll!tion. Pen'ekatan !nt!k mere'!ksi limbah ternak 'an %en,emaran lingk!nganC 1. S!%%l& n!trients to the reK!ire' le+el. "his ,an be a,,om%lishe' b& better kno.le'ge of n!trient a+ailabilit& />( P0 in the fee'( a better kno.le'ge of the animals reK!irement an' a better agreement of s!%%l& an' reK!irement. 2. #nhan,e 'igestibilit& of P an' %rotein. Use of mi,robial %h&tase to im%ro+e 'igestibilit& of P re'!,es nee's for s!%%lementation* en-&me treatment of

non)star,h %ol&sa,,hari'es* re'!,e anti)n!tritional fa,tors thro!gh treatment of ingre'ients an' %ro,essing of ,om%lete 'iets. 6. 1hange fee'st!ff ,om%osition. For e2am%le sele,tion of highl& 'igestible so!r,es of P /mono),al,i!m %hos%hate rather than 'i),al,i!m0* !se of amino a,i' s!%%lementation an' re'!,tion in %rotein le+els. B. Mem%erbaiki efisiensi %akan. Dam%ak lingk!ngan lainn&aC 1. ;e+els of %otassi!m s!%%l& e2,ee' 'eman' b& a fa,tor of 6): an' le+els in fresh .ater ,an e2,ee' a,,e%te' le+els b& a fa,tor of 2)B. 2. ?igh moist!re le+el of li+esto,k .aste in,reases trans%ort ,osts for 'is%osal. 6. Altho!gh fee' a''iti+es ma& re'!,e e2,retion of > an' P as a res!lt of better fee' ,on+ersion( ,o%%er an' -in, %romotants ,an a,,!m!late in soils. B. Free)ranging %igs reK!iring more fibre in the 'iet ha+e fee' ,on+ersion an' more .aste %er !nit of meat %ro'!,e'. :. S%e,ifi, %athogen)free her's ,an im%ro+e fee' ,on+ersion b& 10)1: %er,ent. 7umber: >ongbloed and 3enis (*<<0)

,ertanian-Eko ogis / Ecoagricu ture Ecoagricu ture 'es,ribes lan's,a%es that s!%%ort both agri,!lt!ral %ro'!,tion an' bio'i+ersit& ,onser+ation( .orking in harmon& together to im%ro+e the li+elihoo's of r!ral ,omm!nities. Ehile man& r!ral ,omm!nities ha+e in'e%en'entl& %ra,ti,e' e,oagri,!lt!re for tho!san's of &ears( o+er the %ast ,ent!r& man& of these lan's,a%es ha+e gi+en .a& to segregate' lan' !se %atterns( .ith some areas em%lo&ing intensi+e farming %ra,ti,es .itho!t regar' to bio'i+ersit& im%a,ts( an' other areas fen,e' off ,om%letel& for habitat or .atershe' %rote,tion. A ne. e,oagri,!lt!re mo+ement is no. gaining moment!m to !nite lan' managers an' other stakehol'ers from 'i+erse en+ironments to fin' ,om%atible .a&s to ,onser+e bio'i+ersit& .hile also enhan,ing agri,!lt!ral %ro'!,tion. IEcoagricultureI is a term coined in %&&& (by 7ara 7cherr and >effrey 1cDeely) to convey a vision of rural communities managing their resources to #ointly achieve three broad goals at a landscape scale J hat e refer to as the Kthree pillarsL of ecoagriculture: Enhance rural livelihoods! Conserve or enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services! and 6evelop more sustainable and productive agricultural systems. Ecoagriculture is both a conservation strategy and a rural development strategy. Ecoagriculture recogni'es agricultural producers and communities as $ey ste ards of ecosystems and biodiversity and enables them to play those roles effectively. Ecoagriculture applies an integrated ecosystem approach to agricultural landscapes to address all three pillars, dra ing on diverse elements of production and conservation management systems. 1eeting the goals of ecoagriculture usually re5uires collaboration or coordination bet een diverse sta$eholders ho are collectively responsible for managing $ey components of a landscape.

As an alternative strategy to industrial agriculture, an ecoagriculture approach works by mimicking natural systems to create a new ecosystem, one consisting mainly of perennials and indigenous species. There are many names for ecoagricultural systemsE permaculture, natural systems agriculture, agroecology, and while doctrinaires will expound the differences between these labels, all work on the same principals and emulate basic analogous concepts. .y mimicking and re-creating an ecosystem, biodiversity, stability, fertility, resilience and resistance are increased, there-by strengthening the overall agricultural system. -hemical additions are not reFuired as the system is closed and entirely self-supportive, additionally needed amendments will be provided from organic by-products of the system. Acoagriculture systems have been shown to be effective in both climate change mitigation and adaptation, while being extremely productive as a food source. Acoagriculture systems !have been described as domesticated ecosystems$ . The premise works similarly to a forest, or a prairie, or any other ecosystem. A forest is an entirely contained system, each individual part making the whole stronger. A forest does not reFuire outside fertilizers or pesticides or irrigation, yet nutrients in the soil, insect ratios, water are typically keep in proper balance. !This system, thus, maintains

its own health, runs on the sunGs energy, recycles nutrients, and at no expense to the planet or people.$ 0sing these concepts, ecoagriculture designs a system allowing these processes to work with the land, to achieve the desired outcome of an increased, diverse food supply.

9ohon ditanam pada guludan untu$ memanfaat$an air hu#an yang tertampung pada parit (s ale) 7umber: http:(( ..... diunduh ,&(=(%&** #,oagri,!lt!re is both a ,onser+ation strateg& an' a r!ral 'e+elo%ment strateg&. #,oagri,!lt!re re,ogni-es agri,!lt!ral %ro'!,ers an' ,omm!nities as ke&'s of e,os&stems an' bio'i+ersit& an' enables them to %la& those roles effe,ti+el&. #,oagri,!lt!re a%%lies an integrate' e,os&stem a%%roa,h to agri,!lt!ral lan's,a%es to a''ress all three %illars )) ,onser+ing bio'i+ersit&( enha,ing agri,!lt!ral %ro'!,tion( an' im%ro+ing li+elihoo's )) ' on 'i+erse elements of %ro'!,tion an' ,onser+ation management s&stems. Meeting the goals of e,oagri,!lt!re !s!all& reK!ires ,ollaboration or ,oor'ination bet.een 'i+erse stakehol'ers .ho are ,olle,ti+el& res%onsible for managing ke& ,om%onents of a lan's,a%e. ,ertanian !erke anjutan / Sustainab e agricu ture Sustainab e agricu ture is the %ra,ti,e of farming !sing %rin,i%les of e,olog&( the st!'& of relationshi%s bet.een organisms an' their en+ironment. It has been 'efine' as Fan integrate' s&stem of %lant an' animal %ro'!,tion %ra,ti,es ha+ing a site)s%e,ifi, a%%li,ation that .ill last o+er the long termC Satisf& h!man foo' an' fiber nee's Make the most effi,ient !se of non) reso!r,es an' on)farm reso!r,es an' integrate( .here a%%ro%riate( nat!ral biologi,al ,&,les an' ,ontrols

S!stain the e,onomi, +iabilit& of farm o%erations #nhan,e the K!alit& of life for farmers an' so,iet& as a .hole.AP1Q S!stainable Agri,!lt!re in the Unite' States .as a''resse' b& the 1330 farm bill. P2Q More re,entl&( as ,ons!mer an' retail 'eman' for s!stainable %ro'!,ts has risen( organi-ations s!,h as Foo' Allian,e an' Prote,te' ?ar+est ha+e starte' to %ro+i'e meas!rement stan'ar's an' ,ertifi,ation %rograms for .hat ,onstit!tes a s!stainabl& gro.n ,ro%. A mo+ement has emerge' '!ring the %ast t.o 'e,a'es to K!estion the role of the agri,!lt!ral establishment in %romoting %ra,ti,es that ,ontrib!te to these so,ial %roblems. "o'a& this mo+ement for s!stainable agri,!lt!re is garnering in,reasing s!%%ort an' a,,e%tan,e .ithin mainstream agri,!lt!re. >ot onl& 'oes s!stainable agri,!lt!re a''ress man& en+ironmental an' so,ial ,on,erns( b!t it offers inno+ati+e an' e,onomi,all& +iable o%%ort!nities for gro.ers( laborers( ,ons!mers( %oli,&makers an' man& others in the entire foo' s&stem. S!stainable agri,!lt!re integrates three main goals))en+ironmental health( e,onomi, %rofitabilit&( an' so,ial an' e,onomi, eK!it&. A +ariet& of %hiloso%hies( %oli,ies an' %ra,ti,es ha+e ,ontrib!te' to these goals. Peo%le in man& 'ifferent ,a%a,ities( from farmers to ,ons!mers( ha+e share' this +ision an' ,ontrib!te' to it. Des%ite the 'i+ersit& of %eo%le an' %ers%e,ti+es( the themes ,ommonl& .ea+e thro!gh 'efinitions of s!stainable agri,!lt!re. =ustainable agriculture is said to offer three main goals that industrial agriculture has not been successfully accounting for H environmental health and diversity, economic profitability, and social and economic eFuity. n summary, it looks to promote harmony between agriculture and social responsibility so that the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is not obstructed. n reality, the growth rate of the global human population is rapid, but not something the agricultural industry can2t keep up with.

7umber: http:(( ;.. diunduh ,&(=(%&**

S!stainabilit& rests on the %rin,i%le that .e m!st meet the nee's of the %resent .itho!t ,om%romising the abilit& of f!t!re generations to meet their o.n nee's. "herefore( stewardship of both natural and human resources is of %rime im%ortan,e.'shi% of h!man reso!r,es in,l!'es ,onsi'eration of so,ial res%onsibilities s!,h as .orking an' li+ing ,on'itions of laborers( the nee's of r!ral ,omm!nities( an' ,ons!mer health an' safet& both in the %resent an' the f!t!re.'shi% of lan' an' nat!ral reso!r,es in+ol+es maintaining or enhan,ing this +ital reso!r,e base for the long term.

Model Usahatani berkelanjutan

To be sustainable, inputs must be less than outputs. nputs include fuel and all forms of energy, labour and raw materials. Aven treatment of wastes must not consume excessive energy. For a farmer to practice sustainable agriculture, he must derive a reasonable income from his efforts. The only purchased inputs are corn and other feed ingredients. From here, all GwastesG are recycled. /ung, carcasses, etc are all composted and made into high Fuality humus. 0sing humus and compost tea and proper management, an acre of land can produce >) tonnes of high protein napia grass. This is fed to goats and fish. 0sing humus and compost tea, and selecting low-nitrogen demanding heritage seeds, seperti kacang-kacangan, bayam, terung, dll. we can produce abundant market vegetables.

0odel usahatani berkelanjutan sekala mikro 1Sumber: .. diunduh -#/"/ #$$3 A systems perspective is essential to !n'erstan'ing s!stainabilit&. "he s&stem is en+isione' in its broa'est sense( from the in'i+i'!al farm( to the lo,al e,os&stem( and to ,omm!nities affe,te' b& this farming s&stem both lo,all& an' globall&. An em%hasis on

the s&stem allo.s a larger an' more thoro!gh +ie. of the ,onseK!en,es of farming %ra,ti,es on both h!man ,omm!nities an' the en+ironment. A s&stems a%%roa,h gi+es !s the tools to e2%lore the inter,onne,tions bet.een farming an' other as%e,ts of o!r en+ironment. A s&stems a%%roa,h also im%lies interdisciplinary efforts in research and education. "his reK!ires not onl& the in%!t of resear,hers from +ario!s 'is,i%lines( b!t also farmers( farm.orkers( ,ons!mers( %oli,&makers an' others. Making the transition to sustainable agriculture is a process . 8or farmers, the transition to sustainable agriculture normally re5uires a series of small, realistic steps. 8amily economics and personal goals influence ho fast or ho far participants can go in the transition. .t is important to reali'e that each small decision can ma$e a difference and contribute to advancing the entire system further on the Isustainable agriculture continuum.I "he $ey to moving for ard is the ill to ta$e the next step. 8inally, it is important to point out that reaching toward the goal of sustainable agriculture is the responsibility of all participants in the system , including farmers, laborers, policyma$ers, researchers, retailers, and consumers. Each group has its o n part to play, its o n uni5ue contribution to ma$e to strengthen the sustainable agriculture community. "he s%e,ifi, strategies for reali-ing these broa' themes or goals of s&stems . "he strategies are gro!%e' a,,or'ing to three se%arate tho!gh relate' areas of ,on,ernC Farming an' >at!ral =eso!r,es( Plant an' Animal Pro'!,tion Pra,ti,es( an' the #,onomi,( So,ial an' Politi,al 1onte2t. "he& re%resent a range of %otential i'eas for in'i+i'!als ,ommitte' to inter%reting the +ision of s!stainable agri,!lt!re .ithin their o.n ,ir,!mstan,es.

7saha ,ertanian dan Sumberda)a - am "he %h&si,al as%e,ts of s!stainabilit& are %artl& !n'erstoo'. Pra,ti,es that ,an ,a!se long)term 'amage to soil in,l!'e e2,essi+e tillage /lea'ing to erosion0 an' irrigation .itho!t a'eK!ate 'rainage /lea'ing to salini-ation0. ;ong)term e2%eriments ha+e %ro+i'e' some of the best 'ata on ho. +ario!s %ra,ti,es affe,t soil %ro%erties essential to s!stainabilit&. "he most im%ortant fa,tors for an in'i+i'!al site are s!n( air( soil an' .ater. $f the fo!r( .ater an' soil K!alit& an' K!antit& are most amenable to h!man inter+ention thro!gh time an' labo!r.

Sistem Produksi Primer

;lants produce plant matter from soil nutrients, water and carbon dioxide, using the energy of light. t is called primary production. The diagram shows the carbon flows 3is eFual to energy flows4. At left one sees a plant receiving light and -%( from the air and returning oxygen. At night, when there is no sunlight, plants respire like animals do, taking up oxygen and returning -%(. =urprisingly, a large proportion of a plantGs primary production 3')+4 disappears underground, where it grows the root system and feeds soil organisms. %nly ')+ is used for aboveground growth. %f this, between &) and *)+ is used for growing, depending on plant type, age and kind of harvesting. f the plant is grazed regularly, the grown biomass will be grazed, amounting to no more than *)+. The remaining &)+ is

lost by leaf drop. This leaf litter is decomposed by fungi and bacteria, contributing energy to the soil biota, while returning nutrients to the plant

7umber: http:(('(enviro(soil(ecology.htm ..... diunduh ,&(=(%&**

Altho!gh air an' s!nlight are a+ailable e+er&.here on #arth( ,ro%s also 'e%en' on soil n!trients an' the a+ailabilit& of .ater. Ehen farmers gro. an' har+est ,ro%s( the& remo+e some of these n!trients from the soil. Eitho!t re%lenishment( lan' s!ffers from n!trient 'e%letion an' be,omes either !n!sable or s!ffers from re'!,e' &iel's. S!stainable agri,!lt!re 'e%en's on re%lenishing the soil .hile minimi-ing the !se of non) reso!r,es( s!,h as nat!ral gas /!se' in ,on+erting atmos%heri, nitrogen into s&ntheti, fertili-er0( or mineral ores /e.g.( %hos%hate0. Possible so!r,es of nitrogen that .o!l'( in %rin,i%le( be a+ailable in'efinitel&( in,l!'eC 1. re,&,ling ,ro% .aste an' li+esto,k or treate' h!man man!re 2. leg!me ,ro%s an' forages s!,h as %ean!ts or alfalfa that form s&mbioses .ith nitrogen)fi2ing ba,teria ,alle' rhi-obia 6. in'!strial %ro'!,tion of nitrogen b& the ?aber Pro,ess !ses h&'rogen( .hi,h is ,!rrentl& 'eri+e' from nat!ral gas( /b!t this h&'rogen ,o!l' instea' be ma'e b& ele,trol&sis of .ater !sing ele,tri,it& /%erha%s from solar ,ells or .in'mills00 or B. geneti,all& engineering /non)leg!me0 ,ro%s to form nitrogen)fi2ing s&mbioses or fi2 nitrogen .itho!t mi,robial s&mbionts.

"he last o%tion .as %ro%ose' in the 13<0s( b!t is onl& re,entl& be,oming feasible. S!stainable o%tions for re%la,ing other n!trient in%!ts /%hos%hor!s( %otassi!m( et,.0 are more limite'. More realisti,( an' often o+erlooke'( o%tions in,l!'e long)term ,ro% rotations( ret!rning to nat!ral ,&,les that ann!all& floo' ,!lti+ate' lan's /ret!rning lost n!trients in'efinitel&0 s!,h as the Floo'ing of the >ile( the long)term !se of bio,har( an' !se of ,ro% an' li+esto,k lan'ra,es that are a'a%te' to less than i'eal ,on'itions

s!,h as %ests( 'ro!ght( or la,k of n!trients. 1ro%s that reK!ire high le+els of soil n!trients ,an be ,!lti+ate' in a more s!stainable manner if ,ertain fertili-er management %ra,ti,es are a'here' to. -ir - ,ertanian In some areas( s!ffi,ient rainfall is a+ailable for ,ro% b!t man& other areas reK!ire irrigation. For irrigation s&stems to be s!stainable the& reK!ire %ro%er management /to a+oi' salini-ation0 an' m!st not !se more .ater from their so!r,e than is nat!rall& re%lenishe'( other.ise the .ater so!r,e be,omes( in effe,t( a non) reso!r,e. Im%ro+ements in .ater .ell 'rilling te,hnolog& an' s!bmersible %!m%s ,ombine' .ith the 'e+elo%ment of 'ri% irrigation an' lo. %ress!re %i+ots ha+e ma'e it %ossible to reg!larl& a,hie+e high ,ro% &iel's .here relian,e on rainfall alone %re+io!sl& ma'e this le+el of s!,,ess !n%re'i,table. ?o.e+er( this %rogress has ,ome at a %ri,e( in that in man& areas .here this has o,,!rre'( s!,h as the $gallala AK!ifer( the .ater is being !se' at a greater rate than its rate of re,harge. Se+eral ste%s sho!l' be taken to 'e+elo% 'ro!ght)resistant farming s&stems e+en in FnormalF &ears( in,l!'ing both %oli,& an' management a,tionsC 10 im%ro+ing .ater ,onser+ation an' storage meas!res( 20 %ro+i'ing in,enti+es for sele,tion of 'ro!ght)tolerant ,ro% s%e,ies( 60 !sing re'!,e')+ol!me irrigation s&stems( B0 managing ,ro%s to re'!,e .ater loss( or :0 not %lanting at all /.P<Q Ehen the %ro'!,tion of foo' an' fiber 'egra'es the nat!ral reso!r,e base( the abilit& of f!t!re generations to %ro'!,e an' flo!rish 'e,reases. "he 'e,line of an,ient ,i+ili-ations in Meso%otamia( the Me'iterranean region( Pre)1ol!mbian so!th.est U.S. an' 1entral Ameri,a is belie+e' to ha+e been strongl& infl!en,e' b& nat!ral reso!r,e 'egra'ation from non)s!stainable farming an' forestr& %ra,ti,es. Eater is the %rin,i%al reso!r,e that has hel%e' agri,!lt!re an' so,iet& to %ros%er( an' it has been a major limiting fa,tor .hen mismanage'. Suplai dan +enggunaan &ir An extensive ater storage and transfer system has been established hich has allo ed crop production to expand to very arid regions. .n drought years, limited surface ater supplies have prompted overdraft of ground ater and conse5uent intrusion of salt ater, or permanent collapse of a5uifers. 9eriodic droughts, some lasting up to 0& years, have occurred in any areas. 7everal steps should be ta$en to develop drought)resistant farming systems even in InormalI years, including both policy and management actions: *) improving ater conservation and storage measures, %) providing incentives for selection of drought)tolerant crop species, ,) using reduced)volume irrigation systems, M) managing crops to reduce ater loss, or 0) not planting at all. %ualitas &ir. "he most important issues related to ater 5uality involve salini'ation and contamination of ground and surface aters by pesticides, nitrates and selenium. 7alinity has become a problem herever ater of even relatively lo salt content is used on shallo soils in arid regions and(or here the ater table is near the root 'one of crops. "ile drainage can remove the ater and salts, but the disposal of the salts and other contaminants may negatively affect the environment depending upon here they are deposited. "emporary solutions include the use of salt)tolerant crops, lo )volume irrigation, and various management techni5ues to minimi'e the effects of salts on crops. .n the long)term, some farmland may need to be removed from production or converted to other uses. 4ther uses include conversion of ro crop land to production of drought)tolerant forages, the

restoration of ildlife habitat or the use of agroforestry to minimi'e the impacts of salinity and high ater tables In'i,ators for s!stainable .ater reso!r,e 'e+elo%ment areC R Internal .ater reso!r,es. "his is the a+erage ann!al flo. of ri+ers an' gro!n'.ater generate' from en'ogeno!s %re,i%itation( after ens!ring that there is no 'o!ble ,o!nting. It re%resents the ma2im!m amo!nt of .ater reso!r,e %ro'!,e' .ithin the bo!n'aries of a ,o!ntr&. "his +al!e( .hi,h is e2%resse' as an a+erage on a &earl& basis( is in+ariant in time /e2,e%t in the ,ase of %ro+e' ,limate ,hange0. "he in'i,ator ,an be e2%resse' in three 'ifferent !nitsC in absol!te terms /km6M&r0( in mmM&r /it is a meas!re of the h!mi'it& of the ,o!ntr&0( an' as a f!n,tion of %o%!lation /m6M%erson %er &r0. R Hlobal .ater reso!r,es. "his is the s!m of internal .ater reso!r,es an' in,oming flo. originating o!tsi'e the ,o!ntr&. Unlike internal reso!r,es( this +al!e ,an +ar& .ith time if !%stream 'e+elo%ment re'!,es .ater a+ailabilit& at the bor'er. "reaties ens!ring a s%e,ifi, flo. to be reser+e' from !%stream to 'o.nstream ,o!ntries ma& be taken into a,,o!nt in the ,om%!tation of global .ater reso!r,es in both ,o!ntries. R De%en'en,& ratio. "his is the %ro%ortion of the global .ater reso!r,es originating o!tsi'e the ,o!ntr&( e2%resse' in %er,entage. It is an e2%ression of the le+el to .hi,h the .ater reso!r,es of a ,o!ntr& 'e%en' on neighbo!ring ,o!ntries. R Eater .ith' In +ie. of the limitations 'es,ribe' abo+e( onl& gross .ater .ith' ,an be ,om%!te' s&stemati,all& on a ,o!ntr& basis as a meas!re of .ater !se. Absol!te or %er)%erson +al!e of &earl& .ater .ith' gi+es a meas!re of the im%ortan,e of .ater in the ,o!ntr&5s e,onom&. Ehen e2%resse' in %er,entage of .ater reso!r,es( it sho.s the 'egree of %ress!re on .ater reso!r,es. A ro!gh estimate sho.s that if .ater .ith' e2,ee's a K!arter of global .ater reso!r,es of a ,o!ntr&( .ater ,an be ,onsi'ere' a limiting fa,tor to 'e+elo%ment an'( re,i%ro,all&( the %ress!re on .ater reso!r,es ,an ha+e a 'ire,t im%a,t on all se,tors( from agri,!lt!re to en+ironment an' fisheries. Tanah-pertanian Soil erosion is fast be,oming one of the .orl's greatest %roblems. It is estimate' that Fmore than a tho!san' million tonnes of so!thern Afri,a5s soil are ero'e' e+er& &ear. #2%erts %re'i,t that ,ro% &iel's .ill be hal+e' .ithin thirt& to fift& &ears if erosion ,ontin!es at %resent rates.F Soil erosion is not !niK!e to Afri,a b!t is o,,!rring .orl'.i'e. "he %henomenon is being ,alle' Peak Soil as %resent large s,ale fa,tor& farming te,hniK!es are jeo%ar'i-ing h!manit&5s abilit& to gro. foo' in the %resent an' in the f!t!re. Eitho!t efforts to im%ro+e soil management %ra,ti,es( the a+ailabilit& of arable soil .ill be,ome in,reasingl& %roblemati,. Bebera%a teknik %engelolaan tanah 1. Pertanian tan%a olah tanah />o)till farming0 2. Ke&line 'esign 6. Menanam t!mb!han %enahan angin !nt!k melin'!ngi tanah B. Mengembalikan bahan organi, ke 'alam tanah :. Menghentikan %engg!naan %!%!k)%!%!k kima 8. Melin'!ngi tanah 'ari air r!noff.. Berf!ngsin&a ekosistem tanah

1hemi,al 'e,om%osing a,ti+it& ,an be fo!n' thro!gho!t the soil( b!t it is most a,ti+e in fi+e s%e,ial areas. "he& are the arenas .here a,ti+it& ,on,entrates. "he 'rilos%here is the .ork%la,e of earth .orms. As ,an be seen from the to% right ' .orms lea+e a f!nnel)sha%e' b!siness en' on to% of %re+io!s f!nnels. #arth is ,ast on to% an' to the si'e( ,o+ering leaf litter in a loose fashion. In the o2&gen)ri,h moist!re( other organisms fin' shelter or a,ti+el& take %art in some of the %ro,ess. =ain.ater 'issol+es nitrates( D$1 /Dissol+e' $rgani, 1arbon0 an' trans%orts it 'o.n the .orm hole. "he 'etrit!s%here .orks .here leaf litter is moist an' ri,h in o2&gen. ?ere f!ngi ,an .ork effi,ientl&( 'e,om%osing ,ell!lose .hile taking o2&gen in an' res%irating ,arbon 'io2i'e. Insi'e ano2i, ,orners of leaf str!,t!re( ba,teria ,on+ert nitri, o2i'es to nitrogen.

7umber: http:(('(enviro(soil(ecology.htm ..... diunduh ,&(=(%&**

Ehere masses of &o!ng roots are fo!n'( a,ti+it& is high in the %oros%here of the soil. Pores are ne,essar& to hol' .ater an' to trans%ort o2&gen an' ,arbon 'io2i'e. Aggregates of soil are %ier,e' b& hair roots /&ello.0 an' ,o+ere' in h&%hae of f!ngi /%!r%le0. B& the trans%ort ,hannels from .orms an' other organisms( .ater( nitrates( %hos%hor!s an' 'issol+e' organi, ,arbon ,om%o!n's lea,h from the to% 'o.n. In the aggregat!s%here( san' an' ,la& %arti,les form en,lose' .orksho%s for ba,teria. Man& ,hemi,al %ro,esses ha%%en here( %ro'!,ing nitrates />$6)0( ammonia />?BS0( ,arbon 'io2i'e /1$20( nitri, o2i'es an' more. Man& ,om%o!n's are trans%orte' b& the fine h&%hae to other %la,es.

7umber:: http:(('(enviro(soil(ecology.htm ..... diunduh ,&(=(%&**

"he rhi-os%here is the area 'ire,tl& aro!n' hair roots. "his is a s%e,ial %la,e be,a!se hair roots bring foo' an' o2&gen( enabling the mi,ro organisms to .ork faster than an&.here else. A ,ontin!o!s flo. of .ater is ,a!se'( as .ater is absorbe' b& these roots( ' .ith it 'issol+e' s!bstan,es. As these hair roots gro.( the& intr!'e into other aggregat!s%heres( fin' n!trients( get eaten( an' other fine roots take their %la,e. "he soil is in a ,ontin!o!s state of 'e,om%osition( %ro+i'e' moist!re an' o2&gen are a+ailable.

U'ara)%ertanian Man& agri,!lt!ral a,ti+ities affe,t air K!alit&. "hese in,l!'e smoke from agri,!lt!ral b!rning* '!st from tillage( traffi, an' har+est* %esti,i'e 'rift from s%ra&ing* an' nitro!s o2i'e emissions from the !se of nitrogen fertili-er. $%tions to im%ro+e air K!alit& in,l!'e in,or%orating ,ro% resi'!e into the soil( !sing a%%ro%riate le+els of tillage( an' %lanting .in' breaks( ,o+er ,ro%s or stri%s of nati+e %erennial grasses to re'!,e '!st. Ekonomi - ,ertanian So,ioe,onomi, as%e,ts of s!stainabilit& are also %artl& !n'erstoo'. =egar'ing less ,on,entrate' farming( the best kno.n anal&sis is >etting5s st!'& on smallhol'er s&stems thro!gh histor&.P12Q "he $2for' S!stainable Hro!% 'efines s!stainabilit& in this

,onte2t in a m!,h broa'er form( ,onsi'ering effe,t on all stakehol'ers in a 680 'egree a%%roa,h Hi+en the finite s!%%l& of nat!ral reso!r,es at an& s%e,ifi, ,ost an' lo,ation( agri,!lt!re that is ineffi,ient or 'amaging to nee'e' reso!r,es ma& e+ent!all& e2ha!st the a+ailable reso!r,es or the abilit& to affor' an' a,K!ire them. It ma& also generate negati+e e2ternalit&( s!,h as %oll!tion as .ell as finan,ial an' %ro'!,tion ,osts. "he .a& that ,ro%s are sol' m!st be a,,o!nte' for in the s!stainabilit& eK!ation. Foo' sol' lo,all& 'oes not reK!ire a''itional energ& for trans%ortation /in,l!'ing ,ons!mers0. Foo' sol' at a remote lo,ation( .hether at a farmers5 market or the s!%ermarket( in,!rs a 'ifferent set of energ& ,ost for materials( labo!r( an' trans%ort. Metode-metode ,ertanian Ehat gro.s .here an' ho. it is gro.n are a matter of ,hoi,e. ".o of the man& %ossible %ra,ti,es of s!stainable agri,!lt!re are ,ro% rotation an' soil amen'ment( both 'esigne' to ens!re that ,ro%s being ,!lti+ate' ,an obtain the ne,essar& n!trients for health& Soil amen'ments .o!l' in,l!'e !sing lo,all& a+ailable ,om%ost from ,omm!nit& re,&,ling ,enters. "hese ,omm!nit& re,&,ling ,enters hel% %ro'!,e the ,om%ost nee'e' b& the lo,al organi, farms. Man& s,ientists( farmers( an' b!sinesses ha+e 'ebate' ho. to make agri,!lt!re s!stainable. Using ,omm!nit& re,&,ling from &ar' an' kit,hen .aste !tili-es a lo,al area5s ,ommonl& a+ailable reso!r,es. "hese reso!r,es in the %ast .ere thro.n a.a& into large .aste 'is%osal sites( are no. !se' to %ro'!,e lo. ,ost organi, ,om%ost for organi, farming. $ther %ra,ti,es in,l!'es a 'i+erse n!mber of %erennial ,ro%s in a single fiel'( ea,h of .hi,h .o!l' gro. in se%arate season so as not to ,om%ete .ith ea,h other for nat!ral reso!r,es.P16Q "his s&stem .o!l' res!lt in in,rease' resistan,e to 'iseases an' 'e,rease' effe,ts of erosion an' loss of n!trients in soil. >itrogen fi2ation from leg!mes( for e2am%le( !se' in ,onj!n,tion .ith %lants that rel& on nitrate from soil for hel%s to allo. the lan' to be re!se' ann!all&. ;eg!mes .ill gro. for a season an' re%lenish the soil .ith ammoni!m an' nitrate( an' the ne2t season other %lants ,an be see'e' an' gro.n in the fiel' in %re%aration for har+est. Mono,!lt!re( a metho' of onl& one ,ro% at a time in a gi+en fiel'( is a +er& .i'es%rea' %ra,ti,e( b!t there are K!estions abo!t its s!stainabilit&( es%e,iall& if the same ,ro% is gro.n e+er& &ear. "o'a& it is reali-e' to get aro!n' this %roblem lo,al ,ities an' farms ,an .ork together to %ro'!,e the nee'e' ,om%ost for the farmers aro!n' them. "his ,ombine' .ith a mi2t!re of ,ro%s /%ol&,!lt!re0 sometimes re'!,es 'isease or %est %roblems b!t %ol&,!lt!re has rarel&( if e+er( been ,om%are' to the more .i'es%rea' %ra,ti,e of 'ifferent ,ro%s in s!,,essi+e &ears /,ro% rotation0 .ith the same o+erall ,ro% 'i+ersit&. 1ro%%ing s&stems that in,l!'e a +ariet& of ,ro%s /%ol&,!lt!re an'Mor rotation0 ma& also re%lenish nitrogen /if leg!mes are in,l!'e'0 an' ma& also !se reso!r,es s!,h as s!nlight( .ater( or n!trients more effi,ientl& /Fiel' 1ro%s =es. 6BC2630. =e%la,ing a nat!ral e,os&stem .ith a fe. s%e,ifi,all& ,hosen %lant +arieties re'!,es the geneti, 'i+ersit& fo!n' in .il'life an' makes the organisms s!s,e%tible to .i'es%rea' 'isease. "he Hreat Irish Famine /1JB:T1JB30 is a .ell)kno.n e2am%le of the 'angers of mono,!lt!re. In %ra,ti,e( there is no single a%%roa,h to s!stainable agri,!lt!re( as the %re,ise goals an' metho's m!st be a'a%te' to ea,h in'i+i'!al ,ase. "here ma& be some te,hniK!es of farming that are inherentl& in ,onfli,t .ith the ,on,e%t of s!stainabilit&( b!t there is .i'es%rea' mis!n'erstan'ing on im%a,ts of some %ra,ti,es. "o'a& the of lo,al farmers5 markets offer small farms the abilit& to sell the %ro'!,ts that the& ha+e gro.n ba,k to the ,ities that the& got the re,&,le' ,om%ost

from. B& !sing lo,al re,&,ling this .ill hel% mo+e %eo%le a.a& from the slash)an')b!rn te,hniK!es that are the ,hara,teristi, feat!re of shifting ,!lti+ators are often ,ite' as inherentl& 'estr!,ti+e( &et slash)an')b!rn ,!lti+ation has been %ra,ti,e' in the Ama-on for at least 8000 &ears*P1:Q serio!s 'eforestation 'i' not begin !ntil the 13<0s( largel& as the res!lt of Bra-ilian go+ernment %rograms an' %oli,ies. P18Q "o note that it ma& not ha+e been slash)an')b!rn so m!,h as slash)an'),har( .hi,h .ith the a''ition of organi, matter %ro'!,es terra %reta( one of the ri,hest soils on #arth an' the onl& one that regenerates itself. "here are also man& .a&s to %ra,ti,e s!stainable animal h!sban'r&. Some of the ke& tools to gra-ing management in,l!'e fen,ing off the gra-ing area into smaller areas ,alle' %a''o,ks( lo.ering sto,k 'ensit&( an' mo+ing the sto,k bet.een %a''o,ks freK!entl&. Se+eral attem%ts ha+e been ma'e to %ro'!,e an artifi,ial meat( !sing isolate' tiss!es to %ro'!,e it in +itro* ason Mathen&5s .ork on this to%i,( .hi,h in the >e. ?ar+est %roje,t( is one of the most ,ommente'.P1JQ ,er akuan Tanah pertanian Soil steaming ,an be !se' as an e,ologi,al alternati+e to ,hemi,als for soil sterili-ation. Different metho's are a+ailable to in'!,e steam into the soil in or'er to kill %ests an' in,rease soil health. 1omm!nit& an' farm ,om%osting of kit,hen( &ar'( an' farm organi, .aste ,an %ro+i'e most if not all the reK!ire' nee's of lo,al farms. "his ,om%osting ,o!l' %otentiall& be a reliable so!r,e of energ&. Apa itu Kompos? -ompost is a rich healthy humus type fertiliser and soil conditioner that results from the decay of organic waste. %rganic waste is used to describe a waste that was once living such as grass, leaves, vegetable peelings, cooked food etc. -omposting is simply a means of creating the right conditions to accelerate this decay of waste.

Sumber: .. diunduh -#/"/ #$$ Dampak eksterna A farm that is able to F%ro'!,e %er%et!all&F( &et has negati+e effe,ts on en+ironmental K!alit& is not s!stainable agri,!lt!re. An e2am%le of a ,ase in .hi,h a global +ie. ma& be .arrante' is o+er)a%%li,ation of s&ntheti, fertili-er or animal man!res( .hi,h ,an im%ro+e %ro'!,ti+it& of a farm b!t ,an %oll!te nearb& ri+ers an' ,oastal .aters /e!tro%hi,ation0. "he other e2treme ,an also be !n'esirable( as the %roblem of lo. ,ro% &iel's '!e to e2ha!stion of n!trients in the soil has been relate' to rainforest 'estr!,tion( as in the ,ase of slash an' b!rn farming for li+esto,k fee'. Agricultural activities contribute strongly to eutrophication and the spread of pollutions in the basin.

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The chain of eutrophication begins with an overload of nutrients that enters the aFuatic ecosystem. This schematic show various nutrient pathways and their effects. The future half of the diagram shows improved water Fuality based on better nutrient filtering.

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S!stainabilit& affe,ts o+erall %ro'!,tion( .hi,h m!st in,rease to meet the in,reasing foo' an' fiber reK!irements as the .orl'5s h!man %o%!lation e2%an's to a %roje,te' 3.6 billion %eo%le b& 20:0. In,rease' %ro'!,tion ma& ,ome from ,reating ne. farmlan'( .hi,h ma& ameliorate ,arbon 'io2i'e emissions if 'one thro!gh re,lamation of 'esert as in the .orl's( or ma& .orsen emissions if 'one thro!gh slash an' b!rn farming. A''itionall&( Heneti,all& mo'ifie' organism ,ro%s sho. %romise for ra'i,all& in,reasing ,ro% &iel's( altho!gh man& %eo%le an' go+ernments are a%%rehensi+e of this ne. farming metho'.

Genetically modified organisms (GM s!

Ienetically modified organism 3I5%4 is an organism that was changed using methods of modern biotechnology. n such organism defined gene for exactly defined characteristic from other organism has been inserted. I5% are microorganisms 3bacteria, fungi, and viruses4, plants and animals. According to =lovene legislation GGI5% is an organism, with the exception of human beings, or a micro-organism, in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating or natural recombination.GG 3Management of Genetically Modified Organisms Act (Official Gazette of RS No. 23/2 !44 According to A0 legislation GGI5% means an organism, with the exception of human beings, in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and<or natural recombination.GG3 "irecti#e 2 $/$%/&' of t(e &uro)ean *arliament and of t(e 'ouncil of $2 Marc( 2 $ on t(e deli+erate release into t(e en#ironment of genetically modified organisms and re)ealing 'ouncil "irecti#e , /22 /&&' - 'ommission "eclaration4 According to international -artagena ;rotocol GGCiving 5odified %rganism 3C5%4 means any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.GG 3 'artagena *rotocol on .iosafety to t(e 'on#ention on .iological "i#ersity/

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Manfaat "eknologi GM
"anaman Pertanian 5emperbaiki rasa dan kualitas 5ereduksi waktu pemasakan ncreased nutrients, yields, and stress tolerance mproved resistance to disease, pests, and herbicides 1ew products and growing techniFues #inatang$"ernak 7asil produksi yang lebih baik 8 daging, telur dan susu ;erbaikan kesehatan binatang dan metode diagnosisnya ;eningkatan resistensi, productivity, hardiness, dan efisiensi pakan %ingkungan &idup D .ioherbicides dan bioinsecticida$ ramah lingkungan ?onservasi tanah, air dan energi .io-proses untuk produk kehutanan ;engelolaan limbah secara lebih baik ;engolahan lebih efisien. Masyarakat 5eningkatkan kertahanan pangan bagi penduduk yang semakin banyak

Recombinant DNA technology: genetically modified organism production

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'ontroversi GM
'eamanan /ampak potensial terhadap kesehatan manusia8 allergens, transfer resistensi antibiotic, efek-efek yang belum diketahui. /ampak potensial terhadap lingkungan8 unintended transfer of transgenes through cross-pollination, unknown effects on other organisms 3e.g., soil microbes4, and loss of flora and fauna biodiversity Access dan (ntellectual Property /ominasi produksi pangan dunia oleh beberapa perusahaan 5eningkatkan ketergantungan 1egara berkembang kepada 1egara industry ma#u Aksploitasi sumberdaya alam secara .iopiracy-foreign )tika ;elanggaran nilai-nilai intrinsik dari organism alamiah Tampering with nature by mixing genes among species %b#ections to consuming animal genes in plants and vice versa =tress bagi binatang

Some a'+o,ates fa+o!r s!stainable agri,!lt!re as the onl& s&stem .hi,h ,an be s!staine' o+er the long)term. ?o.e+er( organi, %ro'!,tion metho's( es%e,iall& in transition( &iel' less than their ,on+entional ,o!nter%arts an' raise the same %roblems of s!staining %o%!lations globall&. rganic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniFues such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and control pests on a farm. %rganic farming excludes or strictly limits the use of manufactured fertilizers, pesticides 3which include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides4, plant growth regulators such as hormones, livestock antibiotics, food additives, and genetically modified organisms. D%rganic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. t relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. %rganic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good Fuality of life for all involved..D K nternational Federation of %rganic Agriculture 5ovements Productivitas dan Profitabilitas Pertanian rganik Larious studies find that versus conventional agriculture, organic crops yielded ,&+, or ,'-&))+, along with ')+ lower expenditure on fertilizer and energy, and ,9+ less pesticides, or &))+ for corn and soybean, consuming less energy and zero pesticides. (7tanhill, :. *<<&). "he comparative productivity of organic agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment. ,&(*)%):*)%=). The results were attributed to lower yields in average and good years but higher yields during drought years. A ())9 study compiling research from (,> different comparisons into a single study to assess the overall efficiency of the two agricultural systems has concluded that methods could produce enough food on a global per capita basis to sustain the current human population, and potentially an even larger population, ithout increasing the agricultural land base.
(9erfecto et al.., in @ene able Agriculture and 8ood 7ystems (%&&E), %%: F=N*&F Cambridge Bniversity 9ress: cited in De 7cientist *,:M= *% >uly %&&E)

-onverted organic farms have lower pre-harvest yields than their conventional counterparts in developed countries 3,(+4 but higher than their low-intensity counterparts in developing countries 3&>(+4. This is due to relatively lower adoption of fertilizers and pesticides in the developing world compared to the intensive farming of the developed world. (-adgley, C. et al. .4rganic agriculture and the global food supply. @ene able Agriculture and 8ood 7ystems (%&&E), %%: F=)*&F. %rganic farms withstand severe weather conditions better than conventional farms, sometimes yielding 9)-,)+ more than conventional farms during droughts.M*(N %rganic farms are more profitable in the drier states of the 0nited =tates, likely due to their superior drought performance. %rganic farms survive hurricane damage much better, retaining () to *)+ more topsoil and smaller economic losses at highly significant levels than their neighbors. -ontrary to widespread belief, organic farming can build up soil organic matter better than conventional no-till farming, which suggests long-term yield benefits

from organic farming. An &B-year study of organic methods on nutrient-depleted soil, concluded that conventional methods were superior for soil fertility and yield in a cold-temperate climate, arguing that much of the benefits from organic farming are derived from imported materials which could not be regarded as Dself-sustainingD.M*:N

Profitabilitas Pertanian


(%otter* +. (,--.!. / rganic Agriculture/ (P+0!. 1ournal of Sustainable Agriculture ,2 (3!. http455donlotter.net5lotter6organicag.pdf.! The decreased cost of synthetic fertilizer and pesticide inputs, along with the higher prices that consumers pay for organic produce, contribute to increased profits. %rganic farms have been consistently found to be as or more profitable than conventional farms. 6ithout the price premium, profitability is mixed. %rganic production was more profitable in 6isconsin, given price premiums

http:(( .ans''*f%iC8"t> An agroe,os&stem is the basi, !nit of st!'& for an agroe,ologist( an' is some.hat arbitraril& 'efine' as a s%atiall& an' f!n,tionall& ,oherent !nit of agri,!lt!ral a,ti+it&( an' in,l!'es the li+ing an' nonli+ing ,om%onents in+ol+e' in that !nit as .ell as their intera,tions. &n agroecosystem can be .iewed as a subset of a con.entional ecosystem. &s the name implies7 at the core of an agroecosystem lies the human acti.ity of agriculture. 8owe.er7 an agroecosystem is not restricted to the immediate site of agricultural acti.ity 1e.g. the farm37 but rather includes the region that is impacted by this acti.ity7 usually by changes to the complexity of species assemblages and energy flows7 as well as to the net nutrient balance. 6raditionally an agroecosystem7 particularly one managed intensi.ely7 is characteri9ed as a simpler species composition and simpler energy and nutrient flows than :natural: ecosystem. ;ikewise7 agroecosystems are often associated with ele.ated nutrient input7 much of which exits the farm leading to eutrophication of connected ecosystems not directly engaged in agriculture. $ne of the major efforts of 'is,i%lines s!,h as agroe,olog& is to %romote management st&les that bl!r the 'istin,tion bet.een agroe,os&stems an' Fnat!ralF e,os&stems( both b& 'e,reasing the im%a,t of agri,!lt!re /in,reasing the biologi,al an' tro%hi, ,om%le2it& of the agri,!lt!ral s&stem as .ell as 'e,reasing the n!trient in%!tsMo!tflo.0 an' b& in,reasing a.areness that F'o.nstreamF effe,ts e2ten' agroe,os&stems be&on' the bo!n'aries of the farm. In the first ,ase( %ol&,!lt!re or b!ffer stri%s for .il'life habitat ,an restore some ,om%le2it& to a ,ro%%ing s&stem( .hile organi, farming ,an re'!,e n!trient in%!ts. #fforts of the se,on' t&%e are most ,ommon at the .atershe' s,ale. An e2am%le is the >ational Asso,iation of 1onser+ation Distri,ts5 ;ake Men'ota Eatershe' Proje,t( .hi,h seeks to re'!,e r!noff from the agri,!lt!ral lan's fee'ing into the lake .ith the aim of re'!,ing algal blooms. A mo'el for the f!n,tionings of an agri,!lt!ral s&stem( .ith all in%!ts an' o!t%!ts. An e,os&stem ma& be as small as a set of mi,robial intera,tions that take %la,e on the s!rfa,e of roots( or as large as the globe. An agroe,os&stem ma& be at the le+el of the in'i+i'!al %lant)soil)mi,roorganism s&stem( at the le+el of ,ro%s or her's of 'omesti,ate' animals( at the le+el of farms or agri,!lt!ral lan's,a%es( or at the le+el of entire agri,!lt!ral e,onomies. #iri-ciri -groekosistem Agroe,os&stems 'iffer from nat!ral e,os&stems in se+eral f!n'amental .a&s. 1. "he energ& that 'ri+es all a!totro%hi, e,os&stems( in,l!'ing agroe,os&stems( is either 'ire,tl& or in'ire,tl& 'eri+e' from solar energ&. ?o.e+er( the energ& in%!t to agroe,os&stems in,l!'es not onl& nat!ral energ& /s!nlight0 b!t also %ro,esse' energ& /fossil f!els0 as .ell as h!man an' animal labor. 2. Bio'i+ersit& in agroe,os&stems is generall& re'!,e' b& h!man management in or'er to ,hannel as m!,h energ& an' n!trient flo. as %ossible into a fe. 'omesti,ate' s%e,ies.

6. #+ol!tion is largel&( b!t not entirel&( thro!gh artifi,ial sele,tion .here ,ommer,iall& 'esirable %henot&%i, traits are in,rease' thro!gh bree'ing %rograms an' geneti, engineering. B. Agroe,os&stems are !s!all& e2amine' from a range of %ers%e,ti+es in,l!'ing energ& fl!2( e2,hange of materials( n!trient b!'gets( an' %o%!lation an' ,omm!nit& '&nami,s. Solar energ& infl!en,es agroe,os&stem %ro'!,ti+it& 'ire,tl& b& %ro+i'ing the energ& for %hotos&nthesis an' in'ire,tl& thro!gh heat energ& that infl!en,es res%iration( rates of .ater loss( an' the heat balan,e of %lants an' animals. >!trient !%take from soil b& ,ro% %lants or .ee's is %rimaril& me'iate' b& mi,robial %ro,esses. Some soil ba,teria fi2 atmos%heri, nitrogen into forms that %lants ,an assimilate. $ther organisms infl!en,e soil str!,t!re an' the e2,hange of n!trients( an' still other mi,roorganisms ma& e2,rete ammonia an' other metaboli, b&)%ro'!,ts that are !sef!l %lant n!trients. "here are man& ,om%le2 .a&s that mi,roorganisms infl!en,e n!trient ,&,ling an' !%take b& %lants. Some mi,roorganisms are %lant %athogens that re'!,e n!trient !%take in 'isease' %lants. ;arger organisms ma& infl!en,e n!trient !%take in'ire,tl& b& mo'if&ing soil str!,t!re or 'ire,tl& b& 'amaging %lants. Altho!gh agroe,os&stems ma& be greatl& sim%lifie' ,om%are' to nat!ral e,os&stems( the& ,an still foster a ri,h arra& of %o%!lation an' ,omm!nit& %ro,esses s!,h as herbi+or&( %re'ation( %arasiti-ation( ,om%etition( an' m!t!alism. 1ro% %lants ma& ,om%ete among themsel+es or .ith .ee's for s!nlight( soil n!trients( or .ater. 1attle o+ersto,ke' in a %ast!re ma& ,om%ete for forage an' thereb& ,hange ,om%etiti+e intera,tions among %ast!re %lants( res!lting in sele,tion for !n%alatable or e+en to2i, %lants. In'ee'( one im%ortant goal of farming is to fin' the o%timal 'ensities for ,ro%s an' li+esto,k. Ei'es%rea' !se of s&ntheti, ,hemi,al %esti,i'es has bolstere' farm %ro'!,tion .orl'.i'e( %rimaril& b& re'!,ing or eliminating herbi+oro!s inse,t %ests. "ra'itional broa')s%e,tr!m %esti,i'es s!,h as DD"( ho.e+er( ,an ha+e far)ranging im%a,ts on agroe,os&stems. For instan,e( se,on'ar& %est o!tbreaks asso,iate' .ith the !se of man& tra'itional %esti,i'es are not !n,ommon '!e to the elimination of nat!ral enemies or resistan,e of %ests to ,hemi,al ,ontrol. Hro.ers an' %esti,i'e 'e+elo%ers in tem%erate regions ha+e beg!n to fo,!s on alternati+e means of ,ontrol. Pesti,i'e 'e+elo%ers ha+e beg!n %ro'!,ing sele,ti+e %esti,i'es( .hi,h are 'esigne' to target onl& %est s%e,ies an' to s%are nat!ral enemies( lea+ing the rest of the agroe,os&stem ,omm!nit& inta,t. Man& gro.ers are no. im%lementing integrate' %est management %rograms that in,or%orate the ne. bree' of biorational ,hemi,als .ith ,!lt!ral an' other t&%es of ,ontrols.

-8-0.S.S -3+$EK$S.STEM -groecos)stem ana )sis is a thoro!gh anal&sis of an agri,!lt!ral en+ironment .hi,h ,onsi'ers as%e,ts from e,olog&( so,iolog&( e,onomi,s( an' %oliti,s .ith eK!al .eight. "here are man& as%e,ts to ,onsi'er* ho.e+er( it is literall& im%ossible to a,,o!nt for all of them. "his is one of the iss!es .hen tr&ing to ,on'!,t an anal&sis of an agri,!lt!ral en+ironment. In the %ast( an agroe,os&stem anal&sis a%%roa,h might be !se' to 'etermine the s!stainabilit& of an agri,!lt!ral s&stem. It has be,ome a%%arent( ho.e+er( that the Fs!stainabilit&F of the s&stem 'e%en's hea+il& on the 'efinition of s!stainabilit& ,hosen b& the obser+er. "herefore( agroe,os&stem anal&sis is !se' to bring the ri,hness of the tr!e ,om%le2it& of agri,!lt!ral s&stems to an anal&sis to i'entif& re,onfig!rations of the s&stem /or holon0 that .ill best s!it in'i+i'!al sit!ations. Agroe,os&stem anal&sis is a tool of the m!lti'is,i%linar& s!bje,t kno.n as Agroe,olog&. Agroe,olog& an' agroe,os&stem anal&sis are not the same as s!stainable agri,!lt!re( tho!gh the !se of agroe,os&stem anal&sis ma& hel% a farming s&stem ens!re its +iabilit&. Agroe,os&stem anal&sis is not a ne. %ra,ti,e( agri,!lt!ralists an' farmers ha+e been 'oing it sin,e so,ieties,he' from h!nting an' gathering /h!nter) gatherer0 for foo' to settling in one area. #+er& time a %erson in+ol+e' in agri,!lt!re e+al!ates their sit!ation to i'entif& metho's to make the s&stem f!n,tion in a .a& that better s!its their interests( the& are %erforming an agroe,os&stem anal&sis. -na isis -groecos)stem dan ,ertanian berke anjutan It is 'iffi,!lt to 'is,!ss these 'ifferen,es .itho!t the ai' of an e2am%le. 1onsi'er the ,ase of a ,on+entional a%%le farmer. "his farmer ma& ,hoose to ,hange his farm to ,onform to the stan'ar's of USDA a%%ro+e' organi, agri,!lt!re be,a!se he felt moti+ate' b& so,ial or moral norms or the %otential of in,rease' %rofits or a host of other reasons. "his farmer e+al!ate' his sit!ation an' re,onfig!re' it to tr& to im%ro+e it. Some might look at this sit!ation an' ,on,l!'e that the a%%le farmer ,hose organi, a%%le %ro'!,tion be,a!se it is more s!stainable for the en+ironment. B!t( .hat if a fe. &ears later the farmer fin's that he is str!ggling to make a %rofit an' 'e,i'es to go ba,k to ,on+entional agri,!lt!reL "he farmer %erforme' another agroe,os&stem anal&sis an' arri+e' at a re,onfig!ration that some might see as !ns!stainable. "his e2am%le ill!strates ho. agroe,os&stem anal&sis is not reK!ire' to lea' a more en+ironmentall& s!stainable form of agri,!lt!re. Agroe,os&stem anal&sis might %ro'!,e a re,onfig!ration that is more e,onomi,all& s!stainable or so,iall& s!stainable or %oliti,all& s!stainable for a farmer /or other a,tor0. B& 'efinition( ho.e+er( agroe,os&stem anal&sis is not reK!ire' to %ro'!,e an en+ironmentall& s!stainable ,onfig!ration for an agri,!lt!ral s&stem.

,endekatan untuk -na isis Eilliam ;. Blan'( from the Uni+ersit& of Eis,onsinTMa'ison( 'e+elo%e' the i'ea of a farm as a ?olon /%hiloso%h&0 "his term( holon( .as originall& intro'!,e' b& Arth!r Koestler in 1388( in .hi,h he referre' to a holon as an entit& in .hi,h it is a %art b& itself( a holon( .hile ,ontrib!ting to a larger entit&( .hi,h is also a holon. Blan' 'e+elo%s this for an agri,!lt!ral en+ironment or farm as( F"he farm holon is both the .hole in .hi,h smaller holons e2ists( an' a %art of larger entities( themsel+es holons.F "his i'ea .as e2%an'e' !%on b& Blan' an' Mi,hael M. Bell Uni+ersit& of Eis,onsinTMa'ison in their 200< arti,le FA holon a%%roa,h to agroe,olog&(F be,a!se it is 'iffi,!lt to a,,o!nt for bo!n'ar& an' ,hange .hen !sing a s&stems thinking a%%roa,h. $ne major 'ifferen,e bet.een Koestler5s holon an' the holon i'ea 'e+elo%e' for agroe,os&stem anal&sis is that the latter ,an onl& be 'efine' as a holon if it has intentionalit&. "he farm itself is a holon an' .ithin the farm holon( other holons e2ist. For e2am%le( a farm animal( the farm famil&( an' a farm.orker ,an all be ,onsi'ere' holons .ithin the farm. A''itionall&( the farm is ,onsi'ere' a holon .hi,h is in%art ,onne,te' to other holons s!,h as the ,o!nt& in .hi,h the farm resi'es( the bank from .hi,h the farmer borro.e' mone&( or the grain ele+ator .here the farmer ,an sell goo's. "hings like the tra,tor or the barn are not holons be,a!se the& la,k intentionalit&. Ehen ,on'!,ting an agroe,os&stem anal&sis( the anal&st sho!l' a%%roa,h the farm as the farm itself an' the Fe,olog& of ,onte2tsF in .hi,h the farm an' the farmer f!n,tion. A F,onte2tF is an&thing that might infl!en,e f!n,tioning of the farm an' ,a!se it to ,hange. A,,or'ing to Blan' an' Bell( e2am%les of ,onte2ts in,l!'e( Ffamil&( farm b!siness( geneti, heart 'isease( an' s%irit!al beliefs.F "hese e2am%les ill!strate the brea'th of ,onte2ts that ,o!l' infl!en,e .h& farmers 'o .hat the& 'o. Blan' ,on,l!'e' his mo'el of a farm as a holon b& stating( FA farm is not s!stainable /'isintegrates0 .hen it ,annot fin' an o+erall ,onfig!ration that is sim!ltaneo!sl& +iable in all ,onte2ts.F ,ertan)aan )ang harus diperhatikan "here is no right or .rong .a& to e+al!ate an agroe,os&stem. It is im%ortant to i'entif& all a,tors in a holon before beginning the anal&sis. Ehen an anal&st a,,e%ts the task of anal&-ing the agroe,os&stem( first an' foremost( it m!st be a%%roa,he' as to in,or%orate all elements in+ol+e' an' sho!l' 'eri+e K!estions that sho!l' be ans.ere'. Pertan&aan)%ertan&aan se%ertiC A%akah faktor)faktor %embatas /holons an' ,onte2ts0 menent!kan konfig!rasi agroe,os&stem &ang a'a sekarangL Bagaimana mengk!antifikasikan keberl*anj!tan s!at! !sahat %ertanian /e,onomi( so,ial( %olitis( ekologi 'anMata! lainn&a0L Bagaimana %etani ata! kel!arga !sahatani mem%erse%sikan s!at! agroe,os&stemL A%a saja &ang 'ilak!kan %etani saat ini( 'an bagaimana %raktek)%raktek terseb!t mem%engar!hi +iabilitas agroe,os&stemL Da%atkan %etani melestarikan kesejahteraann&a 'engan %raktek)%raktek &ang a'a sekarangL A%akah nilai)nilai &ang 'ian!t oleh %etani 'ari 'arimana asaln&a nilai)nilai terseb!tL A%akah %etani akan mem%ertimbangkan alternatif konfig!rasi !sahatanin&aL

Manajemen -groekosistem Organic &gro-(cosystem 0anagement from +rototyped Organic <armer ;earning +rocesses. Ouppayao "o$eeree, 7unantha 3ao ansiri and 7opit Petayasuporn. %&*&. "he 7ocial 7ciences, %&*& , Polume: 0 , .ssue: =, 9age 0,%)0,E. 9enelitian ini dila$u$an untu$ mempela#ari mana#emen agroe$osistem organic dan mensintesis proses pembela#aran yang dila$u$an oleh petani organic 1r. Gampan 3ao ongsri. 1r. Gampan adalah prototype petani organic yang menerap$an system pertanian terpadu di propinsi 1ahasara$arm. 7istem pertanian terpadu ini sesuai dengan $aidah)$aidah mutual)mana#emen antara sumberdaya fisi$ dan sumberdaya buiologis serta system pemanfataan limbahnya. 3imbah pertanian diromba$ dan diolah men#adi material yang bermanfaat dan diguna$an dalam proses pertanian. /asil)hasil penelitian ini menun#u$$an bah a $eberhasilan system pertanian organic terpadu ini berpang$al dari proses pembela#aran sendiri petani, prinsip $earifan local, dan pengalaman yang telah dilalui dari generasi $e generasi, percobaan)percobaan, saran pemerintah dan suasta, dis$usi $omunitas dan informasi)informasi lainnya. 7istem pertanian organic terpadu dari 1r. Gampan ini bu$an hanya bertumpu pada $eragaan usahatani, tetapi #uga me u#ud$an $elestarian, $elaya$an e$onomi, $ese#ahteraan petani, $eramahan ling$ungan dan hasil)hasil opertanian yang aman di$onsumsi. Gecuali itu, $elebihan hasil)hasil pertanian dari $onsumsi $eluarga dapat di#ual dan menghasil$an income bagi $eluarganya. ,rototipe Sistem ,enge o aan -groekosistem $rganik $rgani, farming is an agri,!lt!ral %ro'!,tion s&stem of foo's an' fibers in terms of en+ironmental( so,ial an' e,onomi, s!stainabilit&. It ,on,entrates on soil fertili-ation an' %a&ing res%e,t to nat!ral ,a%abilities of %lant( animal an' agro)e,os&stem. "he organi, farming 'e,reases e2ternal %ro'!,tion fa,tors an' es,a%es the !sage of s&ntheti, ,hemi,als. It mainl& em%hasi-es on the !sage of %lant ref!ses( man!res( +et,h %lants /%lants of %ea famil&0( green man!res an' other organi, ref!ses for ,ir,!lating n!trients an' energ& in farms. "his farming in,l!'es ,reating the en+ironmental s!stainabilit& b& maintaining nat!ral balan,e an' biologi,al 'i+ersit& that the organi, agro)e,os&stem management is similar to the nat!re an' a,,om%anies .ith !sing lo,al .is'oms. "herefore( the organi, farming is an agri,!lt!ral %ro,ess rel&ing on the nat!re .ith mainl& !sing biologi,al %ro,esses to in,rease %ro'!,ts an' %re+ent %ests an' a,,om%anies .ith the ,ir,!lation of reso!r,es !sing in farms for ma2im!m benefit. ?en,e( the organi, farming %rin,i%le .ill ,onform to the lo,al ,on'itions in terms of e,onom&( so,iet&( .eather an' ,!lt!re. "he organi, agro)e,os&stem management is an im%ortant fa,tor lea'ing to the s!stainabl& agri,!lt!ral 'e+elo%ment. =egar'ing to this management( farmers m!st be 'iligent an' %atient in ,!lti+ation that there are metho's as the follo.ingsC soil fertile management b& main !sing of organi, matters( ,ir,!lating %lants ,!lti+ation em%hasi-ing on lo,al %lants( no !sage of agri,!lt!ral ma,hines to maintain an' ,!ring soil str!,t!ral %ro%erties( no !sage of %esti,i'es( herbi,i'es an' other ,hemi,als an' soil),o+ering %lants ,!lti+ation instea' of ,hemi,als !sage. Besi'es( the lan' management is another fa,tor that is +er& sim%ortant to be the base of agro)e,os&stem b!ilt. It regar's .ith +ario!s %lants

,!lti+ation( internal an' inter)relati+e areas organism management an' farm areas allo,ation that are ne,essar& to ha+e a goo' %lan for ,reating a ne. agro)e,os&stem of organi, farms. "hese managements a,t!all& are the an,ient agri,!lt!re in lo,al ,omm!nities of Asian ,o!ntries. "he m!t!al ,on'itions in foo' ,hain an' foo' .eb intera,tion in,l!'ing energ& e2,hange ha+e ,reate' the e,ologi,al s!stainabilit& for instan,es( reso!r,e !nits in farm %ro'!,tion( ri,e ,!lti+ation( fish farming an' horti,!lt!ral ,!lti+ation ,an be !se' to ,ir,!late an' m!t!al s!%%ort in the 'imension of reso!r,e an' energ& transferring. Mahasarakarm( a %ro+in,e in "hailan'( s!%%orts a,ti+ities of organi, farming to farmers. Farmers ha+e starte' to ,!lti+ate %lants an' 'omesti,ate animals .ith ,reating the agro)e,os&stem balan,e in farms. Man& of them ha+e s!,,ee'e' in the organi, farming management that hel%s to generate organi, or green %ro'!,ts ,reating health benefits to farmers an' ,ons!mers as .ell as in,ome to farmers in long term o%eration. "he organi, farmer has .orke' on the basis of agro)e,os&stem intention b& allo,ating rele+ant reso!r,es an' ,reating the organi, agro)e,os&stem in his farm a%%ro%riatel& .ith lo,al ,on'itions as .ell as em%hasi-ing on the integrate' management ,om%rising the items as follo.s. 0and management6 "he farmer lan' has been allo,ate' a,,or'ingl& .ith the ne. agri,!lt!ral theor&. "he theor& has 'efine' the lan' %ro%ortion of .ater so!r,eC ri,e fiel'C horti,!lt!ral fiel'C a,,ommo'ation as 60C 60C 60C 10( res%e,ti+el&. ?is farm lan' %ro%ortion .as 2B.JC 13.<C B:.JC 3.< '!e to the %erforman,e an' a'j!stment the s!itabilit& of lo,al e,ologi,al geogra%h&. Ehen in)'e%th st!'&ing of lan' allo,ation( his lan' has been se%arate' into 3 s!b)areas i.e.( ri,e fiel'( mi2e' horti,!lt!ral an' +egetable fiel'( ,ir,!lating seasonal +egetable fiel'( as%arag!s fiel'( herbal fiel'( ri,e file' an' %ool e'ges( .ater so!r,e( animal 'omesti,ating area an' ri,e stra. gro!%. "he highest amo!nt lan' is the .ater so!r,e area for sol+ing the la,k of .ater in s!mmer season. "he ri,e fiel' e'ge also ,ons!mes a large area b& ,onstr!,ting the big si-e e'ges to %rote,t .ater 'rainage from o!tsi'e lan's .hi,h ,ontaminate ,hemi,als an' %re+ent floo'. Besi'es( the e'ges ,an be !se' to ,!lti+ate %lants es%e,iall& %erennial trees. Soi management6 "he %rotot&%e' farmer has fertili-e' to im%ro+e the soil K!alit& b& !sing man!res( green man!res from +et,h %lants( fermente' man!re( biologi,al fermente' .ater( .itho!t ri,e ,ob b!rning an' re'!,ing soil n!trients b& lo. .aste har+esting of %ro'!,ts. F!rthermore( there are the ,!lti+ation of ,ir,!lating %lants for maintaining n!trients balan,e( the ,onser+ation of soil benthos an' the %rote,tion of soil erosion b& ,!lti+ating %lants on ri,e file' an' %ool e'ges an' soil ,o+ere' %lants. 9ater management6 In northeast "hailan'( most farmers ha+e fa,e' the 'ro!ght %roblem an' there is no s!ffi,ient .ater for ,!lti+ating %lants( es%e,iall& in s!mmer season. "herefore( the %rotot&%e' farmer ,onstr!,te' the %ools for .ater !sing s!ffi,ientl& in thro!gho!t &ear. ?e has allo,ate' the lan' for .ater reso!r,e abo!t 2B.J4 that there are 6 %ools total ,ontaining 10(B:6 m 6. In a''ition( he has manage' .ater reso!r,e .ith .ater s!%%l& s&stem b& installing small .ater %!m%s( PI1 %i%e lining to ,o+er farm area an' installing .ater s%rinkles ha+ing s%e,ifi, +al+e breaker. "he breaker .ill be o%ene' .hen .atering %lants at 'esire' time an' .atering .ill be ,ontrolle' s!itabl& to 'is%erse .ater an' %rote,t e+a%oration. Most s%rinkles ,an easil& mo+e for ,omfortabl& .ater s!%%l& management an' after har+esting the& ,an mo+e o!t for soil

, ant and anima management6 "he %rotot&%e' farmer em%hasi-e on bio'i+ersit& an' m!t!alism ,on'ition among organisms in his farm. "here .ere 163 s%e,ies an' :8 families of %lants i.e.( 1: s%e,ies of shr!b( B: s%e,ies of %erennial %lant an' <3 s%e,ies of biennial %lant. #a,h s%e,ies taken to ,!lti+ate in the farm ha' been sele,te' b& mi2ing lo,al .is'om %rin,i%les .ith regar's to benefits an' s,ien,e bases. "he %lants .ere teste' in the e2%erimental lan' !ntil re,ei+ing the a%%ro%riate s%e,ies that are m!t!al basis in the organi, agro)e,os&stem. Besi'es( there is the ,!lti+ation of ,ir,!lating seasonal %lants a,,om%an& .ith +et,h %lants in the same fiel' ,reating goo' %ro'!,ts '!e to n!trients balan,e as .ell as nitrogen ,&,le. "he main ,hara,teristi, of this farm is the neatl& ri,e ,!lti+ation. ?e has ,!lti+ate' b& !sing a ri,e s%ro!t in one hole that one rai /1(800 m 60 !ses onl& 1 kg of see's. "he sele,te' see's ha+e been ,!lt!re' for < 'a&s that a ri,e s%ro!t has the length abo!t 10)1: ,m. "hen the s%ro!ts ha+e been transferre' to ,!lti+ate in the %re%are' ri,e file' ha+ing sl!'ge ,hara,teristi,. "he& ha+e been %!lle' o!t b& !sing a s%oon to s,oo% for maintaining the see' left. After that the& are transferre' to ,!lti+ate as soft sti,king their see' roots to the fiel' be,a!se the s%ro!ts are still &o!ng. In the first stage( .atering them is like +egetable .atering that soil is j!st soake' !ntil the s%ro!ts .ere s%lit. In a''ition( it is ne,essar& to release .ater o!t !ntil the a%%ro%riate .ater le+el be,a!se if there is more .ater in the file' ,rabs .ill 'estro& ri,e b!t less .ater .ee's .ill gro. .hi,h is .asting time to get ri' of them. "herefore( farmers sho!l' %a& attention in their ,!lti+ation an' em%hasi-e on the integrate' farming s&stem b& no mono),ro% ,!lti+ation an' bio'i+ersit& ,onsi'eration. "he %rotot&%e' organi, farmer ga+e the reasons for organi, agro)e,os&stem as the follo.ings. "he organi, farming em%hasi-es on ,!lti+ation for ,ons!m%tion an' in,ome ,ir,!lation all &ear ro!n'. D!e to the 'ifferen,es of har+esting %erio' the ,!lti+ating %lants ,an be ,ir,!late' to gi+e %ro'!,tion thro!gho!t a &ear. "hen( it ,an hel% to s!%%ort farmers in terms of ,ons!m%tion an' ,ommer,e thro!gho!t a &ear. It hel%s to %rote,t o!tbreaks of 'iseases an' %ests be,a!se %ests ,annot 'estro& the area of integrate' %lants in a .i'e range. Most ,!lti+ating %lants are lo,al s%e,ies that ,an be fo!n' easil&. "hese s%e,ies are eas& in ,!ring an' a%%ro%riate .ith ann!al .ater amo!nt. Farmers .ill ,!lti+ate herbs for getting ri' of %ests thro!gho!t a &ear .itho!t !sing from other ,hemi,als. "hese hel% to their self)assistan,e that farmers .ill !se their reso!r,es in a s!ffi,ient .a&. =egar'ing to 'omesti,ating animals( there are < t&%es i.e.( ,o.( ,hi,ken( '!,k( ,ri,ket( frog( fish an' %ig. Most animals are lo,al s%e,ies that are tolerant to en+ironmental ,on'itions an' eas& in 'omesti,ating .ith gi+ing high %ro'!,ts. "hese ,reate in,ome ,ir,!lation thro!gho!t a &ear. A''itionall&( these animals hel% to ,ir,!late n!trients an' be a so!r,e of organi, man!re. $ther nat!ral animals s!,h as earth.orm( milli%e'e( gro!n' li-ar'( %re'ator inse,t an' so on are benefi,ial for organi, 'e,om%osition an' ,ontrolling %ests in the fiel's. ,est management6 From the in+estigation( there .ere :2 s%e,ies an' B6 families of %ests that .ere 6J.B84 of %est inse,ts( B2.614 of %re'ator inse,ts( 6.J:4 of %arasites an' 1:.6J4 of ,ross)%ollination inse,ts. "hese %ro%ortions sho. that the benefi,ial %es%ts fo!n' in the organi, farm .ere higher than the %est inse,ts. "here are 6 metho's of %est ,ontrol an' management i.e.( !sing .oo' +inegar( !sing biologi,al fermente' .ater an' ,!lti+ating %est ,ontrolling %lants. Eoo' +inegar is %ro'!,e' from ,har,oal b!rning an' the biologi,al fermente' .ater is generate' from the fermentation of herbs in the fiel'. "hese herbal %lants are in lo,al forest an' ha+e been !sing sin,e the %ast s!,h as t!ba root / Derris s%.0( #bon&(

>im( Sarcostemma acidum Ioigt /;eafless me'i,inal tree0( Stemona s%.( Cassia fistula ;.( Jatropha curcas ;. an' so on. For !sing( these %lants m!st be 'issol+e' in .ater an' then s%ra&e' into the ,!lti+ating fiel's as s!itabl& .ith ea,h t&%e of %lants. =egar'ing .ith the ,!lti+ation for %ests ,ontrolling( the %rotot&%e' organi, farmer has ,!lti+ate' +ario!s t&%es of %lants( integrate' %lants( ,ir,!lating seasonal %lants an' inse,t attra,ting)e2%elling %lants s!,h as marigol'( s! s&m%o'i!m an' so on. "hese ,!lti+ations ha+e ,reate' the bio'i+ersities of s%e,ies an' 'ist!rbe' the %ests that ,annot sele,t the s%e,ifi, %lant for li+ing an' eating as !s!al. ?en,e( the& are an alternati+e ,hoi,e to ,ontrol %ests nat!rall& instea' of !sing ,hemi,als( in,l!'ing hel% to re'!,e risks of farmers. 9aste management6 "he organi, agro)e,os&stem s!%%orts the .aste management. "he %rotot&%e organi, farmer has !se' the o,,!rre' .astes to re,&,le for !sing in the %ro'!,tion %ro,esses. "he st!'& fo!n' that the %ro'!,tion an' ho!sehol' .astes s!,h as animal man!res( +egetable ref!ses( lea+es an' soli' .astes ha+e been totall& re,&,le'. If there are the 'e,om%osing .astes s!,h as foo' ref!ses( +egetable ref!ses an' lea+es he !ses most of them to %ro'!,e the soil fertili-er an' some of them to %ro'!,e the biologi,al fermente' .ater. "he fresh +egetable ref!ses ha+e been !se' for fee'ing ,ri,ket( ,hi,ken an' goose. For the re,&,le' .astes s!,h as %lasti,s( %a%er( glasses an' bottles( he has !se' them as re,&,ling or ,olle,ting for sale. "he management of organi, agro)e,os&stem ,om%onents ,an intro'!,e the linkage among the ,om%onents. "hese management ,hara,teristi,s are '!%li,ate' from the nat!re for %ro'!,ing foo's an' agri,!lt!ral %ro'!,ts as en+ironmentall& frien'l& s&stem. "he organi, agro) e,os&stem management of Mr. Ka%an ;ao.ongsri is a +er& goo' ,ase st!'& be,a!se he has ,reate' the organi, farming s&stem as m!t!al ,onsi'eration !n'er the limitations of area( soil( .ater an' air to be a%%ro%riate .ith %lants an' animals. ?is management has ,oo%erate' bet.een %h&si,al an' biologi,al reso!r,es b& em%hasi-ing on soil fertilit&( .ater so!r,e( .eather ,ontrolling .ith %erennial %lants( %lant s%e,ies sele,tion for m!t!al ,on'itions an' so on. "his relationshi% is from the sele,tion an' ,reation of the %rotot&%e' organi, farmer .ith intention an' harmonio!s mi2ing the ne. inter'is,i%linar& kno.le'ge an' the lo,al .is'om. #a,h reso!r,e has then %resente' its roles an' has linke' .ith the others in the %ro'!,ti+e .a&s. Plants an' animals in the fiel's ha+e been arrange' to !se the %h&si,al reso!r,es as ma2im!m benefi,iaries. ?is management has hel%e' to ,ir,!late n!trients an' reso!r,es( allo,ate the sele,te' %lants as s!itabl&( fertili-e soil an' ma2imi-e re,&,le' .astes !se in his organi, farm. "hese are the inter'is,i%linar& organi-ation ,reating the kno.le'ge of organi, agro)e,os&stem. ?is self)learning %ro,esses ha+e ,rate' the !n'erstan'ings of the organi, agro) e,os&stem that he began from anal&-ing the e,os&stem ,om%onents in his farm b& a%%ro%riatel& a'j!sting reso!r,e %ro%ortion( .orker an' in+estment. After that he establishe' the s!itable metho's a,,o!nting .ith .orker an' b!'get in his famil& an' a,,om%anie' .ith learning the organi, agro)e,os&stem %ro,esses. ?e has been al.a&s learning from agri,!lt!ral st!'& tri%s( farmer talks an' other agri,!lt!ral a,a'emi, so!r,es. "hen he has !se' gaine' kno.le'ge to e2%eriment( "rial an' error test an' a'j!st metho's to s!it .ith his farm ,on'itions in,l!'ing reso!r,e( .orker an' b!'get !ntil re,ei+ing the a%%ro%riate %erforman,es of his farm. "hese %erforman,es ha+e generate' goo' %ro'!,ts s!ffi,ientl& for ,ons!m%tion an' in,omes for ,ir,!lating in his famil& an' farm.

1odel pengelolaan agroe$osistem organic dari hasil proses pembela#aran petani organic (7umber: http:(( .med*&.0,%.0,E;.. diunduh %(E(%&**) The improvement of existing practices and resources with the introduction of alternative types of organic fertilizers are seen as the method most likely to succeed at the present time. =ome of the possibilities for maintaining and improving soil fertility are addressed below. Konser:asi Tanah >o im%ro+ement in soil fertilit& ,an be ,ontem%late' !ntil soil ,onser+ation metho's are %ra,tise'. Soils of hills are lost thro!gh 'etrimental agronomi, %ra,ti,es s!,h as sli,ing terra,e risers e+er& &ear( e2,essi+e tillage an' hoeing in the rain& season( an' se+ere gra-ing %ress!re on %ast!re an' forest lan's. In or'er to first ,he,k mass soil erosion( im%ro+ements to the management of gra-ing lan' an' 'egra'e' forest lan' are essential. Use of minim!m tillage metho's( an' %re+enting the %ra,ti,e of sli,ing tall barilan' risers sho!l' be a'o%te' to re'!,e f!rther soil losses. "his last

%ra,ti,e sho!l' be restri,te' to those areas .here soil loss is not a %roblem( for e2am%le flat khetlan' as 'is,!sse' abo+e. ,erbaikan ,rodukti:itas 0ahan "he major reason for 'e,lining soil fertilit& is the nee' to !se the lan' more intensi+el& be,a!se of in,reasing h!man %o%!lation( ,o!%le' .ith a re'!,tion in man!re %ro'!,tion( so that n!trients e2tra,te' b& foo' ,ro%s are not a'eK!atel& re%la,e'. "his is the res!lt of a re'!,tion in animal %o%!lations in some areas( b!t is mostl& the res!lt of 'e%letion of the animal fee' reso!r,es from the forest an' grass lan's( .hi,h means that li+esto,k are not realising their f!ll %otential the &ear ro!n'. Pro'!,ti+it& of o%en grasslan' an' forest in the mi')hills is estimate' to be able to s!%%ort onl& 0.:B an' 0.61 li+esto,k !nitsMha res%e,ti+el&( .hereas the %resent sto,king rate is abo!t nine to thirteen times greater than the ,arr&ing ,a%a,it& /E&att) Smith( 13J20. "herefore( !rgent attention m!st be gi+en to resol+ing this sit!ation b& managing the forest reso!r,es %ro%erl&. Pro'!,ti+it& from the forest ,o!l' be in,rease' b& gi+ing %riorit& to fo''er tree %lanting( along .ith the intro'!,tion of im%ro+e' +arieties of grasses an' leg!mes bet.een the trees !n'er sil+i%astoral management s&stems. ,erbaikan Sistem Manajemen Ternak ;arge her's or flo,ks of animals of s!b)o%timal %ro'!,ti+it& are not .orth m!,h in terms of o+erall agri,!lt!ral %ro'!,tion( an' %oor management s&stems 'o not hel% to in,rease the K!antit& of animal %ro'!,ts. Sin,e B84 of man!re is lost in gra-ing a.a& from the farm( it has been estimate' that e+en if the animal n!mbers in the hills of >e%al .ere hal+e'( man!re %ro'!,tion .o!l' remain almost .hat it is at %resent( %ro+i'e' that it .as ,olle,te' an' !tili-e' %ro%erl&. Stall)fee'ing ,o!l' res!lt in a 'o!bling of the amo!nt of '!ng ,olle,te' %er animal at %resent. Animal %o%!lations alrea'& o+erb!r'en the hill farmer( an' it is essential to ,onsi'er ,om%lete stall)fee'ing in or'er to !se the a+ailable fee' effe,ti+el& an' ma2imise man!re %ro'!,tion. "he .astage of +al!able !rine ,an be %re+ente' an' !tili-e' b& im%ro+ing 'rainage an' ,onstr!,ting a store %it at the animal she'. ;osses of man!re '!e to rain an' s!n ,o!l' be minimise' b& %ro+i'ing some kin' of sim%le shelter o+er the ,om%ost hea%M%it. Similarl&( animal %ro'!,tion ,o!l' be im%ro+e' b& the timel& s!%%l& of fee' an' .ater( .itho!t .astage. Stra. as a li+esto,k fee' ,an be im%ro+e' in K!alit& b& treatment .ith !rea( an' b& the %ra,ti,e of ensiling or other.ise %reser+ing the s!mmer s!r%l!s of grass an' agri,!lt!ral ,ro% b&)%ro'!,ts. "hese ,o!l' then be ,ons!me' '!ring the foo' s,ar,it& %erio' of .inter. "rials to this effe,t are being ,arrie' o!t !n'er the Fo''er "hr!st %rogramme %re+io!sl& 'es,ribe'. ,erbaikan !udida)a Tanaman In or'er to s!%%l& foo' grain for a stea'il& in,reasing h!man %o%!lation from a fi2e' or limite' lan' reso!r,e( im%ro+ements to e2isting farming %ra,ti,es are ine+itable. From the soil ,onser+ation an' fertilit& stan'%oint( inter,ro%%ing of grain leg!mes .ithin the major ,ro%%ing s&stems sho!l' be en,o!rage' .hene+er %ossible. Similarl&( %lanting grasses an' leg!mes on terra,e risers( on farm bo!n'aries an' on irrigation b!n's sho!l' be %ra,tise' more .i'el&. ;eg!me ,ro%s s!,h as ,o.%ea( an' ,ro%s s!,h as oats an' berseem ,an be gro.n after the ri,e is har+este' !sing -ero tillage( .ith broa',aste' see' .hile the gro!n' is still moist. S!,h %ra,ti,es .o!l' %ro+i'e s!bstantial amo!nts of forage .ith a minim!m of labo!r( an' ren'er the soil more fertile. Im%ro+e' ,ro% +arieties .ill gi+e more ret!rn o+er lo,al +arieties( %arti,!larl& .here intensi+e ,!lti+ation( an' irrigation fa,ilities( or other in%!t s!%%lies are a+ailable.

?o.e+er( to a,hie+e this in the hills( go+ernment s!bsi'ies in a''ition to te,hni,al information ma& be ne,essar&. ,erbaikan Simpanan dan -p ikasi ,upuk 1 +abuk $rganik Be,a!se of a %resent la,k of a.areness of ,orre,t %re%aration metho's( man!re is often mi2e' .ith farm an' forest .aste in a hea%( 'oes not 'e,om%ose %ro%erl&( an' so is inferior in K!alit&. "o alle+iate s!,h %roblems( the %it metho' of ,om%osting sho!l' be a'o%te'( an' if %ossible a @starterA s!,h as '!ng sl!rr&( sho!l' be a%%lie' to assist %ro%er 'e,om%osition. ?o.e+er( %ossible so,io)e,onomi, ,onstraints nee' to be e+al!ate' before re,ommen'ing these ,hanges to farmers on a .i'e s,ale( be,a!se of the im%lie' e2tra labo!r reK!irements in+ol+e'. ,enggunaan ,upuk - ternatif A''itional in%!ts /fertili-er an' te,hni,al0 are reK!ire' to in,rease %resent %ro'!,ti+it&. At the stage .hen s!%%lies of organi, man!re are ins!ffi,ient( the !se of ,hemi,al fertili-er has to be ,onsi'ere'. "ho!gh ,ostl&( an' !nreliable in s!%%l& in the hill 'istri,ts( the !se of ,hemi,al fertili-ers ,an s!%%lement FGM in a,,essible areas. Its ,aref!l !se( %referabl& in ,ombination .ith organi, man!re( ,o!l' ,onsi'erabl& in,rease ,ro% &iel's .itho!t ,a!sing m!,h 'eterioration of soil K!alit&. Use of bio)fertili-ers( floo' .ater( an' a%%ro%riate =hi-obi!m ino,!lation of leg!me see's ma& also hel% to re'!,e the %ress!re on the s!%%l& of FGM( for .hi,h forests are %resentl& being sa,rifi,e' to fee' animals. Kompos dan ,upuk (ijau "he %resent tren' of onl& e2%loiting green man!ring %lants sho!l' be ,hange' to one of 'e+elo%ing their %ro'!,tion on a s!stainable basis. More than t.ent& s%e,ies ha+e been i'entifie' that ha+e some sort of role as green man!re( b!t +er& fe. are being ,ons,io!sl& %ro%agate' b& farmers. =esear,h into the most s!itable s%e,ies for assessing their K!alit&( an' the feasibilit& of in,reasing their %ro'!,tion sho!l' be gi+en high %riorit&. ,enguatan Ke embagaan dan ,emberda)aan SDM "he limite' n!mber of s,ientists to in+estigate %roblems of soil fertilit&( an' also s!ffers from ins!ffi,ient infrastr!,t!ral an' te,hni,al laborator& fa,ilities at %resent. "his is ham%ering the 'e+elo%ment of im%ro+e' soil ,onser+ation an' fertilit& maintenan,e metho's( thro!gh la,k of te,hni,al information an' anal&ti,al s!%%ort ser+i,es.

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