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TEST TITLE : DIRECT SHEAR TEST

1.0

OBJECTIVE
TO DETERMINE THE PARAMETER OF SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOIL,
COHESION, c AND ANGLE OF FRICTION, .

2.0

LEARNING OUTCOME
At the end of this experiment, student are able to :
Determine the shear strength parameter of the soil
Handle shear strength test, direct shear test

3.0

THEORY

The general relationship between maximum shearing resistance, f and normal stress,
n for soils can be represented by the equation and known as Coulombs Law :

f = c + tan
Where : c = cohesion, which is due to internal forces holding soil particles together in
a solid
mass
= friction, which is due to the interlocking of the particles and the friction
between
them when subjected to normal stress

The friction components increase with increasing normal stress but the cohesion
components remains constant. If there is no normal stress the friction disappears. This
relationship shown in the graph below. This graph generally approximates to a straight
line, its inclination to the horizontal axis being equal to the angle of shearing resistance
of the soil, and its intercept on the vertical (shear stress) axis being the apparent
cohesion, denoted by c.

Figure 1.1 : Graph shear stress versus normal stress


4.0

TEST EQUIPMENTS
1. Shear box carriage
2. Loading pad
3. Perforated plate
4. Porous plate
5. Retaining plate

Figure 1.2 : Shear box carriage

Figure 1.3 : Loading pad, perforated


plate, porous plate and retaining

plate

5.0

PROCEDURES
1. The internal measurement is verified by using the vernier calipers. The length

of the
sides, L and the overall depth, B.
2. The base plate is fixed inside the shear box. Then porous plate is put on the
base
plate. Next, perforated grid plate is fitted over porous so that the grid plates
should
be at right angles to the direction shear

Apparatus of experiment.
3. Two halves of the shear box is fixed by means of fixing screws.
4. For cohesive soils, the soil sample is transferred from square specimen cutter
to the
shearbox by pressing down on the top grid plate. For sandy soil, soil is
compacted in
layers to the required density in shear box.
5. The shear box assembly is mounted on the loading frame.
6. The dial is set of the proving ring to zero.
7. The loading yoke is placed on the loading pad and the hanger is lifted
carefully onto
the top of the loading yoke.
8. The correct loading is then applied to the hanger pad.
9. The screws clamping the upper half to the lower half is carefully removed.
10. The test is conducted by applying horizontal shear load to failure. Rate strain
should
be 0.2mm/min.
11 .Record readings of horizontal and force dial gauges at regular intervals.
12. Finally the test is conducted on three identical soil samples under different
vertical
compressive strsses, 1.75kg, 2.5kg and 3.25kg.
6.0
RESULT
Specimen No : 1
Loading : 1.75kg

Displacement
Dail Gauge

L (mm)

50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500
1550
1600

0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
3.00
3.10
3.20

Proving Ring
Dail
Gauge
1
9
13
20
24
28
31
34
37
39
42
44
46
48
49
51
52
54
55
55
56
57
58
58
59
60
60
61
61
62
62
62

Load, P
(kN)
0.0020
0.0184
0.0265
0.0408
0.0490
0.0571
0.0632
0.0694
0.0755
0.0796
0.0857
0.0898
0.0938
0.0979
0.1000
0.1040
0.1061
0.1102
0.1122
0.1122
0.1142
0.1163
0.1183
0.1183
0.1204
0.1224
0.1224
0.1244
0.1244
0.1265
0.1265
0.1265

Shear
Stress
(kN/m2)

Strain

0.57
5.10
7.37
11.33
13.60
15.87
17.57
19.27
20.97
22.10
23.80
24.93
26.07
27.20
27.77
28.90
29.47
30.60
31.17
31.17
31.73
32.30
32.87
32.87
33.43
34.00
34.00
34.57
34.57
35.13
35.13
35.13

0.0017
0.0033
0.0050
0.0067
0.0083
0.0100
0.0117
0.0133
0.0150
0.0167
0.0183
0.0200
0.0217
0.0233
0.0250
0.0267
0.0283
0.0300
0.0317
0.0333
0.0350
0.0367
0.0383
0.0400
0.0417
0.0433
0.0450
0.0467
0.0483
0.0500
0.0517
0.0533

Shear

Strain

Specimen No : 2
Loading : 2.5kg
Displacement

Proving Ring

Dail Gauge

L (mm)

50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500
1550
1600

0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
3.00
3.10
3.20

Dail
Gauge
18
21
24
31
35
39
43
46
48
51
53
55
57
59
61
63
65
66
68
69
70
71
73
74
75
75
76
77
77
78
78
78

Load, P
(kN)
0.0367
0.0428
0.0490
0.0632
0.0714
0.0796
0.0877
0.0938
0.0979
0.1040
0.1081
0.1122
0.1163
0.1204
0.1244
0.1285
0.1326
0.1346
0.1387
0.1408
0.1428
0.1448
0.1489
0.1510
0.1530
0.1530
0.1550
0.1571
0.1571
0.1591
0.1591
0.1591

Stress
(kN/m2)
10.20
11.90
13.60
17.57
19.83
22.10
24.37
26.07
27.20
28.90
30.03
31.17
32.30
33.43
34.57
35.70
36.83
37.40
38.53
39.10
39.67
40.23
41.37
41.93
42.50
42.50
43.07
43.63
43.63
44.20
44.20
44.20

0.0017
0.0033
0.0050
0.0067
0.0083
0.0100
0.0117
0.0133
0.0150
0.0167
0.0183
0.0200
0.0217
0.0233
0.0250
0.0267
0.0283
0.0300
0.0317
0.0333
0.0350
0.0367
0.0383
0.0400
0.0417
0.0433
0.0450
0.0467
0.0483
0.0500
0.0517
0.0533

Specimen No : 3
Loading : 3.25kg
Displacement
Dail Gauge

L (mm)

Proving Ring
Dail

Load, P

Shear
Stress
(kN/m2)

Strain

50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500
1550
1600
1650
1700
1750
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
2050

0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
4.00
4.10

Gauge

(kN)

0
15
21
28
36
44
51
57
59
65
69
72
76
79
81
84
87
88
90
92
93
94
96
98
99
99
100
101
102
103
105
106
106
107
109
109
110
111
111
112
112

0.0000
0.0306
0.0428
0.0571
0.0734
0.0898
0.1040
0.1163
0.1204
0.1326
0.1408
0.1469
0.1550
0.1612
0.1652
0.1714
0.1775
0.1795
0.1836
0.1877
0.1897
0.1918
0.1958
0.1999
0.2020
0.2020
0.2040
0.2060
0.2081
0.2101
0.2142
0.2162
0.2162
0.2183
0.2224
0.2224
0.2244
0.2264
0.2264
0.2285
0.2285

0.00
8.50
11.90
15.87
20.40
24.93
28.90
32.30
33.43
36.83
39.10
40.80
43.07
44.77
45.90
47.60
49.30
49.87
51.00
52.13
52.70
53.27
54.40
55.53
56.10
56.10
56.67
57.23
57.80
58.37
59.50
60.07
60.07
60.63
61.77
61.77
62.33
62.90
62.90
63.47
63.47

0.0017
0.0033
0.0050
0.0067
0.0083
0.0100
0.0117
0.0133
0.0150
0.0167
0.0183
0.0200
0.0217
0.0233
0.0250
0.0267
0.0283
0.0300
0.0317
0.0333
0.0350
0.0367
0.0383
0.0400
0.0417
0.0433
0.0450
0.0467
0.0483
0.0500
0.0517
0.0533
0.0550
0.0567
0.0583
0.0600
0.0617
0.0633
0.0650
0.0667
0.0683

2100

7.0

4.20

112

0.2285

63.47

0.0700

DATA ANALYSIS
Shear Stress ( 20mm dial gauge reading )
= P/A = [ ( dial gauge x 0.00204) / Area ]
Strain ( 20mm dial gauge reading )
= ( L / L ) = [ ( Dail Gauge x 0.01) / Total Length ]
Example calculation to find shear stress and strain for specimen 1 :
L (mm)

= 150 x 0.002
= 0.30

Load, P (kN) = 13 x 0.00204


= 0.0265
Shear Stress ( 20mm dial gauge reading ) :
=

13 x 0.00204
0.06 x 0.06

7.37 kN/m

Strain ( 20mm dial gauge reading ) :


=

150 x 0.002
60

=
0.0050
Normal Stress (kN/m)
Specimen No : 1
Loading: 1.75 kg
Normal Stress

=
=

A
1.75 x 10 x 9.81

(0.06 x 0.06)1000
= 47.69 kN/m
Specimen No : 2
Loading: 2.5 kg
Normal Stress

A
= 2.5 x 10 x 9.81
(0.06 x 0.06)1000
= 68.13 kN/m

Specimen No : 3
Loading: 3.25 kg
Normal Stress

Specimen 1
Loading 1.75kg :

P
A
= 3.25 x 10 x 9.81
(0.06 x 0.06)1000
= 88.56 kN/m

Specimen 2
Loading 2.5kg :

Specimen 3
Loading 3.25kg :

Shear Strength
From the graph, data obtained : = 17 , c = 0

f = c + tan

1.

= 47.69 kN/m2
= 0 + 47.69 tan 17
= 14.58 kN/m2

2.

= 68.13 kN/m2
= 0 + 68.13 tan 17
= 20.83 kN/m2

3.

= 88.56 kN/m2
= 0 + 88.56 tan 17
= 27.08 kN/m2

8.0

DISCUSSION

Direct shear test is simple and faster to operate. As thinner specimens are used
in shear box, they facilitate drainage of pore water from a saturated sample in less time.
This test is also useful to study friction between two materials one material in lower half
of box and another material in the upper half of box.
For this experiment we use sand soil as the specimen. As we know, the sand soil
does not have any cohesion. The friction between sand particle is due to sliding and
rolling friction and interlocking action.
Significance and Applications
a. Unlike materials like steel, most of the soils are visco-elastic, meaning the failures
are time dependant
b. For most of the geotechnical designs concerning foundations, earthworks and
slope stability issues the soils are required to withstand shearing stresses along
with compressive stresses
c. Shear stresses tend to displace a part of soil mass relative to rest of the soil mass
d. Shear strength is the capacity of the soil to resist shearing stresses
e. Relative sliding between soil particles is the major factor contributing to the shear
resistance
f. If the normal forces increase, the number of contact points also increase thus
increasing the resistance.
g. The reverse may happen if the normal loads decrease (which is the case in
excavations)
h. Hence the shear strength is a function of normal load, angle of friction (amount of
interlocking among the soil particles) and cohesion (intrinsic property of clays due
to which they stay close to each other even at zero normal load).

The advantages of the direct shear test are:


i. Cheap, fast and simple - especially for sands.
ii. Failure occurs along a single surface, which approximates observed slips or shear
type failures in natural soils.
Disadvantages of the test include:
i. Difficult or impossible to control drainage, especially for fine-grained soils.
ii. Failure plane is forced--may not be the weakest or most critical plane in the field
iii. Non-uniform stress conditions exist in the specimen.
iv. The principal stresses rotate during shear, and the rotation cannot be controlled.
Principal stresses are not directly measured.
9.0

CONCLUTION

As the conclution, the objective of this experiment is to determine the parameters


that involved such as shear strength of soils, cohesion and angle of friction is achieved.
Four graph has been plotted and the value of cohesion and angle of friction had been
obtained. From this experiment, the value of cohesion, c is 0 kN/m and the value of
angle of friction is 17 .
10.0

QUESTIONS

Question 1
a. Why perforated plate in this test with teeth?
The perforated plate in this test with teeth because by the teeth, the experiment
can be produce a grip forces between the involved plate and the sand and can assists
in distributing the shear stress. This is also to ensure the soil does not slide away from
the metal plate. When the load is applied on the soil, the perforated plate will grip the
soil and push the soil.

b. What maximum value of displacement before stop the test?


The maximum value of displacement before we stop the test is when the values
are constant for more than three times or we can stop the test when the incline value
suddenly dropped.
Question 2

a. What is the purpose of a direct shear test? Which soil properties does it measure?
The direct shear test is one of laboratory experiment and normally used by
geotechnical engineers to find and calculate the shear strength parameters of any soil
that involved. The direct shear experiment measures the shear strength parameters
which included the soil cohesion (c) and the angle of friction (friction angle).
b. Why do we use fixing screw in this test? What will happen if you do not removed
them during test?
We used fixing screw in this direct shear test because in order to avoid shearx1 for
happening before the experiment is carried out. If we dont remove them during the test,
the friction can not occur at the screw and there have will be no shear on the sample
and thus the result will be not accurate.