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# Classical Lamination Theory (CLT)

More general than laminated beam theory Includes extensional, flexural and torsional deformations Includes coupling effects bending / twisting bending / extension twisting / extension Does not include interlaminar stresses each ply assumed to be in plane stress

## Classical Lamination Theory (CLT)

Elements of theory: 1. Deformation hypothesis* 2. Strain displacement relationships* 3. Equilibrium equations* 4. Stress strain relationships** *Same as classical theory of homogeneous, isotropic plates **Lamina stress strain relationships from Chapter 2

## Classical Lamination Theory Each Lamina in Plane Stress (x, y, xy)

b a z

y xy x
element of kth lamina

## Laminate Geometry and Ply Numbering System

Assumptions: 1. Laminae perfectly bonded together. 2. Plate thickness, t is much smaller than lengths along edges, a and b. 3. Displacements u, v, w are small compared with plate thickness, t. 4. In plane strains x, y, xy are small. 5. Transverse shear strains xz and yz are negligible.

6. Tangential displacements u and v are linear functions of z, the distance from the middle surface. 7. Transverse normal strain, z , is negligible. 8. Each ply obeys Hookes law. 9. Plate thickness, t, is constant. 10. Transverse shear stresses xz and yz vanish on plate surfaces z= t . 2

Assumptions 5 and 6 Kirchoff deformation hypothesis normals to the middle surface remain straight and normal during deformation.

displacements are,

u = u ( x, y ) + zF1 ( x, y ) v = v( x, y ) + zF2 ( x, y ) w = w( x, y ) = w( x, y )

(7.24)

## (These equations are the basis of CLT)

Higher Order Lamination Theory for transverse shear deformations involves nonlinear functions of z:

u = u ( x, y ) + z x ( x, y ) + z 2 x ( x, y ) + z 3 x ( x, y ) v = v( x, y ) + z y ( x, y ) + z 2 y ( x, y ) + z 3 y ( x, y ) w = w( x, y ) + z z ( x, y ) + z 2 z ( x, y )
Not used here

(7.25)

2-D Strain-displacement relationships (from An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids, Crandall, Dahl and Lardner, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1978)

## Strain-displacement equations for transverse shear strains

xz =

w u w + = F1 ( x, y ) + =0 z x x

yz =

w v w + = F2 (x, y ) + =0 z y y

(7.26)

Therefore

F1 ( x, y ) =
F2 ( x, y ) =

w x
w y

(7.27)

## and the in plane strains are

u = x + z x x v y = = y + z y y

x =

(7.28)

xy =

u v + = xy + z xy y x

Physical Interpretation:
Deformed Undeformed
x w z

uo

(small )

## Strain displacement relation

u uo 2w = z 2 x = x x x

(7.28)

x = x + z x
Similar Eqns. for y, xy

1 2w x = = x 2 x

## Where the middle surface strains are,

x =

u v u v ; y = ; xy = + x y x y

(7.29)

## And the curvatures of the middle surface are

2w 2w x = 2 ; y = 2 ; y x 2w xy = 2 xx x , x = bending curvatures

(7.30)

xy = twisting curvatures

Lamina stress strain relations for the kth lamina in laminate: x Q11 Q12 Q16 x y = Q12 Q 22 Q 26 y Q xy 16 Q 26 Q 66 xy
k k

## Q11 Q12 = Q12 Q 22 Q 16 Q 26

Q16 Q 26 Q 66

x + z x y + z y + z xy xy

(7.31)

Recall that laminated beam theory only gives uniaxial stress, x, but CLT gives x, y, and xy

## Equilibrium equations: Ex: force per unit length, Nx

z k N x = x dz = ( x )k dz k =1 t 2 zk 1 Moment per unit length, Mx t 2 N

(7.32)

z k M x = x zdz = ( x )k zdz k =1 t 2 zk 1 t 2 N

(7.33)

Where t = laminate thickness ( x) = stress in kth lamina k zk = distance to outer surface of kth lamina zk-1 = distance to inner surface of kth lamina

## Substituting lamina stress strain relations:

Nx =
N

zk

k =1 z k 1
zk

{Q (
11

+ z x ) + Q12 ( y + z y ) + Q16 ( xy + z xy ) dz
(7.34)

and
Mx =
k =1 z k 1

{Q (
11

## + z x ) + Q12 ( y + z y ) + Q16 ( xy + z xy ) zdz

(7.35) (7.36)

N x = A11 x + A12 y + A16 xy + B11 x + B12 y + B16 xy and M x = B11 x + B12 y + B16 xy + D11 x + D12 y + D16 xy

or

(7.37)

Similarly, the other resultants Ny, Nxy, My, Mxy can be written in terms of the Aij, Bij, and Dij where t 2 N

Aij =

t 2 t 2

(Q ) dz = (Q ) (z
ij k k =1 ij k k

z k 1 )

(7.38)

= extensional stiffnesses

1 N Bij = Q ij k zdz = Q ij 2 k =1 t 2
= coupling stiffnesses
t 2

( )

( ) (z
k

2 k

2 zk 1

) )

(7.39)

1 N Dij = Q ij k z dz = Q ij 3 k =1 t 2
2

( )

( ) (z

3 k

3 zk 1

(7.40)

= bending stiffnesses

## B16 x B26 y B66 xy D16 x D26 y D66 xy

(7.41)

or in partitioned form as N A B = M B D

(7.42)

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## Two Types of Coupling in Laminates

Ex: Expanding expression for Nx

## N x = A11 x + A12 y + A16 xy + B11 x + B12 y + B16 xy

A16 xy term due to coupling
B11 x + B12 y terms

cause coupling at the laminate level even though A16 = Q16 k ( z k z k 1 ) lamina coupling terms such k =1 as Q16 and Q 26 may not be and Q16 is due to shear coupling present. Bij terms present due to nonsymmetrical in off-axis lamina ( Q16 = 0 arrangement of plies about for 0o or 90o lamina) middle surface. at lamina level since

( )
N

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## Decomposition of Coupling Effects

N x = A11 x + A12 y + A16 xy + B11 x + B12 y + B16 xy
Stretching of middle surface Bending along x and y directions

Twisting of xy plane Note: if B11 = B12 = B16 = 0, no bending or twisting and if A16 = 0, pure stretching of middle surface

## Decomposition of Coupling Effects

M x = B11 x + B12 y + B16 xy + D11 x + D12 y + D16 xy
Bending along Stretching of middle surface Shearing of x and y axes Twisting middle surface of xy plane

Note: if B11 = B12 = B16 = 0, no stretching or shearing and if D16 = 0, pure bending Conclusion: Major simplifications possible if Bij = 0

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## Terms associated with special ply orientations:

Angle ply laminates have lamina orientations of either + or + (0 90) may be symmetric, antisymmetric or asymmetric. Cross ply laminates have lamina orientations of either = 0 90 or = 90 0 may be symmetric or asymmetric but not antisymmetric. A16 = A26 = D16 = D26 = 0 always Balanced cross ply laminates Equal number of equal thickness plies at 0 and 90 Not necessarily symmetric.

Symmetric Laminates
Geometric and material property symmetry with respect to the middle surface. See Fig. 7.10 and 7.11 1 N 2 2 Bij = Q16 k z k zk 1 2 k =1

( )(

=0
in plane loads will not generate bending

and twisting curvatures, and bending and twisting moments will not produce middle surface extension.

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## Samples of Symmetric Laminates

Symmetric angle-ply all Bij = 0 A16, A26, D16, D26 decrease with increasing N Balanced Symmetric cross-ply all Bij = 0 A16 = A26 = D16 = D26 = 0 Symmetric cross-ply (not balanced) all Bij = 0 A16 = A26 = D16 = D26 = 0
+ + 0 90 90 0 0 90 0

Examples of symmetric laminates. Ply orientations and material properties are symmetric about middle surface.
+45 -45 +45 -45 +45 +45 -45 +45 -45 +45 90 0 90 90 0 0 90 90 0 90

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## Exploded View of [+45/-45/-45/+45] Symmetric Laminate

Antisymmetric Laminates
Ply orientations are antisymmetric with respect to middle surface, but plies of identical material and thickness are located at equal (+) and (-) distances from middle surface. See Fig. (7.12) and (7.13) A16 = A26 = D16 = D26 = 0 For antisymmetric angle ply laminates, B11 = B12 = B22 = B66 = 0

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Examples of antisymmetric angle ply laminates. Although ply orientations are antisymmetric about middle surface, material properties are symmetric.
-45 +45 +45 -45 -45 +45 +45 -45 -45 +45

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## Quasi isotropic Laminates

Consists of 3 or more identical orthotropic laminae oriented at the same angle relative to the adjacent laminae. For N total laminae, the angle between the adjacent laminae must be /N. Examples: 3 ply: [60/0/-60] 4 ply: [90/45/0/-45]

## Exploded View of [+60/0/-60] Quasi Isotropic Laminate

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Quasi isotropic laminate is isotropic only with respect to extensional stiffness, Aij, not the bending stiffness, Dij, or the coupling stiffness Bij. Quasi isotropic laminate concept is useful for predicting the properties of randomly oriented fiber composites which are planar isotropic. Quasi isotropic laminate represents a good compromise for those who may be uncomfortable with directional properties in other types of laminates.

## Recall stress strain relationships for isotropic material in plane stress:

c12 0 c22 0 0 c11 c12 E where c11 = = c22 1 2 vE c12 = = c21 2 1 c11 c12 E = =G 2 2(1 + )

x c11 y = c12 0 xy

x y 2 xy

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## Extensional force deformation relationships for quasi isotropic laminates:

N x A11 N y = A12 N 0 xy

A12 A22 0

0 0 ( A11 A12 )

x y 2 xy

(7.43)

So, same form as stress strain relationships for isotropic material. Use of invariants: A11 = A22 = U 1t

## Where t = laminate thickness

A12 = U 4t U U4 A66 = 1 t 2

(7.44)

Engineering constants for in plane properties of quasi isotropic laminate. Recall Equation (6.31):

~ (U U 4 )(U1 + U 4 ) E= 1 U1 ~ U U4 G= 1 2

(6.31)

~=

U4 U1

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Example: Quasi isotropic graphite/epoxy laminate E1 = 181 GPa G12 = 7.17 GPa Q11 = 181.8 GPa Q12 = 2.897 GPa U1 = 76.37 GPa U4 = 22.61 GPa E2 = 10.3 GPa 12 = 0.28 Q22 = 10.34 GPa Q66 = 7.17 GPa

## Same as aluminum, but weight is 40% less.

Large Tetrahedral Space Truss Structures are Quasi - isotropic Top View
60 60

Side View

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## Some Historical Aspects of Isogrid Structures

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R. Buckminster Fuller and one of his geodesic dome grid structures (from Buckminster Fuller Institute)

Tacoma Dome with wooden geodesic structure by Buckminster Fuller, Tacoma, Washington

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## Fullerene carbon nanostructures, including buckyballs and buckytubes

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WW II Vickers Wellington Bomber with metallic isogrid fuselage structure (Source: Brooklands Museum photos)

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## Use of composite isogrids in spacecraft reflector (Courtesy of Composite Optics Inc.)

Composite isogrid structure used in missile shroud (Wegner and Higgins, AFRL, 2002)

## Co-Cured Rib/Skin Structure

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Advanced Composite Isogrid Structure in Launch Vehicle Fairing (Source: Boeing Company)

## Composite Grid Structures

Current Applications (Low volume) Launch vehicle structures Space telescope optics Solar array panels Turbofan containment cases Spacecraft reflectors

Potential Applications (High volume) Door and floor panels for automotive vehicles Civil infrastructure Light weight mobile shelters Marine structures

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## Thermoplastically Stamped Composite Isogrids

Laboratory sized isogrid panels (305 mm x 264 mm) made from co-mingled E-glass/polypropylene (Twintex by Vetrotex) Used a grooved mold thermoplastic stamping process (Goldsworthy and Hiel, 1999) Co-mingled unidirectional roving used for ribs Co-mingled woven fabric used for skins

Manufacturing of Specimens

Isogrid Orthogrid E-glass/polypropylene Twintex composite grid-stiffened panel and steel molds

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TMP Composite Vacuum Press used for molding grid samples at 415F

## Thermoplastic fibers which form matrix after melting

Reinforcing fibers

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## Analytical Models for Isogrids

Micromechanics models used to estimate elastic constants of unidirectional composite ribs in grid Exact 2-D finite element models of grids Equivalent stiffness models (ESM) equivalent laminate stiffnesses for grid used in equivalent laminated plate, which is modeled using a much simpler 2-D finite element plate model

264 mm

304 mm

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## Equivalent Stiffness Models for Grids (Chen and Tsai, 1996)

Family of parallel ribs
Mxy Nx

Mx

Mx

Procedure: Calculate equivalent extensional and flexural stiffnesses of a family of parallel ribs, then use superposition to find global stiffnesses of grid structure
1

y Nx

2 x

Mxy

## Equivalent Stiffness Matrices for Isogrid

3 3E x A = 1 4d 0 1 3 0 0 0 1

[A]isogrid

[D]isogrid
=

3 + 3E x I 1+ 4d 0

1+ 3 + 0

0 0 1+

GJ Ex I

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