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(1) If 0 < t < 1 and X = (1 t)P + tQ, and P ,= Q, show that

d(P, X)

d(X, Q)

=

[P X[

[X Q[

=

t[P Q[

(1 t)[P Q[

=

t

1 t

Use this to nd the point X that divides the segment PQ in the ratio r : s.

Illustrate using r = 2, s = 3, P = (3, 5), Q = (8, 4).

We have

d(P, X)

d(X, Q)

=

[P X[

[X Q[

=

[P (1 t)P tQ[

[(1 t)P + tQQ[

=

t[P Q[

(1 t)[P Q[

=

t

1 t

If X is a point that divides the segment PQ in the ratio r : s, then we will have

r

s

=

d(P, X)

d(X, Q)

=

t

1 t

so that we have t =

r

r + s

. Using the very denition of X, we have

X =

s

r + s

P +

r

r + s

Q

To illustrate this, notice that by substituting r = 2, s = 3, P = (3, 5), and

Q = (8, 4), we have t =

2

5

, so we have

X =

3

5

P +

2

5

Q

=

3

5

(3, 5) +

2

5

(8, 4)

=

7

5

,

23

5

Dene l : 3x +2y +10 = 0. We have N = (3, 2) as normal vector correspond-

ing to the l , and since the required vector is of the unit length, we divide the

1

vector by its norm, that is

3

13

,

2

13

) and

(

3

13

,

2

13

) by taking the opposite sign as well.

(b) Find all direction vectors of the same line.

Let v = (v

1

, v

2

) be the direction vectors of l , so we must have N v = 0

since they are perpendicular. We have 3v

1

+2v

2

= 0 so v must be of the form

v =

3

2

t, where t R

(c) If P = (5, 2) and v = (

1

2

,

2

3

), nd the equation of the line P + [v] in the form

ax + by + c = 0.

Let N = (a, b) be any normal vector of the line. Since v = (

1

2

,

2

3

), then

we must have

1

2

a +

2

3

b = 0

since v N = 0. We see that a = 4 and b = 3 are indeed satisfying above

equation, so N = (4, 3) is a normal vector of the line. Then the line must

be of the form 4x + 3y + c = 0. Plugging in x = 5 and y = 2 give c = 14,

since (5, 2) is in the line. So the equation of the line is 4x + 3y + 14 = 0.

(3) If v = (v

1

, v

2

) is a direction vector of a line l, the number = v

2

/v

1

is called the

slope of l, provided that v

1

,= 0.

(a) Show that the concept of slope is well-dened.

Let R

= R

, . Consider the mapping : E

2

R which maps any vector (a, b)

E

2

to

b

a

, provided that a ,= 0, and (0, b) to . We need to show that is

well-dened.

To do that, take v = (v

1

, v

2

) and w = (w

1

, w

2

) in E

2

so that v = w, that is

v

1

= w

1

and v

2

= w

2

. If v

1

= w

1

= 0, then we have (v) = (w) = . If

v

1

= w

1

,= 0, then we have (v) =

v

2

v

1

=

w

2

w

1

= (w). So is well-dened.

(b) Show that if l is a line with slope , the vector (1, ) is a direction vector of

l.

Because from (a) the mapping is well-dened, any slope =

1

must have

the vector (1, ) as the pre-image.

(c) Show that the line through P = (x

1

, y

1

) with slope has the equation

y y

1

= (x x

1

)

Let l be such a line. Since the slope of l is , we have (1, ) as its vector

direction. Let N = (a, b) be its normal vector. We must have a + b = 0.

2

Note that a = and b = 1 are solution of the equation, so N = (, 1) is

the normal vector of l. By letting l : ax+by+c = 0, we have l : x+y+c = 0.

Substituting x = x

1

and y = y

1

to the equation, we have

c = x

1

y

1

Substituting c back to the line equation, we have x + y + x

1

y

1

= 0.

Rearranging the terms, we have

y y

1

= (x x

1

)

as desired.

(4) Let T be a pencil of parallels as discussed in Theorems 25 27.

(a) Show that REF(T) is isomorphic to the multiplicative group of 22 matrices

of the form

1 p

0 1

a

corresponds to the matrix

1 2a

0 1

and T

corresponds to

1

0 1

f : REF(T) M

1 2m

0 1

take

a

and

b

in REF(T). Note that

f(

a

) f(

b

) =

1 2a

0 1

1 2b

0 1

1 2(a b)

0 1

= f(

a

b

)

so that f is a homomorphism. Next, it is easy to check that f is onto, for if

we take

1 2a

0 1

M we can take

a

REF(T).

It suces to show that f is injective. But this can be easily seen since if we

take

1 2a

0 1

and

1 2b

0 1

in M such that

1 2a

0 1

1 2b

0 1

in M

then it is true that a = b, which gives

a

=

b

.

3

(b) Observe that TRANS(l) is a subgroup of index 2 in REF(T).

We will prove that TRANS(l) is a subgroup of REF(T).

For any T

a

, T

b

, T

c

TRANS(l), we have

(T

a

T

b

) T

c

=

1 a

0 1

1 b

0 1

1 c

0 1

1 a

0 1

1 b

0 1

1 c

0 1

= T

a

(T

b

T

c

)

so that TRANS(l) is associative.

There is T

0

TRANS(l) so that for each T

a

TRANS(l), we have

T

a

T

0

=

1 a

0 1

1 0

0 1

1 0

0 1

1 a

0 1

= T

0

T

a

so that the identity element exists in TRANS(l).

For each T

a

, there exists T

a

in TRANS(l) so that

T

a

T

a

=

1 a

0 1

1 a

0 1

= T

0

=

1 a

0 1

1 a

0 1

= T

a

T

a

For each T

a

, T

b

in TRANS(l), we have

T

a

T

b

=

1 a

0 1

1 b

0 1

1 b

0 1

1 a

0 1

= T

b

T

a

proving that TRANS(l) is a group. Because REF(T) is itself a group and

TRANS(l) REF(T), then TRANS(l) is a subgroup of REF(T).

(5) Let

w

be any translation. Let l = P +[v] be any line having w as a normal vector.

Show that if m = P

1

2

w + [w

] and m

= P +

1

2

w + [w

], we have

m

=

m

l

=

w

4

We have

m

X =

m

X 2

m

X P, ww

= X 2X P +

1

2

w, ww 2X 2X P +

1

2

w, w P, ww

= X + 2X P +

1

2

w, ww 2X P, ww

= X + 2X P +

1

2

w X + P, ww

= X + 2

1

2

w, ww

= X + 2

1

2

w, ww

= X + w

=

w

and

m

l

X =

l

X 2

l

X P

1

2

w, ww

= X 2X P, ww 2X 2X P, ww P

1

2

w, ww

= X + 2X P, ww 2X P

1

2

w, ww

= X + 2X P X + P +

1

2

w, ww

= X + 2

1

2

w, ww

= X + 2

1

2

w, ww

= X + w

=

w

Hence,

l

m

=

m

l

=

w

.

(6) Let l and m be be parallel lines. Then there is a unique number d(l, m) such that

d(X, l) = d(Y, m) = d(l, m)

for all X m and Y l. In fact, if N is a unit normal vector to l and m, then

for any points X on m and Y on l,

[X Y, N[ = d(l, m)

5

Let l : Y + [v] and m: X + [v], where v is the vector direction of line l and m.

Note that

d(X, l) = [X Y, N[

= [(Y X), N[

= [ Y X, N[

= [Y X, N[

= d(Y, m)

So we have d(X, l) = d(Y, m) = [X Y, N[, and denote this common value by

d(l, m).

6

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