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# PR I MA3041 GEOMETRI

## KEVIN MANDIRA LIMANTA

(10110106)
(1) If 0 < t < 1 and X = (1 t)P + tQ, and P ,= Q, show that
d(P, X)
d(X, Q)
=
[P X[
[X Q[
=
t[P Q[
(1 t)[P Q[
=
t
1 t
Use this to nd the point X that divides the segment PQ in the ratio r : s.
Illustrate using r = 2, s = 3, P = (3, 5), Q = (8, 4).
We have
d(P, X)
d(X, Q)
=
[P X[
[X Q[
=
[P (1 t)P tQ[
[(1 t)P + tQQ[
=
t[P Q[
(1 t)[P Q[
=
t
1 t
If X is a point that divides the segment PQ in the ratio r : s, then we will have
r
s
=
d(P, X)
d(X, Q)
=
t
1 t
so that we have t =
r
r + s
. Using the very denition of X, we have
X =
s
r + s
P +
r
r + s
Q
To illustrate this, notice that by substituting r = 2, s = 3, P = (3, 5), and
Q = (8, 4), we have t =
2
5
, so we have
X =
3
5
P +
2
5
Q
=
3
5
(3, 5) +
2
5
(8, 4)
=

7
5
,
23
5

## (2) (a) Find all unit normal vectors to the line 3x + 2y + 10 = 0.

Dene l : 3x +2y +10 = 0. We have N = (3, 2) as normal vector correspond-
ing to the l , and since the required vector is of the unit length, we divide the
1
vector by its norm, that is

## 13. So the unit vectors of l are (

3

13
,
2

13
) and
(
3

13
,
2

13
) by taking the opposite sign as well.
(b) Find all direction vectors of the same line.
Let v = (v
1
, v
2
) be the direction vectors of l , so we must have N v = 0
since they are perpendicular. We have 3v
1
+2v
2
= 0 so v must be of the form
v =

3
2

t, where t R
(c) If P = (5, 2) and v = (
1
2
,
2
3
), nd the equation of the line P + [v] in the form
ax + by + c = 0.
Let N = (a, b) be any normal vector of the line. Since v = (
1
2
,
2
3
), then
we must have
1
2
a +
2
3
b = 0
since v N = 0. We see that a = 4 and b = 3 are indeed satisfying above
equation, so N = (4, 3) is a normal vector of the line. Then the line must
be of the form 4x + 3y + c = 0. Plugging in x = 5 and y = 2 give c = 14,
since (5, 2) is in the line. So the equation of the line is 4x + 3y + 14 = 0.
(3) If v = (v
1
, v
2
) is a direction vector of a line l, the number = v
2
/v
1
is called the
slope of l, provided that v
1
,= 0.
(a) Show that the concept of slope is well-dened.
Let R

## be the extended real number system. In other words, R

= R
, . Consider the mapping : E
2
R which maps any vector (a, b)
E
2
to
b
a
, provided that a ,= 0, and (0, b) to . We need to show that is
well-dened.
To do that, take v = (v
1
, v
2
) and w = (w
1
, w
2
) in E
2
so that v = w, that is
v
1
= w
1
and v
2
= w
2
. If v
1
= w
1
= 0, then we have (v) = (w) = . If
v
1
= w
1
,= 0, then we have (v) =
v
2
v
1
=
w
2
w
1
= (w). So is well-dened.
(b) Show that if l is a line with slope , the vector (1, ) is a direction vector of
l.
Because from (a) the mapping is well-dened, any slope =

1
must have
the vector (1, ) as the pre-image.
(c) Show that the line through P = (x
1
, y
1
) with slope has the equation
y y
1
= (x x
1
)
Let l be such a line. Since the slope of l is , we have (1, ) as its vector
direction. Let N = (a, b) be its normal vector. We must have a + b = 0.
2
Note that a = and b = 1 are solution of the equation, so N = (, 1) is
the normal vector of l. By letting l : ax+by+c = 0, we have l : x+y+c = 0.
Substituting x = x
1
and y = y
1
to the equation, we have
c = x
1
y
1
Substituting c back to the line equation, we have x + y + x
1
y
1
= 0.
Rearranging the terms, we have
y y
1
= (x x
1
)
as desired.
(4) Let T be a pencil of parallels as discussed in Theorems 25 27.
(a) Show that REF(T) is isomorphic to the multiplicative group of 22 matrices
of the form

1 p
0 1

## where the reection

a
corresponds to the matrix

1 2a
0 1

and T

corresponds to

1
0 1

f : REF(T) M

1 2m
0 1

## It suces to show that f is an isomorphism. Clearly, f is well-dened. Now,

take
a
and
b
in REF(T). Note that
f(
a
) f(
b
) =

1 2a
0 1

1 2b
0 1

1 2(a b)
0 1

= f(
a

b
)
so that f is a homomorphism. Next, it is easy to check that f is onto, for if
we take

1 2a
0 1

M we can take
a
REF(T).
It suces to show that f is injective. But this can be easily seen since if we
take

1 2a
0 1

and

1 2b
0 1

in M such that

1 2a
0 1

1 2b
0 1

in M
then it is true that a = b, which gives
a
=
b
.
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(b) Observe that TRANS(l) is a subgroup of index 2 in REF(T).
We will prove that TRANS(l) is a subgroup of REF(T).
For any T
a
, T
b
, T
c
TRANS(l), we have
(T
a
T
b
) T
c
=

1 a
0 1

1 b
0 1

1 c
0 1

1 a
0 1

1 b
0 1

1 c
0 1

= T
a
(T
b
T
c
)
so that TRANS(l) is associative.
There is T
0
TRANS(l) so that for each T
a
TRANS(l), we have
T
a
T
0
=

1 a
0 1

1 0
0 1

1 0
0 1

1 a
0 1

= T
0
T
a
so that the identity element exists in TRANS(l).
For each T
a
, there exists T
a
in TRANS(l) so that
T
a
T
a
=

1 a
0 1

1 a
0 1

= T
0
=

1 a
0 1

1 a
0 1

= T
a
T
a
For each T
a
, T
b
in TRANS(l), we have
T
a
T
b
=

1 a
0 1

1 b
0 1

1 b
0 1

1 a
0 1

= T
b
T
a
proving that TRANS(l) is a group. Because REF(T) is itself a group and
TRANS(l) REF(T), then TRANS(l) is a subgroup of REF(T).
(5) Let
w
be any translation. Let l = P +[v] be any line having w as a normal vector.
Show that if m = P
1
2
w + [w

] and m

= P +
1
2
w + [w

], we have

m
=
m

l
=
w
4
We have

m
X =
m
X 2
m
X P, ww
= X 2X P +
1
2
w, ww 2X 2X P +
1
2
w, w P, ww
= X + 2X P +
1
2
w, ww 2X P, ww
= X + 2X P +
1
2
w X + P, ww
= X + 2
1
2
w, ww
= X + 2
1
2
w, ww
= X + w
=
w
and

m

l
X =
l
X 2
l
X P
1
2
w, ww
= X 2X P, ww 2X 2X P, ww P
1
2
w, ww
= X + 2X P, ww 2X P
1
2
w, ww
= X + 2X P X + P +
1
2
w, ww
= X + 2
1
2
w, ww
= X + 2
1
2
w, ww
= X + w
=
w
Hence,
l

m
=
m

l
=
w
.
(6) Let l and m be be parallel lines. Then there is a unique number d(l, m) such that
d(X, l) = d(Y, m) = d(l, m)
for all X m and Y l. In fact, if N is a unit normal vector to l and m, then
for any points X on m and Y on l,
[X Y, N[ = d(l, m)
5
Let l : Y + [v] and m: X + [v], where v is the vector direction of line l and m.
Note that
d(X, l) = [X Y, N[
= [(Y X), N[
= [ Y X, N[
= [Y X, N[
= d(Y, m)
So we have d(X, l) = d(Y, m) = [X Y, N[, and denote this common value by
d(l, m).
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