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PR V MA3041 GEOMETRI

KEVIN MANDIRA LIMANTA


(10110106)
1. Prove that lines P + [v] and Q+ [w] intersect if and only if
QP, v w = 0
Answer:
Let P + [v] and Q+ [w] intersect at R, then we have
R = P +v = Q+w
so that QP = v w. Hence, we have
QP, v w = v w, v w
= v, v w w, v w
= 0
as desired.
Conversely, suppose that Q P, v w = 0, then we can represent Q P as linear combination
of v and w, namely
QP = v +w
Hence we have that P + v = Q w. But the left side is on line P + [v], while the right side is
on line Q+ [w]. Since both sides are equal, it must be the case that those two lines intersect.
2. Let A and B be two distinct points of S
2
. Show that
X S
2
[ d(X, A) = d(X, B)
is a line, and nd an expression for its pole.
Answer:
To show that l = X S
2
[ d(X, A) = d(X, B) is a line, we must show that there exists
vector , which is its pole, such that X, = 0 for all X l. But since
d(X, A) = cos
1
X, A = cos
1
X, B = d(X, B),
we have that
X, A = X, B
or X, A B = 0.
Hence, we have shown the existence of , namely AB, and l is a line X S
2
[ X, AB = 0.
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3. Prove Theorem 11. In particular, show that
(a) The poles of m are
P
[ P[
, where is a pole of l.
(b) The point of intersection are
P P,
_
1 P,
2
.
(c) The distances from P to l are cos
1
_

_
1 P,
2
_
Answer:
Choose m =
_
X S
2
[
_
X,

OP
[OP [
_
= 0
_
. To prove the uniqueness, suppose that there exists
such that , = 0 and the line that has as its pole also passes through P. Then we have
and P is on the line, and the line connecting any two distinct points must be unique.
(a) Since the line m that is perpendicular to l is unique, then we must have
=
OP
[OP [
(b) Vector that is related is the projection of OP towards , that is P P, . We must have the
unit vector, so the point of intersection is

P P,
[P P, [
=
P P,
_
1 P,
2
(c) The distance from P to l is the distance between P and the point of intersection Q, that is
d(P, Q) = cos
1
P, Q
= cos
1
_
P,
P P,
_
1 P,
2
_
= cos
1

_
P,
P P,
_
1 P,
2
_
= cos
1

P, P P,
_
1 P,
2
= cos
1

P, P P, P,
_
1 P,
2
= cos
1

1 P,
_
1 P,
2
= cos
1
_

_
1 P,
2
_
4. Verify that Theorem 15 and Theorem 16 can be proved with the same calculations as were used in
the Euclidean case.
Answer:
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If the matrix corresponds to , , and are

=
_
ref 0
0 1
_
,

=
_
ref 0
0 1
_
, and

=
_
ref 0
0 1
_
then we can choose so that it corresponds to matrix
_
ref ( +) 0
0 1
_
.
Next, suppose that line l passes through point P that corresponds with matrix

l
=
_
ref(L) 0
0 1
_
then choose line m and m

that correspond with matrix

m
=
_
ref(M) 0
0 1
_
and
m
=
_
ref(M

) 0
0 1
_
such that 2L = M +M

.
We have

m
=
_
ref(L) 0
0 1
_ _
ref(M) 0
0 1
_
=
_
rot 2(L M) 0
0 1
_
=
_
rot 2(M

L) 0
0 1
_
=
_
ref(M

) 0
0 1
_ _
ref(L) 0
0 1
_
=
m

l
5. Let P and Q be distinct non-antipodal points. Under what circumstances will the group generated
by H
P
, H
Q
be nite? (Note: A half-turn on S
2
is again a product of reections in two perpen-
dicular lines.)
Answer:
Since for any P we have
H
P
H
P
X = H
P
X + 2H
P
X, PP
= (X + 2X, PP) + 2X + 2X, PP, PP
= X 2X, PP 2X, PP + 4X, PP, P
= X 4X, PP + 4X, PP
= X
we can conclude that H
2
P
= I, and hence
H
P
, H
Q
= H
m
P
H
n
Q
[ m, n Z
= I, H
P
, H
Q
, H
P
H
Q

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But every element in above set is an inverse of itself except for H
P
H
Q
. It must be the case then
that H
P
H
Q
is the inverse of itself, that is if they commute. Hence we must have H
P
H
Q
= H
Q
H
P
.
Direct calculation shows that
H
P
H
Q
(X) = X 2X, QQ 2X, PP + 4X, QP, QP
while
H
Q
H
P
(X) = X 2X, QQ 2X, PP + 4X, PP, QQ
So, we must have
X, QP, QP = X, PP, QQ
Left side is a multiple of P, while right side is a multiple of Q. So they are equal if and only if
P, Q = 0, that is when vectors OP and OQ are orthogonal.
6. If an isometry of S
2
leaves P xed and takes Q to Q, show that P, Q = 0.
Answer:
Suppose T is the isometry, then we have TP = P and TQ = Q. We then have
d(P, Q) = d(TP, TQ) = d(P, Q)
so that
cos
1
P, Q = cos
1
P, Q
or P, Q = P, Q = P, Q. This gives P, Q = 0, as desired.
7. Find all isometries of S
2
satisfying
2
= I, but ,= I. Such an isometry is said to be an involu-
tion. If and are involutions, is an involution?
Answer:
Reection, rotation about , half-turn, and glide reection, which is reection followed by transla-
tion about . Product of involutions and need not be involution. Take and such that they
dont commute, that is, ,= . There exists such a pair, take =
l
and =
m
where l and
m are not perpendicular.
8. Let P be a point of S
2
, and l a line of S
2
. Show that
(
l
H
P
)
2
= I
if and only if P is a pole of l or P l.
Answer:
() We divide this into two cases. Let P be a pole of l. For any x S
2
, we have
H
P
x = x + 2x, P and
l
= x 2x, P
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Consequently, we have

l
H
P
x = (x + 2x, PP) 2x + 2x, PP, PP
= x + 2x, PP + 2x, PP 4x, PP, PP
= x + 4x, PP 4x, PP
= x
Hence, we have
(
l
H
P
)
2
x =
l
H
P
(
l
H
P
x)
=
l
H
P
(x)
= x
So, because (
l
H
P
)
2
x = x for all x S
2
, we have (
l
H
P
)
2
= I.
As for the second case, let P l with acts as pole of l. Take any x S
2
, then we have

l
H
P
x = H
P
x 2H
P
x,
= x + 2x, PP 2x + 2x, PP,
= x + 2x, PP + 2x, 4x, PP,
= x + 2x, PP + 2x,
Hence, by simple calculation we nd
(
l
H
P
x)
2
x =
l
H
P
(
l
H
P
x)
=
l
H
P
(x + 2x, PP + 2x, )
= x 2x, PP 2x, + 2x + 2x, PP
= x
which shows that (
l
H
P
)
2
= I.
() Take any y l with pole . We will prove that P, y = 0 or P l. Note that

l
H
P
y = H
P
y 2H
P
y,
= y + 2y, PP 2y + 2y, PP,
= y + 2y, PP + 2y, 4y, PP,
= y + 2y, PP 4y, PP,
Hence,
(
l
H
P
)
2
y =
l
H
P
y(
l
H
P
y)
=
l
H
P
(y + 2y, PP 4y, PP, )
= y 8y, PP,
2
P + 16y, PP,
2

Because (
l
H
P
)
2
y = y, we have
y = y 8y, PP,
2
P + 16y, PP,
2

or y, PP,
2
P + 2y, PP,
2
= 0. Hence
0 = y, PP,
2
P + 2y, PP,
2

= y, PP,
2
(P 2P, )
= y, PP,
2

l
P
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We have three cases:
(a) If y, P = 0, then P is pole of l
(b) If P, = 0, then P is in l
(c) If
l
P = 0, then |
l
P| = 0, which contradicts the fact that |
l
P| = 1 because
l
P S
2
.
In every cases, P is pole of l or P l.
9. Let l be a line of S
2
with pole P. Show that I, H
P
,
l
, E is a group, and give its multiplication
table. (E is the antipodal map)
Answer:
Since associative property holds and there is I as identity element, it suces to show that ev-
ery element has an inverse. Clearly I is the inverse of itself, as well as H
P
and
l
because they are
all involutions. Note that we have EE =
l
H
P

l
H
P
=
l

l
H
P
H
P
= I, so that E is an inverse of
itself also.
The multiplication table is given as follows:
I H
P

l
E
I I H
P

l
E
H
P
H
P
I E
l

l

l
E I H
P
E E
l
H
P
I
10. Let F = P, Q, R be a gure consisting of three mutually perpendicular points. Find S(F).
Answer:
Because P, Q, and R are three mutually perpendicular points, then there are lines in S
2
which
poles are P, Q, and R. Then the group S(F) consists of 24 rotations, 9 reections, and 15 glide
reections, including the antipodal map.
11. Under what circumstances will a reection and a half-turn commute?
Answer:
Let
l
x = x 2x, QQ with Q pole of l, and H
P
x = x + 2x, PP. We have

l
H
P
x = x + 2x, PP + 2x, QQ 4x, PP, QQ
and
H
P

l
x = x + 2x, QQ+ 2x, PP 4x, QP, QP
=
l
H
P
x + 4x, PP, QQ 4x, QP, QP
Hence, in order to
l
and H
P
x be commute, we have x, PP, QQ = x, QP, QP, or
P, Q (x, PQ x, QP) = 0
Hence there are three circumstances: P, Q = 0, P = Q, and P = Q. But, we need to consider
one more cases, namely P, Q , = 0, P ,= Q. If that were to happen, we get |P + Q| ,= 0 and
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P, Q , = 1. So, for x =
P +Q
|P +Q|
, we have
x, QP x, PQ =
_
P +Q
|P +Q|
, Q
_
P
_
P +Q
|P +Q|
, P
_
Q
=
1
|P +Q|
(P +Q, PQ P +Q, QP)
=
1
|P +Q|
(P, QQ+Q P, QP P)
=
1
|P +Q|
(P, Q + 1) (P
Q
) ,= 0
which cannot happen.
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