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(10110106)

1. Prove that lines P + [v] and Q+ [w] intersect if and only if

QP, v w = 0

Answer:

Let P + [v] and Q+ [w] intersect at R, then we have

R = P +v = Q+w

so that QP = v w. Hence, we have

QP, v w = v w, v w

= v, v w w, v w

= 0

as desired.

Conversely, suppose that Q P, v w = 0, then we can represent Q P as linear combination

of v and w, namely

QP = v +w

Hence we have that P + v = Q w. But the left side is on line P + [v], while the right side is

on line Q+ [w]. Since both sides are equal, it must be the case that those two lines intersect.

2. Let A and B be two distinct points of S

2

. Show that

X S

2

[ d(X, A) = d(X, B)

is a line, and nd an expression for its pole.

Answer:

To show that l = X S

2

[ d(X, A) = d(X, B) is a line, we must show that there exists

vector , which is its pole, such that X, = 0 for all X l. But since

d(X, A) = cos

1

X, A = cos

1

X, B = d(X, B),

we have that

X, A = X, B

or X, A B = 0.

Hence, we have shown the existence of , namely AB, and l is a line X S

2

[ X, AB = 0.

1

3. Prove Theorem 11. In particular, show that

(a) The poles of m are

P

[ P[

, where is a pole of l.

(b) The point of intersection are

P P,

_

1 P,

2

.

(c) The distances from P to l are cos

1

_

_

1 P,

2

_

Answer:

Choose m =

_

X S

2

[

_

X,

OP

[OP [

_

= 0

_

. To prove the uniqueness, suppose that there exists

such that , = 0 and the line that has as its pole also passes through P. Then we have

and P is on the line, and the line connecting any two distinct points must be unique.

(a) Since the line m that is perpendicular to l is unique, then we must have

=

OP

[OP [

(b) Vector that is related is the projection of OP towards , that is P P, . We must have the

unit vector, so the point of intersection is

P P,

[P P, [

=

P P,

_

1 P,

2

(c) The distance from P to l is the distance between P and the point of intersection Q, that is

d(P, Q) = cos

1

P, Q

= cos

1

_

P,

P P,

_

1 P,

2

_

= cos

1

_

P,

P P,

_

1 P,

2

_

= cos

1

P, P P,

_

1 P,

2

= cos

1

P, P P, P,

_

1 P,

2

= cos

1

1 P,

_

1 P,

2

= cos

1

_

_

1 P,

2

_

4. Verify that Theorem 15 and Theorem 16 can be proved with the same calculations as were used in

the Euclidean case.

Answer:

2

If the matrix corresponds to , , and are

=

_

ref 0

0 1

_

,

=

_

ref 0

0 1

_

, and

=

_

ref 0

0 1

_

then we can choose so that it corresponds to matrix

_

ref ( +) 0

0 1

_

.

Next, suppose that line l passes through point P that corresponds with matrix

l

=

_

ref(L) 0

0 1

_

then choose line m and m

m

=

_

ref(M) 0

0 1

_

and

m

=

_

ref(M

) 0

0 1

_

such that 2L = M +M

.

We have

m

=

_

ref(L) 0

0 1

_ _

ref(M) 0

0 1

_

=

_

rot 2(L M) 0

0 1

_

=

_

rot 2(M

L) 0

0 1

_

=

_

ref(M

) 0

0 1

_ _

ref(L) 0

0 1

_

=

m

l

5. Let P and Q be distinct non-antipodal points. Under what circumstances will the group generated

by H

P

, H

Q

be nite? (Note: A half-turn on S

2

is again a product of reections in two perpen-

dicular lines.)

Answer:

Since for any P we have

H

P

H

P

X = H

P

X + 2H

P

X, PP

= (X + 2X, PP) + 2X + 2X, PP, PP

= X 2X, PP 2X, PP + 4X, PP, P

= X 4X, PP + 4X, PP

= X

we can conclude that H

2

P

= I, and hence

H

P

, H

Q

= H

m

P

H

n

Q

[ m, n Z

= I, H

P

, H

Q

, H

P

H

Q

3

But every element in above set is an inverse of itself except for H

P

H

Q

. It must be the case then

that H

P

H

Q

is the inverse of itself, that is if they commute. Hence we must have H

P

H

Q

= H

Q

H

P

.

Direct calculation shows that

H

P

H

Q

(X) = X 2X, QQ 2X, PP + 4X, QP, QP

while

H

Q

H

P

(X) = X 2X, QQ 2X, PP + 4X, PP, QQ

So, we must have

X, QP, QP = X, PP, QQ

Left side is a multiple of P, while right side is a multiple of Q. So they are equal if and only if

P, Q = 0, that is when vectors OP and OQ are orthogonal.

6. If an isometry of S

2

leaves P xed and takes Q to Q, show that P, Q = 0.

Answer:

Suppose T is the isometry, then we have TP = P and TQ = Q. We then have

d(P, Q) = d(TP, TQ) = d(P, Q)

so that

cos

1

P, Q = cos

1

P, Q

or P, Q = P, Q = P, Q. This gives P, Q = 0, as desired.

7. Find all isometries of S

2

satisfying

2

= I, but ,= I. Such an isometry is said to be an involu-

tion. If and are involutions, is an involution?

Answer:

Reection, rotation about , half-turn, and glide reection, which is reection followed by transla-

tion about . Product of involutions and need not be involution. Take and such that they

dont commute, that is, ,= . There exists such a pair, take =

l

and =

m

where l and

m are not perpendicular.

8. Let P be a point of S

2

, and l a line of S

2

. Show that

(

l

H

P

)

2

= I

if and only if P is a pole of l or P l.

Answer:

() We divide this into two cases. Let P be a pole of l. For any x S

2

, we have

H

P

x = x + 2x, P and

l

= x 2x, P

4

Consequently, we have

l

H

P

x = (x + 2x, PP) 2x + 2x, PP, PP

= x + 2x, PP + 2x, PP 4x, PP, PP

= x + 4x, PP 4x, PP

= x

Hence, we have

(

l

H

P

)

2

x =

l

H

P

(

l

H

P

x)

=

l

H

P

(x)

= x

So, because (

l

H

P

)

2

x = x for all x S

2

, we have (

l

H

P

)

2

= I.

As for the second case, let P l with acts as pole of l. Take any x S

2

, then we have

l

H

P

x = H

P

x 2H

P

x,

= x + 2x, PP 2x + 2x, PP,

= x + 2x, PP + 2x, 4x, PP,

= x + 2x, PP + 2x,

Hence, by simple calculation we nd

(

l

H

P

x)

2

x =

l

H

P

(

l

H

P

x)

=

l

H

P

(x + 2x, PP + 2x, )

= x 2x, PP 2x, + 2x + 2x, PP

= x

which shows that (

l

H

P

)

2

= I.

() Take any y l with pole . We will prove that P, y = 0 or P l. Note that

l

H

P

y = H

P

y 2H

P

y,

= y + 2y, PP 2y + 2y, PP,

= y + 2y, PP + 2y, 4y, PP,

= y + 2y, PP 4y, PP,

Hence,

(

l

H

P

)

2

y =

l

H

P

y(

l

H

P

y)

=

l

H

P

(y + 2y, PP 4y, PP, )

= y 8y, PP,

2

P + 16y, PP,

2

Because (

l

H

P

)

2

y = y, we have

y = y 8y, PP,

2

P + 16y, PP,

2

or y, PP,

2

P + 2y, PP,

2

= 0. Hence

0 = y, PP,

2

P + 2y, PP,

2

= y, PP,

2

(P 2P, )

= y, PP,

2

l

P

5

We have three cases:

(a) If y, P = 0, then P is pole of l

(b) If P, = 0, then P is in l

(c) If

l

P = 0, then |

l

P| = 0, which contradicts the fact that |

l

P| = 1 because

l

P S

2

.

In every cases, P is pole of l or P l.

9. Let l be a line of S

2

with pole P. Show that I, H

P

,

l

, E is a group, and give its multiplication

table. (E is the antipodal map)

Answer:

Since associative property holds and there is I as identity element, it suces to show that ev-

ery element has an inverse. Clearly I is the inverse of itself, as well as H

P

and

l

because they are

all involutions. Note that we have EE =

l

H

P

l

H

P

=

l

l

H

P

H

P

= I, so that E is an inverse of

itself also.

The multiplication table is given as follows:

I H

P

l

E

I I H

P

l

E

H

P

H

P

I E

l

l

l

E I H

P

E E

l

H

P

I

10. Let F = P, Q, R be a gure consisting of three mutually perpendicular points. Find S(F).

Answer:

Because P, Q, and R are three mutually perpendicular points, then there are lines in S

2

which

poles are P, Q, and R. Then the group S(F) consists of 24 rotations, 9 reections, and 15 glide

reections, including the antipodal map.

11. Under what circumstances will a reection and a half-turn commute?

Answer:

Let

l

x = x 2x, QQ with Q pole of l, and H

P

x = x + 2x, PP. We have

l

H

P

x = x + 2x, PP + 2x, QQ 4x, PP, QQ

and

H

P

l

x = x + 2x, QQ+ 2x, PP 4x, QP, QP

=

l

H

P

x + 4x, PP, QQ 4x, QP, QP

Hence, in order to

l

and H

P

x be commute, we have x, PP, QQ = x, QP, QP, or

P, Q (x, PQ x, QP) = 0

Hence there are three circumstances: P, Q = 0, P = Q, and P = Q. But, we need to consider

one more cases, namely P, Q , = 0, P ,= Q. If that were to happen, we get |P + Q| ,= 0 and

6

P, Q , = 1. So, for x =

P +Q

|P +Q|

, we have

x, QP x, PQ =

_

P +Q

|P +Q|

, Q

_

P

_

P +Q

|P +Q|

, P

_

Q

=

1

|P +Q|

(P +Q, PQ P +Q, QP)

=

1

|P +Q|

(P, QQ+Q P, QP P)

=

1

|P +Q|

(P, Q + 1) (P

Q

) ,= 0

which cannot happen.

7

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