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An Introduction to

Structural Styles and Tectonics


in Petroleum Geology

COMPRESSION
Dr Kevin C. Hill University of Melbourne

Thrust Faults
usually at a low angle to bedding, they repeat stratigraphic section.

Detachments,
often parallel to bedding, they separate different structural styles

Contorted Beds

t n e m h c Deta
eds B l e l l a r a P

Thrust repeat in duplex

Section repeated in Break-Thrust Fold first, then thrust forelimb

Forelimb

Section repeated in Break-Thrust Fold first, then thrust forelimb

3 types of fold-thrust interactions


Fault-bend Folding

Detachment

ramp

Detachment

ramp

Fault-propagation Folding

Detachment

Detachment Folding

Fault-bend fold or ramp anticline


Over 40 km displacement Palaeozoic Limestone

Cretaceous clastics

Idealized Thrust Fault Development


Faults tend to be parallel to bedding in incompetent rocks and oblique in competent rocks
FIXED POINT INCOMPETENT

Faults cut up-section in direction of tectonic transport


COMPETENT "BEAMS"

Typical hanging wall shape

Major faults are younger in direction of tectonic transport

Step spacing depends on thickness changes

Where thickened section encounters Major thrust faults don't footwall step motion is transferred overlap significantly to new fault major step is locus of younger extensional faults

Double the faulted section , net shortening always ~50%

Gentle dip on top of anticline gives regional tilt Elevation of top must be known Position of hinges locate ramp
E D C B D C B A E D C B A A

Dip of limb = dip of ramp

RAMP HEIGHT

Regional elevation

Ramp height = elevation of horizon on top of anticline minus regional elevation

Fault Propagation Fold

Tip

A fault propagation fold in Carboniferous slates, South Wales

Ref

2m
after Chapman & Williams (1984)

Loss of displacement by folding Tip

Loss of displacement by imbrication

Detachment fold

Typical detachments in the Alberta Disturbed Belt

"Sole Fault" Detachment

Concentric Fold Detachments

"Front Fold" Detachment

Detachment fold then breakthrust through forelimb

Ramp / flat geometry


P RAM

COMPETENT ROCK INCOMPETENT

FLAT

Ramp anticline

Possible hangingwall / footwall relationships


4.
FWF HWF

3. 1.
HWF

5.

2.
FWR

FWR

FWF

FWF HWF - Hangingwall Flat HWR - Hangingwall Ramp FWF - Footwall Flat FWR - Footwall Ramp

Cape Liptrap near Melbourne

Competent beds deform independently


D t n e m h c eta

Internally deformed competent beds

Competent beds deform independently


Ramp anticline

Hook structure top

Ramp anticline

Competent (strong) beds deform independently

1.00
After Liu & Dixon 1995

1.375

Normal stratigraphic sequence Thickening Normal stratigraphic interval

Thrust over young beds

Normal stratigraphic sequence

D R Flat 3 4
Thickness normal

1
mp a R

D R

2 2
Thrust cuts up section in direction of transport

Section thickened by duplication

Thickness normal

What happens to bed 1 to the right and to beds 3 & 4 to the left?

Geomorph
Looking south

A A
Tip point

The units are restored manually removing the effect of faulting

Regional Kutubu - Wage - Nembi Section


SW
km 0 5 10
A

Omati Trough

Iagifu Iorogabaiu Kutubu Hedinia

Mubi

Wage

Nembi Valley

NE

Shelf Toro

Bas in T oro

Shelf
km 0 5 10

Kubor-Mendi Trough

Kutubu

Mubi

Wage
Shelf Toro

Basin Toro

Darai Limestone(Miocene) Miocene (distal) Eocene Ieru Formation(Cretaceous)

Toro Sandstone(Neocomian) Jurassic Basement (Paleozoic)

20 km

Tangguh Gas Province


SFS

Salawati Basin Bintuni Basin

Cenderawasih Bay

New Guinea Oil & Gas


Hides Gasfield Arafura Platform
Tasman Line

Neogene Basin Late Mio-Pliocene Foreland Basin 250 km

F ly P latfo rm

Kutubu Oilfield
Gulf of Papua

Pandora-Pasca

Fold Belt

Highlands Highway

Simple Transfer Zone

After Dahlstrom 1970

Footwall boundary
Tear fault

Bedding surface in lower half of the thrust sheet

Opposed plunges aligned above buried tear

Bedding surface in upper part of thrust sheet

After Dahlstrom 1970

Mananda

Hides Juha

Model for the offset of fold axes above a footwall lateral ramp

Hides? Juha?

FOOTWALL FLAT RAMP

RAMP ANTICLINE

Iagifu-Wage Regional Section

SAR

Moran Mananda

Paua

Agogo

Hedinia

Iagifu

Iagifu

Hedinai

Previous Model extent to the west

Looking ESE