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Hydel Energy

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Waqas Khalid 6076

World Primary Energy Consumption in 2010

Coal 30%

Nuclear Energy 5% Natural Gas 24% Hydro 6% Renew- ables 1%

12002.4 MTOE
Oil 34%

Source: BP Statistical Review, 2010


Current Installed Capacity, By Region

Hydropower is currently being utilized in some 150 countries around 27,000 generating units. Global installed capacity estimates from different sources range from 860GW to 950GW Europe has the highest installed capacity (~260GW) Eastern Asia, lead by China, is rapidly developing its hydro resources and is expected to become the region with the greatest level of deployment within the coming years. South America, lead by Brazil, is also developing rapidly. Africa remains the region with the poorest ratio of deployment to potential

World Hydroelectricity Consumption 2010

9000 TWh of electricity was produced during 2010

World Hydroelectricity Consumption 2010

Hydro Under Construction, By Region With Existing Capacity Included

Utilization of Hydropower in Pakistan

The total hydroelectric potential in the country has not been fully investigated, but conservatively estimated to be 45,000 MW Pakistan has an installed hydroelectric capacity of 5,928 MW of large (>250 MW) 437 MW of medium (>50 MW and <250 MW), and 253 MW of small to micro (<50 MW) plants, mostly in the northern parts of the country. This amounts to 6,608 MW of total capacity, or less than 15% of the identified potential

Utilization of Hydropower in Pakistan

Tarbela Dam
Height Turbines Installed capacity 143.26 metres from river level 10 x 175 MW, 4 x 432 MW 3478 MW 138 m (453 ft) 10 x 100 MW 1,000 MW

Mangla Dam
Height Turbines Installed capacity

Ghazi Barotha
Type of dam Turbines Installed capacity Run-of-the-river 5 290 MW 1,450 MW
272 m 12 x 375 MW 4,500 MW

Diamer-Bhasha Dam
Height Turbines Installed capacity

Utilization Factor
The Utilization Factor indicates the amount of energy utilized against the total available energy. This can also be interpreted by the energy consumed versus installed capacity. The Utilization Factor of hydel energy is usually lower compared to thermal or nuclear energy. This is because hydel capacity/ potential is dependent on the water head in the reservoir and can not be influenced. It is not necessary that higher energy may be available at the time of peak load vis--vis excess hydel power can not be stored when the requirement is low. Utilization Factor also changes form year to year depending upon the national needs, variation in needs and available water head in the reservoir during the whole year. The utilization factor of Terbela and Mangla dam was 42% and 32 % respectively for the year 2008

World Largest Hydro Power Projects

Ran k 1 Rated Capacity (MW) 20,300

Name Three Gorges Dam

Country China Brazil Paraguay Venezuela Brazil United States

3 4 5

Itaipu Dam
Guri Dam Tucurui Dam Grand Coulee Dam

10,200 8,370 6,809

Three Gorges Dam

The turbines are 35 feet in diameter (11m) and 17 feet high (5m) 50-700MW

Hydro Power
Hydropower (from hydro meaning water) is energy that comes from the force of moving water.
The fall and movement of water is part of a continuous natural cycle called the water cycle

Hydropower (from hydro meaning water) is energy that comes from the force of moving water in which potential energy is being converted to K.E.

Hydro Power
Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called hydropower. Hydropower is currently the largest source of renewable power, generating nearly 19% of the electricity used in the World. The most common type of hydropower plant uses a dam on a river to store water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which, in turn, activates a generator to produce electricity. But hydropower doesn't necessarily require a large dam. Some hydropower plants just use a small canal to channel the river water through a turbine.

Hydro power to Electric Power

Potential Energy

Electrical Energy Electricity

Kinetic Energy

Mechanical Energy

Advantages of Hydro power

Continuous renewable water resource is used for generating electricity, which can save thermal power and nuclear power consumption of coal, oil and uranium, and other valuable non-renewable mineral resources Hydropower is a clean energy source; it does not emit any harmful gases, dust or ash. It has no nuclear radiation pollution. Hydropower has high efficiency. Conventional hydropower efficiency is about 80% . The thermal efficiency of thermal power plants is only 30% -- 50% Low cost of production. There is no need to purchase, transport and storage the fuel. It just needs less operators, higher labor productivity, simple operation, and higher operational reliability. Hydropower station can be applied in comprehensive utilization, such as flood control, irrigation, shipping, aquaculture, tourism and other tasks, in order to receive optimal benefits in the development of economy and society

Storing Energy
One of the biggest advantages of a hydropower plant is its ability to store energy. The water in a reservoir is, after all, stored energy. Water can be stored in a reservoir and released when needed for electricity production.

During the day when people use more electricity, water can flow through a plant to generate electricity. Then, during the night when people use less electricity, water can be held back in the reservoir.
Storage also makes it possible to save water from winter rains for generating power during the summer, or to save water from wet years for generating electricity during dry years.

Hydro Power Energy Conversion

Hydroelectricity is effectively a three-step energy conversion: i. The river's original potential energy (which it has because it starts from high ground) is turned into kinetic energy when the water falls through a height.


The kinetic energy in the moving water is converted into mechanical energy by a water turbine.

iii. The spinning water turbine drives a generator that turns the mechanical energy into electrical energy Different kinds of water turbine are used depending on the geography of the area, how much water is available (the flow), and the distance over which it can be made to fall (the head) The type of turbine is chosen carefully to extract the maximum amount of energy from the water.

Water Turbines
A turbine converts energy in the form of falling water into rotating shaft power. The two primary classifications of water turbines are Reaction turbines Impulse turbines
The water pressure can apply a force on the face of the runner blades, which decreases as it proceeds through the turbine. Turbines that operate in this way are called reaction turbines. In the second case, the water pressure is converted into kinetic energy before entering the runner. The kinetic energy is in the form of a high-speed jet that strikes the buckets, mounted on the periphery of the runner. Turbines that operate in this way are called impulse turbines.

Impulse Turbines
In impulse turbine the potential energy, or the head of water, is first converted into kinetic energy by discharging water through a carefully shaped nozzle. The jet, discharged into air, is directed onto curved buckets fixed on the periphery of the runner to extract the water energy and convert it to useful work.

Impulse turbines are most often used in very high (>300m/984 ft) head applications

Reaction Turbines
Reaction turbines are primarily designed to operate efficiently under conditions which supply water at a high flow rate combined with a low head. The runner is placed directly in the water stream flowing over the blades rather than striking each individually.

Water Turbines
High head Impulse turbines
Pelton Turgo

Medium head
Cross-flow Multijet Pelton Turgo Francis

Low head

Reaction turbines


Propeller Kaplan

The low head hydroelectric power plants are the ones in which the available water head is less than 30 meters The hydroelectric power plants in which the working head of water is more than 30 meters but less than 300 meters are called medium head hydroelectric power plants. In the high head hydroelectric power plants the head of water available for producing electricity is more than 300 meters and it can extend even up to 1000 meters.

Three Gorges Dam Francis turbine

Water Turbines

A 100 Watt Pico Turbine

Four nozzle turbine with Turgo runner

Classification of Hydro Electric Plants

According to Quantity of water available i. Run-off river plants without pondage ii. Run-off river plants with pondage iii. Reservoir Plants

According to Available head i. Low-Head (less than 30 meters) Hydro electric plants ii. Medium-head (30 meters - 300 meters) hydro electric plants iii. High-head hydro electric plants
According to power generation Pico, Micro, Mini, small and large hydro power plants

Types of hydroelectric stations according to power generation

Based on the installed capacity, hydroelectric stations can be divided into micro hydro, mini hydro, small hydro and large hydro systems. There are no common definitions for micro, mini, small or large hydro. It varies from country to country. The definitions according to the International Energy Association are as follows

Pico Micro Mini Small Large

up to 5 kW Up to 100 kW 100-1000 kW 1-30 MW +30MW-Gigawatts

Types Of Hydroelectric Stations According To Power Generation

Micro Hydropower Plant

Types Of Hydroelectric Stations According To Power Generation

Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity
Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity (ROR) is a type of hydroelectric generation whereby little or no water storage is provided. Run-of-the-river power plants may either have no storage at all, or a limited amount of storage, in which case the storage reservoir is referred to as . For this reason they are less disruptive to the natural state of a river Run of Water hydro projects use the natural downward flow of rivers and turbine generators to capture the kinetic energy carried by water. Typically water is taken from the river at a high point and gravity fed down a pipe to a lower point where it emerges through a turbine generator and re-enters the river. Installation of such a system is relatively cheap and has very little environmental impact.

Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity
Run-of-the-River power is considered an unfirm source of power: a run-ofthe-river project has little or no capacity for energy storage and hence can't coordinate the output of electricity generation to match consumer demand. It thus generates much more power during times when seasonal river flows are high (i.e, spring freshet),and much less during drier summer months

Reservoir Hydro Power Plants

A reservoir plant is that which has a reservoir of such size as to permit carrying over storage from wet season to the next dry season. Water is stored behind the dam and is available to the plant with control as required. Such a plant has better capacity and can be used efficiently throughout the year. Its firm capacity can be increased and can be used either as a base load plant or as a peak load plant as required. Firm capacity: Power capacity intended to be available at all times during the period covered by a guaranteed commitment to deliver, even under adverse conditions.

Reservoir Hydro Power Plants

The classification according to nature of load

Base load plants
A base load power plant is one that provides a steady flow of power regardless of total power demand by the grid. These plants run at all times through the year except in the case of repairs or scheduled maintenance. Power plants are designated base load based on their low cost generation, efficiency and safety at set outputs. Base load power plants do not change production to match power consumption demands since it is always cheaper to run them rather than running high cost combined cycle plants or combustion turbines. Typically these plants are large enough to provide a majority of the power used by a grid

The Classification According to Nature of Load

Pumped-storage hydroelectricity Peak load plants
Pumped storage hydroelectricity is a method of storing and producing electricity to supply high peak demands by pumping water to a reservoir at a higher elevation during off-peak periods and producing electricity using flowing water during on-peak periods. Unlike most other types of power station hydroelectric power plants can be brought online almost immediately, making them eminently suitable for dealing instantly with quite large fluctuations in grid demand.

THE CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO AVAILABILITY OF WATER HEAD Low-Head (less than 30 meters) Hydro electric plants
Low head" hydro-electric plants are power plants which generally utilize heads of only a few meters or less.

Power plants of this type may utilize a low dam or weir to channel water, or no dam and simply use the "run of the river".
Run of the river generating stations cannot store water, thus their electric output varies with seasonal flows of water in a river Hydro-electric facilities with a capacity of less than about 25 MW are generally referred to as small hydro

Medium-head (30 meters - 300 meters) hydro electric plants

These plants consist of a large dam in a mountainous area which creates a huge reservoir. Dams are also used for flood control, irrigation, recreation, and often are the main source of potable water for many communities

High head" power plants are the most common and generally utilize a dam to store water at an increased elevation. The use of a dam to impound water also provides the capability of storing water during rainy periods and releasing it during dry periods. This results in the consistent and reliable production of electricity, able to meet demand. Heads for this type of power plant may be greater than 1000 m. Most large hydro-electric facilities are of the high head variety. High head plants with storage are very valuable to electric utilities because they can be quickly adjusted to meet the electrical demand on a distribution system

Different Components Of Hydro Power Plant

The Reservoir Water from a natural water body like a river is stored in the reservoir. This reservoir is built at a level higher than the turbine The dam: The flow of water stored in the reservoir is obstructed by huge walls of the dam. This prevents the water from flowing and helps us harness the energy present in it. The dam consists of gates present at its bottom, which can be lifted to allow the flow of water through them. The penstock: This connects the reservoir with the turbine propeller and runs in a downward inclined manner.

Different Components Of Hydro Power Plant

When the gates of dam are lifted, force of gravity makes the water flow down the penstock and reach the blades of the turbine. As the water flows through the penstock, the potential energy of water stored in the dam is converted into kinetic energy. Spillway A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of flows from a dam into a downstream area, typically being the river that was dammed and is not directed to the powerhouse to generate electricity.

Barrage and Dam

Key difference between a dam and a barrage according to World Commission on Dams is that while a barrage is built for diverting water, a dam is built for storing water in a reservoir to raise the level of water considerably. A barrage is usually built where the surface is flat across meandering rivers. It raises the water level only by a few feet.

Reservoir Potential Energy

Reservoir Potential Energy


The Elements for Determining Electrical Output Are

i. Potential energy in the reservoir ii. Penstock Potential energy of water entering the penstock Kinetic energy of water leaving the penstock (p=KE/PE) Mechanical power of water leaving the penstock, Pw iii. Turbine Kinetic energy captured by the turbine Mechanical power of the water striking the turbine, Pt Hydroelectric conversion efficiency, Cp losses Mechanical output of the turbine Pm = CpPt iv. Generator efficiency g

Main Design Parameters

Power capacity of hydropower plant is primarily function of two main variables of water
Water flow Hydraulic head

Design flow
It is the maximum flow for which your hydro system is designed. It will be likely less than the maximum flow of stream (especially during the rainy season), more than the minimum flow and compromise between potential electrical output and system cost If a system is to be independent of any other energy or utility backup, the design flow should be the flow that is available 95 percent of the time or more.

Flow duration curve


Reserved flow
Reserved flow: It is the minimum flow required to avoid aquatic life damage in the water stream Power plants do not use all the water flow for the purpose of energy production. Some part of the flow - reserve flow is separated and not used in standard conditions. This emergency flow is used in conditions of increased energy demand only.

Firm flow
Firm flow: The firm flow is defined as the flow being available X % of the time, where X is a percentage specified by the user and usually equal to 95%.