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TheAusVELS

Curriculum

Domain

CivicsandCitizenship,Communication,Design,Creativityand Technology,English,HealthandPhysicalEducation,Informationand CommunicationsTechnology,InterpersonalDevelopment,Languages, Mathematics,PersonalLearning,Science,TheArts,TheHumanities, TheHumanitiesEconomics,TheHumanitiesGeography,The HumanitiesHistory,ThinkingProcesses Foundationlevel,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9and10 Thursday,14February2013

Level Dated

The Arts
TableofContents Overview Introduction ApproachestoTheArtsdisciplines Domainstructure Stagesoflearning CurriculumF10 Foundationlevel Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level5 Level6 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10

2 2 2 3 4 7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 18 20 22

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The Arts

IntroductiontoTheArts
TheArtsareunique,expressive,creativeandcommunicativeformsthatengagestudentsincriticalandcreativethinkingand helpthemunderstandthemselvesandtheworld.IneverysocietytheArtsplayapivotalrolesocially,economicallyand culturally.TheArtsencouragethedevelopmentofskillsandtheexplorationoftechnologies,formsandprocessesthrough singleandmultimodalforms.Theyfueltheexplorationofideasthatcrossthegamutofhumanemotionsandmoodsthrough holisticlearningusingcognitive,emotional,sensory,aesthetic,kinaestheticandphysicalfields. TheArtsdomainencompassesadiverseandeverchangingrangeofdisciplinesandformsthatcanbeusedtostructure teachingandlearningprograms.Thedomainallowsstudentstocreateandcriticallyexplorevisualculture,performancesin contemporaryandtraditionalgenres,andworksthatinvolvethefusionoftraditionalformswithdigitalmedia.Schoolsusethe artsdisciplinesofArt,Dance,Drama,Media,MusicandVisualCommunicationtoplanprograms.Theseprogramsreflectthe culturaldiversityofstudentsandschoolcommunitiesandthevastgrowthininformationandcommunicationstechnologythat hasmadeartsformsincreasinglyvisible.Theyrecognisethemulticulturalworldsaturatedwithimagery,soundsand performancesthatstudentsinhabit.EngagementintheArtsinvolvestheinspiredandpassionateexplorationofideasand theresultantproductsandperformances.Bytheirverynature,theArtsnurtureculturalunderstanding,invention,new directionsandnewtechnology.Imaginationandcreativity,pivotaltotheArts,areessentialtoourwellbeingbecausewe createmuchofourworldinordertoenhanceourexperiencesandunderstandingsofthediverseperspectivesthatconstitute ourculturalheritage.Forstudents,interactionthroughtheArtsbringscontactwiththeIndigenousculturesofAustraliaandthe culturesofournearestneighbours. LearningintheArtsallowsstudentstocommunicatetheirperceptions,observationsandunderstandingofstructures, functionsandconceptsdrawnfromotherareasofthecurriculum.TheArtsareavehicleforconfrontingandexploringnew ideas.ThroughlearningintheArts,studentspreparefortheirrolesinapostindustrialeconomythatdependsoninnovative ideas,creativeuseoftechnologiesandthedevelopmentofnewandblendedforms.Artslearningexpectsethicalconductin thecreating,making,presentingandrespondingtoartsworksforexample,adherencetoagreedapproachesbyindividuals inacollaborativeperformanceoracknowledgmentoftheuseofotherartistsproducts. LearningintheArtsissequentialandstudentsshouldhavecontinuousexperienceinthedifferentartsdisciplinesthey undertakeataparticularlevel.AtFoundationLevelandLevels1,2,3and4allstudentsshouldexperiencelearningin PerformingArts(Dance,DramaandMusic)andVisualArts(Art,includingtwodimensionalandthreedimensional,and Media)disciplinesandforms.Theartsdisciplinesmaybeofferedbyschoolsindividuallyand/orincombinationforexample, inacrossdisciplinarymannerorusingnewartsformsthatcombinetraditionalartsdisciplines.AtLevels5,6,7and8,the studyofarangeofartsdisciplinesbroadensanddeepensstudentsunderstandingoftheArtsasanareaofhumanactivity andprovidesincreasedopportunitiesforpersonalexpressionandcommunication.Allstudentsshouldhavecontinuous experienceinatleasttwoartsdisciplinesateachoftheselevels.AtLevels910,learningprogramsshouldprovide opportunitiesforstudentstocontinuesequentialdevelopmentoflearningintheartsdisciplinestheyhaveundertakenat Levels58.Opportunitiesshouldalsobeprovidedforstudentstoexplorepersonalinterestsanddevelopskills,knowledge andunderstandingrelevanttospecificartsformsanddisciplinesinincreasinglysophisticatedways. Atalllevels,learningprogramsintheartsdisciplinesshouldprovideopportunitiesforstudentstoexperiencearangeof traditional,contemporary(includingdigital)andnewmedia/multidisciplinaryformsandgenres.

ApproachestoTheArts

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The Arts
ApproachestoTheArts,whichprovidesadviceaboutapproachesforusingArt,Dance,Drama,Media,MusicorVisual CommunicationtoimplementstandardsforTheArts,isnowfoundontheVCAAAusVELSResourceandSupport

website.

StructureofTheArtsdomain
TheArtsdomaindomaininAusVELSusesanelevenlevelstructuretobothreflectthedesignofthenewAustralian CurriculumandtoprovideaconsistentstructureacrossalltheAusVELSdomains(formoredetails,pleaseseeOverview). Eachlevelincludesalearningfocusstatementandasetofstandards.Aglossaryisincludedwhichprovidesdefinitionsofor informationaboutunderlinedterms.

Learningfocus
Learningfocusstatementsarewrittenforeachlevel.Theseoutlinethelearningthatstudentsneedtofocusoniftheyareto progressinthedomainandachievethestandardsatthelevelswheretheyapply.Theysuggestappropriatelearning experiencesfromwhichteacherscandrawtodeveloprelevantteachingandlearningactivities.Adviceregardingtherangeof artsdisciplinesthatstudentsshouldexperienceisincludedasanintroductiontoeachlearningfocusstatement.

Standards
Standardsdefinewhatstudentsshouldknowandbeabletodoatdifferentlevelsandarewrittenforeachdimension.Inthe Arts,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementapplyfromFoundationLevel.

Dimensions
StandardsintheArtsdomainareorganisedintwodimensions:
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Creatingandmaking Exploringandresponding.

StandardsfortheExploringandrespondingdimensionareintroducedfromLevel4. Theframesofreferenceinterpreting,responding,performing,presenting,ideas,skills,techniques,processes,context, aestheticsandcriticismareintegraltobothdimensionsasExploringandrespondingdrawsonstudentsexperiencesas creators,makers,performersand/oraudience.

Creatingandmaking
TheCreatingandmakingdimensionfocusesonideas,skills,techniques,processes,performancesandpresentations.It includesengagementinconceptsthatemergefromarangeofstartingpointsandstimuli.Studentsexploreexperiences, ideas,feelingsandunderstandingsthroughmaking,interpreting,performing,creatingandpresenting.Creatingandmaking artsworksinvolvesimaginationandexperimentationplanningtheapplicationofartselements,principlesand/or conventionsskills,techniquesandprocessesmedia,materials,equipmentandtechnologiesreflectionandrefinement. Individuallyandcollaboratively,studentsexploretheirownworksandworksbyotherartistsworkingindifferenthistoricand culturalcontexts.

Exploringandresponding

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Arts
TheExploringandrespondingdimensionfocusesoncontext,interpretingandresponding,criticismandaesthetics.It involvesstudentsanalysinganddevelopingunderstandingabouttheirownandotherpeoplesworkandexpressing personalandinformedjudgmentsofartsworks.Involvementinevaluatingmeaning,ideasand/orcontentinfinished productsisintegraltoengagementintheArts. Explorationof,andresponseto,expressivequalitiesofartsworksisinformedbycriticalanalysisoftheuseofelements, contentandtechniquesanddiscussionaboutthenature,content,andformal,aestheticand/orkinaestheticqualitiesofarts works.Exploringthequalitiesofartsworksinvolvesuseofartslanguageandalsodrawsonresearchintothepurposesand functionsforwhichtheworksarecreatedandaudiencestowhomtheyarepresented.Thisinvolvesstudentsdevelopingan understandingofsocial,cultural,political,economicandhistoriccontextsandconstructs,anddevelopingaconsiderationof waysthatartsworksreflect,construct,reinforceandchallengepersonal,societalandculturalvaluesandbeliefs.

StagesofLearninginTheArts
AusVELStakesaccountofthedevelopmentalstagesoflearningyoungpeopleexperienceatschool.Whilestudentlearning isacontinuumanddifferentstudentsdevelopatdifferentrates,theybroadlyprogressthroughthreestagesoflearning. Thefollowingstatementsdescribewaysinwhichthesecharacteristicsrelatetolearningexperiencesandstandardsineach ofthethreestagesoflearningintheArtsdomain. Essentiallearningintheartsinvolvessequentialandindepthlearning.Duringtheirschoolingstudentsdevelopknowledge andskillsinartsdisciplinesandforms,increasetheirabilitytoexplore,manipulateandapplytheseskillsindifferent combinationsandcontextsinordertorealisetheirownideasandbetterunderstandthetechniques,productsand performancesofothers. Todaysstudentsseeimages,productsandperformancesthathavebeencreatedbyartistsworkingbothindependentlyand incollaborationwithotherpractitioners.Newmediaartsandartsworksinmultidisciplinaryformsrequirenewwaysof thinkinginandaboutthearts.Inquirymodelsinwhichstudentsexaminecultural,socialandconceptualmeaningsprovide thelearningelementsnecessaryforexploringthemultiplicityofinterpretativeframes. AcrossFoundationto10,studentsshouldhaveaccesstoartslearningthatstimulates,developsandrefinescognitive, affective,creative,technical,aestheticandkinaestheticskills.Thishasbeenshowntoaidthedevelopmentofflexiblethinkers whocanexamineandmanipulateideas,products,conceptsandpossibilities. FoundationtoLevel4Layingthefoundations FromFoundationtoLevel4,studentsbegintoexplorecontentandcontextsrelatingtospecificartsdisciplinesaswellas creative,aestheticandkinaestheticperspectives.Intheselevelstheyfocusonmakingandinquiring.Newmultimedia approachestotheartsofferamodelforcrossandinterdisciplinarypracticalactivitiessuitedtotheselevels. Atthisstage,studentsobservationsareprimarilyconcreteandstudentsusetheirperceptionsandrealitiesastheirinquiry framework.Itisimportanttoofferopportunitiesforstudentstoreflecton,monitorandplantheirthinkingandmaking.Arts learning,wheregoodthinkingdispositionsaremodelled,valuedandsupported,assiststhebridgingofthinkingfromthe concretetoabstractdimensions.Studentsshouldbeabletoexplainsomethingnewafteradiscussionorpractical exploratorysession,andtalkaboutchangesintheirownthinking,performanceormaking,givingreasonsfortheiractions andexplaininganddemonstratingtheirorganisationofideas.Studentsbegintorecognise,appreciateandvaluewaysthat othersthink,actandsolveproblemsdifferently.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Arts
Studentsuseabroadrangeoftraditional,newmediaandmultidisciplinaryformsandmaterialstoimprovise,designand makeworksinmanytwodimensional,threedimensional,digitalandperformanceforms.Throughmakingworksthatselect andcombineartselements,principlesandconventions,studentsdeveloparangeofcognitive,motor,crossdisciplineand disciplinespecifictechniquesandunderstandings. Levels5to8Buildingbreadthanddepth DuringLevels5to8studentsbroadenanddeepentheirunderstandingofartsdisciplinesasanareaofhumanactivity acrosscultural,historical,andtechnicaltraditions.Theyareusuallyengagedby,andrespondwithenthusiasmto,socialand experientiallearningthatprovidesopportunitiestoexploreaestheticqualities.Suchengagementfosterspersonal expression,criticalandcreativethinking,andcommunicationskills. Astheyprogressthroughthisstageoflearning,studentsincreasinglyunderstandtheadvantagesofusingarangeof problemsolvingstrategieswhenconsideringoptionstomakeconsideredchoicesaboutartsideasandwaysof communicatingmeaningsandmessages.Theydevelopawarenessoftherolethatemotions,motivation,technicalskills andbeliefsplayinexplorationandproduction,andcandescribehowothersintheirsocietyandothercultureshavedifferent perspectives,valuesandsolutionstoproblems.Artslearningatthisstageshouldprovideopportunitiesforstudentstoplan, monitor,analyseandevaluatetheirperceptions,ideasandsolutionsthroughreflectingontheeffectivenessoftheirthinking strategiesandoutput,andhowtheymightmakeproductivechanges. Studentsarebeginningtoadoptacriticalandanalyticstance.Theycanmakeconnectionsbetweentraditional,experimental, technologicalandcontemporaryartsformsdevelopinganunderstandingoftheelements,principles,conventionsand processesthatmaybeappliedinarangeofcontexts.Classroomactivitiesshouldbecreativelyandcognitivelydemanding andbuildontheintensityofstudentinterestinexperiences. Levels9to10Developingpathways Intheselevelsstudentsincreasinglyspecialiseinartsformsanddisciplinesofinteresttothem.Theyareawarethatnew media,multidisciplinaryandmultimodalforms,withtheirnotionsofappropriationandconnectivity,existalongsidetraditional formswhosetechniquesneedtobemastered. Studentsdevelopindependentwaysoflearninginandthroughthearts.Theirinvolvementinartslearningmayhavea vocationalfocusormayinvolvedevelopingunderstandingofwaysartsformsandconceptsimpactonindustriesandother situationswherevisual,sonicandelectroniccuesformthebasisofhumaninteractionwithmachines.Theyexploreand analysetheaestheticqualitiesandcontextsofotherartsworksandareabletoexplaintheroleoftheartsintheirownand othersocial,historicalandculturalcontexts.Theybecomeawareoftheneedtoadoptacriticalandanalyticapproachto meaningandmessage.Theiremotionalreactionstoimages,productsandperformancesareenhancedbycriticalskillsas insightsandcomparisonsareexplored,andsocialanduniversalconcernsarecombinedwiththeexplorationofindividual andpersonalvalues. Artslearningatthisstageshouldinvolvestudentreflectionontheprocessestheyundertakeandmakingjudgmentsabout bothqualityanduseofrelevantcriteriaforexploringandmanipulatingmedia,technologies,materialandpersonalspace. Studentsselectandmanipulateskills,tools,techniquesandprocessesfromacrossthecurriculumandwithinspecificarts disciplinestocommunicateideas,conceptsandfeelings. Studentsareinvolvedineveryaspectofthemakingandpresentationofartsimages,productsandperformances,working bothindividuallyandcollaboratively.Theymodelthepracticesofprofessionalartists,experiencingandexperimentingwith innovativewaysofusingartselements,principlesandprocesses.Thismightinvolvedevelopingcreativewaysofusing visionandsound,experimentingwithartsformsthatcombinetraditionalanddigitalmedia,andreflectingthetransitory natureofcontemporaryartsperformancesandproducts.

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The Arts
Atthisstage,studentsshouldbemakinginformedpersonalchoicesbyapplyingthinkingstrategies,aestheticawareness, meaningfuluseoflanguage,possibilitythinkingandtheuseofknowledgetoarriveatoriginalideasbylinkingunrelated ideasandconcepts.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Arts

Foundationlevel
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofFoundationLevelstandardsintheArts,theymakeperformingandvisual artsworksthatexpressandcommunicateexperiences,observations,ideasandfeelingsaboutthemselvesandtheir world.Withguidance,theymakeartsworksintraditionalandcontemporary(includingdigital)artsformsinresponseto stimulidrawnfromsourcessuchasplay,problemsolving,imagination,observation,incursionsandexcursions. Studentsnaturaltendencytodiscoverpossibilitiesandlimitationsisencouragedthroughexploringdifferentwaysof usingperformingandvisualartselements,principlesand/orconventions,skills,techniquesandprocesses,media, materialsandtechnologies. Forexample,studentscould:
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inArt,usearangeofmarkmakingtoolstoexploreasmanywaysaspossibletoapplywetanddrymedia inDance(afterthesafedancepracticeofawarmupforthebody),communicatetheideaofaleafinthewindbyusing movementstoshiftbodyweightindifferentways inDrama,communicateacharactersfeelingsatdifferentpointsinastorythroughfacialexpression,gestureandother nonvocallanguage inMedia,makeandrecordsoundeffectstoaccompanyastorybooktheyhavecreated inMusic,usebodypercussion,foundandmadepercussioninstrumentsandtheirvoicestocreateasoundscape aboutchangesintheweather.

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Aspartoftheirartsmaking,studentstalkaboutwaysinwhichtheArtsarepartoftheirpersonalexperience,aswellas culturalandsocialeventsintheircommunity.Theydiscussandexpressopinionsaboutartsideastheyareexploringand workstheyarecreatingand,withguidance,begintouseartslanguagetodescribefeaturesoftheirownandothersarts works.Theylearnaboutwaysofmakingpersonalresponsestoartsworksbasedonsensoryperception,andconsider waysthattheyandotherscanbebothmakersandaudience.

Standards
Creatingandmaking

AtFoundationLevel,studentsmakeandshareperformingandvisualartsworksthatcommunicateobservations, personalideas,feelingsandexperiences.Theyexploreand,withguidance,useavarietyofartselements(ontheirown orincombination),skills,techniquesandprocesses,media,materials,equipmentandtechnologiesinarangeofarts forms.Theytalkaboutaspectsoftheirownartsworks,andartsworksandeventsintheircommunity. IntheArts,standardsfortheExploringandrespondingdimensionareintroducedatLevel3.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Arts
Level1
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel1standardsintheArts,theylearnaboutarangeofwaysarts elementscanbeusedinthePerformingandVisualArtstocommunicateexperiences,observationsandthings imagined.Theybegintoselect,arrangeandmakechoicesaboutwaysofusingartselements,principlesand/or conventionsfromindividualartsdisciplinesastheyinvestigatetheuseofskills,techniques,processes,media, materials,equipmentandtechnologiesrelevanttotheartsdisciplinesinwhichtheyareworking.Theyexploreand,with guidance,maintainarecordofwaysofcreatingartsworksthatusearangeofcontemporaryandtraditionalartsforms, media,materials,equipmentandtechnologiesforexample,theyplanandexploreideasinavisualdiaryorkeepan electronicjournalwithdigitalrecordsofpresentations.Usingideasandconceptstakenfromthemes,scenarios, narrativesandvisualstimuli,theyexperimentwithwaysofexpressingandcommunicatingideasandfeelingsto particularaudiencesorforparticularpurposes.Studentscouldpresentartsworksthatcombineartsdisciplinessuchas ashadowpuppetplayfeaturingpuppetsandasoundtrackthestudentshavedesignedandcreatedorartsworksfrom individualartsdisciplines.Forexample,studentscould:
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inArt,hangadisplayontreebranchesmadeupofthreedimensional,oddlyshapedimaginarycreatures,eachwith twosidestoitspersonality,createdtoshowskillsinselectingandmakingchoicesaboutuseofarangeofmediaand materials inDance,usethewholebodyorbodypartstoimprovisemovementsmatchingsoundsorthemovement characteristicsofparticularanimals exploreDramaelementsandconventionssuchascostumesandpropstocreateacharacterbasedontheir observationandperceptionofacharacterinastory inMedia,createastoryboarddepictingtheiralternativeendingforapopularfilmthendiscussingtheseinclass inMusic,combinesoundsmadebyarangeofnoisemakingtoyswithbodypercussiontoaccompanyalearnedsong.

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Studentsrespondtoartsworkstogainexperienceinidentifyingpersonalpreferences,reflectingonfeaturesthatmight influencetheirownartsworks,andrecognisingsimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenworksfromdifferentculturesand times.Indiscussionsaboutandresponsestotheirownandotherpeoplesartsworks,theybegintouseartslanguage toidentifycharacteristicssuchassimilaritiesanddifferences.Theylearnaboutplaceswhereartsworkscanbefound andhowartsworkscanbedesignedandmadetofulfilparticularindividualandcommunityneeds. FurtherexamplesofartsdisciplinespecificlearningapproachesforLevel1willbepublishedsoon.

Standards
Creatingandmaking

AtLevel1,studentscreateandpresentperformingandvisualartsworksthatshowemergingartsknowledgeandan abilitytoplanartsworksthatcommunicateideas,concepts,observationsfeelingsand/orexperiences.Theydemonstrate anemergingabilitytoselect,arrangeandmakechoicesaboutexpressivewaysofusingartselements,principlesand/or conventions.Theyuseskills,techniques,processes,media,materials,equipmentandtechnologiesinarangeofarts forms.Theyidentify,describeanddiscusscharacteristicsoftheirownandothersartsworks. IntheArts,standardsfortheExploringandrespondingdimensionareintroducedatLevel3.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Arts
Level2
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel2standardsintheArts,theylearnaboutarangeofwaysarts elementscanbeusedinthePerformingandVisualArtstocommunicateexperiences,observationsandthings imagined.Theybegintoselect,arrangeandmakechoicesaboutwaysofusingartselements,principlesand/or conventionsfromindividualartsdisciplinesastheyinvestigatetheuseofskills,techniques,processes,media, materials,equipmentandtechnologiesrelevanttotheartsdisciplinesinwhichtheyareworking.Theyexploreand,with guidance,maintainarecordofwaysofcreatingartsworksthatusearangeofcontemporaryandtraditionalartsforms, media,materials,equipmentandtechnologiesforexample,theyplanandexploreideasinavisualdiaryorkeepan electronicjournalwithdigitalrecordsofpresentations.Usingideasandconceptstakenfromthemes,scenarios, narrativesandvisualstimuli,theyexperimentwithwaysofexpressingandcommunicatingideasandfeelingsto particularaudiencesorforparticularpurposes.Studentscouldpresentartsworksthatcombineartsdisciplinessuchas ashadowpuppetplayfeaturingpuppetsandasoundtrackthestudentshavedesignedandcreatedorartsworksfrom individualartsdisciplines.Forexample,studentscould:
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inArt,hangadisplayontreebranchesmadeupofthreedimensional,oddlyshapedimaginarycreatures,eachwith twosidestoitspersonality,createdtoshowskillsinselectingandmakingchoicesaboutuseofarangeofmediaand materials inDance,usethewholebodyorbodypartstoimprovisemovementsmatchingsoundsorthemovement characteristicsofparticularanimals exploreDramaelementsandconventionssuchascostumesandpropstocreateacharacterbasedontheir observationandperceptionofacharacterinastory inMedia,createastoryboarddepictingtheiralternativeendingforapopularfilmthendiscussingtheseinclass inMusic,combinesoundsmadebyarangeofnoisemakingtoyswithbodypercussiontoaccompanyalearnedsong.

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Studentsrespondtoartsworkstogainexperienceinidentifyingpersonalpreferences,reflectingonfeaturesthatmight influencetheirownartsworks,andrecognisingsimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenworksfromdifferentculturesand times.Indiscussionsaboutandresponsestotheirownandotherpeoplesartsworks,theybegintouseartslanguage toidentifycharacteristicssuchassimilaritiesanddifferences.Theylearnaboutplaceswhereartsworkscanbefound andhowartsworkscanbedesignedandmadetofulfilparticularindividualandcommunityneeds.

Standards
Creatingandmaking

AtLevel2,studentscreateandpresentperformingandvisualartsworksthatshowemergingartsknowledgeandan abilitytoplanartsworksthatcommunicateideas,concepts,observationsfeelingsand/orexperiences.Theydemonstrate anemergingabilitytoselect,arrangeandmakechoicesaboutexpressivewaysofusingartselements,principlesand/or conventions.Theyuseskills,techniques,processes,media,materials,equipmentandtechnologiesinarangeofarts forms.Theyidentify,describeanddiscusscharacteristicsoftheirownandothersartsworks. IntheArts,standardsfortheExploringandrespondingdimensionareintroducedatLevel3.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Arts
Level3
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsintheArts,theyapplyanddeveloptheirartsknowledge byexploringartsprocessesandwaystocommunicateconceptsarisingfromtheirpersonalexperiencesandfromthe worldaroundthem.ThroughtheartsdisciplinesofDance,Drama,Media,MusicandVisualArtsArt(twodimensional andthreedimensional),bothindividuallyandincombination,theycommunicateideas,observationsandfeelingsusing arangeofmedia,materials,equipmentandtechnologiestomakeartsworksforexample,aclasspresentationcould featuretheperformanceofasongfromanothercultureincombinationwithatraditionaldanceand/oraccompaniedbya slideshowpresentationfeaturingpaintingsandcarvingswhichexplorethethemeofthesong. Studentsselect,combineandexperimentwithwaysofusingarangeofartselements,principlesand/orconventions, skills,techniquesandprocesses,toexploreartsideassourcedfromtheirimaginationandfromtheirownandother cultures.Withguidancetheyrecordthedevelopmentofideasforexample,inavisualdiaryoradigital(audioorscreen) journalwithrecordsofrehearsalsandconversationsabouttheideas/worktheyaredeveloping.Studentsconsiderthe purposeandaudienceoftheirartsworksastheyexperimentwithvariouswaysofpresentingworksinarangeofarts forms,andbegintoevaluateandrefinetheirworkinresponsetofeedback.Forexample:
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inArt,studentslookatandtalkaboutexamplesofweavingfromvariouscultures,thenexplorethepotentialofweaving techniquesandprocessestocreatepattern,repetitionandcontrastusingarangeofmedia inDance,studentscreateamovementsequencebasedonideasandfeelingssuggestedbyoneormoreimages viewedinclass,thenmodifytheirworkinresponsetofeedbackfromotherstudentsintheclass inDrama,studentsdiscussthepossibilitiesofcommunicatingwithoutwordsthencreatetableauxbasedonimage/s, tosuggestwhatmayhavehappenedbeforeandafterwhatisdepictedintheimage/s inMedia,studentsplan,recordandeditaninterviewwithsomeoneofinterest(orcuriosity)tothem,thenpresenttheir workanddiscussideasaboutitinclass inMusic,withajourneytoanimaginaryworldinmind,studentscreatesoundpicturesthatshowvariationinrhythmic patternsandcontrastsinpitchandduration.

Astheyexploreandrespondtotheirownandothersartsworks,studentsdevelopskills,techniquesandprocessesfor expressingemotionsandideas,andsignifyingpurpose.Usingappropriateartslanguagetheybegintoidentifyand describewaystheyandothersusespecificelements,principlesand/orconventions,skills,techniquesandprocesses anddiscusshowideas,feelingsandpurposeareconveyed.Theyreflectontheirownandotherpeoplesartsworksand ideas,identifyingkeyfeaturesofworksandperformancesfromtheirownandothercultures,anddiscussthefunctionof theArtsintheircommunity. FurtherexamplesofartsdisciplinespecificlearningapproachesforLevel3willbepublishedsoon.

Standards
AtLevel3,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel4standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Arts
Level4
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsintheArts,theyapplyanddeveloptheirartsknowledge byexploringartsprocessesandwaystocommunicateconceptsarisingfromtheirpersonalexperiencesandfromthe worldaroundthem.ThroughtheartsdisciplinesofDance,Drama,Media,MusicandVisualArtsArt(twodimensional andthreedimensional),bothindividuallyandincombination,theycommunicateideas,observationsandfeelingsusing arangeofmedia,materials,equipmentandtechnologiestomakeartsworksforexample,aclasspresentationcould featuretheperformanceofasongfromanothercultureincombinationwithatraditionaldanceand/oraccompaniedbya slideshowpresentationfeaturingpaintingsandcarvingswhichexplorethethemeofthesong. Studentsselect,combineandexperimentwithwaysofusingarangeofartselements,principlesand/orconventions, skills,techniquesandprocesses,toexploreartsideassourcedfromtheirimaginationandfromtheirownandother cultures.Withguidancetheyrecordthedevelopmentofideasforexample,inavisualdiaryoradigital(audioorscreen) journalwithrecordsofrehearsalsandconversationsabouttheideas/worktheyaredeveloping.Studentsconsiderthe purposeandaudienceoftheirartsworksastheyexperimentwithvariouswaysofpresentingworksinarangeofarts forms,andbegintoevaluateandrefinetheirworkinresponsetofeedback.Forexample:
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inArt,studentslookatandtalkaboutexamplesofweavingfromvariouscultures,thenexplorethepotentialofweaving techniquesandprocessestocreatepattern,repetitionandcontrastusingarangeofmedia inDance,studentscreateamovementsequencebasedonideasandfeelingssuggestedbyoneormoreimages viewedinclass,thenmodifytheirworkinresponsetofeedbackfromotherstudentsintheclass inDrama,studentsdiscussthepossibilitiesofcommunicatingwithoutwordsthencreatetableauxbasedonimage/s, tosuggestwhatmayhavehappenedbeforeandafterwhatisdepictedintheimage/s inMedia,studentsplan,recordandeditaninterviewwithsomeoneofinterest(orcuriosity)tothem,thenpresenttheir workanddiscussideasaboutitinclass inMusic,withajourneytoanimaginaryworldinmind,studentscreatesoundpicturesthatshowvariationinrhythmic patternsandcontrastsinpitchandduration.

Astheyexploreandrespondtotheirownandothersartsworks,studentsdevelopskills,techniquesandprocessesfor expressingemotionsandideas,andsignifyingpurpose.Usingappropriateartslanguagetheybegintoidentifyand describewaystheyandothersusespecificelements,principlesand/orconventions,skills,techniquesandprocesses anddiscusshowideas,feelingsandpurposeareconveyed.Theyreflectontheirownandotherpeoplesartsworksand ideas,identifyingkeyfeaturesofworksandperformancesfromtheirownandothercultures,anddiscussthefunctionof theArtsintheircommunity.

Standards
Creatingandmaking

AtLevel4,studentscreateandpresentworksinarangeofartsformsthatcommunicateexperiences,ideas,concepts, observationsandfeelings.Theyselectandcombinearangeofartselements,principlesand/orconventions,andusea rangeofskills,techniquesandprocesses,media,materials,equipmentandtechnologies.Theyshowevidenceofarts knowledgewhenplanningartsworksfordifferentpurposesandaudiencesandidentifytechniquesandfeaturesofother peoplesworksthatinformtheirownartsmaking.Theyrefinetheirworkinresponsetofeedbackandselfevaluation. Exploringandresponding

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The Arts
AtLevel4,studentscommentontheexploration,developmentandpresentationoftheirartsworks,includingtheuseof specificartselements,principlesand/orconventions,skills,techniquesandprocesses.Theyidentifyanddescribekey featuresofartsworksfromtheirownandothercultures,anduseartslanguagetodescribeanddiscussthe communicationofideas,feelingsandpurposeintheirownandotherpeoplesartsworks.

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The Arts
Level5
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsintheArts,theyinvestigatearangeoftraditionaland contemporaryartsforms,styles,media,materials,equipmentandtechnologiesintheartsdisciplinesofDance,Drama, Media,MusicandVisualArtsArt(twodimensionalandthreedimensional)individuallyandincombination.Theylearn aboutwaystodesign,improvise,represent,interpret,makeandpresentartsworksthatcommunicatefeelingsandtheir interestsandunderstandingofthemselves,theirrelationshipsandotherpeople.Forexample:
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inDance,studentsmirrorthemovementsofapartnerandthenperformthesamemovementsexpressingcontrasting emotions inDrama,studentsroleplaysituationsandevents,sustainingrole/characterthroughouttheirgrouporsolo performance.

Theyexperimentwithimaginativeandinnovativewaysofgeneratingideasandmanipulatingartselements,principles and/orconventionstoexplorethepotentialofideas,gaininginspirationfromabroadrangeofsources,includingarts worksfromdifferentcultures,stylesandhistoricalcontexts.Forexample:


l

inArt,studentsviewanddiscussexamplesofportraitsbyartistsfromdifferentculturalcontexts,thenusingmixed media,theycreateaworkusingtechniquesfromaculturethatisnottheirown inMusic,studentslistentoanddiscussthemoodcreatedinselectedadvertisementjinglesorsoundtracksfora cartoonorathemeforamoviecharacter,thenusingavarietyofsoundsourcesandarangeofsoundstheycreatetwo arrangementsofgroupdevisedmusictoconveytwodifferentmoods.

Studentsresearch,improvise,practiseandrehearseskills,techniquesandprocesses,usingarangeofmedia, materials,equipmentandtechnologies.Withsomeguidance,theymaintainarecordoftheirplanninganddevelopment (forexample,inavisualdiaryormultimediajournal)notingwhentheyareachievingtheiraim.Theyalsorecordthe refiningofspecificaspectsoftheworkwhenideasorattemptsarenotrealisingtheirintendedpurpose.Studentslearnto evaluatetheirownandotherpeoplesartsworksshowingsomeunderstandingofselectedartsformsandtheirparticular techniquesandprocessesaswellasanemergingunderstandingofthequalitiesofartselements,principlesand/or conventions.Theyindependentlyandcollaborativelyexploreandexperimentwithdifferentwaysofpresentingartsworks andconsiderappropriatenessofpresentationforintendedaudience.Throughexploringandresponding,studentsbegin todevelopavocabularyofappropriateartslanguagetheycanusetodescribeanddiscussthecontentandstructural qualitiesoftheirownandotherpeoplesartsworks.Theybegintoresearch,andwithguidance,analyseartsworksto interpretandcomparekeyfeatures,symbolsandculturalcharacteristicsofartsworksinarangeofcontemporaryand traditionalformsfromdifferenthistoric,socialandculturalcontexts.Forexample:
l

inMedia,studentsresearchmediatextsfocusingontheuseofarangeofmediatechnologiesintheproductionand presentationofnewsindifferenthistoricalcontexts,andthencreatearealorimaginednewsitemfortheirschool communitybyworkingcollaborativelyfrompreproductiontopostproductionandpresentationofthenewsitem.

Theybegintoreflectontheirresponsestootherpeoplesworksandconsiderothersperspectiveswhendiscussingarts works.

Standards
AtLevel5,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel6standards.

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The Arts
Level6
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsintheArts,theyinvestigatearangeoftraditionaland contemporaryartsforms,styles,media,materials,equipmentandtechnologiesintheartsdisciplinesofDance,Drama, Media,MusicandVisualArtsArt(twodimensionalandthreedimensional)individuallyandincombination.Theylearn aboutwaystodesign,improvise,represent,interpret,makeandpresentartsworksthatcommunicatefeelingsandtheir interestsandunderstandingofthemselves,theirrelationshipsandotherpeople.Forexample:
l

inDance,studentsmirrorthemovementsofapartnerandthenperformthesamemovementsexpressingcontrasting emotions inDrama,studentsroleplaysituationsandevents,sustainingrole/characterthroughouttheirgrouporsolo performance.

Theyexperimentwithimaginativeandinnovativewaysofgeneratingideasandmanipulatingartselements,principles and/orconventionstoexplorethepotentialofideas,gaininginspirationfromabroadrangeofsources,includingarts worksfromdifferentcultures,stylesandhistoricalcontexts.Forexample:


l

inArt,studentsviewanddiscussexamplesofportraitsbyartistsfromdifferentculturalcontexts,thenusingmixed media,theycreateaworkusingtechniquesfromaculturethatisnottheirown inMusic,studentslistentoanddiscussthemoodcreatedinselectedadvertisementjinglesorsoundtracksfora cartoonorathemeforamoviecharacter,thenusingavarietyofsoundsourcesandarangeofsoundstheycreatetwo arrangementsofgroupdevisedmusictoconveytwodifferentmoods.

Studentsresearch,improvise,practiseandrehearseskills,techniquesandprocesses,usingarangeofmedia, materials,equipmentandtechnologies.Withsomeguidance,theymaintainarecordoftheirplanninganddevelopment (forexample,inavisualdiaryormultimediajournal)notingwhentheyareachievingtheiraim.Theyalsorecordthe refiningofspecificaspectsoftheworkwhenideasorattemptsarenotrealisingtheirintendedpurpose.Studentslearnto evaluatetheirownandotherpeoplesartsworksshowingsomeunderstandingofselectedartsformsandtheirparticular techniquesandprocessesaswellasanemergingunderstandingofthequalitiesofartselements,principlesand/or conventions.Theyindependentlyandcollaborativelyexploreandexperimentwithdifferentwaysofpresentingartsworks andconsiderappropriatenessofpresentationforintendedaudience.Throughexploringandresponding,studentsbegin todevelopavocabularyofappropriateartslanguagetheycanusetodescribeanddiscussthecontentandstructural qualitiesoftheirownandotherpeoplesartsworks.Theybegintoresearch,andwithguidance,analyseartsworksto interpretandcomparekeyfeatures,symbolsandculturalcharacteristicsofartsworksinarangeofcontemporaryand traditionalformsfromdifferenthistoric,socialandculturalcontexts.Forexample:
l

inMedia,studentsresearchmediatextsfocusingontheuseofarangeofmediatechnologiesintheproductionand presentationofnewsindifferenthistoricalcontexts,andthencreatearealorimaginednewsitemfortheirschool communitybyworkingcollaborativelyfrompreproductiontopostproductionandpresentationofthenewsitem.

Theybegintoreflectontheirresponsestootherpeoplesworksandconsiderothersperspectiveswhendiscussingarts works.

Standards
Creatingandmaking

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The Arts
AtLevel6,studentsindependentlyandcollaborativelyexperimentwithandapplyarangeofskills,techniquesand processesusingarangeofmedia,materials,equipmentandtechnologiestoplan,develop,refine,makeandpresent artsworks.Theyinvestigatearangeofsourcestogenerateideasandmanipulateartselements,principlesand/or conventionsinarangeofartsdisciplinesandformsastheyexplorethepotentialofideas.Intheirartsworks,they communicateideasandunderstandingsaboutthemselvesandothers,incorporatinginfluencesfromtheirownandother culturesandtimes.Theyevaluatetheeffectivenessoftheirartsworksandmakechangestorealiseintendedaims.They considerpurposeandsuitabilitywhentheyplanandprepareartsworksforpresentationtoavarietyofaudiences. Exploringandresponding

AtLevel6,studentsdiscusstraditionalandcontemporaryartsworksusingappropriateartslanguagetodescribethe content,structureandexpressivequalitiesoftheirownandotherpeoplesworksfromarangeofartsdisciplinesand forms.Theyinterpretandcomparekeyfeaturesofartsworksmadeinarangeoftimes,placesandcultures.Theyidentify anddescribeinfluencesontheirownworksanddiscussthepurposesforwhichartsworksarecreatedindifferent historicalandculturalcontexts.

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The Arts
Level7
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsintheArts,theyusearangeofstartingpointsincluding observation,experienceandresearchtorepresent,generate,developandcommunicatereal,imaginaryandabstract ideas.Forexample:
l

inDrama,studentsworkasanensembletoexploreculturaldiversitybysharingexperiencesandobservationsthrough improvisationandroleplayaboutafamiliarsituation,maintainingadiaryofpersonalreflectionsthroughouttheir performancemaking inArt,followingseverallessonsexploringline,tonalrendering,perspectiveandforeshorteningaswaystorepresent anddefineform,studentsworkfromdirectobservationofpeople/places/objectsandcreatetheillusionofspaceand formonatwodimensionalsurface.

Studentsexploredifferentcontemporaryandtraditionalartsformsandstylestodevelopunderstandingoftheconceptof style.Studentsapplytheirartsknowledgeand,withguidance,anunderstandingofstylewhenexperimentingwith, selectingandusingarangeofcontemporaryandtraditionalmedia,materials,equipmentandtechnologiestoexplore andexpandtheirunderstandinganduseofarangeofskills,techniquesandprocessesintheartsdisciplinesofArt(two dimensionalandthreedimensional),Dance,Drama,Media,Music,andVisualCommunication.Forexample:


l

inDance,studentslearnandpresentdancesequencesfromdifferentculturesandstyles.

Studentsworkbothindependentlyandcollaborativelytodevelopcreativeandeffectivewaysofcombiningand manipulatingartselements,principlesand/orconventionswhendesigning,makingandpresentingartsworksfor particularpurposesandaudiences.Forexample:


l

inMedia,studentsvideoorphotographtwoalternateinterpretationsofashortvisualnarrative,topresentthestoryfrom thepointofviewoftwocharacters,usingvariationsinlighting,cameraangleandshottypes inVisualCommunication,studentsexplorethepotentialofsymbolsandcartoonsandelementsofshape,lineand colourtofulfiladesignbrief.

Studentsuseprocessesofrehearsal,reflectionandevaluationtodevelopskillsinrefiningandshapingtheirworksto effectivelycommunicatetheirintendedaims,andexperimentwithimaginativewaysofcreatingsolutionstosettasks. Theymaintainarecordoftheirexplorationanddevelopmentofideasandproblemsolvingprocessesforexample,ina visualdiary,onvideoorinanelectronicjournal. Studentsexploreandrespondtoartsworksfromarangeofstyles,forms,times,traditionsandcultures.Theyuse researchtoinformtheirconceptofstyleandapplytheirobservationskillswhendescribing,comparingandanalysingarts works.Studentsuseappropriateartslanguagewhendiscussingtheirownandotherartistsintentionsandexpressive useofartsforms,elements,principlesand/orconventionsandwhendescribing,analysingandinterpretingthecontent andmeaningofartsworks.Theydevelopskillsinanalysing,interpretingandevaluatingspecificexpressive,technical andaestheticqualitiesoftheirownandothersworks.Forexample:
l

inMusic,theylistentoanddiscussexcerptsfrommusicthatexplorestheauralaestheticsofmusicalrepresentations ofairandearth.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Arts
Studentsdeveloptheirabilitytolistento,reflectonandacknowledgeothersperspectiveswhendiscussingtheirownand othersresponsestoartsworks.

Standards
AtLevel7,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel8standards.

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The Arts
Level8
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsintheArts,theyusearangeofstartingpointsincluding observation,experienceandresearchtorepresent,generate,developandcommunicatereal,imaginaryandabstract ideas.Forexample:
l

inDrama,studentsworkasanensembletoexploreculturaldiversitybysharingexperiencesandobservationsthrough improvisationandroleplayaboutafamiliarsituation,maintainingadiaryofpersonalreflectionsthroughouttheir performancemaking inArt,followingseverallessonsexploringline,tonalrendering,perspectiveandforeshorteningaswaystorepresent anddefineform,studentsworkfromdirectobservationofpeople/places/objectsandcreatetheillusionofspaceand formonatwodimensionalsurface.

Studentsexploredifferentcontemporaryandtraditionalartsformsandstylestodevelopunderstandingoftheconceptof style.Studentsapplytheirartsknowledgeand,withguidance,anunderstandingofstylewhenexperimentingwith, selectingandusingarangeofcontemporaryandtraditionalmedia,materials,equipmentandtechnologiestoexplore andexpandtheirunderstandinganduseofarangeofskills,techniquesandprocessesintheartsdisciplinesofArt(two dimensionalandthreedimensional),Dance,Drama,Media,Music,andVisualCommunication.Forexample:


l

inDance,studentslearnandpresentdancesequencesfromdifferentculturesandstyles.

Studentsworkbothindependentlyandcollaborativelytodevelopcreativeandeffectivewaysofcombiningand manipulatingartselements,principlesand/orconventionswhendesigning,makingandpresentingartsworksfor particularpurposesandaudiences.Forexample:


l

inMedia,studentsvideoorphotographtwoalternateinterpretationsofashortvisualnarrative,topresentthestoryfrom thepointofviewoftwocharacters,usingvariationsinlighting,cameraangleandshottypes inVisualCommunication,studentsexplorethepotentialofsymbolsandcartoonsandelementsofshape,lineand colourtofulfiladesignbrief.

Studentsuseprocessesofrehearsal,reflectionandevaluationtodevelopskillsinrefiningandshapingtheirworksto effectivelycommunicatetheirintendedaims,andexperimentwithimaginativewaysofcreatingsolutionstosettasks. Theymaintainarecordoftheirexplorationanddevelopmentofideasandproblemsolvingprocessesforexample,ina visualdiary,onvideoorinanelectronicjournal. Studentsexploreandrespondtoartsworksfromarangeofstyles,forms,times,traditionsandcultures.Theyuse researchtoinformtheirconceptofstyleandapplytheirobservationskillswhendescribing,comparingandanalysingarts works.Studentsuseappropriateartslanguagewhendiscussingtheirownandotherartistsintentionsandexpressive useofartsforms,elements,principlesand/orconventionsandwhendescribing,analysingandinterpretingthecontent andmeaningofartsworks.Theydevelopskillsinanalysing,interpretingandevaluatingspecificexpressive,technical andaestheticqualitiesoftheirownandothersworks.Forexample:
l

inMusic,theylistentoanddiscussexcerptsfrommusicthatexplorestheauralaestheticsofmusicalrepresentations ofairandearth.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Arts
Studentsdeveloptheirabilitytolistento,reflectonandacknowledgeothersperspectiveswhendiscussingtheirownand othersresponsestoartsworks.

Standards
Creatingandmaking

AtLevel8,students,independentlyandcollaboratively,plan,design,improvise,interpret,evaluate,refine,makeand presentartsworksthatrepresentandcommunicateideasandpurpose.Theyexperimentwith,selectanduse appropriateskills,techniques,processes,media,materials,equipmentandtechnologiesacrossarangeofartsforms andstyles.Theygenerateanddevelopideasthatexploreparticularconcepts,techniquesandissueswhenmakingarts works.Theycombineandmanipulateartselements,principlesand/orconventionstorepresentandcommunicateideas anddevelopimaginativesolutionstosettasks.Theymaintainarecordofthecreatingandmakingoftheirartsworksand explaintheirdecisionsabouthowtheypresentartsworksforspecificpurposesandaudiences. Exploringandresponding

AtLevel8,studentsresearch,observeandreflectontheirexplorationstodevelop,discuss,expressandsupportopinions abouttheirownandothersuseofartselements,principlesand/orconventions,skills,techniques,processes,media, materials,equipmentandtechnologies.Theycompare,analyse,evaluate,andinterpretthecontent,meaningand qualitiesinartsworkscreatedindifferentsocial,culturalandhistoricalcontexts,offeringinformedresponsesand opinionsandusingappropriateartslanguage.Theydescribeaspectsandrequirementsofdifferentforms,audiences andtraditions,andidentifywaysthatcontemporaryartsworks,includingtheirown,areinfluencedbyculturaland historicalcontexts.Theyuseappropriateartslanguage.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Arts
Level9
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsintheArts,theydesign,makeandpresentartsworks. Indoingso,theydevelopskillsinmakingdecisionsaboutcreativewaysofgeneratingandimplementingideas.They reflectontheirexperiencesandobservations,considerwhattheyhavelearnedaboutstylesandformsandexplore issuesandconcreteandabstractconceptstogenerateideas.Theykeeptheirintendedaestheticqualitiesinmindwhen theyexperimentwith,select,varycombinationsofandmanipulateartselements,principlesand/orconventionsto effectivelyrealisetheirideas,representtheirobservationsandcommunicatetheirinterpretationsofissuesandconcepts. Forexample:
l

inMusic,inresponsetolearningandperformingsongs,thatreflectthehumanspiritstudents,individuallyor collaboratively,composeandusingconventionalorunconventionalnotation,writedown,thenpresenttheirmusical responsetoanissueholdingpersonalinterestforthem.

Studentsconsiderothersperspectiveswhenseekingsolutionsandcontributingtocollaborativeartstasks.Forexample:
l

inArt,studentsresearchinstallationartistswhousenaturalsettingsastheirgallery,thencollaborativelydesignand presentanInstallationartworkthatusesfoundformsandworksinharmonywiththeselectedsite.

Studentsbegintodevelopapersonalstyleandbecomemoreindependentintheirapproachtoexploring,developingand refiningartsworks.Forexample:
l

inDance,studentsindividuallydeveloptheirowndancesequenceandteachittoothers,then,workingcollaboratively, theycombinethesequencesandpresentasonework.

Withinandacrossspecificartsdisciplinesandartsforms,studentsexperimentwithimaginativeandinnovativewaysof usingtraditionalandcontemporaryskills,techniquesandprocessesandavarietyofmedia,materials,equipmentand technologiesdrawnfromarangeofcontexts.Forexample:


l

inVisualCommunication,studentsdevelopawebsitehomepageforafictitiousorganisation.

Studentsconsiderthepurposeandpresentationcontextwhentheyprepareandpresentartsworkstodifferent audiences.Forexample:
l

inDrama,studentsdevise,rehearse,anddesignanensembleperformance.Theyconstructsets,costumesandprops suitableforaselectedperformancespace,andpresenttheperformances.

Studentsuseevaluationandreflectionontheirartsexperiencestoimprovethemakingandpresentingoftheirartsworks. Theymaintainarecordoftheirexploration,developmentandrefiningofideas,useofelementsandprinciplesand/or conventionsandapplicationoftechniquesandprocesseswhenmakingandpresentingtheirartsworks.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Arts
Whenexploringandresponding,studentsfocusonthedevelopmentofknowledgeandunderstandingofkeyconcepts, techniques,processesandpracticesassociatedwithparticularartsforms.Theydevelopaestheticandcritical awarenessthroughobservation,research,discussionandanalysisofartsworksfromdifferentsocial,historicaland culturalcontexts.Theycompareartsworkstoconsidersimilaritiesanddifferencesinthestyles,themes,intentionsand aestheticqualitiesofworksbyparticularartistsandartsworksmadeataparticulartimewithinspecificculturalcontexts. Theydevelopskillsinpresentingandjustifyingpersonalinterpretationsof,andopinionsabout,artsworksusing appropriateartslanguage.Theyinvestigateanddiscussthecontributionoftheartstosocietyandotherdisciplines,such asMathematicsandHistory,focusingonwayscontemporary,andtraditionalartsdisciplines,formsandworksreinforce andchallengesocial,cultural,personalandartisticpracticesandvalues.Forexample:
l

inMedia,studentsresearchissuesrelatedtobodyimageandthevisualmediasroleintheconstructionoftheideal bodyform,thentheyidentify,analyseanddiscussimagesfoundinpopularmagazinesthatcontributetobodyimage issues.

Standards
AtLevel9,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel10standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Arts
Level10
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsintheArts,theydesign,makeandpresentartsworks. Indoingso,theydevelopskillsinmakingdecisionsaboutcreativewaysofgeneratingandimplementingideas.They reflectontheirexperiencesandobservations,considerwhattheyhavelearnedaboutstylesandformsandexplore issuesandconcreteandabstractconceptstogenerateideas.Theykeeptheirintendedaestheticqualitiesinmindwhen theyexperimentwith,select,varycombinationsofandmanipulateartselements,principlesand/orconventionsto effectivelyrealisetheirideas,representtheirobservationsandcommunicatetheirinterpretationsofissuesandconcepts. Forexample:
l

inMusic,inresponsetolearningandperformingsongs,thatreflectthehumanspiritstudents,individuallyor collaboratively,composeandusingconventionalorunconventionalnotation,writedown,thenpresenttheirmusical responsetoanissueholdingpersonalinterestforthem.

Studentsconsiderothersperspectiveswhenseekingsolutionsandcontributingtocollaborativeartstasks.Forexample:
l

inArt,studentsresearchinstallationartistswhousenaturalsettingsastheirgallery,thencollaborativelydesignand presentanInstallationartworkthatusesfoundformsandworksinharmonywiththeselectedsite.

Studentsbegintodevelopapersonalstyleandbecomemoreindependentintheirapproachtoexploring,developingand refiningartsworks.Forexample:
l

inDance,studentsindividuallydeveloptheirowndancesequenceandteachittoothers,then,workingcollaboratively, theycombinethesequencesandpresentasonework.

Withinandacrossspecificartsdisciplinesandartsforms,studentsexperimentwithimaginativeandinnovativewaysof usingtraditionalandcontemporaryskills,techniquesandprocessesandavarietyofmedia,materials,equipmentand technologiesdrawnfromarangeofcontexts.Forexample:


l

inVisualCommunication,studentsdevelopawebsitehomepageforafictitiousorganisation.

Studentsconsiderthepurposeandpresentationcontextwhentheyprepareandpresentartsworkstodifferent audiences.Forexample:
l

inDrama,studentsdevise,rehearse,anddesignanensembleperformance.Theyconstructsets,costumesandprops suitableforaselectedperformancespace,andpresenttheperformances.

Studentsuseevaluationandreflectionontheirartsexperiencestoimprovethemakingandpresentingoftheirartsworks. Theymaintainarecordoftheirexploration,developmentandrefiningofideas,useofelementsandprinciplesand/or conventionsandapplicationoftechniquesandprocesseswhenmakingandpresentingtheirartsworks.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Arts
Whenexploringandresponding,studentsfocusonthedevelopmentofknowledgeandunderstandingofkeyconcepts, techniques,processesandpracticesassociatedwithparticularartsforms.Theydevelopaestheticandcritical awarenessthroughobservation,research,discussionandanalysisofartsworksfromdifferentsocial,historicaland culturalcontexts.Theycompareartsworkstoconsidersimilaritiesanddifferencesinthestyles,themes,intentionsand aestheticqualitiesofworksbyparticularartistsandartsworksmadeataparticulartimewithinspecificculturalcontexts. Theydevelopskillsinpresentingandjustifyingpersonalinterpretationsof,andopinionsabout,artsworksusing appropriateartslanguage.Theyinvestigateanddiscussthecontributionoftheartstosocietyandotherdisciplines,such asMathematicsandHistory,focusingonwayscontemporary,andtraditionalartsdisciplines,formsandworksreinforce andchallengesocial,cultural,personalandartisticpracticesandvalues.Forexample:
l

inMedia,studentsresearchissuesrelatedtobodyimageandthevisualmediasroleintheconstructionoftheideal bodyform,thentheyidentify,analyseanddiscussimagesfoundinpopularmagazinesthatcontributetobodyimage issues.

FurtherexamplesofartsdisciplinespecificlearningapproachesforLevel10willbepublishedsoon.

Standards
Creatingandmaking

AtLevel10,withinandacrossareasofspecialisation,studentsapplydecisionmakingskillstofindthemosteffectiveway toimplementideas,design,createandmakeartsworksdevisedfromarangeofstimuli,demonstratingdevelopmentof apersonalstyle.Theyevaluate,reflecton,refineandjustifytheirworkscontent,design,developmentandtheiraesthetic choices.Studentsrealisetheirideas,representobservationsandcommunicatetheirinterpretationsbyeffectively combiningandmanipulatingselectedartselements,principlesand/orconventionstocreatethedesiredaesthetic qualities.Independentlyandcollaboratively,theyapplytheirknowledgeandunderstandingtodesign,createandproduce artsworksinfluencedbythestyleofparticularartistsorcultures.Theyvarythecontent,structureandformoftheirarts workstosuitarangeofpurposes,contexts,audiencesand/ortheconventionsofaspecificstyle,anddemonstrate technicalcompetenceintheuseofskills,techniquesandprocesses.Theyeffectivelyusearangeoftraditionaland contemporarymedia,materials,equipmentandtechnologies.Theymaintainarecordofhowideasdevelopinthe creating,makingandpresentingoftheirartsworks. Exploringandresponding

AtLevel10,studentsobserve,researchandcriticallydiscussarangeofcontemporary,traditional,stylistic,historicaland culturalexamplesofartsworksinthedisciplinesandformsinwhichtheyareworking.Theyanalyse,interpret,compare andevaluatethestylistic,technical,expressiveandaestheticfeaturesofartsworkscreatedbyarangeofartistsand madeinparticulartimesandculturalcontexts.Theydescribeanddiscusswaysthattheirownandothersartsworks communicateandchallengeideasandmeaning.Theyuseappropriateartslanguageand,intheartsworkstheyare exploringandrespondingto,refertospecificexamples.Theycommentontheimpactofartsworks,formsandpractices onotherartsworksandsocietyingeneral.

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Civics and Citizenship


TableofContents Overview Introduction Domainstructure Stagesoflearning CurriculumF10 Foundationlevel Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level5 Level6 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10

2 2 2 3 6 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 15 16 18 20

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Civics and Citizenship

IntroductiontoCivicsandCitizenship
TheCivicsandCitizenshipdomainprovidesstudentswithknowledge,skillsandopportunitiestounderstandandpractise whatitmeanstobeacitizeninademocracy.Citizensrequireknowledgeandunderstandingofcivicinstitutionsandtheskills andwillingnesstoactivelyparticipateinsociety.Theyneedknowledgeofpoliticalandlegalsystemsandprocessesandthe historythatunderpinstheminordertoachievecivicunderstanding.Theyneedtounderstandtheirrightsandresponsibilities ascitizens,anddemocraticvaluesandprinciplessuchasdemocraticdecisionmaking,representativeandaccountable government,freedomofspeech,equalitybeforethelaw,socialjusticeandequality.Thisdomainfacilitatesthepracticeof citizenshipskills,theexplorationanddevelopmentofvaluesanddispositionstosupportcitizenshipandtheempowermentof informeddecisionmaking.Teachingofcivicsengagesstudentsinactiveinteractionwiththecommunity. Inaworldwherepeople,environments,economicsandpoliticsareinextricablylinked,andwheredislocationandchangeis accelerating,astrongsenseofpersonalidentitydevelopedthroughparticipationincommunitiesisasoundbasisfrom whichtoconnectwiththeworld.CivicsandCitizenshipeducationstrengthensunderstandingandvaluingoftheself.It teacheswhycitizensneedasenseofpersonalidentitywithintheirowncommunityandhowtheycancontributetolocal, nationalandglobalcommunities.ThroughCivicsandCitizenship,studentsdevelopanappreciationfortheuniquenessand diversityofAustraliasmulticulturalsocietyandtheeffortsofindividualsandgroupstoachievepoliticalrightsandequality. TheyvaluewhatitmeanstobeanAustralianandexploreAustraliasroleintheglobalcommunity.Theyconsiderhuman rightsandsocialjusticeissuesatlocal,nationalandgloballevels. InCivicsandCitizenship,studentsinvestigatehow,inademocratictradition,informedanddiversecontributionsand participationbycitizensareimportant.Theylearnabout,contestandenactthevaluesthatareimportanttobeanengaged citizenwithinacommunity.Theyareprovidedwithopportunitiestoinvestigateandparticipateinactivitiesthatsupport sustainablepractices,socialjusticeandunderpinthefuturewellbeingofsocietiesfromalocaltoagloballevel.Civicsand CitizenshipprovidesavehicleforstudentstochallengetheirownandothersviewsaboutAustraliansocietyandtoformally participateinandpractiseactivitiesandbehaviourswhichinvolvedemocraticdecisionmaking.

StructureoftheCivicsandCitizenshipdomain
TheCivicsandCitizenshipdomaininAusVELSusesanelevenlevelstructuretobothreflectthedesignofthenewAustralian CurriculumandtoprovideaconsistentstructureacrossalltheAusVELSdomains(formoredetails,pleaseseeOverview). Eachlevelincludesalearningfocusstatementand,fromLevel3,asetofstandardsorganisedbydimension.

Learningfocus
Learningfocusstatementsarewrittenforeachlevel.Theseoutlinethelearningthatstudentsneedtofocusoniftheyareto progressinthedomainandachievethestandardsatthelevelswheretheyapply.Theysuggestappropriatelearning experiencesfromwhichteacherscandrawtodeveloprelevantteachingandlearningactivities.

Standards
Standardsdefinewhatstudentsshouldknowandbeabletodoatdifferentlevelsandarewrittenforeachdimension.In CivicsandCitizenship,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementapplyfromLevel3.

Dimensions
StandardsintheCivicsandCitizenshipdomainareorganisedintwodimensions:
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Civicknowledgeandunderstanding

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Civics and Citizenship


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Communityengagement.

Civicknowledgeandunderstanding
TheCivicknowledgeandunderstandingdimensionfocusesontheprinciplesandpracticesthatunderpincivicinstitutions andciviclifeincommunitiesandsocieties.StudentsexploreconceptsofdemocracyandthekeyfeaturesofAustralianand otherdemocracies.TheydevelopknowledgeandunderstandingoftheoriginsandkeyfeaturesoftheAustralianpolitical, governmentandlegalsystems.Theydevelopunderstandingoftheorigins,uniquenessanddiversityofAustralias multiculturalsociety.TheylearnabouttheprinciplesandvalueswhichunderpinAustraliandemocracy,suchasequality beforethelaw,freedomofspeech,democraticrepresentation,accountabilityofgovernment,socialjusticeandrespectfor others.Theyexploretheelementsofsustainabilityinlocal,nationalandglobalcontexts.Theylearnaboutthecontribution democracyhasmadetoAustraliashistoryandnationalidentityandAustraliasplaceintheworld.

Communityengagement
TheCommunityengagementdimensionfocusesonthedevelopmentofskillsandbehavioursstudentsneedtointeractwith thecommunityandtoengagewithorganisationsandgroups.Studentsparticipateinprocessesassociatedwithcitizenship suchasdecisionmaking,votingandleadership,usingtheirknowledgeofrulesandlawsofgovernance,andconceptssuch ashumanrightsandsocialjustice.Theythinkcriticallyabouttheirownvalues,rightsandresponsibilitiesandthoseof organisationsandgroupsacrossarangeofsettings,andexplorethediversityinsociety. Studentsexploreandconsiderdifferentperspectivesandarticulateandjustifytheirownopinionsonlocal,nationaland globalissues.Theyrefinetheirownopinions,valuesandallegiances.Theyapplytheirknowledgeandskillsinarangeof communitybasedactivities.

StagesoflearninginCivicsandCitizenship
AusVELStakeaccountofthedevelopmentalstagesoflearningyoungpeopleexperienceatschool.Whilestudentlearningis acontinuumanddifferentstudentsdevelopatdifferentrates,theybroadlyprogressthroughthreestagesoflearning. Thefollowingstatementsdescribewaysinwhichthesecharacteristicsrelatetolearningexperiencesandstandardsineach ofthethreestagesoflearningintheCivicsandCitizenshipdomain. InCivicsandCitizenshipstudentsprogressivelydevelopknowledge,skillsandbehaviourswhichsupportthedevelopmentof activeandinformedcitizenswithanunderstandingandappreciationofAustraliassystemofgovernmentandciviclife,and thevalueswhichcontributetoharmonyinadiversemulticulturalsociety.FromFoundationtoLevel4,thislearningtakes placeinfamiliarcontextsstudentslearnabouttheirsocietythroughengagementatschoolandinthelocalarea.InLevels5 to8theirlearningtakesplaceinbroadercontextsandtheybecomeincreasinglyawareofthecomplexitiesofsocietyandable tolinkcurrentissuesandeventstobroadunderstandings,reflectingthedevelopmentofmorecomplexthinking.InLevels9 to10studentsareincreasinglyfocusedontheworldbeyondschoolandincreasinglyexploreissuesindepth,developcritical andevaluationskills,andacceptresponsibilityfortheirlearning. FoundationtoLevel4Layingthefoundations StudentsinFoundationtoLevel4developtheirlearningaboutcivicsandcitizenshipinfamiliarcontextshomeandfamily, schoolandlocalcommunity.Theyareintroducedtorelevantskills,valuesandknowledgebyexploringanddeveloping understandingoffamiliarenvironments.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Civics and Citizenship


Thefamilyisthefirstlearningenvironmentforstudentsandprovidesthemwithasenseofbelonging,basicsocialskillsand experiences,andlearningaboutvaluessuchasrespect,fairnessandcareforothersvalueswhichunderpinacommunity. Familyisalsowherestudentsfirstlearnaboutrulesandresponsibilities.Theschoolprovidesanenvironmentforthemto buildontheirlearningaboutbelongingtothecommunitiesoftheschool,thelocalcommunityandthenation. Studentsdeveloptheirsocialskillsandunderstandingofnormsandvaluesthroughlearningwithothers.Theybegintonote thesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenindividualsandgroupsintheclassroom,schoolandcommunity,andtoappreciate thatdifferentcultural,languageandreligiousgroupsmakeuptheAustraliannation.Theylearnaboutthereasonsforrulesin classroomsandschoolgamesandsport,andlearntoobservetheserulesintheireverydayactivities. TheybegintolearnaboutthehistoryofAustraliansandthetraditionsunderpinningtheirdemocraticsocietythrough classroomandschoolcelebrationsandcommemorationsofspecialdayssuchasAnzacDay.Inthesecontextstheyalso learnaboutthesymbolsofournation,suchastheflag,thenationalanthem,thecoloursgreenandgold,andthe Commonwealthcoatofarms.Theyaresupportedtoconsiderthevaluesandmeaningassociatedwiththesesymbols. Studentsinvestigatetherolesandcontributionsofvariousindividualsandgroupsinthecommunityandnation,andtheways thattheycanparticipateinacommunity.Theyreflectandactonappropriateissues,suchasrecyclingintheschool,to practisecitizenship. Levels5to8Buildingbreadthanddepth StudentsinLevels5to8progressivelydevelopgreatercognitiveabilityandskillsandbecomemorecomplexthinkers.They areintroducedtobroaderunderstandingsofAustraliandemocracy,includingtheestablishmentoftheAustraliannationand theoriginsofourpoliticalandlegalsystems.Theybegintounderstandthestructureofgovernmentthroughtheactivitiesof governmentthattheyarefamiliarwithinlocal,state,nationalcontexts.Theybecomeincreasinglyawareofthecomplexity anddiversityofAustraliansocietyandthegroupsthatmakeupthatsociety.Theyreflectonthevaluesthatareimportanttoa democratic,multiculturalsociety. Studentsareincreasinglyindependent,flexibleandselfmotivated,andcanorganisetheirthinkingandunderstand processessuchasresearch,criticalthinkingandproblemsolving.Theyaresupportedtoresearchissuesthatareimportant tothem,learningtoframetheirowninvestigations,reflectontheirfindingsandreporttheirconclusions.Theylearnthat diversityofopinions,avarietyofperspectives,anddebateaboutissuesaresignsofahealthydemocracy.Theybecome increasinglyawareofnationalevents,environmental,socialandpoliticalissues,andinternationaleventsandcrises. ThroughthesetheyevaluatetheroleoftheAustraliangovernmentasaglobalcitizen. Studentspractisedemocraticskillsandbehavioursthroughactivelyshapingandcontributingtotheirlearning,their classroomsandschooleventsandgovernance.Theyaregivenopportunitiestopractisedemocracythroughexperienceof leadershipingroups,classroomsandschoolevents.Theyassumeresponsibilitiesforclassandschoolactivities,andare supportedtocontributetotheschoolcommunity. Levels9to10Developingpathways Intheselevelsstudentsaremoreorientedtothefutureandawareoftheworldbeyondschool.Theyarebeginningtothinkof themselvesasadults.Theyaremoreindependentaslearnersandabletoassumegreaterresponsibilityfortheirlearning.

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Civics and Citizenship


StudentsaremorefocusedondevelopingacriticalunderstandingofcontemporaryAustraliandemocracythroughastudyof democraticheritage,politicalandlegalinstitutions.Theyusecurrentpolitical,legal,nationalandinternationalissuesas springboardsforunderstandingandcriticalthinkingaboutarangeofconceptssuchastherightsandresponsibilitiesof citizens,valuesthatareimportantinademocracy,andtheroleoftheAustraliangovernmentasaglobalcitizen.Studentsare increasinglyattunedtotheworldbeyondschool,andlocal,nationalandinternationalissuesprovideameansthroughwhich theyunderstandandevaluateAustraliasdemocracy. Studentsexploreideasandissuesindepththroughresearchonissuesimportanttothem,theircommunityandtheirnation. Throughactiveinvestigation,theylearnaboutandpractisetheskillsandvaluesrequiredfordemocraticparticipation includingworkingwithothers,organising,solvingproblems,respectingotherpointsofview,definingareasforinvestigation, collectingevidence,analysingdata,thinkingcritically,presentingpointsofviewbasedonevidenceandevaluatingthe effectivenessoftheirwork. Studentsalsoengageinschool,localandcommunityactivitiesandeventsinwhichtheypractiseresponsibility,decision making,planning,problemsolving,cooperationwithothers,socialskillsandleadership.Thesecouldinclude:schoolwide activitiesandevents,levellevelandschoolgovernance,communityservice,environmentalprogramsinthelocalcommunity, enterpriselearningandinvolvementinlocalresponsestonationalandinternationalissues.

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Civics and Citizenship

Foundationlevel
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinCivicsandCitizenship,theybegintodevelopasense ofbelongingtotheschoolcommunity.Theyareintroducedtotheideaoftheclassroombeingacommunityandtheylearn aboutrespectandconcernforothersandbeingfair.Theylearnaboutclassroomrulesandwhytheyareneeded.They begintocompareclassroomandfamilyrulesandotherrulesthattheyknowaboutsuchasthoseforgamesandsport. Studentsexploretheirresponsibilitiesandrightsandthoseofothersinfamiliarcontextssuchasthefamily,the classroom,theschoolplaygroundandlocalrecreationareas. Studentslearnaboutandcelebratespecialcultural,local,communityandnationaldaysforexample,schoolsporting eventsandCleanUpAustraliaDay.Theyengageinschoolandculturaleventsinaresponsibleandactiveway.

Standards
InCivicsandCitizenship,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedatLevel3.The learningfocusstatementsforFoundationtoLevel2provideadviceaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentsto worktowardstheachievementofthestandardsatLevel4.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Civics and Citizenship


Level1
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinCivicsandCitizenship,theyidentifytherangeof groupstowhichthey,theirfamilymembersandtheirclassbelong.Theybegintoappreciatethesimilaritiesand differencesbetweenindividualsandgroups,includingthelanguage,culturalandreligiousgroupswhichmakeupthe Australiannation.Theyexploretheroles,rightsandresponsibilitiesofvariousfamilyandcommunitymembers.They discoverwhygroupsandcommunitieshaverules,begintoquestionruleswhichtheybelieveareunfair,andmake suggestionsaboutimprovingtheruleswithinthecommunity.Theybegintoappreciatethecommonvaluesimportantto groupsandindividualsforexample,fairness,tolerance,understandingandrespect. Studentsbegintoparticipateinarangeofclassandschoolactivitiessuchasrecycling,takingresponsibilityforclass resources,andmarkinglocalandnationalcelebrationsandcommemorations.Theyexplorethepurposeandbenefitsof school,communityandnationalevents.Studentsinvestigatethewaysindividuals,families,groupsandcommunitiescan worktoimprovetheirenvironment.

Standards
InCivicsandCitizenship,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedatLevel3.The learningfocusstatementsforFoundationtoLevel2provideadviceaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentsto worktowardstheachievementofthestandardsatLevel4.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Civics and Citizenship


Level2
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinCivicsandCitizenship,theyidentifytherangeof groupstowhichthey,theirfamilymembersandtheirclassbelong.Theybegintoappreciatethesimilaritiesand differencesbetweenindividualsandgroups,includingthelanguage,culturalandreligiousgroupswhichmakeupthe Australiannation.Theyexploretheroles,rightsandresponsibilitiesofvariousfamilyandcommunitymembers.They discoverwhygroupsandcommunitieshaverules,begintoquestionruleswhichtheybelieveareunfair,andmake suggestionsaboutimprovingtheruleswithinthecommunity.Theybegintoappreciatethecommonvaluesimportantto groupsandindividualsforexample,fairness,tolerance,understandingandrespect. Studentsbegintoparticipateinarangeofclassandschoolactivitiessuchasrecycling,takingresponsibilityforclass resources,andmarkinglocalandnationalcelebrationsandcommemorations.Theyexplorethepurposeandbenefitsof school,communityandnationalevents.Studentsinvestigatethewaysindividuals,families,groupsandcommunitiescan worktoimprovetheirenvironment.

Standards
InCivicsandCitizenship,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedatLevel3.The learningfocusstatementsforFoundationtoLevel2provideadviceaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentsto worktowardstheachievementofthestandardsatLevel4.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Civics and Citizenship


Level3
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinCivicsandCitizenship,theybuildontheir understandingofAustraliansocietyandinvestigatesomeofthedifferentculturalgroups,includingAboriginalandTorres StraitIslander(ATSI)communities,thatmakeuptheAustraliancommunity.Theylearnaboutthecontributionsthatpeople fromdiversegroupshavemadetomanyaspectsoftheAustralianwayoflife.Thisincludescontributionstothearts, industry,medicineandscience,aswellastootheraspectsoftheirlifeincludingfood,festivalsandsportingevents.They explorethewaysthatAustraliansareconnectedtootherregionalandglobalcommunities. StudentslearnaboutsomekeyeventswhichcontributedtothedevelopmentoftheAustraliannation.Theyexplore symbolsandcelebrationsofAustraliasandVictoriaspastandpresentforexample,theAustraliannationalflag,theATSI flags,theVictorianflag,coatsofarms,floralemblems,colours,flower,animalandbirdemblems,thenationalanthem, AustraliaDayandtheQueensBirthday.Theyconsiderthemeaningandvaluesthatarereflectedinthesecelebrations andsymbols.TheyconsiderwhattheyvalueaboutAustralia. Studentsexplorehowandwhypeoplemakedecisionsandidentifyplaceswherepeoplecometogethertodiscuss issuesandmakedecisions.Theyknowthatvotingisakeymethodforgroupdecisionmakinginademocracy.Students learnaboutthepurposeofgovernmentandsomefamiliarservicesprovidedbygovernment,particularlyatthelocallevel suchaspreschools,libraries,recreationalfacilitiesandwasteandrecyclingcollections.Theylookattherolesofsome leadersandrepresentativessuchasprimeminister,premierandmayor. Studentslearnaboutthedifferenttypesofgroupsinthecommunityandtheirfunctionsforexample,schoolgroupsand localvolunteergroupssuchascharitableandenvironmentalorganisations.Fromtheirresearch,theydevelopknowledge abouttheircommunityandenvironment,andasensethatindividualscontributionscancareforandimprovethe environment,theirownlivesandthelivesofothers. Theyexplorethedifferencesbetweenrulesandlaws,whywehavethem,whatroletheyserve,andhowtheycanbe changed.Theycontributetothedevelopmentandsupportofclassroomrules.Theydevelopanunderstandingofthe qualitiesofgoodlaws,theimportanceoflawsapplyingequallytoeveryoneinademocracy,andthewaysthatlawsare made. Studentsengageindemocraticprocessestoplanandcarryoutactivitiesandeventsattheschoolorinthelocal community.Theyparticipateincommunity,schooland/orhomebasedprojectsdesignedtoprotectandcareforthe naturalandbuiltenvironmentandpromotethesustainablemanagementofresourcesthattheyuseforexample,by reducing,reusingandrecyclingpaperandplastics,reducinguseoffossilfuelbywalkingorcyclingtoschool,reducing waterconsumption,andcontributingtocommunityevents.

Standards
AtLevel3,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel4standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Civics and Citizenship


Level4
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinCivicsandCitizenship,theybuildontheir understandingofAustraliansocietyandinvestigatesomeofthedifferentculturalgroups,includingAboriginalandTorres StraitIslander(ATSI)communities,thatmakeuptheAustraliancommunity.Theylearnaboutthecontributionsthatpeople fromdiversegroupshavemadetomanyaspectsoftheAustralianwayoflife.Thisincludescontributionstothearts, industry,medicineandscience,aswellastootheraspectsoftheirlifeincludingfood,festivalsandsportingevents.They explorethewaysthatAustraliansareconnectedtootherregionalandglobalcommunities. StudentslearnaboutsomekeyeventswhichcontributedtothedevelopmentoftheAustraliannation.Theyexplore symbolsandcelebrationsofAustraliasandVictoriaspastandpresentforexample,theAustraliannationalflag,theATSI flags,theVictorianflag,coatsofarms,floralemblems,colours,flower,animalandbirdemblems,thenationalanthem, AustraliaDayandtheQueensBirthday.Theyconsiderthemeaningandvaluesthatarereflectedinthesecelebrations andsymbols.TheyconsiderwhattheyvalueaboutAustralia. Studentsexplorehowandwhypeoplemakedecisionsandidentifyplaceswherepeoplecometogethertodiscuss issuesandmakedecisions.Theyknowthatvotingisakeymethodforgroupdecisionmakinginademocracy.Students learnaboutthepurposeofgovernmentandsomefamiliarservicesprovidedbygovernment,particularlyatthelocallevel suchaspreschools,libraries,recreationalfacilitiesandwasteandrecyclingcollections.Theylookattherolesofsome leadersandrepresentativessuchasprimeminister,premierandmayor. Studentslearnaboutthedifferenttypesofgroupsinthecommunityandtheirfunctionsforexample,schoolgroupsand localvolunteergroupssuchascharitableandenvironmentalorganisations.Fromtheirresearch,theydevelopknowledge abouttheircommunityandenvironment,andasensethatindividualscontributionscancareforandimprovethe environment,theirownlivesandthelivesofothers. Theyexplorethedifferencesbetweenrulesandlaws,whywehavethem,whatroletheyserve,andhowtheycanbe changed.Theycontributetothedevelopmentandsupportofclassroomrules.Theydevelopanunderstandingofthe qualitiesofgoodlaws,theimportanceoflawsapplyingequallytoeveryoneinademocracy,andthewaysthatlawsare made. Studentsengageindemocraticprocessestoplanandcarryoutactivitiesandeventsattheschoolorinthelocal community.Theyparticipateincommunity,schooland/orhomebasedprojectsdesignedtoprotectandcareforthe naturalandbuiltenvironmentandpromotethesustainablemanagementofresourcesthattheyuseforexample,by reducing,reusingandrecyclingpaperandplastics,reducinguseoffossilfuelbywalkingorcyclingtoschool,reducing waterconsumption,andcontributingtocommunityevents.

Standards
Civicknowledgeandunderstanding

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Civics and Citizenship


AtLevel4,studentsdemonstrateunderstandingofthecontributionofpeoplefromthemanyculturallydiversegroupsthat makeuptheAustraliancommunity.TheysequenceanddescribesomekeyeventsinAustraliasdemocratichistory.They describesymbolsandemblemsofnationallifeinAustraliaandidentifyvaluesrelatedtosymbolsandnational celebrationsandcommemorations.Theydescribethepurposeofgovernment,somefamiliargovernmentservicesand therolesofsomeleadersandrepresentatives.Theyexplainthedifferencebetweenrulesandlawsanddescribethe qualitiesofagoodlaw.Theyexplainwhyprotectionandcareforthenaturalandbuiltenvironmentisimportant. Communityengagement

AtLevel4,studentscontributetothedevelopmentandsupportofclassrulesandparticipateinschoolcelebrationsand commemorationsofimportantevents.Theydescribesomeoftherolesandpurposesofgroupsinthecommunity.They workwithotherstudentstoidentifyalocalissueandplanpossibleactionstoachieveadesiredoutcome.Theydescribe thebenefitsofactionatthelocallevelandthedemocraticaspectsoftheprocess.Theyparticipateinactivitiestoprotect andcareforthenaturalandbuiltenvironment.

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Civics and Citizenship


Level5
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinCivicsandCitizenship,theylearnabouttheorigins andestablishmentoftheAustraliannationatFederation.TheyexaminethenatureoftheAustralianfederalsystemof governancethatdeveloped.TheyconsidertheeffectsofAustralianfederationonthedemocraticrightsofdifferentgroups ofpeoplesuchasAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander(ATSI)people,womenandnonBritishmigrants. StudentslearnaboutthethreelevelsofgovernmentinAustraliaandinvestigateexamplesofthefunctionsandservicesof thesegovernmentssuchascurrency,defence,education,health,parksandlibraries.Theyexamineotherfeaturesof Australiandemocracyforexample,theroleofgovernmentinrepresentingthepeople,thekeytasksofamemberof parliamentorcouncillor,howparliamentmakeslawsandtheimportanceofvoting.Theylearnaboutthevaluesof democracy,andtherightsandresponsibilitiesofcitizenship. Theyconsidertheexperiencesofdiverseculturalgroups,includingATSIcommunities,andtheircontributionsto Australianidentity.Theyconsiderthevaluesimportantinamulticulturalsocietysuchasrespectandtolerance. Studentslearnabouttheprocessesofmakingandchanginglawsandtheroleofthecourtsandpolice.Theyconsider importantprinciplessuchastheindependenceofthejudiciary,equalitybeforethelaw,andthepresumptionof innocence.TheycompareAustralianlegalprocesseswiththoseofothercultures,suchasthoseofATSIcommunities. StudentsunderstandthatwhenAustralianstraveloverseas,thelawsofothercountriesapplytothem. StudentsunderstandthewaysinwhichAustraliancitizensareinfluencedbyandcaninfluencelocal,state,national, regionalandglobaldecisionsandmovements,includingissuesofsustainability.Theyinvestigatethesocialandpolitical linksbetweenAustraliaandothercountriesintheAsiaPacificregionandexploreglobaldevelopmentsandtheirpotential impactonAustralia.Theyunderstandthatprotectingtheenvironmentrequiresthatpeopleworktogetherascitizensand consumersandparticipateinappropriateactionsasenvironmentalstewardsorinothercivicactiontoeffectpositive change. Studentsresearchanissue,orissuesusingarangeofresourcesincludingelectronicmedia.Thesecouldinclude currentlocal,nationalandglobalissuesforexample,naturaldisastersandhumanrightsissues.Theyconsideractual andpossibleactionsbycitizensandnationsinresponsetotheissue/s. Studentsexplorewaysinwhichtheycanactivelyparticipateintheirschoolandcommunity.Theyinvestigatethequalities ofleadershipthroughpastandpresentexamples.Theyareprovidedwithopportunitiestoparticipateinschoolevents andexperienceclassandschoolleadershiprolesandtheirresponsibilities.

Standards
AtLevel5,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel6standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Civics and Citizenship


Level6
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinCivicsandCitizenship,theylearnabouttheorigins andestablishmentoftheAustraliannationatFederation.TheyexaminethenatureoftheAustralianfederalsystemof governancethatdeveloped.TheyconsidertheeffectsofAustralianfederationonthedemocraticrightsofdifferentgroups ofpeoplesuchasAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander(ATSI)people,womenandnonBritishmigrants. StudentslearnaboutthethreelevelsofgovernmentinAustraliaandinvestigateexamplesofthefunctionsandservicesof thesegovernmentssuchascurrency,defence,education,health,parksandlibraries.Theyexamineotherfeaturesof Australiandemocracyforexample,theroleofgovernmentinrepresentingthepeople,thekeytasksofamemberof parliamentorcouncillor,howparliamentmakeslawsandtheimportanceofvoting.Theylearnaboutthevaluesof democracy,andtherightsandresponsibilitiesofcitizenship. Theyconsidertheexperiencesofdiverseculturalgroups,includingATSIcommunities,andtheircontributionsto Australianidentity.Theyconsiderthevaluesimportantinamulticulturalsocietysuchasrespectandtolerance. Studentslearnabouttheprocessesofmakingandchanginglawsandtheroleofthecourtsandpolice.Theyconsider importantprinciplessuchastheindependenceofthejudiciary,equalitybeforethelaw,andthepresumptionof innocence.TheycompareAustralianlegalprocesseswiththoseofothercultures,suchasthoseofATSIcommunities. StudentsunderstandthatwhenAustralianstraveloverseas,thelawsofothercountriesapplytothem. StudentsunderstandthewaysinwhichAustraliancitizensareinfluencedbyandcaninfluencelocal,state,national, regionalandglobaldecisionsandmovements,includingissuesofsustainability.Theyinvestigatethesocialandpolitical linksbetweenAustraliaandothercountriesintheAsiaPacificregionandexploreglobaldevelopmentsandtheirpotential impactonAustralia.Theyunderstandthatprotectingtheenvironmentrequiresthatpeopleworktogetherascitizensand consumersandparticipateinappropriateactionsasenvironmentalstewardsorinothercivicactiontoeffectpositive change. Studentsresearchanissue,orissuesusingarangeofresourcesincludingelectronicmedia.Thesecouldinclude currentlocal,nationalandglobalissuesforexample,naturaldisastersandhumanrightsissues.Theyconsideractual andpossibleactionsbycitizensandnationsinresponsetotheissue/s. Studentsexplorewaysinwhichtheycanactivelyparticipateintheirschoolandcommunity.Theyinvestigatethequalities ofleadershipthroughpastandpresentexamples.Theyareprovidedwithopportunitiestoparticipateinschoolevents andexperienceclassandschoolleadershiprolesandtheirresponsibilities.

Standards
Civicknowledgeandunderstanding

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Civics and Citizenship


AtLevel6,studentsdescribethenatureofAustraliasdemocracythatdevelopedasaresultofFederation.Theydescribe thethreelevelsofgovernmentandsomeofthekeyfunctionsofeachlevel.TheyexplainthebasicelementsofAustralias federalparliamentarysystemandkeydemocraticprinciplesandvaluessuchasfreedomofspeechandequalitybefore thelaw.Theyexplaintheconceptofmulticulturalismanddescribethecontributionofvariousculturalgroups,including AboriginalandTorresStraitIslandercommunities,toAustralianidentity.Theydemonstrateunderstandingoftheprocess ofmakingandchanginglaws. Communityengagement

AtLevel6,studentsdemonstrateunderstandingoftherolesandresponsibilitiesofleaders,andofdemocratic processes,whenengaginginschoolandcommunityactivities.Theypresentapointofviewonasignificantcurrentissue orissuesandincluderecommendationsabouttheactionsthatindividualsandgovernmentscantaketoresolveissues. Theydemonstrateunderstandingthattherearedifferentviewpointsonanissue,andcontributetogroupandclass decisionmaking.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Civics and Citizenship


Level7
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinCivicsandCitizenship,theystudytheoriginsof democracyandvariousothertypesofgovernmentinanhistoricalcontext.Theylearnabouthowpastsocietiessuchas AncientGreeceandRomehaveinfluencedmoderndemocracies.TheylearnhowAustraliandemocracydevelopedfrom anautocracytoamoderndemocracyandtheBritishfoundationsofAustraliandemocracy. StudentslearnaboutsignificantmilestonesinthedevelopmentofAustralianlaw,governanceandrights.Theyexplorethe historicaloriginsofsomepoliticalrights,suchasuniversalsuffrage,secretballotandpaymentofparliamentarians.They considerexamplesofthefightforpoliticalrightssuchastheEurekamovement,theeighthourdayandfairworking conditions,AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderrightsandthevoteforwomen.TheylookattheoriginsofAustralian citizenshipandhowitcanbeacquired. StudentslearnaboutkeyfeaturesofAustraliandemocracy.TheylearnaboutthetwohousesoftheAustralianparliament andthewaysthatcitizensarerepresentedintheSenateandtheHouseofRepresentatives.Theycomparetherolesof federalandstateparliaments.TheylearnaboutthegeneralprocessesofelectionsinAustralia.Theyconsiderthe separateresponsibilitiesofthethreelevelsofgovernmentandtheimpactofeachlevelonthedailylivesofcitizens.They developunderstandingofaspectsofpoliticalpartiesandtheirleaders,theroleoftheAustralianConstitution,andthe courts.Theydiscussexamplesinthemediaofpeople,laws,andissuesconcerningthesefeaturesofdemocracy. StudentsconsidertheEnglishoriginsofAustraliaslegalsystemandtheoriginsofcommonandstatutelaw.Theylearn aboutthepurposesoflawsandconsiderexamplesoftheprocessofmakingandchangingthem.Theyevaluatethe meritsandsuccessesoftheprinciplesinAustraliaslegalsystemsuchasjustice,thepresumptionofinnocenceand equalitybeforethelaw.Theyidentifytherequisiteconditionsforafairtrial. Throughhistoricalandcontemporaryexamples,includingthosefromAustralia,studentsareintroducedtothevaluesand qualitiesofleadership.Studentsareprovidedwithopportunitiestotakeonavarietyofleadershiproles.Theydevelop skillsrequiredforactiveandinformedcitizenshipandusetheseinclassandcommunitycontexts.Forexample,theyuse cooperativedecisionmakingtodesignandevaluateagroupproject,seekavarietyofopinionsanduseavotingmethod todeterminethemajorityviewaboutanissue. StudentsexaminethewaysinwhichAustraliansareconnectedtootherpeopleintheAsiaPacificregionandaroundthe world.Theyexploretheresponsibilitiesofglobalcitizenshipforindividuals,organisationsandgovernmentsandtheroles andresponsibilitiesofcompanies,producersandconsumersinrelationtosustainability.Theyexplorewaysinwhich countriesworktogethertoprotecttheenvironment. Studentsinteractwithavarietyofgroupsandorganisationsincivicandcommunityevents.Withassistance,theyseek opportunitiestoactivelyengageinschool,localandcommunityevents.Theyresearchissuesandeventsofimportance tothecommunity,recognisearangeofperspectives,andproposepossiblesolutionsandactions.Theseissuesmaybe relatedtomatterssuchasenvironmentalsustainability,socialjusticeandhumanrightsandmayhavelocal,nationaland globalsignificance.

Standards
AtLevel7,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel8standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Civics and Citizenship


Level8
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinCivicsandCitizenship,theystudytheoriginsof democracyandvariousothertypesofgovernmentinanhistoricalcontext.Theylearnabouthowpastsocietiessuchas AncientGreeceandRomehaveinfluencedmoderndemocracies.TheylearnhowAustraliandemocracydevelopedfrom anautocracytoamoderndemocracyandtheBritishfoundationsofAustraliandemocracy. StudentslearnaboutsignificantmilestonesinthedevelopmentofAustralianlaw,governanceandrights.Theyexplorethe historicaloriginsofsomepoliticalrights,suchasuniversalsuffrage,secretballotandpaymentofparliamentarians.They considerexamplesofthefightforpoliticalrightssuchastheEurekamovement,theeighthourdayandfairworking conditions,AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderrightsandthevoteforwomen.TheylookattheoriginsofAustralian citizenshipandhowitcanbeacquired. StudentslearnaboutkeyfeaturesofAustraliandemocracy.TheylearnaboutthetwohousesoftheAustralianparliament andthewaysthatcitizensarerepresentedintheSenateandtheHouseofRepresentatives.Theycomparetherolesof federalandstateparliaments.TheylearnaboutthegeneralprocessesofelectionsinAustralia.Theyconsiderthe separateresponsibilitiesofthethreelevelsofgovernmentandtheimpactofeachlevelonthedailylivesofcitizens.They developunderstandingofaspectsofpoliticalpartiesandtheirleaders,theroleoftheAustralianConstitution,andthe courts.Theydiscussexamplesinthemediaofpeople,laws,andissuesconcerningthesefeaturesofdemocracy. StudentsconsidertheEnglishoriginsofAustraliaslegalsystemandtheoriginsofcommonandstatutelaw.Theylearn aboutthepurposesoflawsandconsiderexamplesoftheprocessofmakingandchangingthem.Theyevaluatethe meritsandsuccessesoftheprinciplesinAustraliaslegalsystemsuchasjustice,thepresumptionofinnocenceand equalitybeforethelaw.Theyidentifytherequisiteconditionsforafairtrial. Throughhistoricalandcontemporaryexamples,includingthosefromAustralia,studentsareintroducedtothevaluesand qualitiesofleadership.Studentsareprovidedwithopportunitiestotakeonavarietyofleadershiproles.Theydevelop skillsrequiredforactiveandinformedcitizenshipandusetheseinclassandcommunitycontexts.Forexample,theyuse cooperativedecisionmakingtodesignandevaluateagroupproject,seekavarietyofopinionsanduseavotingmethod todeterminethemajorityviewaboutanissue. StudentsexaminethewaysinwhichAustraliansareconnectedtootherpeopleintheAsiaPacificregionandaroundthe world.Theyexploretheresponsibilitiesofglobalcitizenshipforindividuals,organisationsandgovernmentsandtheroles andresponsibilitiesofcompanies,producersandconsumersinrelationtosustainability.Theyexplorewaysinwhich countriesworktogethertoprotecttheenvironment. Studentsinteractwithavarietyofgroupsandorganisationsincivicandcommunityevents.Withassistance,theyseek opportunitiestoactivelyengageinschool,localandcommunityevents.Theyresearchissuesandeventsofimportance tothecommunity,recognisearangeofperspectives,andproposepossiblesolutionsandactions.Theseissuesmaybe relatedtomatterssuchasenvironmentalsustainability,socialjusticeandhumanrightsandmayhavelocal,nationaland globalsignificance.

Standards
Civicknowledgeandunderstanding

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Civics and Citizenship


AtLevel8,studentsexplaintheoriginsandfeaturesofrepresentativegovernment.Theyidentifysignificantdevelopments inthegovernanceandachievementofpoliticalrightsinAustralia.TheyexplainkeyfeaturesofAustralianGovernment includingtheresponsibilitiesofthelevelsofgovernment,thehousesofparliament,politicalpartiesandthewaysthat citizensarerepresented,usingsomecontemporaryexamplesintheirexplanations.Theydescribethepurposesoflaws andtheprocessesofcreatingandchangingthem.TheyidentifyandquestionthefeaturesandvaluesofAustralias politicalandlegalsystems.Theyidentifyanddiscussthequalitiesofleadershipthroughhistoricalandcontemporary examples. Communityengagement

AtLevel8,studentspresentpointsofviewoncontemporaryissuesandeventsusingappropriatesupportingevidence. Theyexplainthedifferentperspectivesonsomecontemporaryissuesandproposepossiblesolutionstoproblems.They usedemocraticprocesseswhenworkingingroupsonclassandcommunityprojects.Theyparticipateinschooland communityeventsandparticipateinactivitiestocontributetoenvironmentalsustainabilityoractiononothercommunity issues.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Civics and Citizenship


Level9
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinCivicsandCitizenship,theyexplorethedevelopment ofAustraliasdemocracyfromFederation,thedevelopmentoftheAustralianConstitutionandthefederalsystemof government.Theyinvestigatesomehistoricalandcontemporaryissues,suchastherepublicandebate,theinclusionofa billofrightsintheAustralianConstitution,thedesignoftheAustralianflag,AboriginalandTorresStraitIslander(ATSI) recognitionintheAustralianConstitution,andthedivisionoffederalandstatepowers.TheycompareAustralias democracywithotherdemocracies. Studentsinvestigatethenatureandhistoryoftheconceptofhumanrights.Theybecomeawareofnationaland internationallegislationdesignedtoprotectthoserights.Theyexplorehumanrightsissuesatthenationaland internationallevel,includinganinvestigationofthehumanrightsofATSIcommunitiesandothergroupswithinAustralia. Theyexplorekeyelementsofmoderndemocracy,suchastheorigins,purposes,objectivesandconstituenciesof politicalparties,andthecharacteristicsandoperationoftheelectoralsystem.Studentsconsiderthewaysthatthese allowcitizenstoparticipateingovernanceandhowwelltheseelementssupportdemocraticprinciplesandvalues.They considerotherprocessesforinfluencingtheviewsandactionsofothersforexample,throughparticipationin organisationssuchasunions,environmentalandotherinterestgroups.Theyconsidertheroleofthemediaina democraticsocietyandtheimportanceofafreepress. StudentsexploreAustraliasmulticulturalsociety.Theylearnaboutthepastandpresentpoliciesofgovernmentinrelation toATSIpeopleandimmigration,andthevaluesandbeliefswhichsupportaharmoniousmulticulturalsociety.They exploretheconceptofAustralianidentityandthecontributionsofvariousculturalgroups.Theyconsiderthedevelopment ofAustraliancitizenshipovertimeandreasonswhypeoplechoosetobecomeAustraliancitizens.Theylinktheir understandingofmulticulturalismtocontemporaryissues,suchastheglobalrefugeeproblemandpopulationgrowth. StudentsevaluatetheroleoftheAustralianGovernmentintheglobalcommunityincludingAustraliasroleintheUnited Nations,throughcontextssuchasgovernmentresponsestoenvironmentalconcernssuchasglobalwarmingorother issuesofenvironmentalsustainability,naturaldisasters,peacekeepingoperations,worldpovertyandnationalandglobal securityissues. StudentsexploretherolesandresponsibilitiesofstateandCommonwealthcourtsandtheHighCourtofAustralia.They learnaboutthedifferencesbetweendifferenttypesoflawincludingstatute,common,ATSIandinternationallaw.They examinecasestudiesofchangesinthelawsuchasMabo,theFranklinDam,orcombatingterrororothercontemporary examples.Theyconsidertheviewsofindividualsandgroupsinthecommunityaboutthechangeandtheeffectsofthe change.TheyexaminetheprocessesforbringingaboutchangeinAustraliaslegalandpoliticalsystemsincludingthe roleofopendebateinademocracy.Theyevaluatetheeffectivenessofdemocraticprocessesinbringingaboutchanges inthelaw. Studentsapplytheirknowledgeaboutrepresentativedemocracyandsystemsofgovernmentbyresearchingand proposingpossibleactiononanissuerelevanttothematthelocal,stateornationallevel.Theyexplorethepotential impactoftheissueondifferentgroupswithinthecommunity,andtheeffectivenessofthedemocraticprocessin balancingindividualandcommunityrightsinresolvingtheissue.

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Civics and Citizenship


Studentsunderstandtheregional,globalandenvironmentalimplicationsofbeingacitizeninademocracy.Theyexplore Australiasrelationshipwithothernationsandexaminetheinfluenceofglobaleventsandissuesontheserelationships. Theyexaminehowpeoplesviewsontheenvironmentinfluencegovernmentpolicyandnongovernmentorganisations andthewaysinwhichgovernmentsattempttoaddressissuesofdevelopmentandsustainability.Theyinvestigateways inwhichcitizenscaninfluencegovernmentandconsideropportunitiestotakecivicactiononissues,includingthe environment. Studentsexplorewhatitmeanstobealeader,consideringdifferentleadershipstylesandlearnhowtheycanleadby example.Studentsareprovidedwithopportunitiestoparticipateinleadershipactivitiesandprojectsthatcontributetothe wellbeingofothersandwhichmayhavealocal,nationalorglobalfocus.

Standards
AtLevel9,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel10standards.

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19

Civics and Citizenship


Level10
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinCivicsandCitizenship,theyexplorethedevelopment ofAustraliasdemocracyfromFederation,thedevelopmentoftheAustralianConstitutionandthefederalsystemof government.Theyinvestigatesomehistoricalandcontemporaryissues,suchastherepublicandebate,theinclusionofa billofrightsintheAustralianConstitution,thedesignoftheAustralianflag,AboriginalandTorresStraitIslander(ATSI) recognitionintheAustralianConstitution,andthedivisionoffederalandstatepowers.TheycompareAustralias democracywithotherdemocracies. Studentsinvestigatethenatureandhistoryoftheconceptofhumanrights.Theybecomeawareofnationaland internationallegislationdesignedtoprotectthoserights.Theyexplorehumanrightsissuesatthenationaland internationallevel,includinganinvestigationofthehumanrightsofATSIcommunitiesandothergroupswithinAustralia. Theyexplorekeyelementsofmoderndemocracy,suchastheorigins,purposes,objectivesandconstituenciesof politicalparties,andthecharacteristicsandoperationoftheelectoralsystem.Studentsconsiderthewaysthatthese allowcitizenstoparticipateingovernanceandhowwelltheseelementssupportdemocraticprinciplesandvalues.They considerotherprocessesforinfluencingtheviewsandactionsofothersforexample,throughparticipationin organisationssuchasunions,environmentalandotherinterestgroups.Theyconsidertheroleofthemediaina democraticsocietyandtheimportanceofafreepress. StudentsexploreAustraliasmulticulturalsociety.Theylearnaboutthepastandpresentpoliciesofgovernmentinrelation toATSIpeopleandimmigration,andthevaluesandbeliefswhichsupportaharmoniousmulticulturalsociety.They exploretheconceptofAustralianidentityandthecontributionsofvariousculturalgroups.Theyconsiderthedevelopment ofAustraliancitizenshipovertimeandreasonswhypeoplechoosetobecomeAustraliancitizens.Theylinktheir understandingofmulticulturalismtocontemporaryissues,suchastheglobalrefugeeproblemandpopulationgrowth. StudentsevaluatetheroleoftheAustralianGovernmentintheglobalcommunityincludingAustraliasroleintheUnited Nations,throughcontextssuchasgovernmentresponsestoenvironmentalconcernssuchasglobalwarmingorother issuesofenvironmentalsustainability,naturaldisasters,peacekeepingoperations,worldpovertyandnationalandglobal securityissues. StudentsexploretherolesandresponsibilitiesofstateandCommonwealthcourtsandtheHighCourtofAustralia.They learnaboutthedifferencesbetweendifferenttypesoflawincludingstatute,common,ATSIandinternationallaw.They examinecasestudiesofchangesinthelawsuchasMabo,theFranklinDam,orcombatingterrororothercontemporary examples.Theyconsidertheviewsofindividualsandgroupsinthecommunityaboutthechangeandtheeffectsofthe change.TheyexaminetheprocessesforbringingaboutchangeinAustraliaslegalandpoliticalsystemsincludingthe roleofopendebateinademocracy.Theyevaluatetheeffectivenessofdemocraticprocessesinbringingaboutchanges inthelaw. Studentsapplytheirknowledgeaboutrepresentativedemocracyandsystemsofgovernmentbyresearchingand proposingpossibleactiononanissuerelevanttothematthelocal,stateornationallevel.Theyexplorethepotential impactoftheissueondifferentgroupswithinthecommunity,andtheeffectivenessofthedemocraticprocessin balancingindividualandcommunityrightsinresolvingtheissue.

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20

Civics and Citizenship


Studentsunderstandtheregional,globalandenvironmentalimplicationsofbeingacitizeninademocracy.Theyexplore Australiasrelationshipwithothernationsandexaminetheinfluenceofglobaleventsandissuesontheserelationships. Theyexaminehowpeoplesviewsontheenvironmentinfluencegovernmentpolicyandnongovernmentorganisations andthewaysinwhichgovernmentsattempttoaddressissuesofdevelopmentandsustainability.Theyinvestigateways inwhichcitizenscaninfluencegovernmentandconsideropportunitiestotakecivicactiononissues,includingthe environment. Studentsexplorewhatitmeanstobealeader,consideringdifferentleadershipstylesandlearnhowtheycanleadby example.Studentsareprovidedwithopportunitiestoparticipateinleadershipactivitiesandprojectsthatcontributetothe wellbeingofothersandwhichmayhavealocal,nationalorglobalfocus.

Standards
Civicknowledgeandunderstanding

AtLevel10,studentsdescribetheoriginsandnatureofAustraliasfederalpoliticalsystemandpresentaconsidered pointofviewonanissueaboutchangeinthepoliticalsystemandthelaw.TheyexplainhowtheAustralianConstitution affectstheirlives,andhumanrightsissues,bothnationalandinternational.Theyexplainhowcitizensinfluence governmentpolicythroughparticipationinpoliticalparties,electionsandmembershipofinterestgroups.Theyexplainthe developmentofamulticulturalsocietyandthevaluesnecessarytosustainit.Theydescribetheelectionprocessesin Australiaandhowtovote.Theyexplaintherolesandresponsibilitiesofcourtsatstateandfederallevelsandevaluatea changeinthelaw.TheyanalysehowwelldemocraticvaluesarereflectedinaspectsoftheAustralianpoliticalsystem. Theytakeaglobalperspectivewhenanalysinganissue,anddescribetheroleofglobalorganisationsinrespondingto internationalissues. Communityengagement

AtLevel10,studentsdrawonarangeofresources,includingthemassmediatoarticulateanddefendtheirownopinions aboutpolitical,socialandenvironmentalissuesinnationalandglobalcontexts.Theycontest,whereappropriate,the opinionsofothers.Theydevelopanactionplanwhichdemonstratestheirknowledgeofasocialorenvironmentalissue andsuggeststrategiestoraisecommunityawarenessofit.Theyparticipateinarangeofcitizenshipactivitiesincluding thosewithanationalorglobalperspective,atschoolandinthelocalcommunity.

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Communication
TableofContents Overview Introduction Domainstructure Stagesoflearning CurriculumF10 Foundationlevel Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level5 Level6 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10

2 2 2 3 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

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Communication

IntroductiontoCommunication
Communicationiscentraltothecapacitytoconstructmeaningandtoconveyinformationandunderstandingtoothersina rangeofwaysandinavarietyofsettings.Successfulcommunicationrequiresstudentstobefamiliarwiththeforms, languageandconventionsusedindifferentcontextsandemploythemtocommunicateeffectively. TheCommunicationdomainfocusesondevelopingstudentswhocommunicateclearlyandconfidentlyinarangeofcontexts bothwithinandbeyondschool.Itaimstoassiststudentstodevelopawarenessthatlanguageanddiscoursedifferacross thecurriculumandthatthereisaneedtolearnliteraciesinvolvedineachsubjecttheyundertake.Tocommunicate successfully,studentsneedtodeveloptheknowledge,skillsandbehavioursthatempowerthemtorespondto,make meaningof,anddeconstructarangeofcommunicationforms.Theyalsoneedtodeveloptheknowledge,skillsand behaviourstoeffectivelypresentinformation,ideasandopinionsinarangeofforms,includingverbal,written,graphic, multimediaandperformance,appropriatetotheircontext,purposeandaudience.

StructureoftheCommunicationdomain
TheCommunicationdomaininAusVELSusesanelevenlevelstructuretobothreflectthedesignofthenewAustralian CurriculumandtoprovideaconsistentstructureacrossalltheAusVELSdomains(formoredetails,pleaseseeOverview). Eachlevelincludesalearningfocusstatementand,fromLevel5,asetofstandardsorganisedbydimension.

Learningfocus
Learningfocusstatementsarewrittenforeachlevel.Theseoutlinethelearningthatstudentsneedtofocusoniftheyareto progressinthedomainandachievethestandardsatthelevelswheretheyapply.Theysuggestappropriatelearning experiencesfromwhichteacherscandrawtodeveloprelevantteachingandlearningactivities.

Standards
Standardsdefinewhatstudentsshouldknowandbeabletodoatdifferentlevelsandarewrittenforeachdimension.In Communication,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementapplyfromLevel5.

Dimensions
StandardsintheCommunicationdomainareorganisedintwodimensions:
l l

Listening,viewingandresponding Presenting.

Listening,viewingandresponding
Effectivecommunicationdemandsthatstudentsdeveloptheabilitytolisten,viewandrespondtocommunicationformswith respecttocontentandcontext.TheListening,viewingandrespondingdimensionfocusesondevelopingstudent understandingofcommunicationconventions,strategiestoassistthemtomakemeaningofcommunicationformsandthe abilitytodeconstructandrespondtoadiversityofforms.Thisinvolvesdevelopingfamiliaritywithforms,languageand conventionsusedindifferentcontextsacrossthecurriculum.

Presenting

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Communication
Theabilitytopresentinformationandlearninginacoherentandappropriatemanneriscriticalforalllearners.The Presentingdimensioninvolvesstudentsgainingtheknowledge,skillsandbehaviourstounderstandcontext,purposeand audienceselectanduseappropriatestructureandorganisationtoconveymeaningandreflectonthestyleandcontentof thepresentationstheymake.

StagesofLearninginCommunication
AusVELStakesaccountofthedevelopmentalstagesoflearningyoungpeopleexperienceatschool.Whilestudentlearning isacontinuumanddifferentstudentsdevelopatdifferentrates,theybroadlyprogressthroughthreestagesoflearning. Thefollowingstatementsdescribewaysinwhichthesecharacteristicsrelatetolearningexperiencesandstandardsineach ofthethreestagesoflearningintheCommunicationdomain. FoundationtoLevel4Layingthefoundations Whenchildrenenterschool,theybringwiththemagreatdiversityofexperienceascommunicatorsfromthehomeandother settings.InFoundationtoLevel4,theydevelopunderstandingofcommunicationconventionsintheformalandinformal contextsoftheschoolandtheclassroom.Learninginalldomains,fromtheearliestlevelsofschool,isdependentonthe acquisitionofeffectivecommunication,andonstudentsunderstandingoftheinteractivenatureofcommunication. Studentslearntolistenattentivelyandwithoutinterrupting.Theytaketurns,askclarifyingquestions,paraphrasewhathas beensaidtocheckmeaning,andbuildontheideasofothers.Theypractisetheskillsofbeingattentivelistenersandviewers inpairs,insmallgroupsandinwholeclasssituations. Theylearntoworkwithavarietyofaural,writtenandvisualtexts,andsharetheirunderstandingofthesetextswiththeteacher andpeers.Theylearnhowtoidentifykeypoints,developtheirowninterpretations,andprovideevidencetosupportthese interpretations. Theycommunicateideasandpersonalexperiencesinoralpresentationstoindividuals,groupsandthewholeclassand developskillsincommunicatinginformationonspecifiedtopicsinallcurriculumareas.Theyexploretheuseofarangeof verbalandnonverbalcuesandstrategiestoenhanceandengageanaudience.Theydevelopskillsincommunicatingideas inalogicalorder. Intheselevels,studentslearnabouthowcommunicatingwithothersvariesaccordingtodifferentcontexts,purposesand audiences,forexample,intheplaygroundandinavarietyofclassroomsituations.Theylearntopresentmoreformal presentations,suchasdramaticperformances. Levels5to8Buildingbreadthanddepth InLevels5to8studentsconsolidateandbuildontheirknowledgeandskillsrelatedtoeffectivecommunication.Students strengthentheircommunicationskillsastheybecomemoreindependent,flexibleandselfregulatoryintheirlearning,and participateinavarietyofinteractiveclassroomsituations,bothformalandinformal,andincludingcooperativelearning situations. Asthecurriculumprogrambroadens,theydevelopunderstandingofthepurposesofthespecialisedformsandlanguageof differentdomains,andpractiseusingtheseformsandlanguageappropriatelyintheirowncommunication. Astheyprogressthroughthisstage,studentsdevelopawiderrangeofstrategiesforlisteningattentivelyandforextracting meaningfromdifferentkindsofcommunication.Theyregularlypresentideas,informationandopinionsforavarietyof purposes,toarangeofaudiences,inbothformalandinformalsettings.

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Communication
Inalllearningareas,studentsrespondtoawidevarietyofaural,writtenandvisualmedia.Theyinterpretincreasingly complexinformationandevaluatetheeffectivenessofthewaysinwhichitispresented. Levels9and10Developingpathways InLevels9and10studentscommunicatetomeettheirownlearningneedsandtomeettherequirementsofawiderangeof purposes,bothinandbeyondschool.Theyexplorenewideasindepth,oftenincooperationwiththeirpeers.Theyfurther developtheirskillsincommunicatingwithothersindifferentkindsofsituations,includingininformal,unstructuredgroups,in teams,andinproblemsolvingsituations. Atthisstage,studentsdevelopgreaterknowledgeandunderstandingofthelanguage,formsandcommunication conventionsofdifferentlearningareas,andofarangeofoccupationsandfurthereducationpathways.Theybecomemore fluentinmakingchoicesabouttheuseofspecialisedandappropriatelanguagetocommunicatecomplexinformationto differentaudiencesandfordifferentpurposes. Studentsexperimentwithcommunicatingcomplexinformationinavarietyofways.Theyfurtherdevelopskillsinstructuring oralandwrittenpresentationstoachieveclearandcoherentcommunication.Theyareabletomakeinformeddecisions aboutselectingresourcesandtechnologiesappropriatetotheformat,contentandmodeofcommunication.Theyevaluate theeffectivenessoftheirownandotherpeoplescommunication,andmodifytheirownpresentationstoimprove communications. Inalllearningareas,andinvariousworkplaceandcommunitycontexts,studentsrespondtomanydifferentkindsofaural, writtenandvisualtexts,inprintandotherforms.Theyanalysedifferentinterpretationsandareabletoexplainandjustifytheir owninterpretations.Theyreflectcriticallyonhowsocietalconventionsandideologyinfluencethepresentationofideasand information.

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Communication

Foundationlevel
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinCommunication,theybegintoidentifybasic communicationconventionsintheclassroomandplaygroundsuchasbeingattentivelisteners,facingthespeaker,and takingturns.Theylearntofocustheirattentionandtolistenwithoutinterrupting.Studentspractiseretellingwhata speakerhassaidtothemandlearntoaskquestionswhenappropriate,exploringtheinteractivenatureof communication. Studentsrespond,inbothformalandinformalsettings,toavarietyofstimuliforexample,aural,writtenandvisualtexts. Theysharethemeaningtheymakeofthesetextswiththeirpeers. Studentsmakeregularshortoralpresentationstogroupsorthewholeclass,communicatingtheirideasonasingle topicorapersonalexperience,thefocusbeingonmakingthemselvesunderstood.Theybegintousevisualaidssuchas photographs,objectsanddrawingstoassistthemtocommunicatemoreeffectively.

Standards
InCommunication,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedatLevel5.The learningfocusstatementsforFoundationtoLevel4provideadviceaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentsto worktowardstheachievementofthestandardsatLevel6.

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Communication
Level1
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinCommunication,theypractisetheskillsofbeing attentivelistenersandviewersinpairs,smallgroupsandasawholeclass.Theyareencouragedtousequestionsto clarifymeaningandtoextendinteraction.Theyexperience,respondtoandbegintointerpretavarietyofaural,writtenand visualtexts,discussingalternativemeaningsandperspectiveswhentheyarise. Whencommunicatingwithothers,studentsbegintodistinguishbetweendifferingcontexts,purposesandaudiencesand theylearntomodifytheircommunicationaccordinglyforexample,whenplayingwithfriendsintheplaygroundandtalking toclassroomvisitors. Studentsregularlymakeshortoralpresentationstosmallgroupsorthewholeclassonspecifiedtopicsacrossthe curriculumandonpersonalexperiencesbeyondschool.Withguidance,studentsdevelopanunderstandingofbasic communicationconventionsandpractisestrategiesforimprovingtheirpresentationswithaparticularfocusonmaking themselvesunderstoodforexample,byvaryingvolumeandpaceandmakingeyecontactwiththeaudience.

Standards
InCommunication,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedatLevel5.The learningfocusstatementsforFoundationtoLevel4provideadviceaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentsto worktowardstheachievementofthestandardsatLevel6.

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Communication
Level2
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinCommunication,theypractisetheskillsofbeing attentivelistenersandviewersinpairs,smallgroupsandasawholeclass.Theyareencouragedtousequestionsto clarifymeaningandtoextendinteraction.Theyexperience,respondtoandbegintointerpretavarietyofaural,writtenand visualtexts,discussingalternativemeaningsandperspectiveswhentheyarise. Whencommunicatingwithothers,studentsbegintodistinguishbetweendifferingcontexts,purposesandaudiencesand theylearntomodifytheircommunicationaccordinglyforexample,whenplayingwithfriendsintheplaygroundandtalking toclassroomvisitors. Studentsregularlymakeshortoralpresentationstosmallgroupsorthewholeclassonspecifiedtopicsacrossthe curriculumandonpersonalexperiencesbeyondschool.Withguidance,studentsdevelopanunderstandingofbasic communicationconventionsandpractisestrategiesforimprovingtheirpresentationswithaparticularfocusonmaking themselvesunderstoodforexample,byvaryingvolumeandpaceandmakingeyecontactwiththeaudience.

Standards
InCommunication,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedatLevel5.The learningfocusstatementsforFoundationtoLevel4provideadviceaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentsto worktowardstheachievementofthestandardsatLevel6.

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Communication
Level3
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinCommunication,theylistenattentivelywhenrequired andlearntorespondandinterjectappropriately.Theylearnaboutappropriatebodylanguagewhenreactingtoaspeaker andusefeedbackfrompeersandtheteacherontheirownbodylanguagetoimprovetheirreactions.Theypractise paraphrasingwhataspeakerhassaidtocheckmeaningandaskclarifyingquestionswheremeaningisunclear. Studentsexplorearangeofaural,writtenandvisualcommunicationformssuchastheInternet,film,textsandmusic whichillustrateavarietyofperspectivesonarangeoftopicsandideas.Theylearnhowtoidentifythemainmessage, developtheirowninterpretation,andprovideevidencetosupportit.Theyexplorereasonsforotherinterpretationsnot beingthesameastheirsandlearntorespecttherightofotherstoexpressopinions. Duringbothformalandinformalpresentations,studentsexploretheuseofarangeofverbalandnonverbalstrategies,to enhancemeaningandtoengagetheiraudienceforexample,physicalpositioningintheroomanduseofprops, costume,humourandaudienceparticipation.Theybegintoorderlogicallytheideasthattheywishtocommunicate. Whendevelopingformalpresentations,studentsexperimentwithvariousformsforexample,adramaticperformance anduseofpresentationsoftware.Withguidance,theyreflectontheirownandotherspresentationsandnotethefeatures thatmakethemeffective.

Standards
InCommunication,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedatLevel5.The learningfocusstatementsforFoundationtoLevel4provideadviceaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentsto worktowardstheachievementofthestandardsatLevel6.

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Communication
Level4
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinCommunication,theylistenattentivelywhenrequired andlearntorespondandinterjectappropriately.Theylearnaboutappropriatebodylanguagewhenreactingtoaspeaker andusefeedbackfrompeersandtheteacherontheirownbodylanguagetoimprovetheirreactions.Theypractise paraphrasingwhataspeakerhassaidtocheckmeaningandaskclarifyingquestionswheremeaningisunclear. Studentsexplorearangeofaural,writtenandvisualcommunicationformssuchastheInternet,film,textsandmusic whichillustrateavarietyofperspectivesonarangeoftopicsandideas.Theylearnhowtoidentifythemainmessage, developtheirowninterpretation,andprovideevidencetosupportit.Theyexplorereasonsforotherinterpretationsnot beingthesameastheirsandlearntorespecttherightofotherstoexpressopinions. Duringbothformalandinformalpresentations,studentsexploretheuseofarangeofverbalandnonverbalstrategies,to enhancemeaningandtoengagetheiraudienceforexample,physicalpositioningintheroomanduseofprops, costume,humourandaudienceparticipation.Theybegintoorderlogicallytheideasthattheywishtocommunicate. Whendevelopingformalpresentations,studentsexperimentwithvariousformsforexample,adramaticperformance anduseofpresentationsoftware.Withguidance,theyreflectontheirownandotherspresentationsandnotethefeatures thatmakethemeffective.

Standards
InCommunication,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedatLevel5.The learningfocusstatementsforFoundationtoLevel4provideadviceaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentsto worktowardstheachievementofthestandardsatLevel6.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Communication
Level5
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinCommunication,theyusetheirunderstandingof communicationconventionstocommunicateeffectivelywithpeersandtorespondappropriatelywhentheyarepartofan audienceforexample,bywaitingforthecommunicationofotherstobecompletedbeforeresponding.Theypractise listeningattentivelytoidentifyandcommunicatemainpointstoothers.Theyreflectontheimplicitmessagesreceived throughbodylanguageandbegintounderstandthatverbalandnonverbalmessagesdonotalwayscorrespond.They practisesendingconsistentmessagesduringtheirinteractions. Studentsexperienceavarietyofaural,writtenandvisualcommunicationformsinbothformalandinformalsettingsfor exampleelectroniccommunication,performanceandoralpresentations.Withsupport,theyinterprettheseformsand begintounderstandthattheirinterpretationmaybeinfluencedbytheirownknowledge,valuesandbeliefs,bypersuasive devicessuchasemotivelanguage,andbytheopinionsofothers.Whenmakingmeaning,studentscontinuetodevelop skillsinaskingclarifyingquestionsandseekingvalidationoftheirinterpretationsfromtheirpeers.Theycompareand contrastdifferinginterpretationsandexplorewhytheydiffer. Studentsbegintorecognisethepurposeofspecialisedlanguageacrossthecurriculumandtousethisappropriatelyin theirowncommunicationforexample,theEarthispartofasystemofplanetsorbitingaroundastar(theSun)or,when describingcharacteristicsofamusiccomposition,Iuseddottedrhythmsandlotsofstaccatotogiveafeelingofenergy. Studentsdeveloptheirskillsinorganisingideasandinformationlogicallyandclearlytosuittheirpurposeandtheneeds oftheiraudience.Forformalpresentationstheybegintoselectappropriateformsforsharingknowledgeandinfluencing othersforexample,addingsoundtopresentationsoftware. Inresponsetoaudiencefeedback,studentsexperimentwithwaystoimprovetheircommunicationforexample, projectingtheirvoicetobeheardclearlyandmakingsurethattheaudiencecanseeanyvisualaids.Withsupport, studentsuseprovidedcriteriatoevaluateandreflectontheeffectivenessoftheircommunicationandtoprovidefeedback onthecommunicationofothers.

Standards
AtLevel5,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel6standards.

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Communication
Level6
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinCommunication,theyusetheirunderstandingof communicationconventionstocommunicateeffectivelywithpeersandtorespondappropriatelywhentheyarepartofan audienceforexample,bywaitingforthecommunicationofotherstobecompletedbeforeresponding.Theypractise listeningattentivelytoidentifyandcommunicatemainpointstoothers.Theyreflectontheimplicitmessagesreceived throughbodylanguageandbegintounderstandthatverbalandnonverbalmessagesdonotalwayscorrespond.They practisesendingconsistentmessagesduringtheirinteractions. Studentsexperienceavarietyofaural,writtenandvisualcommunicationformsinbothformalandinformalsettingsfor exampleelectroniccommunication,performanceandoralpresentations.Withsupport,theyinterprettheseformsand begintounderstandthattheirinterpretationmaybeinfluencedbytheirownknowledge,valuesandbeliefs,bypersuasive devicessuchasemotivelanguage,andbytheopinionsofothers.Whenmakingmeaning,studentscontinuetodevelop skillsinaskingclarifyingquestionsandseekingvalidationoftheirinterpretationsfromtheirpeers.Theycompareand contrastdifferinginterpretationsandexplorewhytheydiffer. Studentsbegintorecognisethepurposeofspecialisedlanguageacrossthecurriculumandtousethisappropriatelyin theirowncommunicationforexample,theEarthispartofasystemofplanetsorbitingaroundastar(theSun)or,when describingcharacteristicsofamusiccomposition,Iuseddottedrhythmsandlotsofstaccatotogiveafeelingofenergy. Studentsdeveloptheirskillsinorganisingideasandinformationlogicallyandclearlytosuittheirpurposeandtheneeds oftheiraudience.Forformalpresentationstheybegintoselectappropriateformsforsharingknowledgeandinfluencing othersforexample,addingsoundtopresentationsoftware. Inresponsetoaudiencefeedback,studentsexperimentwithwaystoimprovetheircommunicationforexample, projectingtheirvoicetobeheardclearlyandmakingsurethattheaudiencecanseeanyvisualaids.Withsupport, studentsuseprovidedcriteriatoevaluateandreflectontheeffectivenessoftheircommunicationandtoprovidefeedback onthecommunicationofothers.

Standards
Listening,viewingandresponding

AtLevel6,studentsaskclarifyingquestionsaboutideasandinformationtheylistentoandview.Theydevelop interpretationsofthecontentandprovidereasonsforthem.Theyexplainwhypeersmaydevelopalternative interpretations.Theydescribethepurposeofarangeofcommunicationstrategies,includingnonverbalstrategies,and evaluatetheireffectivenessfordifferentaudiences. Presenting

AtLevel6,studentssummariseandorganiseideasandinformation,logicallyandclearlyinarangeofpresentations. Theyidentifythefeaturesofaneffectivepresentationandadaptelementsoftheirownpresentationstoreflectthem.Using providedcriteria,theyevaluatetheeffectivenessoftheirownandotherspresentations.

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Communication
Level7
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinCommunication,theydeveloparangeofstrategiesfor listeningattentivelyandextractingmeaningfromcommunications,includingtakingnotesandsmallgroupdiscussionto recordandsummarisemainmessages.Theyreflectonhowtheexplicitbodylanguageofaspeakerinfluencestheir enjoymentandunderstandingofapresentation,andpractisemodifyingtheirownbodylanguagetoshowinterestand respectwhenlisteningtoaspeaker. Studentsrespondtoawidevarietyofaural,writtenandvisualmediaforexamplefilm,radio,theInternet,billboards, multimedia,andtextmessages.Theyexplorebothimplicitandexplicitmeaning,howtheauthorhasstructuredand presentedideas,andwhethertheyhaveusedspecialisedlanguageorsymbolstocommunicatetheirmessage. Studentssharethemeaningtheyhaveconstructedwithothersanddiscussanydifferences.Theycontinuetochallenge assumptions,usequestionstoclarifyunderstanding,andjustifytheirowninterpretationswhileacknowledgingthat othersmayhavedifferentinterpretations.Theyreflectonandevaluatetheeffectivenessofavarietyofmediain communicatingasimilarmessage,consideringaccuracy,inclusivenessandthetechniquesusedtoshapeaudience response. Studentsexpandtheirknowledgeofspecialisedlanguageusedacrossthecurriculumtocommunicatespecific meaningsandgainpracticeinusingspecificformsofcommunicationforexample,practicalreportsinScienceor fieldworkreportsinGeography. Studentsregularlypresentinformation,ideasandopinionsforavarietyofpurposes,toarangeofaudiences,inboth formalandinformalsettings.Theyfocusonidentifyingthekeymessagestheywishtocommunicateandstructuringtheir ideaslogicallyandcoherently.Theyexperimentwitharangeofpresentationformsandseekfeedbackfromtheir audienceastotheeffectivenessoftheircommunication.Studentsworktogethertodevelopcriteriawhichcanbeusedto evaluatepresentations.

Standards
AtLevel7,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel8standards.

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Communication
Level8
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinCommunication,theydeveloparangeofstrategiesfor listeningattentivelyandextractingmeaningfromcommunications,includingtakingnotesandsmallgroupdiscussionto recordandsummarisemainmessages.Theyreflectonhowtheexplicitbodylanguageofaspeakerinfluencestheir enjoymentandunderstandingofapresentation,andpractisemodifyingtheirownbodylanguagetoshowinterestand respectwhenlisteningtoaspeaker. Studentsrespondtoawidevarietyofaural,writtenandvisualmediaforexamplefilm,radio,theInternet,billboards, multimedia,andtextmessages.Theyexplorebothimplicitandexplicitmeaning,howtheauthorhasstructuredand presentedideas,andwhethertheyhaveusedspecialisedlanguageorsymbolstocommunicatetheirmessage. Studentssharethemeaningtheyhaveconstructedwithothersanddiscussanydifferences.Theycontinuetochallenge assumptions,usequestionstoclarifyunderstanding,andjustifytheirowninterpretationswhileacknowledgingthat othersmayhavedifferentinterpretations.Theyreflectonandevaluatetheeffectivenessofavarietyofmediain communicatingasimilarmessage,consideringaccuracy,inclusivenessandthetechniquesusedtoshapeaudience response. Studentsexpandtheirknowledgeofspecialisedlanguageusedacrossthecurriculumtocommunicatespecific meaningsandgainpracticeinusingspecificformsofcommunicationforexample,practicalreportsinScienceor fieldworkreportsinGeography. Studentsregularlypresentinformation,ideasandopinionsforavarietyofpurposes,toarangeofaudiences,inboth formalandinformalsettings.Theyfocusonidentifyingthekeymessagestheywishtocommunicateandstructuringtheir ideaslogicallyandcoherently.Theyexperimentwitharangeofpresentationformsandseekfeedbackfromtheir audienceastotheeffectivenessoftheircommunication.Studentsworktogethertodevelopcriteriawhichcanbeusedto evaluatepresentations.

Standards
Listening,viewingandresponding

AtLevel8,studentsmodifytheirverbalandnonverbalresponsestosuitparticularaudiences.Theyinterpretcomplex informationandevaluatetheeffectivenessofitspresentation.Whenresponding,theyusespecialisedlanguageand symbolsasappropriatetothecontextsinwhichtheyareworking.Theyconsidertheirownandotherspointsofview, applypriorknowledgetonewsituations,challengeassumptionsandjustifytheirowninterpretations. Presenting

AtLevel8,studentsusethecommunicationconventions,formsandlanguageappropriatetothesubjecttoconveyaclear messageacrossarangeofpresentationformstomeettheneedsofthecontext,purposeandaudience.Theyprovide anduseconstructivefeedbackandreflectiontodevelopeffectivecommunicationskills.

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Communication
Level9
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinCommunication,theylistentospeakersinarangeof contexts,includingtheschool,thewidercommunityandworkplaces.Theydeveloptheirskillsininterpretingmeaningfor example,byidentifyinginferencesandassumptions.Theyknowwhatitmeanstoeffectivelyrespondbothverballyand nonverballyindifferentcontextsandareabletodemonstratethis.Studentselaborateonandclarifycontentof presentations,usingpertinentquestionstoexploreexplicitandimplicitmeaning.Indiscussionwiththeirpeers,they evaluatetheeffectivenessofthesepresentationsandnotehowtheycanapplythefindingstotheirownpresentations. Instructuredactivities,studentsexploretherelationshipbetweenlanguageandpowerforexample,byinterpretingand analysingsignificantspeeches.Astheirunderstandingofthisconceptdevelops,theyapplytheirunderstandingwhen makingmeaningofavarietyofmediamessagesandwhendevelopingtheirownpresentations. Studentsrespondtoarangeofaural,writtenandvisualtexts,reflectingonhowculturalandsocietalnormsandideology influencetheproductionofthematerialforexample,researchpapersandnewsitems.Theyexplorehoweffectively meaninghasbeencommunicated,analysealternativeinterpretationsanddeveloparationalefortheirpreferredopinion. Studentsdevelopahighlevelofexpertiseandfluencyinthelanguage,formsandcommunicationstrategiesofparticular subjectsacrossthecurriculumaswellasthoseassociatedwitharangeofoccupationsandcareerpathways.They reflectonwhyitisimportanttohavethisknowledge,howitenablesmoreprecisecommunication,butalsohowitcan excludeaudienceswhoarenotfamiliarwiththelanguageofparticularsubjects. Studentsexperimentwithcommunicatingcomplexideasinavarietyofways.Theyincreasinglyusemetaphorandsymbol tocommunicate.Theyorganisetheirinformation,ideasandopinionsintoacoherentstructure,selectandadjusttheir modeofpresentationtosuitpurposeandaudience,andmakeappropriateadjustmentsinresponsetoanaudience. Theyuseagreedcriteriatoreflectontheeffectivenessoftheirowncommunicationsandarticulatemeansbywhichthey couldbeimproved.

Standards
AtLevel9,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel10standards.

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14

Communication
Level10
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinCommunication,theylistentospeakersinarangeof contexts,includingtheschool,thewidercommunityandworkplaces.Theydeveloptheirskillsininterpretingmeaningfor example,byidentifyinginferencesandassumptions.Theyknowwhatitmeanstoeffectivelyrespondbothverballyand nonverballyindifferentcontextsandareabletodemonstratethis.Studentselaborateonandclarifycontentof presentations,usingpertinentquestionstoexploreexplicitandimplicitmeaning.Indiscussionwiththeirpeers,they evaluatetheeffectivenessofthesepresentationsandnotehowtheycanapplythefindingstotheirownpresentations. Instructuredactivities,studentsexploretherelationshipbetweenlanguageandpowerforexample,byinterpretingand analysingsignificantspeeches.Astheirunderstandingofthisconceptdevelops,theyapplytheirunderstandingwhen makingmeaningofavarietyofmediamessagesandwhendevelopingtheirownpresentations. Studentsrespondtoarangeofaural,writtenandvisualtexts,reflectingonhowculturalandsocietalnormsandideology influencetheproductionofthematerialforexample,researchpapersandnewsitems.Theyexplorehoweffectively meaninghasbeencommunicated,analysealternativeinterpretationsanddeveloparationalefortheirpreferredopinion. Studentsdevelopahighlevelofexpertiseandfluencyinthelanguage,formsandcommunicationstrategiesofparticular subjectsacrossthecurriculumaswellasthoseassociatedwitharangeofoccupationsandcareerpathways.They reflectonwhyitisimportanttohavethisknowledge,howitenablesmoreprecisecommunication,butalsohowitcan excludeaudienceswhoarenotfamiliarwiththelanguageofparticularsubjects. Studentsexperimentwithcommunicatingcomplexideasinavarietyofways.Theyincreasinglyusemetaphorandsymbol tocommunicate.Theyorganisetheirinformation,ideasandopinionsintoacoherentstructure,selectandadjusttheir modeofpresentationtosuitpurposeandaudience,andmakeappropriateadjustmentsinresponsetoanaudience. Theyuseagreedcriteriatoreflectontheeffectivenessoftheirowncommunicationsandarticulatemeansbywhichthey couldbeimproved.

Standards
Listening,viewingandresponding

AtLevel10,studentsidentifythewaysinwhichcomplexmessagesareeffectivelyconveyedandapplythisknowledgeto theircommunication.Whenlistening,viewingandresponding,theyconsideralternativeviews,recognisemultiple possibleinterpretationsandrespondwithinsight.Theyusecomplexverbalandnonverbalcues,subjectspecific language,andawiderangeofcommunicationforms.Studentsusepertinentquestionstoexplore,clarifyandelaborate complexmeaning. Presenting

AtLevel10,studentsdemonstratetheirunderstandingoftherelationshipbetweenform,contentandmode,andselect suitableresourcesandtechnologiestoeffectivelycommunicate.Theyusesubjectspecificlanguageandconventionsin accordancewiththepurposeoftheirpresentationtocommunicatecomplexinformation.Theyprovideconstructive feedbacktoothersandusefeedbackandreflectioninordertoinformtheirfuturepresentations.

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15

Design, Creativity and Technology


TableofContents Overview Introduction Domainstructure Stagesoflearning CurriculumF10 Foundationlevel Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level5 Level6 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10

2 2 2 4 7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 17 19 21

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Design, Creativity and Technology

IntroductiontoDesign,CreativityandTechnology
ThedomainofDesign,CreativityandTechnology(DCT)emphasisesengagementindesigning,creatingandevaluating processes,productsandtechnologicalsystemsusingarangeofmaterialsasawayofdevelopingcreativityandinnovation. Creativityinthisdomaincanbedescribedasapplyingimaginationandlateralandcriticalthinkingthroughoutdesignand developmentprocesses.Innovationisanoutcomeofthebroadexplorationofideas,useofmaterials/ingredients,and technicalprocessesthatcanoccurwhenindividualsareinvolvedininvestigating,designing,producing,analysingand evaluatingtheirownandothersproductsand/orsystems. Designisavitalstepintransformingideasintocreative,practicalandcommercialrealitiesbyoptimisingthevalueof productsandsystems.Designinganditsapplicationinvolveplanningandorganisingproduction,andevaluatingproductsin arealcontext.Contextsmayrelatetoforexample,whatwegrow,eat,wear,build,make,ourhealthandsafety,andhowwe travelandspendourleisuretime.Designersconsiderproblems,needs,wantsandopportunitiesandrespondtothemby developingarangeofideas,whicharedevelopedintoutilitarianproductsorsystems. Developmentofcapabilityinthisdomainincludestheabilitytouse,manage,assessandunderstanddesign,creativity, technology,andtheirrelationshiptoinnovation.Inmoredetail,thisinvolvesstudents:
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posingproblemsandactivelyidentifyingneeds,wants,opportunitiesandareasforimprovement gatheringinformationandbuildingknowledgeaboutthenatureofneeds,wants,opportunitiesandareasfor improvementandthebestroutestotaketowardsdesigningasolution developingandusingdesignandtechnologyskills,knowledgeandprocesses,includingproposing,experimenting, learningfromresultsandsynthesising,tocreatenewand/orimprovedproductsand/orsystems usingtools,equipment,materials/ingredientsandsystemscomponentssafelyandcreativelytomakequalityproducts and/orsystems understandingthatdesign,creativityandtechnologyleadstoinnovation assessingtheoutcomesofdesignandtechnologyprocesses,andtheresultingproductsandtechnologicalsystems inrelationtoenvironmental,socialandeconomicfactors.

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Thisdomaininvolvesexperiential,practicalandappliedknowledgeaswellastheoreticalunderstanding.Itrequiresstudents tobeautonomousandcreativeproblemsolvers,asindividualsandasmembersofateam.Studentscombinean understandingofdesign,functionality,aesthetics,social,cultural,economicandenvironmentalissues,andindustrial practiceswithpracticalskills.Astheydoso,theyreflectonandevaluatepastandpresentdesignandtechnology,itsuses andeffects. TheDCTdomainfocusesondevelopmentofstudentsskillsinmanagingandmanipulatingmaterialsandresourcesusing arangeoftools,equipmentandmachinestomake,produceorgrowfunctionalphysicalproductsorsystems.These materialsandresourcesincludefood,wood,metal,timber,plastics,textiles,ceramics,plantsandsoil/growingmediaand componentssuchaswheelsandaxles,pulleysandbelts,gears,switches,lights,motors,connectingwires,batteriesand printedcircuitsboards.

StructureoftheDesign,CreativityandTechnologydomain
TheDCTdomaininAusVELSusesanelevenlevelstructuretobothreflectthedesignofthenewAustralianCurriculumand toprovideaconsistentstructureacrossalltheAusVELSdomains(formoredetails,pleaseseeOverview).

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Design, Creativity and Technology


Eachlevelincludesalearningfocusstatementand,fromLevel3,asetofstandardsareintroduced,organisedbydimension. Aglossaryisincludedwhichprovidesdefinitionsofunderlinedterms.

Learningfocus
Learningfocusstatementsarewrittenforeachlevel.Theseoutlinethelearningthatstudentsneedtofocusoniftheyareto progressinthedomainandachievethestandardsatthelevelswheretheyapply.Theysuggestappropriatelearning experiencesfromwhichteacherscandrawtodeveloprelevantteachingandlearningactivities.

Standards
Standardsdefinewhatstudentsshouldknowandbeabletodoatdifferentlevelsandarewrittenforeachdimension.InDCT, standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedfromLevel3.

Dimensions
StandardsintheDesign,CreativityandTechnologydomainareorganisedinthreedimensions:
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Investigatinganddesigning Producing Analysingandevaluating.

Activitiesassociatedwiththethreedimensionsarelinkedandmaybeappliedsequentially,wherestudentsmovedirectly frominvestigatingtodesigning,producingandevaluating.Oralternatively,studentsmaymovebetweenthedimensionsas theysolveaproblem.Forexample,toassisttheirdecisionmakingwhiledesigningaproductorsystem,studentsmay evaluatethepotentialimpactontheenvironmentoftheintendeduseofmaterials/ingredients,componentsorprocesses requiredtomaketheproductorsystem.Additionally,afterevaluatingaproducttheyhavemade,studentsmayreturntothe InvestigatinganddesigningandProducingdimensionstoimprovetheproduct.Inthisway,studentsmayworkinanon sequentialmannerthroughthedimensionsinthisdomain.Inorderforstudentstodemonstrateknowledge,skillsand behavioursinthisdomainadesignandmakeprojectbasedlearningapproachmustbetaken,thatfocusesonmeetingthe problem,need/sorrequirementsdefinedinadesignbrief.

Investigatinganddesigning
IntheInvestigatinganddesigningdimension,studentsidentifyideas,problems,needs,wantsandopportunities.Adesign briefcanbeastartingpointoritcanbedevelopedtoclearlydefinetheidea,problem,need,wantoropportunityand requirementsforasolution.Studentsundertakeresearchandinvestigationtoidentifythehuman,material,equipment, and/orenergyresourcesavailabletomeettheidea,problem,need,wantoropportunity. Studentscombinepracticalanddesignskillswithknowledge,skillsandbehavioursfromotherdomainstoselectandrecord creativemethodsofgeneratinganddepictingdesignpossibilitiesandoptions.Theydeviseaplantooutlinetheprocesses involvedinmakingaproduct,andselectandjustifytheoptionthatbestmeetstherequirementsofthedesignbrief.

Producing
TheProducingdimensioninvolvesstudentsinthemanagementoftheproductionphaseandincludestheappropriate selectionandsafemanipulationanduseoftools,equipment,materials/ingredientsandcomponentstocarryoutprocesses appropriatetothematerials/ingredientsorassemblyofsystemscomponentstoproduceaqualityproductortechnological system.

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Design, Creativity and Technology


Studentsexplore,shareandusebothtraditionalandmoreinnovativetechniques.Theyreflectupontheirprogressandalter plansasappropriate.Progressandchangestoplansarereflecteduponandalteredasappropriate.

Analysingandevaluating
IntheAnalysingandevaluatingdimension,studentscomparetheoutcomesofdesignandproductionactivitieswithearlier designworkandplannedintentions.Followingtheapplicationoftesting,improvements,modificationsandalternative approachesareconsidered. Thisdimensionalsoinvolvesstudentsindescribing,analysingandevaluatingtheimpactandvalueofboththeirownand otherstechnologicalproducts,technologicalsystems,processesandinnovations(past,presentandpredictedfuture)onthe individual,societyandculture,theenvironmentandtheeconomy.Thisincludesconsiderationofsustainabilityissues.

StagesofLearninginDesign,CreativityandTechnology
AusVELStakeaccountofthedevelopmentalstagesoflearningyoungpeopleexperienceatschool.Whilestudentlearningis acontinuumanddifferentstudentsdevelopatdifferentrates,theybroadlyprogressthroughthreestagesoflearning. Thefollowingstatementsdescribewaysinwhichthesecharacteristicsrelatetolearningexperiencesandstandardsineach ofthethreestagesoflearningintheDesign,CreativityandTechnology(DCT)domain. InDCTstudentsdevelopknowledge,skillsandbehavioursininvestigating,designing,producing,analysingandevaluating products.Intheearlystagesoftheirlearningtheydevelopanawarenessoftheplaceofdesignandtechnologyintheirworld andsomebasicskillsandknowledgeindesign,productionandevaluationofproducts.Intheseearlystages,studentsare abletodevelopdesignandtechnologyawarenessinintegratedlearningcontexts.Theydevelopbasicknowledgeof materialsandsystems,understandingoftheconceptofdesign,andapplytheirknowledgeandunderstandingtomake simpleproducts. Studentsbuildonknowledge,skillsandbehavioursgainedinFoundationtoLevel4,extendingtheirabilitytogenerateand communicatedesignideas.Theydevelopthemotorskillsand,moregradually,thestrengthtouseanincreasedrangeof tools.Theyfurtherdevelopthevocabularyfordescribingtheprocessesinwhichtheyareengaged.Studentsbegintoengage with,andreflecton,morechallengingdesignbriefsandworkwithspecificmaterialsandsystemsinincreasinglycomplex productionprocesses. FoundationtoLevel4Layingthefoundations InFoundationtoLevel4,studentsbegintounderstandthatpeopleusecreativeandinventivethinkingtohelpthemmeet humanneedsandwants.InDCTstudentsareencouragedtowonder,becuriousandimaginative.Theyexplorepossibilities andconceptsandverbalisetheirthoughtprocesses. Astheirawarenessoftheirlocalcommunitydevelops,studentsbegintounderstandtheneedfordesignandtechnologyin theworld.Theyaskquestionsandidentifyproblems,needsandopportunities.Theybecomefamiliarwithdesignbriefsasa wayofposingproblemsandchallenges,andareabletointerpretandcontributetobriefs.Designprovidesacontextfor engagingstudentsintheirlearning.Theyrecognisethatthereareprocessesfordesigning,producingandevaluating products. Theydeveloptheirknowledgeofhoweverydayproductsandsystemswork,andhowthecharacteristicsofthematerialsused caninfluencethelookandfunctionofproducts.Theyrecognisethatmaterialsandproductscanbereusedandrecycled,and considerwaysinwhichthiscanhappenaswellastheimpactthatthismighthaveontheenvironment.

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Design, Creativity and Technology


StudentsacquirethevocabularythatisuniquetoDCTandapplyittotheirwork.Theybegintounderstandthatthereisusually morethanonesolutiontoaproblemanddevelopskillsingeneratingcreativeideas.Findingattimesthattheirideasmaybe toocomplexexceedingtheirplanningandproductionabilitytheylearntorefinetheirideastoreflecttheirproduction capability. Studentsdevelopdesignstoaddresschallengesposed,initiallywithinfamiliarcontexts.Theycommunicatetheirdesign ideasinavarietyofways,includingsimpledrawings,diagrams,annotations,listsandmodels,andverbally.Withteacher assistance,theyorganisetheirideastodevelopsimpleplansformakingproducts. Initially,studentsareencouragedtoexplorefamiliarmaterials/ingredientsandobjects.Throughplay,andusingtheirexisting knowledge,theydevelopskillsinmanipulationandunderstandingsaboutthecharacteristicsofmaterials/ingredients.They observethatsomeproductshavemovingpartsandrecognisethatavarietyofcomponentsenablethistohappen.They explorewaysinwhichtocreatemovementintheirownproductsusingarangeofmaterials,includingpaper,cardboard, fabrics,twines,plastics,wood,food,playdough,plasticine,aswellasotherrecycledmaterialssuchascartonsand containers.Theyusearangeofjoiningtechniquesincludingavarietyoftapesandglues. Atthisstage,thetoolsandequipmentusedincludescissors,brushes,rulers,needlesandthread,bowls,spoonsand knives.Studentsunderstandtheneedforsafetyrulesassociatedwiththeuseoftoolsandequipment.Asstudentsdevelop theirmanipulativeskillstheyareabletouseagreaterrangeofmaterials,toolsandequipment.Astheirlevelofliteracy develops,studentsareabletodescribeproductsandprocessesinmoredetailanddiscuss,explainandjustifychangesthat theyhavemadetoplans. Levels5to8Buildingbreadthanddepth InLevels5to8studentsareabletothinkconceptuallyandanalytically.Theybecomemorecomplexthinkerswhoworkwith increasingindependencewhendesigning,planningandmakingproducts.Theybecomeawareoftheimpactofdesignand manufacturingonthewidersocietyandtheenvironment.Theyrecognisethatmanyissuescanhaveanimpactonthedesign ofproductsandsystems. Designbriefsbecomemorecomplexandthecontextsforthesebroadenasstudentsdevelopthecapacitytoanalyseand conceptualiseideas.Whilesomedesignbriefswillfocusonareasthatareofpersonalinteresttostudents,thecontextsfor othersmightbebeyondstudentsimmediateenvironment,includingothercommunitiesandenvironmentsandpossibly worldcontexts. Studentsexpandtheirvocabularyinthedomainanddevelopagreaterawarenessofthemselvesinatechnologicalworld. Theyshowincreasingcompetenceinapplyingtheskillstheyhavelearntinpreviouslevelsinalldimensionsofthedomain. Inthisstage,studentsdevelopgreaterspatialawarenessandcanrepresentideasintwoandthreedimensions.Theyapply arangeofdesignelementsandprinciplestoenhancetheirdesignideas,andcommunicatedesignideasinawidervariety ofways,includingusingmoreadvanceddrawingtechniques,makingmodels,writinglistsandmenus,creatingconcept mapsandblockdiagrams,andusingcomputersoftware.Plansforproductionbecomemoredetailed,withstudents increasingabilitytomanagetimeandresources. Bytheendofthisstage,studentsareproficientintheuseofarangeofmaterials,toolsandequipment,havefurther developedfinemotorskills,andhavegreaterphysicalstrength.Thisallowsthemtousemorecomplextoolsandequipment, includinghandandpowertools,andtocarryoutabroaderrangeofproductionprocesses.

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Design, Creativity and Technology


Studentscanperformsimpleriskassessmentsandmakesomechoicesabouttheappropriatenessoftoolsandequipment forparticularpurposes.Theyfurtherdeveloptheirunderstandingofsafetyissueswhenworkingwithtoolsandequipment. Studentsunderstandwhatsystemsareandcandescribeinsimpletermshowsomesystemswork.Theybegintodevelop anunderstandingoftherelationshipbetweenenergyandsystems. Studentsfurtherdevelopskillsintestingandreflectingonthefunctionandperformanceoftheirproductsandtheprocesses plannedandfollowedforproduction.Theyreflectontheirthinkingwhileworkingthroughtheseprocessesandareableto describeandjustifychangesmadetoplansandproducts.Astheydeveloptheirabilitytorecogniseanddescribestrengths andweaknesses,studentsbecomemoreableinsuggestingappropriatemodificationstoimproveproductsandprocesses. Levels9to10Developingpathways Studentsbecomediscerning,discriminatingandindependentthinkersatthisstageoftheirlearning.Asaresult,theycan discusstheplaceofdesignandtechnologyinsocietyaswellasdescribesomeoftheeconomicandenvironmentalbenefits andimplicationsofproductandsystemdesign.Theyfurtherdevelopcriticalawarenessofdesignandtechnologyfromthe perspectivesofbothconsumeranddesigner. Designbriefsbecomemorecomplexandchallenging,and,asstudentsseektoapplytheirlearningbeyondschool,they becomeawareofclientanduserfocuseddesign.Studentsgainconfidenceanddisplayautonomyandinitiativein constructingdesignbriefs.Theyexpandtheirstrategiesforexploringideasthatinformtheirdesigns,andselectappropriate strategiesforspecificcontexts. Theybroadentheirrangeofresourcesforinspirationandtheirideasaremorevariedandinnovative.Theyareabletomake informedchoicesaboutthesuitabilityofideasforparticularpurposesandcircumstances. StudentsbuildtheirexpertiseandbecomemorespecialisedintheirapproachtoDCT.Theydevelopknowledgeofagreater varietyofmaterialsandsystemsandareabletomakedecisionsabouttheappropriatenessofmaterialsandcomponentsfor particularproducts.Theybecomemoreskilledinusingandunderstandingspecificmaterialsandsystems. Asstudentsspatialawarenessismorefullydevelopedtheyusearangeofmethodsforcommunicatingdesignideas, includingtheuseofcomputersoftwarewherepossible.Theyemploybothtwoandthreedimensionaltechniquesandmake judgmentsaboutthemosteffectivemethodsforrepresentingideasinagivensituation.Theydevelopproceduralplansto assistintheproductionprocessandcontinuetodeveloptheirabilitytomanagetimeandresources. Atthisstage,studentshavewelldevelopedfinemotorskillsandareabletousemorecomplextoolsandequipment.They alsobegintomaintainsomeofthese.Theydevelopfurthertheirskillsincarryingoutriskassessmentsandidentifying possiblesafetyissues.Asstudentsdevelopspecialistskillsforthetechnologicalactivitiestheyareengagedin,theybecome increasinglyindependentintheiruseoftoolsandequipment,andintheirabilitytomakechoicesaboutthesuitabilityof particulartools,equipmentandcomponentsforparticularpurposes. Throughthedesignandtechnologyprocessesandbyapplyingevaluationcriteria,studentsareabletoexamineandrespect arangeofperspectivesandconsiderthevalueofdiverseopinionsaboutdesignandtechnology.Theymonitorandevaluate theirproducts,processesandthinkingandmakedecisionsaboutimprovementstothese.Theydevelopandapplyevaluation criteriathatenablethemtomakejudgementsabouttheeffectivenessoftheproductsandprocesses,justifyingchanges madeanddescribingmodificationsandimprovements.

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Design, Creativity and Technology

Foundationlevel
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinDesign,CreativityandTechnology,theyinvestigate everyday,familiarproductsandrecognisethebasiccharacteristicsandmaterials/ingredientsfromwhichtheyaremade andhowtheyareused.Theyexplorethedifferencesbetweennaturalproductsandartefacts,andlearnthatmaterialscan berecycledandreusedtoproducenewproducts.Theyplaywithandmanipulatematerials/ingredientsinbothafreeand focusedmannertofosterdevelopmentoftheirdesignandtechnicalskills.Theylearnappropriateterminology,including thenamesofmaterials/ingredientsandtheircharacteristicsandproperties(forexample,rough,smooth,shiny,soft, flexible),andprocessessuchasmeasure,mix,cut,join. Studentsthinkandtalkaboutwhyandhowproductsaremade.Theyrespondtosimpledesignbriefsasacontextfor designing(forexample,Thereistobeateddybearspicnic,andyourteddywillhavetobeprotectedfromthesun). Studentsusetheirimaginationandcuriositytogenerateideas,engageintechnologicalprocessesanddevelop imaginativedesignsolutionsforsimpleproblems.Theylearntousesimplepicturesandmodelstorepresentdesign ideastodevelopsimpleandauthenticproducts,suchasahealthyafterschoolsnack.Whiledesigningusuallyprecedes producingandevaluating,studentsmaydrawtheirdesignaftertheproductismade.Theirproductsmaybedevelopedas aresultofexploringmaterialsratherthanfromadrawing. Studentsindependently,orincollaborationwithpeersoradults,exploretheuseofcommonmaterialssuchaspaper, cardboard,glue,fabric,wood,soilandplants,plasticcontainers,string,paddlepopsticksandfoodingredients.They developskillsinthesafeuseofbasictoolsandequipment,suchassafetyscissors,mixingbowls,cupsandrulers,to cut,join,shape,mixandfollowinstructionstoconstructsimpleproductsormodelsbasedontheirdesignideas. Studentsthinkandtalkabouthowtheirdesignswillsolveaproblemormeetaneed,andreflectonthestepstheytookto designandmaketheirproduct.Theydiscusshowtheycouldmakeaproductbetter.

Standards
InDesign,CreativityandTechnology,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedat Level3.ThelearningfocusstatementsforLevels1and2provideadviceaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassist studentstoworktowardstheachievementofthestandardsatLevel4.

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Design, Creativity and Technology


Level1
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinDesign,CreativityandTechnology,theycometo understandthatpeopleusecreative,imaginativeandinventivethinkingtohelpthemmeethumanneedsandwants.They enquireaboutandquestiontheirworld,offeringideasandsuggestionsbasedupontheirexperienceofworkingwith materials/ingredientsandsystemscomponents.Theyinvestigatewhatproductsandsystemscando,howtheywork,and whytheyarethewaytheyare.Theyplaywithandmanipulatematerials/ingredients,thinkabout,discussanddescribe theircharacteristicsandproperties(usingtermssuchasstrong,hard,stretchyandsweet)andwhytheyaresuitablefor useinproductsandsystems. Inresponsetosimpledesignbriefs,studentsdevelopbasicdesignideasbasedontheirexperiencesofworkingwith materials/ingredientsandcomponents.Theytalkabouttheirdesignideasandthoughtprocessesandstarttorepresent thesevisuallybyusingmodels,picturesandwords.Theyconsiderthatmorethanonesolutionmaybepossibleand begintogivereasonsforchangesintheirthinking. Studentsbegintorecogniserelationshipsbetweenindividualsandcommunities,andproducts,processesandsystems forexample,atransportsystem.Respondingtoopenendeddesigntasks,studentsdevelopimaginativeandpractical designsolutionstoproblems,needsandopportunitiesforexample,makingasimpledecoratedbagforcarrying personalitems,modellingplaygroundequipment,ormakingpotstogrowherbsforuseinafoodproduct. Studentsfollowasetofinstructionsandmaybegintocontributetoplanningthemainstepstomakeaproduct.They explainwhattheyaremakingandwhichtoolsandequipmenttheyareusing.Theysafelyusetoolsandequipmentto separate,assemble,joinandcombineeverydaymaterials/ingredientsandsystemscomponentsinavarietyofways. Studentsconsiderwhethertheirdesignsolutionsworkandareappropriateforthepurposeforwhichtheyweredesigned. Withguidancefromtheteacherandfeedbackfrompeers,theyreflectonhowtheydesignedandmadetheirproducts.

Standards
InDesign,CreativityandTechnology,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedat Level3.ThelearningfocusstatementsforLevels1and2provideadviceaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassist studentstoworktowardstheachievementofthestandardsatLevel4.

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Design, Creativity and Technology


Level2
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinDesign,CreativityandTechnology,theycometo understandthatpeopleusecreative,imaginativeandinventivethinkingtohelpthemmeethumanneedsandwants.They enquireaboutandquestiontheirworld,offeringideasandsuggestionsbasedupontheirexperienceofworkingwith materials/ingredientsandsystemscomponents.Theyinvestigatewhatproductsandsystemscando,howtheywork,and whytheyarethewaytheyare.Theyplaywithandmanipulatematerials/ingredients,thinkabout,discussanddescribe theircharacteristicsandproperties(usingtermssuchasstrong,hard,stretchyandsweet)andwhytheyaresuitablefor useinproductsandsystems. Inresponsetosimpledesignbriefs,studentsdevelopbasicdesignideasbasedontheirexperiencesofworkingwith materials/ingredientsandcomponents.Theytalkabouttheirdesignideasandthoughtprocessesandstarttorepresent thesevisuallybyusingmodels,picturesandwords.Theyconsiderthatmorethanonesolutionmaybepossibleand begintogivereasonsforchangesintheirthinking. Studentsbegintorecogniserelationshipsbetweenindividualsandcommunities,andproducts,processesandsystems forexample,atransportsystem.Respondingtoopenendeddesigntasks,studentsdevelopimaginativeandpractical designsolutionstoproblems,needsandopportunitiesforexample,makingasimpledecoratedbagforcarrying personalitems,modellingplaygroundequipment,ormakingpotstogrowherbsforuseinafoodproduct. Studentsfollowasetofinstructionsandmaybegintocontributetoplanningthemainstepstomakeaproduct.They explainwhattheyaremakingandwhichtoolsandequipmenttheyareusing.Theysafelyusetoolsandequipmentto separate,assemble,joinandcombineeverydaymaterials/ingredientsandsystemscomponentsinavarietyofways. Studentsconsiderwhethertheirdesignsolutionsworkandareappropriateforthepurposeforwhichtheyweredesigned. Withguidancefromtheteacherandfeedbackfrompeers,theyreflectonhowtheydesignedandmadetheirproducts.

Standards
InDesign,CreativityandTechnology,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedat Level3.ThelearningfocusstatementsforLevels1and2provideadviceaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassist studentstoworktowardstheachievementofthestandardsatLevel4.

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Design, Creativity and Technology


Level3
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinDesign,CreativityandTechnology,theybeginto provideinputintothedevelopmentofdesignbriefs.Theygenerateideasfromavarietyofsources,andrecognisethat theirdesignshavetomeetarangeofdifferentrequirements.Theylearntomakerealisticplansforachievingtheiraims andrecognisethattheyareconstrainedbytheavailabilityofresources.Theyclarifyideaswhenasked,andusewords, labelledsketchesandmodelstocommunicatethedetailsoftheirdesigns. Studentslearntodescribeideasandconceptsaboutdesign,materials/ingredientsandtechnologicalsystemsinsimple terms.Forexample,howandwhyadrawingisannotatedhowmaterials/ingredientsareclassifiedthesystems componentsthatarecombinedtocreatemovement,suchasgearsandpulleyswhatcharacteristicsandproperties makematerials/ingredientssuitableforaparticulardesignorproposedproductandhowthesecanbecombinedin innovativewaystocreatesolutions.Intransformingnovelideasintoproductsorsimplesystems,theyareencouragedto takerisks. Studentsinvestigatewhatproductsandsimpletechnologicalsystemscando,howtheymeetpeoplesneeds,howthey areusedand/orwork,whattheylooklikeandwhytheylookthewaytheydo.Theylearnwhatevaluationcriteriaareand, withguidance,developsimpleevaluationcriteriaandusethesetomakedecisionsabout,andassess,designideas. Withassistance,theylearntoplanbasicstepsinproduction.Theydevelopskillsintheuseofavarietyofsimple productiontechniques,suchascutting,mixing,shaping,joiningandassemblingandarangeofmaterials/ingredientsto produceproducts,suchasahealthybreakfastcerealanditspackagingandsimplesystemsforexample,apuppetwith movingparts(levers)orapulleyarrangementtoliftaweight.Productiontechniquescouldincludecuttingwithasawor knife,weighingwithscales,measuringwithajug,filingwithafileorrasp,sandpapering,whiskingandhandsewingwith aneedleandthread.Materialscouldincludepaperandcardboard,foodingredients,fabrics,wood,plantsandsoilor othergrowingmedia.Theylearntousetoolsandequipmentsafelyandhygienically,andwithsomeaccuracy,toalterand combinematerials/ingredientsandputtogethercomponentstomakeasimplesystemwithmovingparts. Studentsareencouragedtogiveandreceivefeedbackabouttheirownandothersproductsandsimplesystems(for example,atoywithmovingparts),consideringwhetherdesignsolutionsworkandiftheyareappropriatefortheir purpose.Theylearntokeepsimplerecordsandreflectonthestepstheytooktodesignandmaketheirownproductsand simplesystems,includingnotinganyproblemsencounteredandchangesmadetoaccommodatethese.

Standards
AtLevel3,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel4standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

10

Design, Creativity and Technology


Level4
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinDesign,CreativityandTechnology,theybeginto provideinputintothedevelopmentofdesignbriefs.Theygenerateideasfromavarietyofsources,andrecognisethat theirdesignshavetomeetarangeofdifferentrequirements.Theylearntomakerealisticplansforachievingtheiraims andrecognisethattheyareconstrainedbytheavailabilityofresources.Theyclarifyideaswhenasked,andusewords, labelledsketchesandmodelstocommunicatethedetailsoftheirdesigns. Studentslearntodescribeideasandconceptsaboutdesign,materials/ingredientsandtechnologicalsystemsinsimple terms.Forexample,howandwhyadrawingisannotatedhowmaterials/ingredientsareclassifiedthesystems componentsthatarecombinedtocreatemovement,suchasgearsandpulleyswhatcharacteristicsandproperties makematerials/ingredientssuitableforaparticulardesignorproposedproductandhowthesecanbecombinedin innovativewaystocreatesolutions.Intransformingnovelideasintoproductsorsimplesystems,theyareencouragedto takerisks. Studentsinvestigatewhatproductsandsimpletechnologicalsystemscando,howtheymeetpeoplesneeds,howthey areusedand/orwork,whattheylooklikeandwhytheylookthewaytheydo.Theylearnwhatevaluationcriteriaareand, withguidance,developsimpleevaluationcriteriaandusethesetomakedecisionsabout,andassess,designideas. Withassistance,theylearntoplanbasicstepsinproduction.Theydevelopskillsintheuseofavarietyofsimple productiontechniques,suchascutting,mixing,shaping,joiningandassemblingandarangeofmaterials/ingredientsto produceproducts,suchasahealthybreakfastcerealanditspackagingandsimplesystemsforexample,apuppetwith movingparts(levers)orapulleyarrangementtoliftaweight.Productiontechniquescouldincludecuttingwithasawor knife,weighingwithscales,measuringwithajug,filingwithafileorrasp,sandpapering,whiskingandhandsewingwith aneedleandthread.Materialscouldincludepaperandcardboard,foodingredients,fabrics,wood,plantsandsoilor othergrowingmedia.Theylearntousetoolsandequipmentsafelyandhygienically,andwithsomeaccuracy,toalterand combinematerials/ingredientsandputtogethercomponentstomakeasimplesystemwithmovingparts. Studentsareencouragedtogiveandreceivefeedbackabouttheirownandothersproductsandsimplesystems(for example,atoywithmovingparts),consideringwhetherdesignsolutionsworkandiftheyareappropriatefortheir purpose.Theylearntokeepsimplerecordsandreflectonthestepstheytooktodesignandmaketheirownproductsand simplesystems,includingnotinganyproblemsencounteredandchangesmadetoaccommodatethese.

Standards
Investigatinganddesigning

AtLevel4students,individuallyandinteams,generateideasbasedonadesignbrief,demonstratingunderstandingthat designsmayneedtomeetarangeofdifferentrequirements.Theyusewords,labelledsketchesandmodelsto communicatethedetailsoftheirdesigns,andclarifyideaswhenasked.Theyidentifysimplesystemscomponentsand commonmaterials/ingredientsandexplainthecharacteristicsandpropertiesthatmakethemsuitableforusein products.Studentsthinkaheadabouttheorderoftheirworkandlistbasicstepstomaketheproductorsystemtheyhave designed. Producing

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

11

Design, Creativity and Technology


AtLevel4,studentsusetheirlistofstepsandareabletochooseappropriatetools,equipmentandtechniquestoalter andcombinematerials/ingredientsandassemblesystemscomponents.Theyuseavarietyofsimple techniques/processesandarangeofmaterials/ingredientstosafelyandhygienicallyalterandcombine materials/ingredientsandputtogethercomponentstomakeproductsandsimplesystemsthathavemovingparts. Analysingandevaluating

AtLevel4,studentstest,evaluateandrevisetheirdesigns,productsorsimplesystemsinlightoffeedbacktheyhave gainedfromothers.Theyidentifywhathasledtoimprovementsanddescribewhattheyconsidertobethestrengthsand drawbacksoftheirdesign,productorsimplesystem.Theyconsiderhowwellaproductorsimplesystemfunctions and/orhowwellitmeetstheintendedpurpose.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

12

Design, Creativity and Technology


Level5
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinDesign,CreativityandTechnology,theycontributeto thedevelopmentofdesignbriefsthatincludesomelimitationsandspecificationsbyposingquestionsaboutand identifyingsituations,problems,needsandopportunitiesforthecreationofusefulproductsandsimplesystems.They exploreideasandconceptsaboutdesign,materials/ingredientsandsystems,andconsiderhowthesecanbecombined ininnovativewaystocreatesolutionsforexample,foramodelsolarboatorafunparkride. Individuallyandinsmallteams,studentsdeveloppossiblesolutionsinresponsetodesignbriefs,usingsimplemind maps,sketches,plansandannotateddrawings,labelleddiagramsmodelsandflowcharts.Theyincreasinglyuse informationandcommunicationstechnologytoolsandtechniquestoresearch,developandcommunicateideas.They areencouragedtoconsciouslyselectpreferredoptionsandexplainwhytheyhavechosenthem,referringto materials/ingredients,functionandaesthetics. Studentslearntodevelopstepbystepplansforproductionanduseavarietyofproductiontechniques,tools, materials/ingredients(forexample,atemplateformarkingashapetobecutoutoffabricorwood,atapemeasure,pliers forbendingmetalwire,ahotmeltgluegunforjoiningwoodorfabric,ahandbeaterforcombiningfoodingredients,a clampforholdingmaterials/ingredientstoatable,atrysquareforsquaringapieceofwood,secateursfortrimminga plant,apeelerforremovingappleskin)andsystemscomponentstomakeproductssafely.Theybegintorecordtheir progressusingwordsandimages.Studentslearntoanalysehowproductsandsystemsfunctionandwhattheylooklike, anddiscussthemeaningofqualityinthecontextofdesign.Theylearntoidentifyevaluationcriteriafromthedesignbrief andusethemtojustifydesignchoices.Theyalsousethemtothinkabouthowwelltheircompletedproductsuitsthe designsituation.Theyusesimpleteststodeterminethesuitabilityorperformanceofproductsand/ortechnological systems. Takingintoaccountfeedbackfrompeersandteachers,studentsconsiderhowtheproductorsystemtheyhavemade, andtheprocessestheyhaveused,couldbeimproved.Theyalsoreflectontheimpactthatproductsandsystemsandthe usesofmaterialshaveonpeopleandtheenvironment.

Standards
AtLevel5,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel6standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

13

Design, Creativity and Technology


Level6
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinDesign,CreativityandTechnology,theycontributeto thedevelopmentofdesignbriefsthatincludesomelimitationsandspecificationsbyposingquestionsaboutand identifyingsituations,problems,needsandopportunitiesforthecreationofusefulproductsandsimplesystems.They exploreideasandconceptsaboutdesign,materials/ingredientsandsystems,andconsiderhowthesecanbecombined ininnovativewaystocreatesolutionsforexample,foramodelsolarboatorafunparkride. Individuallyandinsmallteams,studentsdeveloppossiblesolutionsinresponsetodesignbriefs,usingsimplemind maps,sketches,plansandannotateddrawings,labelleddiagramsmodelsandflowcharts.Theyincreasinglyuse informationandcommunicationstechnologytoolsandtechniquestoresearch,developandcommunicateideas.They areencouragedtoconsciouslyselectpreferredoptionsandexplainwhytheyhavechosenthem,referringto materials/ingredients,functionandaesthetics. Studentslearntodevelopstepbystepplansforproductionanduseavarietyofproductiontechniques,tools, materials/ingredients(forexample,atemplateformarkingashapetobecutoutoffabricorwood,atapemeasure,pliers forbendingmetalwire,ahotmeltgluegunforjoiningwoodorfabric,ahandbeaterforcombiningfoodingredients,a clampforholdingmaterials/ingredientstoatable,atrysquareforsquaringapieceofwood,secateursfortrimminga plant,apeelerforremovingappleskin)andsystemscomponentstomakeproductssafely.Theybegintorecordtheir progressusingwordsandimages.Studentslearntoanalysehowproductsandsystemsfunctionandwhattheylooklike, anddiscussthemeaningofqualityinthecontextofdesign.Theylearntoidentifyevaluationcriteriafromthedesignbrief andusethemtojustifydesignchoices.Theyalsousethemtothinkabouthowwelltheircompletedproductsuitsthe designsituation.Theyusesimpleteststodeterminethesuitabilityorperformanceofproductsand/ortechnological systems. Takingintoaccountfeedbackfrompeersandteachers,studentsconsiderhowtheproductorsystemtheyhavemade, andtheprocessestheyhaveused,couldbeimproved.Theyalsoreflectontheimpactthatproductsandsystemsandthe usesofmaterialshaveonpeopleandtheenvironment.

Standards
Investigatinganddesigning

AtLevel6,studentscontributetothedevelopmentofdesignbriefsthatincludesomelimitationsandspecifications. Individuallyandinteams,theyusearangeofmethodstoresearchandcollectdatainresponsetodesignbriefs.They generateandcommunicatealternativedesignideasinresponsetoadesignbriefandusewords,labelledsketchesand models,todemonstratethattheyareawareofenvironmentalandsocialconstraints. Studentstakeaccountoftheviewsofusers/consumersandproducestepbystepplansand/ormodifyrecipesformaking productsand/orsimplemechanical/electricalsystems.Theydescribehowtheirintendedproductwillfunctionorbeused, andwhatitwilllooklikeinthecontextoftherequirementsofthedesignbrief.Theyidentifyevaluationcriteriafromdesign briefsandusethemtojustifydesignchoices. Producing

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

14

Design, Creativity and Technology


AtLevel6,studentsusetheirproductionplanandselectandworksafelywithavarietyofmaterials/ingredientsand systemscomponentstoproducefunctionalproductsand/orsystems.Theyusearangeofmeasuring,marking, joining/combiningtechniquestoaltermaterialsandfinishing/presentationmethods,andoperatetoolsandequipment competently,showingconsiderationofsafetyandhygiene,andrecordtheirprogress. Analysingandevaluating

AtLevel6,studentsreflectontheirdesignsastheydevelopthemanduseevaluationcriteria,identifiedfromdesign briefs,tojustifytheirdesignchoices.Theymodifytheirdesigns/products/systemsafterconsideredevaluationoffeedback frompeersandteachers,andtheirownreflection.Theydescribetheimpactproductsandtechnologicalsystemshaveon peopleandtheenvironment.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

15

Design, Creativity and Technology


Level7
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinDesign,CreativityandTechnology,theyindividually andinteams,developinnovativesolutionsindesignandtechnologycontexts(forexample,creatingalowfatbiscuitand designingathreedimensional,environmentallyfriendlypackageforeightofthebiscuits)andevaluatetheirdecisions withreferencetodesignbriefspecifications.Theydevelopgreaterspatialawareness,areencouragedtothinkflexibly, andrepresenttheirideasusingtwoandthreedimensionalhandandcomputerassisteddrawingandmodelling techniquesincludingtheuseofappropriatetechnicallanguage.Theyfurtherexplorethepropertiesandcharacteristicsof materials/ingredients,andcarryoutteststodeterminetheirsuitabilityforintendedproductsand/orsystems. Indevelopingtheirunderstandingofsystems,studentslearnaboutopenandclosedloopsystems,andtheircontroland thecomponentsusedtomakebasicautomatedsystemandenergysources(renewableandnonrenewable)andforms thatpowersystems.Theyexplorehowtechnologicalsystemscanconvertenergyandmagnifyforce. Studentslearnhowdesignelementsandprinciplescanenhancetheirdesignwork.Studentsrefertodesignbriefsto considerandinvestigateaspectsoffunctionandaesthetics.Theyalsoconsiderhowsocial,cultural,economicand environmentalfactorsinfluencethedevelopmentoftheirdesignideas.Theytrialandmakeproductsandsystemsbased ontheirdesignconcepts,justifyingchangesintheirthinkingastheydesign,developandevaluateproductsandsystems, andrecognisetherightofotherstoperceivethingsdifferently. Studentsfurtherdevelopanunderstandingofthecreativeproblemsolvingprocess.Individuallyandcollaboratively,they applyimaginativeandinnovativestrategiestodevelopcreativedesignoptions,includingthosethatarenotimmediately obvious,andplansforproduction. Studentscontinuetodevelopavarietyofdrawingandmodellingtechniquesandcomputerassistedmethodstovisualise designideasandconcepts,andgeneratealternativeoptions.Afterselectingandjustifyingthebestdesignoption,they developalogicallysequencedoutlineofthemajorstagesofproductionandalistofmaterials/ingredientsand/or systemscomponentsandquantitiesrequired.Studentsusenumeracyskillstocalculatequantities,sizesand/or expectedoutputs.Theyproducetheproduct/system,usingtools,equipment,machinesandmaterials/ingredientssafely andwearpersonalprotectiveclothingandequipmentifappropriate.Studentsdevelopabasicunderstandingoftherisk assessmentprocess.Withdirection,theychooseanduseincreasinglycomplexproductiontechniquesandequipment forexample,asolderingiron,wirecutters,afoodprocessorandelectricbeater,ahandplane,pedestaldrill,overlocker, andreportfaultswithtoolsandequipment.Theyreflectonandrecordtheprogressoftheirproductionactivities,and makechangesifrequired. Concentratingontheaesthetic,functionalfeaturesand/orperformanceoftheproduct/system,studentsconsiderhowit, andtheprocessesusedtodevelopit,couldbeimproved,andcompareittoothersimilarproducts/systems.They discussanddevelopevaluationcriteriatoanalyseandevaluatetheircompletedproduct/systemandconsiderthesocial andenvironmentalimpactsoftheirownandothersproducts.Theyanalyseandevaluateaninnovative,recently developedandcommerciallyavailableproductorsystemandconsideritsbenefitsanddrawbackstouser/consumerand manufacturer/producer.

Standards
AtLevel7,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel8standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

16

Design, Creativity and Technology


Level8
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinDesign,CreativityandTechnology,theyindividually andinteams,developinnovativesolutionsindesignandtechnologycontexts(forexample,creatingalowfatbiscuitand designingathreedimensional,environmentallyfriendlypackageforeightofthebiscuits)andevaluatetheirdecisions withreferencetodesignbriefspecifications.Theydevelopgreaterspatialawareness,areencouragedtothinkflexibly, andrepresenttheirideasusingtwoandthreedimensionalhandandcomputerassisteddrawingandmodelling techniquesincludingtheuseofappropriatetechnicallanguage.Theyfurtherexplorethepropertiesandcharacteristicsof materials/ingredients,andcarryoutteststodeterminetheirsuitabilityforintendedproductsand/orsystems. Indevelopingtheirunderstandingofsystems,studentslearnaboutopenandclosedloopsystems,andtheircontroland thecomponentsusedtomakebasicautomatedsystemandenergysources(renewableandnonrenewable)andforms thatpowersystems.Theyexplorehowtechnologicalsystemscanconvertenergyandmagnifyforce. Studentslearnhowdesignelementsandprinciplescanenhancetheirdesignwork.Studentsrefertodesignbriefsto considerandinvestigateaspectsoffunctionandaesthetics.Theyalsoconsiderhowsocial,cultural,economicand environmentalfactorsinfluencethedevelopmentoftheirdesignideas.Theytrialandmakeproductsandsystemsbased ontheirdesignconcepts,justifyingchangesintheirthinkingastheydesign,developandevaluateproductsandsystems, andrecognisetherightofotherstoperceivethingsdifferently. Studentsfurtherdevelopanunderstandingofthecreativeproblemsolvingprocess.Individuallyandcollaboratively,they applyimaginativeandinnovativestrategiestodevelopcreativedesignoptions,includingthosethatarenotimmediately obvious,andplansforproduction. Studentscontinuetodevelopavarietyofdrawingandmodellingtechniquesandcomputerassistedmethodstovisualise designideasandconcepts,andgeneratealternativeoptions.Afterselectingandjustifyingthebestdesignoption,they developalogicallysequencedoutlineofthemajorstagesofproductionandalistofmaterials/ingredientsand/or systemscomponentsandquantitiesrequired.Studentsusenumeracyskillstocalculatequantities,sizesand/or expectedoutputs.Theyproducetheproduct/system,usingtools,equipment,machinesandmaterials/ingredientssafely andwearpersonalprotectiveclothingandequipmentifappropriate.Studentsdevelopabasicunderstandingoftherisk assessmentprocess.Withdirection,theychooseanduseincreasinglycomplexproductiontechniquesandequipment forexample,asolderingiron,wirecutters,afoodprocessorandelectricbeater,ahandplane,pedestaldrill,overlocker, andreportfaultswithtoolsandequipment.Theyreflectonandrecordtheprogressoftheirproductionactivities,and makechangesifrequired. Concentratingontheaesthetic,functionalfeaturesand/orperformanceoftheproduct/system,studentsconsiderhowit, andtheprocessesusedtodevelopit,couldbeimproved,andcompareittoothersimilarproducts/systems.They discussanddevelopevaluationcriteriatoanalyseandevaluatetheircompletedproduct/systemandconsiderthesocial andenvironmentalimpactsoftheirownandothersproducts.Theyanalyseandevaluateaninnovative,recently developedandcommerciallyavailableproductorsystemandconsideritsbenefitsanddrawbackstouser/consumerand manufacturer/producer.

Standards
Investigatinganddesigning

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

17

Design, Creativity and Technology


AtLevel8,studentsusevariousstrategiesandsourcesofinformationtoinvestigateandresearcharangeoffactors relevanttomoresophisticateddesignbriefstowhichtheyhavecontributed.Duringthedesignprocesstheyclarifytheir understandingofdesignbriefrequirementsandtheirdesignideasbygathering,respondingtoandprovidingfeedbackto others.Theydevelopevaluationcriteriafromthedesignbrieftoinformtheirjudgmentsduringthedesignprocess.They useavarietyofdrawingandmodellingtechniquestovisualisedesignideasandconcepts.Studentsdemonstrate understandingofdesignelementsandprinciplesanduseappropriatetechnicallanguage. Studentsunderstandandlogicallysequencemajorstagesofproduction,andcalculateandlistmaterials/ingredientsand quantitiesneededforproduction.Theyrecordandcommunicatetheirideasusingavarietyofmediathatincludes informationandcommunicationstechnologyequipment,techniquesandprocedures. Producing

AtLevel8,studentsworksafely/hygienicallywitharangeoftoolsandequipment,includingsomewhicharecomplex,and managematerials/ingredients,componentsandprocessestoproduceproductsandsystems,takingfullaccountofthe appropriatenessoftheirproperties,characteristicsorexpectedoutputsinmeetingrequirementsofdesignbriefs. Theymakemodificationsduringproduction,providingasoundexplanationforchangesthatdemonstratesreflection, research,responsivenesstofeedback,anduseofevaluationcriteria. Analysingandevaluating

AtLevel8,studentsselectappropriateequipmentandtechniquestosafelytestandevaluatetheperformanceoftheir products/systems.Theysuggestmodificationstoimprovetheirproducts/systemsinlightofevaluationoftheir performance,functionandappearance.Theyrecommendimprovementstotheperformance,functionandappearanceof othersproduct/systems.Theydescribeandanalysethesocialandenvironmentalimpactsoftheirownandothers designs,productsandtechnologicalsystems.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

18

Design, Creativity and Technology


Level9
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinDesign,CreativityandTechnology,theyspecialisein aspecificareaofdesignandtechnology.Specialisationscouldfocusonspecificmaterialsareas(suchaswood,metal, plastics,food,ceramicsortextiles)ortechnologicalsystems(suchascomputercontrolledsystems,electronicsor mechanismsorcombinationsofthese),orparticulardesign/technologyareas(suchashomeeconomics,fashion, robotics,furniture,agricultureandhorticulture). Theycontinuetoposeanddefinedesignproblemsbyworkingwithavarietyofdesignbriefswithinvariouscontexts includingthosethathavetransferabilityintotheworkplaceandbroadercommunity. Studentsdevelopdesignbriefswithinopenendeddesignguidelines.Referringtothedesignbrief,theyconsiderand investigateaspectsoffunctionandaesthetics.Studentsbecomediscerninganddiscriminatingthinkers,abletoaddress controversial,complexandethicaldesignandtechnologyissuesanddilemmas,suchastradeoffsintheselectionand useofmaterials.Theyfurtherdevelopthecapacitytomodel,assembleanddisassembleproductsandsystems,and communicatetheirideasverbally,andwithtwodimensionaldrawingandthreedimensionalmodelling,including computeraideddesign(CAD). Students,individuallyandinteams,investigatesystematicandcreativeandcriticalthinkingapproachesforgenerating innovativetechnologicalproducts(forexample,educationalgames,toysorequipmentforalocalkindergarten,orasolar modelcar),includingtimeandresourcemanagement.Theyexploreandassessthepast,andpotentialfuture, consequencesoftechnologyonsociety,cultureandtheenvironment. Usingannotations(includingtheuseofappropriatetechnicallanguage)andthroughdiscussion,studentsexplainand justifydesignfeatures,characteristicsandpropertiesofselectedmaterials/ingredients,systemscomponentsandtheir interrelationships,performance,energyrequirementsandproductiontechniquesinrelationtothedesignbrief.Students atthislevelareopentotheiterativenatureofthedesignprocessandtheimportanceofcontinuousreflectionwhen addressingdesignandtechnologysituationsandproblems.Theydevelopanincreasingrangeofinvestigation(including testing),questioningandcheckingtechniqueswheninvestigating,designing,planningandevaluatingproductsand systems. Studentssafelyandefficientlyconstructproducts,modelsorprototypestospecificationsandstandards.Theymake decisionsaboutsafetyprecautionsandwearpersonalprotectiveclothingandequipmentwhennecessary.Students furtherdevelopskillsinusingarangeoftechniques,equipment,tools,someofwhicharecomplexforexample,the lathe,computeraidedmillingmachine,andvacuumformer.Theyalsodevelopskillsinusingsuitable materials/ingredientsand/orsystemscomponents(orcombinesimplesubsystemstoproducemorecomplexsystems) tospecifiedlevelsofaccuracyandprecision,andwithconsiderationtoriskassessmentprocesses.Theyare encouragedtomakeadjustmentstotoolsandequipmentandcarryoutbasicmaintenance.Theylearntousetimeand resourceseconomicallyandtrytominimisewaste. Studentsareencouragedtodocumenttheirdesign,productionandevaluationactivitiesinanelectronicormanually producedportfolio.Theyparticipateinandleaddiscussionsonevaluatingtheirownandotherpeople'sthinkingin relationtocreativeandinnovativeproducts.Throughcreativeprocesses,reflectionandevaluation,theyexamineand acknowledgearangeofperspectives,andconsiderthevalueofdiverseopinionsaboutdesignandtechnology.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

19

Design, Creativity and Technology


Studentsdevelopappropriateevaluationcriteriaandusethemtoassessdesignideas,choiceofmaterials/ingredients and/orsystemscomponents,productiontechniquesand/orperformanceofasystem.Theylearntoanalyseandevaluate anewmaterialorprocessanddiscussinnovationandemergingtechnologiesinprimaryindustryorthemanufacturing industry.

Standards
AtLevel9,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel10standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

20

Design, Creativity and Technology


Level10
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinDesign,CreativityandTechnology,theyspecialisein aspecificareaofdesignandtechnology.Specialisationscouldfocusonspecificmaterialsareas(suchaswood,metal, plastics,food,ceramicsortextiles)ortechnologicalsystems(suchascomputercontrolledsystems,electronicsor mechanismsorcombinationsofthese),orparticulardesign/technologyareas(suchashomeeconomics,fashion, robotics,furniture,agricultureandhorticulture). Theycontinuetoposeanddefinedesignproblemsbyworkingwithavarietyofdesignbriefswithinvariouscontexts includingthosethathavetransferabilityintotheworkplaceandbroadercommunity. Studentsdevelopdesignbriefswithinopenendeddesignguidelines.Referringtothedesignbrief,theyconsiderand investigateaspectsoffunctionandaesthetics.Studentsbecomediscerninganddiscriminatingthinkers,abletoaddress controversial,complexandethicaldesignandtechnologyissuesanddilemmas,suchastradeoffsintheselectionand useofmaterials.Theyfurtherdevelopthecapacitytomodel,assembleanddisassembleproductsandsystems,and communicatetheirideasverbally,andwithtwodimensionaldrawingandthreedimensionalmodelling,including computeraideddesign(CAD). Students,individuallyandinteams,investigatesystematicandcreativeandcriticalthinkingapproachesforgenerating innovativetechnologicalproducts(forexample,educationalgames,toysorequipmentforalocalkindergarten,orasolar modelcar),includingtimeandresourcemanagement.Theyexploreandassessthepast,andpotentialfuture, consequencesoftechnologyonsociety,cultureandtheenvironment. Usingannotations(includingtheuseofappropriatetechnicallanguage)andthroughdiscussion,studentsexplainand justifydesignfeatures,characteristicsandpropertiesofselectedmaterials/ingredients,systemscomponentsandtheir interrelationships,performance,energyrequirementsandproductiontechniquesinrelationtothedesignbrief.Students atthislevelareopentotheiterativenatureofthedesignprocessandtheimportanceofcontinuousreflectionwhen addressingdesignandtechnologysituationsandproblems.Theydevelopanincreasingrangeofinvestigation(including testing),questioningandcheckingtechniqueswheninvestigating,designing,planningandevaluatingproductsand systems. Studentssafelyandefficientlyconstructproducts,modelsorprototypestospecificationsandstandards.Theymake decisionsaboutsafetyprecautionsandwearpersonalprotectiveclothingandequipmentwhennecessary.Students furtherdevelopskillsinusingarangeoftechniques,equipment,tools,someofwhicharecomplexforexample,the lathe,computeraidedmillingmachine,andvacuumformer.Theyalsodevelopskillsinusingsuitable materials/ingredientsand/orsystemscomponents(orcombinesimplesubsystemstoproducemorecomplexsystems) tospecifiedlevelsofaccuracyandprecision,andwithconsiderationtoriskassessmentprocesses.Theyare encouragedtomakeadjustmentstotoolsandequipmentandcarryoutbasicmaintenance.Theylearntousetimeand resourceseconomicallyandtrytominimisewaste. Studentsareencouragedtodocumenttheirdesign,productionandevaluationactivitiesinanelectronicormanually producedportfolio.Theyparticipateinandleaddiscussionsonevaluatingtheirownandotherpeople'sthinkingin relationtocreativeandinnovativeproducts.Throughcreativeprocesses,reflectionandevaluation,theyexamineand acknowledgearangeofperspectives,andconsiderthevalueofdiverseopinionsaboutdesignandtechnology.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

21

Design, Creativity and Technology


Studentsdevelopappropriateevaluationcriteriaandusethemtoassessdesignideas,choiceofmaterials/ingredients and/orsystemscomponents,productiontechniquesand/orperformanceofasystem.Theylearntoanalyseandevaluate anewmaterialorprocessanddiscussinnovationandemergingtechnologiesinprimaryindustryorthemanufacturing industry.

Standards
Investigatinganddesigning

AtLevel10,studentsidentifyconsiderationsandconstraintswithinadesignbrief.Theyundertakeresearchrelevanttothe designbrief.Theylocateanduserelevantinformationtohelptheirdesignthinkingandidentifytheneedsofavarietyof client/usergroups.Whendesigning,theygeneratearangeofalternativepossibilities,useappropriatetechnical language,andjustifytheirpreferredoption,explaininghowitprovidesasolutiontotheproblem,needoropportunity.They makecriticaldecisionsonmaterials/ingredients,systemscomponentsandtechniquesbasedontheirunderstandingof thepropertiesandcharacteristicsofmaterials/ingredientsand/oroftherelationshipbetweeninputs,processesand outputs.Theyeffectivelyuseinformationandcommunicationstechnologyequipment,techniquesandproceduresto supportthedevelopmentoftheirdesignandplanning.Studentstakeaccountoffunctionandperformance,energy requirements,aesthetics,costs,andethicalandlegalconsiderationsthataddresstherequirementsofdesignbriefs. Theyidentifyarangeofcriteriaforevaluatingtheirproductsand/ortechnologicalsystems.Studentsplanarealisticand logicalsequenceoftheproductionstages,incorporatingtime,costandresourcesneededforproduction. Producing

AtLevel10,studentsimplementarangeofproductionprocessesaccurately,consistently,safely/hygienicallyand responsibly,andselectandusepersonalprotectiveclothingandequipmentwhennecessary.Theyproduce products/systemsusingcomplextools,equipment,machines,materials/ingredientsand/orsystemscomponentswith precision.Theyclearlyexplaindecisionsaboutthesuitabilityofmaterials/ingredients,systemscomponents,energy requirementsandproductiontechniquesbasedontheirunderstandingofthepropertiesandcharacteristicsof materials/ingredients,andtheinputs,processesandoutputsofsystems. Inresponsetochangingcircumstances,theyadapttheirmethodsofproductionandprovideasoundexplanationfor deviationfromthedesignproposal.Theymakeproducts/systemsthatmeetthequality,aesthetic,functionalityand performancerequirementsoutlinedinthedesignbrief. Analysingandevaluating

AtLevel10,studentsuseevaluationcriteriatheyhavepreviouslydeveloped,andcriticallyanalyseprocesses, materials/ingredients,systemscomponentsandequipmentused,andmakeappropriatesuggestionsforchangesto thesethatwouldleadtoanimprovedoutcome.Theyusearangeofsuitablesafetestingmethodsinthisanalysis.They relatetheirfindingstothepurposeforwhichtheproductand/orsystemwasdesignedandtheappropriateandethical useofresources. Theysynthesisedata,analysetrendsanddrawconclusionsaboutthesocial,cultural,legalandenvironmentalimpactsof theirownandothersdesignsandtheproducts/systems,andevaluateinnovativenewtechnologyinthemanufacturing industry.

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English
TableofContents Overview RationaleandAims Contentstructure EnglishacrossFoundationtoLevel10 Achievementstandards Diversityoflearners Crosscurriculumpriorities CurriculumF10 FoundationLevel Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level5 Level6 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10

2 2 2 7 8 9 10 12 12 19 27 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 85

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Rationale
ThestudyofEnglishiscentraltothelearninganddevelopmentofallyoungAustralians.Ithelpscreateconfident communicators,imaginativethinkersandinformedcitizens.ItisthroughthestudyofEnglishthatindividualslearntoanalyse, understand,communicatewithandbuildrelationshipswithothersandwiththeworldaroundthem.ThestudyofEnglish helpsyoungpeopledeveloptheknowledgeandskillsneededforeducation,trainingandtheworkplace.Ithelpsthem becomeethical,thoughtful,informedandactivemembersofsociety.InthislightitisclearthattheAustralianCurriculum: Englishplaysanimportantpartindevelopingtheunderstanding,attitudesandcapabilitiesofthosewhowilltake responsibilityforAustraliasfuture. AlthoughAustraliaisalinguisticallyandculturallydiversecountry,participationinmanyaspectsofAustralianlifedependson effectivecommunicationinStandardAustralianEnglish.Inaddition,proficiencyinEnglishisinvaluableglobally.The AustralianCurriculum:Englishcontributesbothtonationbuildingandtointernationalisation. TheAustralianCurriculum:Englishalsohelpsstudentstoengageimaginativelyandcriticallywithliteraturetoexpandthe scopeoftheirexperience.AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeopleshavecontributedtoAustraliansocietyandtoits contemporaryliteratureanditsliteraryheritagethroughtheirdistinctivewaysofrepresentingandcommunicatingknowledge, traditionsandexperience.TheAustralianCurriculum:Englishvalues,respectsandexploresthiscontribution.Italso emphasisesAustraliaslinkstoAsia.

Aims
TheAustralianCurriculum:Englishaimstoensurethatstudents:
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learntolistento,read,view,speak,write,createandreflectonincreasinglycomplexandsophisticatedspoken,written andmultimodaltextsacrossagrowingrangeofcontextswithaccuracy,fluencyandpurpose appreciate,enjoyandusetheEnglishlanguageinallitsvariationsanddevelopasenseofitsrichnessandpowerto evokefeelings,conveyinformation,formideas,facilitateinteractionwithothers,entertain,persuadeandargue understandhowStandardAustralianEnglishworksinitsspokenandwrittenformsandincombinationwithnon linguisticformsofcommunicationtocreatemeaning developinterestandskillsininquiringintotheaestheticaspectsoftexts,anddevelopaninformedappreciationof literature.

ContentStructure
TheAustralianCurriculum:EnglishFoundationtoLevel10isorganisedintothreeinterrelatedstrandsthatsupportstudents' growingunderstandinganduseofStandardAustralianEnglish(English).Togetherthethreestrandsfocusondeveloping studentsknowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speakingandwriting.Thethreestrandsare:
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Language:knowingabouttheEnglishlanguage Literature:understanding,appreciating,respondingto,analysingandcreatingliterature Literacy:expandingtherepertoireofEnglishusage.

Strandsandsubstrands
Contentdescriptionsineachstrandaregroupedintosubstrandsthat,acrossthelevels,presentasequenceof developmentofknowledge,understandingandskills.Thesubstrandsare:

Language

Literature

Literacy

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Languagevariationandchange Languageforinteraction Textstructureandorganisation Expressinganddevelopingideas Soundandletterknowledge Literatureandcontext Respondingtoliterature Examiningliterature Creatingliterature Textsincontext Interactingwithothers Interpreting,analysingandevaluating Creatingtexts

Texts
Textsprovidethemeansforcommunication.Theycanbewritten,spokenormultimodal,andinprintordigital/onlineforms. Multimodaltextscombinelanguagewithothermeansofcommunicationsuchasvisualimages,soundtrackorspokenword, asinfilmorcomputerpresentationmedia.Textsprovideimportantopportunitiesforlearningaboutaspectsofhuman experienceandaboutaestheticvalue.Manyofthetasksthatstudentsundertakeinandoutofschoolinvolveunderstanding andproducingimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetexts,mediatexts,everydaytextsandworkplacetexts. Thetermliteraturereferstopastandpresenttextsacrossarangeofculturalcontextsthatarevaluedfortheirformandstyle andarerecognisedashavingenduringorartisticvalue.Whilethenatureofwhatconstitutesliterarytextsisdynamicand evolving,theyareseenashavingpersonal,social,culturalandaestheticvalueandpotentialforenrichingstudentsscopeof experience.Literatureincludesabroadrangeofformssuchasnovels,poetry,shortstoriesandplaysfictionforyoungadults andchildren,multimodaltextssuchasfilm,andavarietyofnonfiction.Literarytextsalsoincludeexcerptsfromlongertexts. Thisenablesarangeofliterarytextstobeincludedwithinanyonelevelforclosestudyorcomparativepurposes. Englisheducatorsusemanywaysofcategorisingtexts.ThedescriptionsoftextsusedintheAustralianCurriculum:English arebasedonpracticalaswellasconceptualconsiderations.Thespecificdesignationofastrandlabelledliteratureis aimedatencouragingteachersworkingatalllevelsnotonlytousetextsconventionallyunderstoodasliterary,butalsoto engagestudentsinexamining,evaluatinganddiscussingtextsinincreasinglysophisticatedandinformedliteraryways. Theusefulnessofdistinctionsamongtypesoftextsrelateslargelytohowclearlyateachlevelthesedistinctionscanguide theselectionofmaterialsforstudentstolistento,read,view,writeandcreate,andthekindsofpurposefulactivitiesthatcan beorganisedaroundthesematerials.

Thelanguagemodes
Theprocessesoflistening,speaking,reading,viewingandwriting,alsoknownaslanguagemodes,areinterrelatedandthe learningofoneoftensupportsandextendslearningoftheothers.Toacknowledgetheseinterrelationships,content descriptionsineachstrandoftheAustralianCurriculum:Englishincorporatetheprocessesoflistening,speaking,reading, viewingandwritinginanintegratedandinterdependentway. Classroomcontextsthataddressparticularcontentdescriptionswillnecessarilydrawfrommorethanoneofthese processesinordertosupportstudentseffectivelearning.Forexample,studentswilllearnnewvocabularythroughlistening andreadingandapplytheirknowledgeandunderstandingintheirspeakingandwritingaswellasintheircomprehensionof bothspokenandwrittentexts.

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Contentdescriptionscanalsobeviewedbytheseprocessesorlanguagemodes.Inthisaspect,eachcontentdescription hasbeenplacedinthemodeinwhichamajorfocusofitslearningoccurs.Contentdescriptionscanbefilteredtoidentifyall relevantprocessesorlanguagemodes.

Leveldescriptions
Leveldescriptionshavethreefunctions.First,theyemphasisetheinterrelatednatureofthethreestrandsandtheexpectation thatplanninganEnglishprogramwillinvolveintegrationofcontentfromthestrands.Second,theyprovideinformationabout thelearningcontextsthatareappropriateateachlevelforlearningacrosstheLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracystrands. Third,theyprovideanoverviewoftherangeoftextstobestudiedandanindicationoftheircomplexityandkeyfeatures.They alsodescribedifferencesinthetextsthatstudentscreate.Intheearlylevels,developmentinreadingandwritingisrapidand cleardistinctionsintextcomplexitycanbemadesodescriptionsarewrittenforeachlevelatFoundation,1and2.InLevels 310,thetwoleveldescriptionprovidesforgreaterflexibility.

Contentdescriptions
TheAustralianCurriculum:Englishincludescontentdescriptionsateachlevel.Thesedescribetheknowledge, understanding,skillsandprocessesthatteachersareexpectedtoteachandstudentsareexpectedtolearn,butdonot prescribeapproachestoteaching.LearninginEnglishisrecursiveandcumulative,andbuildsonconcepts,skillsand processesdevelopedinearlierlevels.Nevertheless,thecontentdescriptionshavebeenwrittentoensurethatlearningis appropriatelyorderedandthatunnecessaryrepetitionisavoided.However,aconceptorskillintroducedatonelevelmaybe revisited,strengthenedandextendedatlaterlevelsasneeded.

Contentelaborations
ContentelaborationsareprovidedforFoundationtoLevel10toillustrateandexemplifycontentandassistteachersin developingacommonunderstandingofthecontentdescriptions.Theyarenotintendedtobecomprehensivecontentpoints thatallstudentsneedtobetaught.

Glossary
Aglossaryisprovidedtosupportacommonunderstandingofkeytermsinthecontentdescriptions.

Language:knowingabouttheEnglishlanguage
IntheLanguagestrand,studentsdeveloptheirknowledgeoftheEnglishlanguageandhowitworks.Theylearnthat changesinEnglisharerelatedtohistoricaldevelopmentsandthegeographicaldifferencesofitsusersoverthecenturies, andthattherearemanydifferencesindialectandaccent.Theylearnhowlanguageenablespeopletointeracteffectively,to buildandmaintainrelationshipsandtoexpressandexchangeknowledge,skills,attitudes,feelingsandopinions.They discoverthepatternsandpurposesofEnglishusage,includingspelling,grammarandpunctuationatthelevelsoftheword, sentenceandextendedtext,andtheystudytheconnectionsbetweentheselevels.Bydevelopingabodyofknowledgeabout thesepatternsandtheirconnections,studentslearntocommunicateeffectivelythroughcoherent,wellstructuredsentences andtexts.Theygainaconsistentwayofunderstandingandtalkingaboutlanguage,languageinuseandlanguagea s system,sotheycanreflectontheirownspeakingandwritinganddiscusstheseproductivelywithothers.

Language
Languagevariationandchange:Studentslearnthatlanguagesanddialectsareconstantlyevolvingduetohistorical,social andculturalchanges,demographicmovementsandtechnologicalinnovations.Theycometounderstandthatthesefactors, alongwithnewvirtualcommunitiesandenvironments,continuetoaffectthenatureandspreadofEnglish.

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English
Languageforinteraction:Studentslearnthatthelanguageusedbyindividualsvariesaccordingtotheirsocialsettingand therelationshipsbetweentheparticipants.Theylearnthataccentsandstylesofspeechandidiomarepartofthecreation andexpressionofpersonalandsocialidentities. Textstructureandorganisation:Studentslearnhowtextsarestructuredtoachieveparticularpurposeshowlanguageis usedtocreatetextsthatarecohesiveandcoherenthowtextsaboutmorespecialisedtopicscontainmorecomplex languagepatternsandfeaturesandhowtheauthorguidesthereader/viewerthroughthetextthrougheffectiveuseof resourcesatthelevelofthewholetext,theparagraphandthesentence. Expressinganddevelopingideas:Studentslearnhow,inatext,effectiveauthorscontrolanduseanincreasingly differentiatedrangeofclausestructures,wordsandwordgroups,aswellascombinationsofsound,image,movement, verbalelementsandlayout.Theylearnthattheconventions,patternsandgeneralisationsthatrelatetoEnglishspelling involvetheoriginsofwords,wordendings,GreekandLatinroots,basewordsandaffixes. Soundandletterknowledge:StudentsdevelopknowledgeaboutthesoundsofEnglishandlearntoidentifythesoundsin spokenwords.Theylearnthelettersofthealphabetandhowtorepresentspokenwordsbyusingcombinationsofthese letters.

Language
TheLanguagestrandisbasedonconceptsdrawnlargelyfromhistoricalandlinguisticaccountsoftheEnglishlanguage. Theseapproachesdrawattentiontothewaysinwhichlanguageschange,andtothedistinctionbetweenlanguageinuse andlanguagea ssystem.Theseapproachesalsoacknowledgethatstudentsabilitytousegrammarwillexceedtheirability toexplicitlyreflectongrammar.Youngchildren,forexample,willusecomplexsentencesbeforetheycanexplainhowthese arestructured.Theseapproaches,indescribinglanguage,alsopayattentiontoboththestructure(syntax)andmeaning (semantics)attheleveloftheword,thesentenceandthetext.TheAustralianCurriculum:Englishusesstandard grammaticalterminologywithinacontextualframework,inwhichlanguagechoicesareseentovaryaccordingtothetopicsat hand,thenatureandproximityoftherelationshipsbetweenthelanguageusers,andthemodalitiesorchannelsof communicationavailable.ThisstrandinformstheplanningandconductofteachingandlearningactivitiesinEnglishand providesresourcesthatconnecttokeyconceptsandskillsintheotherstrands.

Literature:understanding,appreciating,respondingto,analysingand creatingliterature
TheLiteraturestrandaimstoengagestudentsinthestudyofliterarytextsofpersonal,cultural,socialandaestheticvalue. Thesetextsincludesomethatarerecognisedashavingenduringsocialandartisticvalueandsomethatattract contemporaryattention.Textsarechosenbecausetheyarejudgedtohavepotentialforenrichingthelivesofstudents, expandingthescopeoftheirexperience,andbecausetheyrepresenteffectiveandinterestingfeaturesofformandstyle. Learningtoappreciateliterarytextsandtocreatetheirownliterarytextsenrichesstudentsunderstandingofhuman experiencesandthecapacityforlanguagetodeepenthoseexperiences.Itbuildsstudentsknowledgeabouthowlanguage canbeusedforaestheticends,tocreateparticularemotional,intellectualorphilosophicaleffects.Studentsinterpret, appreciate,evaluateandcreateliterarytextssuchasshortstories,novels,poetry,prose,plays,filmandmultimodaltexts,in spoken,printanddigital/onlineforms.Textsrecognisedashavingenduringartisticandculturalvaluearedrawnfromworld andAustralianliterature.TheseincludetheoralnarrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,texts fromAsia,textsfromAustraliasimmigrantculturesandtextsofthestudentschoice.

Literature

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Literatureandcontext:Studentslearnhowideasandviewpointsaboutevents,issuesandcharactersthatareexpressedby authorsintextsaredrawnfromandshapedbydifferenthistorical,socialandculturalcontexts. Respondingtoliterature:Studentslearntoidentifypersonalideas,experiencesandopinionsaboutliterarytextsand discussthemwithothers.Theylearnhowtorecogniseareasofagreementanddifference,andhowtodevelopandrefine theirinterpretationsthroughdiscussionandargument. Examiningliterature:Studentslearnhowtoexplainandanalysethewaysinwhichstories,characters,settingsand experiencesarereflectedinparticularliterarygenres,andhowtodiscusstheappealofthesegenres.Theylearnhowto compareandappraisethewaysauthorsuselanguageandliterarytechniquesanddevicestoinfluencereaders.Theyalso learntounderstand,interpret,discussandevaluatehowcertainstylisticchoicescancreatemultiplelayersofinterpretation andeffect. Creatingliterature:Studentslearnhowtousepersonalknowledgeandliterarytextsasstartingpointstocreateimaginative writingindifferentformsandgenresandforparticularaudiences.Usingprint,digitalandonlinemedia,studentsdevelop skillsthatallowthemtoconveymeaning,addresssignificantissuesandheightenengagementandimpact.

Literature
Therearemanyapproachestothestudyofliterature.IntheAustralianCurriculum:Englishthesourcesdrawnonmost substantiallyinclude:
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culturalstudies,withemphasisonthedifferentwaysinwhichliteratureissignificantineverydaylife structuralism,withitsemphasisoncloseanalysisofliteraryworksandthekeyideasonwhichtheyarebasedfor example,thedetailedstylisticstudyofdifferingstylesofliterarywork comparativism,withitsemphasisoncomparisonsofworksofliteraturefromdifferentlanguage,ethnicandcultural backgrounds historicism,withitsemphasisonexploringtherelationshipsbetweenhistorical,culturalandliterarytraditions.

TheLiteraturestrandalsogivesstudentstheopportunitytostudytheprocessesbywhichcertainliteraryworksbecome prizedandperennial,thevaluingprocessitself,andwhyitisthatmostcultureshaveworkstheycherish.Theapproachto learninginthisstrandisnottopresentstudentswithanEnglishliterarycanonthatisastaticentity,butrathertoinvitetheir curiosityabout,anddevelopanincreasinglyspecialisedinquiryinto,thehistorical,culturalandaestheticprocessesbywhich workscometoberegardedasvaluedandcherished.

Literacy:expandingtherepertoireofEnglishusage
TheLiteracystrandaimstodevelopstudentsabilitytointerpretandcreatetextswithappropriateness,accuracy,confidence, fluencyandefficacyforlearninginandoutofschool,andforparticipatinginAustralianlifemoregenerally.Textschosen includemediatexts,everydaytextsandworkplacetextsfromincreasinglycomplexandunfamiliarsettings,rangingfromthe everydaylanguageofpersonalexperiencetomoreabstract,specialisedandtechnicallanguage,includingthelanguageof schoolingandacademicstudy.Studentslearntoadaptlanguagetomeetthedemandsofmoregeneralormorespecialised purposes,audiencesandcontexts.Theylearnaboutthedifferentwaysinwhichknowledgeandopinionarerepresentedand developedintexts,andabouthowmoreorlessabstractionandcomplexitycanbeshownthroughlanguageandthrough multimodalrepresentations.Thismeansthatprintanddigitalcontextsareincluded,andthatlistening,viewing,reading, speaking,writingandcreatingarealldevelopedsystematicallyandconcurrently.

Literacy

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English
Textsincontext:Studentslearnthattextsfromdifferentculturesorhistoricalperiodsmayrevealdifferentpatternsinhow theygoaboutnarrating,informingandpersuading. Interactingwithothers:Studentslearnhowindividualsandgroupsuselanguagepatternstoexpressideasandkey conceptstodevelopanddefendarguments.Theylearnhowtopromoteapointofviewbydesigning,rehearsingand deliveringspokenandwrittenpresentationsandbyappropriatelyselectingandsequencinglinguisticandmultimodal elements. Interpreting,analysing,evaluating:Studentslearntocomprehendwhattheyreadandviewbyapplyinggrowingcontextual, semantic,grammaticalandphonicknowledge.Theydevelopmoresophisticatedprocessesforinterpreting,analysing, evaluatingandcritiquingideas,informationandissuesfromavarietyofsources.Theyexplorethewaysconventionsand structuresareusedinwritten,digital,multimediaandcinematictextstoentertain,informandpersuadeaudiences,andthey usetheirgrowingknowledgeoftextualfeaturestoexplainhowtextsmakeanimpactondifferentaudiences. Creatingtexts:Studentsapplyknowledgetheyhavedevelopedinotherstrandsandsubstrandstocreatewithclarity, authorityandnoveltyarangeofspoken,writtenandmultimodaltextsthatentertain,informandpersuadeaudiences.Theydo sobystrategicallyselectingkeyaspectsofatopicaswellaslanguage,visualandaudiofeatures.Theylearnhowtoeditfor enhancedmeaningandeffectbyrefiningideas,reorderingsentences,addingorsubstitutingwordsforclarity,andremoving repetition.Theydevelopandconsolidateahandwritingstylethatislegible,fluentandautomatic,andthatsupportssustained writing.Theylearntousearangeofsoftwareprogramsincludingwordprocessingsoftware,selectingpurposefullyfroma rangeoffunctionstocommunicateandcreateclear,effective,informativeandinnovativetexts.

Literacy
TheLiteracystrandtakesaccountofapproachestoliteracylearningthatarebasedonthedevelopmentofskills,socialand psychologicalgrowth,andcriticalandculturalanalysis.Theseapproachesholdthatthetechnical,intellectualandcultural resourcesrelatedtocompetenceinliteracyhavedevelopedtoservethebigandsmallpractical,everydaycommunication purposesassociatedwithlivingandparticipatinginsocietiessuchascontemporaryAustralia.Thesetechnical,intellectual andculturalresourcesinclude:
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fluencyinthesoundlettercorrespondencesofEnglish anexpandingreading,writingandspeakingvocabularyandagraspofgrammaticalandtextualpatternssufficientto understandandlearnfromtextsencounteredinandoutofschool,andtocreateeffectiveandinnovativetexts fluencyandinnovationinreading,viewingandcreatingtextsindifferentsettings theskillanddispositionneededtoanalyseandunderstandthephilosophical,moral,politicalandaestheticbaseson whichmanytextsarebuilt aninterestinexpandingtherangeofmaterialslistenedto,viewedandread,andinexperimentingwithinnovativeways ofexpressingincreasinglysubtleandcomplexideasthroughtexts.

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Relationshipsbetweenthestrands
EachstrandcontributestothestudyofEnglishitsowndistinctivegoals,bodyofknowledge,historyofideasandinterests, andeachrelatestomaterialworthstudyinginitsownright.Teaching,learningandassessmentprogramsshouldbalance andintegratethethreestrandsinordertosupportthedevelopmentofknowledge,understandingandskills.Thekeyfocal pointforaunitofworkoralearningactivitymayarisefromanyoneofthestrands,buttheintentionisthatunitsandactivities drawonallthreestrandsinwaysthatareintegratedandcleartolearners.

EnglishacrossFoundationtoLevel10

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English
Althoughthecurriculumisdescribedbylevel,thisdocumentprovidesadvicebylevelandage,onthenatureoflearnersand therelevantcurriculum:
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FoundationtoLevel2:typicallystudentsfrom5to8yearsofage Levels3to6:typicallystudentsfrom8to12yearsofage Levels7to10:typicallystudentsfrom12to16yearsofage.

FoundationtoLevel2
Studentsbringwiththemtoschoolawiderangeofexperienceswithlanguageandtexts.Theseexperiencesareincludedin thecurriculumasvalidwaysofcommunicatingandasrichresourcesforfurtherlearningaboutlanguage,literatureand literacy.FromFoundationtoLevel2,studentsengagewithpurposefullistening,reading,viewing,speakingandwriting activitiesfordifferentpurposesandcontexts. Thecurriculumintheselevelsaimstoextendtheabilitiesofstudentspriortoschoollearningandtoprovidethefoundation neededforcontinuedlearning.ThestudyofEnglishfromFoundationtoLevel2developsstudentsskillsanddispositionto expandtheirknowledgeoflanguageaswellasstrategiestoassistthatgrowth.Itaimstodothisthroughpleasurableand variedexperiencesofliteratureandthroughthebeginningsofarepertoireofactivitiesinvolvinglistening,viewing,reading, speakingandwriting.

Levels3to6
Studentspractise,consolidateandextendwhattheyhavelearned.Theydevelopanincreasinglysophisticatedunderstanding ofgrammarandlanguage,andareincreasinglyabletoarticulatethisknowledge.Gradually,morecomplexpunctuation, clauseandsentencestructures,andtextualpurposesandpatternsareintroduced.Thisdeeperunderstandingincludes moreexplicitmetalanguage,asstudentslearntoclassifywords,sentencestructuresandtexts.Toconsolidatebothlearning toreadandwriteandreadingandwritingtolearn,studentsexplorethelanguageofdifferenttypesoftexts,includingvisual texts,advertising,digital/onlineandmediatexts.

Levels7to10
Studentscontinuetopractise,consolidateandextendwhattheyhavelearnedfrompreviouslevels.Theyalsoextendtheir understandingofhowlanguageworks,andlearntotransferthisknowledgetodifferentcontexts.Toachievethis,students developanunderstandingoftherequirementsofdifferenttypesoftextstheyareintroducedtoincreasinglysophisticated analysesofvariouskindsofliterary,popularculture,andeverydaytexts,andtheyaregivenopportunitiestoengagewiththe technicalaspectsoftexts,includingthoseoftheirownchoosingandtoexplainwhytheymadethatchoice. Thenotionofvaluingcertaintextsasliteratureisintroduced.Studentslearnhowsuchtextscanbediscussedandanalysed inrelationtothemes,ideasandhistoricalandculturalcontexts. Studentsengagewithavarietyofgenresandmodes.Theyreenact,representanddescribetextsinordertodisplaytheir understandingofnarrative,theme,purpose,contextandargumentandtodefendtheirideasinwrittenandoralmodes. Studentsaregivenfurtheropportunitiestocreateincreasinglysophisticatedandmultimodaltextsingroupsandindividually. TheAusVELSEnglishScopeandSequencechartisavailablefromtheVCAAwebsite.

Achievementstandards

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AcrossFoundationtoLevel10,achievementstandardsindicatethequalityoflearningstudentsshouldtypicallydemonstrate byaparticularpointintheirschooling.Achievementstandardscompriseawrittendescriptionandstudentworksamples. Anachievementstandarddescribesthequalityoflearning(theextentofknowledge,thedepthofunderstandingandthe sophisticationofskills)thatwouldindicatethestudentiswellplacedtocommencethelearningrequiredatthenextlevelof achievement. ThesequenceofachievementstandardsacrossFoundationtoLevel10describesprogressinthelearningarea.This sequenceprovidesteacherswithaframeworkofgrowthanddevelopmentinthelearningarea. Studentworksamplesplayakeyroleincommunicatingexpectationsdescribedintheachievementstandards.Eachwork sampleincludestherelevantassessmenttask,thestudentsresponse,andannotationsidentifyingthequalityoflearning evidentinthestudentsresponseinrelationtorelevantpartsoftheachievementstandard.Together,thedescriptionofthe achievementstandardandtheaccompanyingsetofannotatedworksampleshelpteacherstomakejudgmentsabout whetherstudentshaveachievedthestandard.

DiversityofLearners
TheAustralianCurriculumhasbeendevelopedtoensurethatcurriculumcontentandachievementstandardsestablishhigh expectationsforallstudents.Everystudentisentitledtoenrichinglearningexperiencesacrossallareasofthecurriculum. StudentsinAustralianclassroomshavemultiple,diverseandchangingneedsthatareshapedbyindividuallearning historiesandabilitiesaswellasculturallanguagebackgroundsandsocioeconomicfactors.

Specialeducationneeds
TheobjectivesoftheAustralianCurriculumarethesameforallstudents.Thecurriculumoffersflexibilityforteacherstotailor theirteachinginwaysthatproviderigorous,relevantandengaginglearningandassessmentopportunitiesforstudentswith specialeducationneeds. Moststudentswithspecialeducationneedscanengagewiththecurriculumprovidedthenecessaryadjustmentsaremade tothecomplexityofthecurriculumcontentandtothemeansthroughwhichstudentsdemonstratetheirknowledge,skillsand understanding. Forsomelearners,makingadjustmentstoinstructionalprocessesandtoassessmentstrategiesenablesstudentsto achieveeducationalstandardscommensuratewiththeirpeers. Forotherstudents,teacherswillneedtomakeappropriateadjustmentstothecomplexityofthecurriculumcontent,focusing instructiononcontentdifferenttothattaughttoothersintheiragegroup.Itfollowsthatadjustmentswillalsoneedtobemade tohowthestudentsprogressismonitored,assessedandreported. Forasmallpercentageofstudents,theFoundationtoLevel10curriculumcontentandachievementstandardsmaynotbe appropriatenormeaningful,evenwithadjustments.Mostofthesestudentshaveasignificantintellectualdisability.ACARA willdevelopadditionalcurriculumcontentandachievementstandardsforthisgroupofstudentsinordertoprovidean AustralianCurriculumthatisinclusiveofeverylearner. Intheinterim,adviceabouthowtousethecurriculumwithstudentswithspecialeducationneedsisavailablehereand fromtheDEECD.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

English
SchoolscanalsocontinuetousetheVELSStudentswithDisabilitiesGuidelines(PDF615KB).Thesewillbe updatedduring2013.

Englishasanadditionallanguageordialect
ManystudentsinAustralianschoolsarelearnersofEnglishasanadditionallanguageordialect(EAL/D).LearnersofEAL/D arestudentswhosefirstlanguageisalanguageotherthanStandardAustralianEnglishandwhorequireadditionalsupport toassistthemtodevelopEnglishlanguageproficiency.WhilemanyEAL/Dlearnersdowellinschool,asignificantgroupof theselearnersleaveschoolwithoutachievingtheirpotential. EAL/Dstudentscomefromdiversebackgroundsandmayinclude:
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overseasandAustralianbornchildrenwhosefirstlanguageisalanguageotherthanEnglish AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderstudentswhosefirstlanguageisanIndigenouslanguage,includingtraditional languages,creolesandrelatedvarieties,orAboriginalEnglish.

EAL/DlearnersenterAustralianschoolsatdifferentagesandatdifferentstagesofEnglishlanguagelearningandhave variouseducationalbackgroundsintheirfirstlanguages.Forsome,schoolistheonlyplacetheyuseEnglish. TheaimsoftheAustralianCurriculum:Englishareultimatelythesameforallstudents.However,EAL/Dlearnersare simultaneouslylearninganewlanguageandtheknowledge,understandingandskillsoftheEnglishcurriculumthroughthat newlanguage.Theyrequireadditionaltimeandsupport,alongwithinformedteachingthatexplicitlyaddressestheir languageneeds,andassessmentsthattakeintoaccounttheirdevelopinglanguageproficiency. AnationalEAL/DdocumentisbeingproducedthatwillsupporttheAustralianCurriculum.Itwillprovideadescriptionofhow languageproficiencydevelops,andwillbeavaluablereferenceforallteachers.ItwillallowEnglishteacherstoidentifythe languagelevelsoftheEAL/Dlearnersintheirclassroomsandtoaddresstheirspecificlearningrequirementswhen teaching,ensuringequityofaccesstotheEnglishlearningareaforall. Intheinterim,adviceabouthowtousethecurriculumwithEAL/Dstudentsisavailablehere.

Crosscurriculumpriorities
TherearethreecrosscurriculumprioritiesintheAustralianCurriculum:
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AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultures AsiaandAustraliasengagementwithAsia Sustainability.

Thecrosscurriculumprioritiesareembeddedinthecurriculumandwillhaveastrongbutvaryingpresencedependingon theirrelevancetoeachofthelearningareas.

AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultures
AboriginalandTorresStraitIslandercommunitiesarestrong,richanddiverse.AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderIdentityis centraltothispriorityandisintrinsicallylinkedtoliving,learningAboriginalandTorresStraitIslandercommunities,deep knowledgetraditionsandholisticworldview.

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English
AconceptualframeworkbasedonAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderPeoplesuniquesenseofIdentityhasbeen developedasastructuraltoolfortheembeddingofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultureswithinthe Australiancurriculum.ThissenseofIdentityisapproachedthroughtheinterconnectedaspectsofCountry/Place,Peopleand Culture.Embracingtheseelementsenhancesallareasofthecurriculum. TheAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpriorityprovidesopportunitiesforalllearnerstodeepentheirknowledgeofAustralia byengagingwiththeworldsoldestcontinuouslivingcultures.Thisknowledgeandunderstandingwillenrichtheirabilityto participatepositivelyintheongoingdevelopmentofAustralia. TheAustralianCurriculum:EnglishvaluesAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultures.Itarticulatesrelevant aspectsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderlanguages,literaturesandliteracies. Allstudentswilldevelopanawarenessandappreciationof,andrespectfortheliteratureofAboriginalandTorresStrait IslanderPeoplesincludingstorytellingtraditions(oralnarrative)aswellascontemporaryliterature.Studentswillbetaughtto developrespectfulcriticalunderstandingsofthesocial,historicalandculturalcontextsassociatedwithdifferentusesof languageandtextualfeatures. StudentswillbetaughtthattherearemanylanguagesanddialectsspokeninAustraliaincludingAboriginalEnglishand Yumplatok(TorresStraitIslanderCreole)andthattheselanguagesmayhavedifferentwritingsystemsandoraltraditions. TheselanguagescanbeusedtoenhanceenquiryandunderstandingofEnglishliteracy.

AsiaandAustralia'sengagementwithAsia
IntheAustralianCurriculum:English,thepriorityofAsiaandAustraliasengagementwithAsiaprovidesrichandengaging contextsfordevelopingstudentsabilitiesinlistening,speaking,reading,viewingandwriting. TheAustralianCurriculum:Englishenablesstudentstoexploreandappreciatethediverserangeoftraditionaland contemporarytextsfromandaboutthepeoplesandcountriesofAsia,includingtextswrittenbyAustraliansofAsianheritage. ItenablesstudentstounderstandhowAustraliancultureandtheEnglishlanguagehavebeeninfluencedbythemanyAsian languagesusedinAustralianhomes,classroomsandcommunities. Inthislearningarea,studentsdrawonknowledgeoftheAsiaregion,includingliterature,toinfluenceandenhancetheirown creativepursuits.Theydevelopcommunicationskillsthatreflectculturalawarenessandinterculturalunderstanding.

Sustainability
IntheAustralianCurriculum:English,thepriorityofsustainabilityprovidesrichandengagingcontextsfordeveloping studentsabilitiesinlistening,speaking,reading,viewingandwriting. TheAustralianCurriculum:Englishassistsstudentstodeveloptheskillsnecessarytoinvestigate,analyseand communicateideasandinformationrelatedtosustainability,andtoadvocate,generateandevaluateactionsforsustainable futures.Thecontentinthelanguage,literatureandliteracystrandsiskeytodevelopingandsharingknowledgeaboutsocial, economicandecologicalsystemsandworldviewsthatpromotesocialjustice. Inthislearningarea,studentsmayinterrogatearangeoftextstoshapetheirdecisionmakinginrelationtosustainability. Theydeveloptheunderstandingandskillsnecessarytoactresponsiblyandcreatetextsthatinformandpersuadeothersto takeactionforsustainablefutures.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

11

English

FoundationLevel
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthethreestrandsfocusondeveloping studentsknowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.Learningin Englishbuildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisit,strengthenand developtheseasneeded. IntheFoundationlevel,studentscommunicatewithpeers,teachers,knownadults,andstudentsfromotherclasses. Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theylistento,readandviewspoken,writtenandmultimodaltextsin whichtheprimarypurposeistoentertain,aswellassometextsdesignedtoinform.Theseincludetraditionaloraltexts, picturebooks,varioustypesofstories,rhymingverse,poetry,nonfiction,film,multimodaltextsanddramatic performances.Theyparticipateinsharedreading,viewingandstorytellingusingarangeofliterarytexts,andrecognise theentertainingnatureofliterature.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom andaboutAsia.


LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendFoundationstudentsasbeginnerreadersincludepredictabletextsthatrangefrom captionbookstobookswithoneormoresentencesperpage.Thesetextsinvolvestraightforwardsequencesofevents andeverydayhappeningswithrecognisable,realisticorimaginarycharacters.Informativetextspresentasmallamount ofnewcontentaboutfamiliartopicsofinterestasmallrangeoflanguagefeatures,includingsimpleandcompound sentencesmostlyfamiliarvocabulary,knownhighfrequencywordsandsinglesyllablewordsthatcanbedecoded phonically,andillustrationsthatstronglysupporttheprintedtext. Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetextsincludingpictorialrepresentations,short statements,performances,recountsandpoetry.

FoundationLevelcontentdescriptions
Readingandviewing Language Understandthattextscantakemanyforms,canbe veryshort(forexampleanexitsign)orquitelong(for exampleaninformationbookorafilm)andthat storiesandinformativetextshavedifferent purposes(ACELA1430)
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Elaborations
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sharingexperiencesofdifferenttextsanddiscussing somedifferences discussingthepurposeoftexts,forexampleThistextwill tellastory,Thistextwillgiveinformation repeatingpartsoftexts,forexamplecharacteristicrefrains, predictingcumulativestorylines,recitingpoeticand rhymingphrases

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

12

English
Recognisethatsentencesarekeyunitsfor expressingideas(ACELA1435)
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learningthatwordorderinsentencesisimportantfor meaning(forexample'Theboysatonthedog','Thedog satontheboy') creatingstudents'ownwrittentextsandreadingaloudto theteacherandothers exploringspoken,writtenandmultimodaltextsand identifyingelements,forexamplewordsandimages talkingabouthowadifferentstoryistoldifwereadonly thewords,oronlythepicturesandthestorythatwords andpicturesmakewhencombined exploringhowthecombinationofprintandimagesintexts createmeaning learningaboutprint:directionofprintandreturnsweep, spacesbetweenwords learningthatStandardAustralianEnglishinwrittentextsis readfromlefttorightandfromtoptobottomofthepage andthatdirectionofprintmaydifferinothercultures,for exampleJapanesetexts learningaboutfrontandbackcoverstitleandauthor, layoutandnavigationofdigital/screentexts learningaboutsimplefunctionsofkeyboardandmouse includingtypingletters,scrolling,selectingiconsanddrop downmenu identifyingfamiliarandrecurringlettersandtheuseof upperandlowercaseinwrittentextsintheclassroomand community usingfamiliarandcommonlettersinhandwrittenand digitalcommunications

Recognisethattextsaremadeupofwordsand groupsofwordsthatmakemeaning(ACELA1434) Explorethedifferentcontributionofwordsand imagestomeaninginstoriesandinformativetexts (ACELA1786)

Understandconceptsaboutprintandscreen, includinghowbooks,filmandsimpledigitaltexts work,andknowsomefeaturesofprint,forexample directionality(ACELA1433)

Recognisethelettersofthealphabetandknow thereareloweranduppercaseletters (ACELA1440)

Literature Recognisesomedifferenttypesofliterarytextsand identifysomecharacteristicfeaturesofliterarytexts, forexamplebeginningsandendingsoftraditional textsandrhymeinpoetry(ACELT1785) Recognisethattextsarecreatedbyauthorswhotell storiesandshareexperiencesthatmaybesimilar ordifferenttostudentsownexperiences (ACELT1575)

Elaborations
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recognisingculturalpatternsofstorytelling,forexample Onceuponatime,Along,longtimeago,Beforethe Dreamtime

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recognisingthattherearestorytellersinallcultures viewingstoriesbyAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander storytellersfromonlinesources comparingexperiencesdepictedinstorieswithstudents own engagingwithtextsthatreflectthesocialandcultural groupstowhichstudentsbelong

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

13

English
Identifysomefeaturesoftextsincludingeventsand charactersandretelleventsfromatext (ACELT1578)
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identifyingsomefeaturesofculturerelatedtocharacters andeventsinliterarytexts,forexampledress,foodand dailyroutines listening,respondingtoandjoininginwithrhymes, poems,chantsandsongs

Literacy Identifysomefamiliartextsandthecontextsin whichtheyareused(ACELY1645)

Elaborations
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recognisingthemeaningofsymbolsineverydaycontexts, forexampleexitsigns,logos,heartsandflowerson greetingcards talkingaboutwhatisrealandwhatisimaginedintexts identifyingandselectingtextsforinformationpurposesand commentingonhowthetextmighthelpwithatask navigatingatextcorrectly,startingattherightplaceand readingintherightdirection,returningtothenextlineas needed,matchingonespokenwordtoonewrittenword readingaloudwithattemptsatfluencyandintonation attemptingtoworkoutunknownwordsbycombining contextual,semantic,grammaticalandphonicknowledge predictingwhatmighthappenonthebasisofexperienceof thiskindoftextatthesentencelevelpredictingthe meaningonthebasisofsyntaxandwordmeaning talkingaboutthemeaningsintextslistenedto,viewedand read visualisingelementsinatext(forexampledrawingan eventorcharacterfromatextreadaloud) providingasimple,correctlysequencedretellingof narrativetexts relatingoneortwokeyfactsfrominformativetexts findingakeywordinatexttoansweraliteralquestion makinglinksbetweeneventsinatextandstudentsown experiences makinganinferenceaboutacharacter'sfeelings discussingandsequencingeventsinstories drawingeventsinsequence,recognisingthatforsome AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderstoriesthesequence ofeventsmaybecyclical

Identifysomedifferencesbetweenimaginativeand informativetexts(ACELY1648)

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Readpredictabletexts,practisingphrasingand fluency,andmonitormeaningusingconceptsabout printandemergingcontextual,semantic, grammaticalandphonicknowledge(ACELY1649)

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Usecomprehensionstrategiestounderstandand discusstextslistenedto,viewedorread independently(ACELY1650)

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Writing Language Elaborations

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

14

English
Understandthatsomelanguageinwrittentextsis unlikeeverydayspokenlanguage(ACELA1431)
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learningthatwrittentextinStandardAustralianEnglishhas conventionsaboutwords,spacesbetweenwords,layout onthepageandconsistentspellingbecauseithasto communicatewhenthespeaker/writerisnotpresent recognisingthemostcommonsoundmadebyeachletter ofthealphabet,includingconsonantsandshortvowel sounds writingconsonantvowelconsonantwordsbywritingletters torepresentthesoundsinthespokenwords knowingthatspokenwordsarewrittendownbylisteningto thesoundsheardinthewordandthenwritinglettersto representthosesounds pointingtothelettersandthepunctuationinatext commentingonpunctuationencounteredintheeveryday texts,forexampleThatstheletterthatstartsmyname, Thenameofmyfamilyandmytownhasacapitalletter

Knowthatspokensoundsandwordscanbewritten downusinglettersofthealphabetandhowtowrite somehighfrequencysightwordsandknownwords (ACELA1758)

Understandthatpunctuationisafeatureofwritten textdifferentfromlettersrecognisehowcapital lettersareusedfornames,andthatcapitalletters andfullstopssignalthebeginningandendof sentences(ACELA1432) Knowhowtouseonsetandrimetospellwords (ACELA1438)

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breakingwordsintoonsetandrime,forexamplec/at buildingwordfamiliesusingonsetandrime,forexample h/ot,g/ot,n/ot,sh/ot,sp/ot

Literature Retellfamiliarliterarytextsthroughperformance, useofillustrationsandimages(ACELT1580)

Elaborations
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drawing,labellingandroleplayingrepresentationsof charactersorevents recitingrhymeswithactions usingdigitaltechnologiestoretelleventsandrecreate charactersfromfavouriteprintandfilmtexts

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Literacy Createshorttextstoexplore,recordandreport ideasandeventsusingfamiliarwordsand beginningwritingknowledge(ACELY1651)

Elaborations
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usingimagemakingandbeginningwritingtorepresent charactersandeventsinwritten,filmandwebbasedtexts usingspeaking,writinganddrawingtorepresentand communicatepersonalresponsestoideasandevents experiencedthroughtexts creatingshortspoken,writtenandmultimodal observations,recountsanddescriptions,extending vocabularyandincludingsomecontentspecificwordsin spokenandwrittentexts usingbeginningconceptsaboutprint,soundletterand wordknowledgeandpunctuationtocreateshorttexts rereadingcollaborativelydevelopedtextstocheckthatthey communicatewhattheauthorsintended

Participateinsharededitingofstudentsowntexts formeaning,spelling,capitallettersandfullstops (ACELY1652)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

15

English
Producesomelowercaseanduppercaseletters usinglearnedletterformations(ACELY1653)
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adoptingcorrectpostureandpencilgrip learningtoproducesimplehandwritingmovements followingcleardemonstrationsofhowtoconstructeach letter(forexamplewheretostartwhichdirectiontowrite) learningtoconstructlowercaselettersandtocombine theseintowords learningtoconstructsomeuppercaseletters usingsimplefunctionsofkeyboardandmouseincluding typingletters,scrolling,selectingiconsanddropdown menu

Constructtextsusingsoftwareincludingword processingprograms(ACELY1654)

Speakingandlistening Language UnderstandthatEnglishisoneofmanylanguages spokeninAustraliaandthatdifferentlanguages maybespokenbyfamily,classmatesand community(ACELA1426)


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Elaborations
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learningthatdifferentlanguagesexistdiscussingthe variouslanguagesencounteredinthecommunityandat schoolacknowledgingthehomelanguagesofstudents whospeakanotherlanguage,andvaluingtheabilityto speakmorethanonelanguage recognisingthatsometextscanincludebothStandard AustralianEnglishandelementsofotherlanguages includingAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderlanguages learningthatlanguagevariesaccordingtothe relationshipsbetweenpeople,forexamplebetweenparent andchild,teacherandstudent,siblings,friends, shopkeepersandcustomers learningthatweuseadifferenttoneandstyleoflanguage withdifferentpeople learningtoaskrelevantquestionsandtoexpressrequests andopinionsinwaysthatsuitdifferentcontexts recognisingsomeofthewayswecanusespeech, gesture,writingandmediatocommunicatefeelings recognisingsomeofthewaysemotionsandfeelingscan beconveyedandinfluencedbyvisualrepresentations,for exampleinadvertisingandanimations buildingvocabularythroughmultiplespeakingand listeningexperiences discussingnewvocabularyfoundintexts bringingvocabularyfrompersonalexperiences,relating thistonewexperiencesandbuildingavocabularyfor thinkingandtalkingaboutschooltopics

Explorehowlanguageisuseddifferentlyathome andschooldependingontherelationships betweenpeople(ACELA1428)

Understandthatlanguagecanbeusedtoexplore waysofexpressingneeds,likesanddislikes (ACELA1429)

Understandtheuseofvocabularyinfamiliar contextsrelatedtoeverydayexperiences,personal interestsandtopicstaughtatschool(ACELA1437)

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VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Recogniserhymes,syllablesandsounds (phonemes)inspokenwords(ACELA1439)
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listeningtothesoundsastudenthearsintheword,and writingletterstorepresentthosesounds identifyingrhymeandsyllablesinspokenwords identifyingandmanipulatingsounds(phonemes)in spokenwords identifyingonsetandrimeinonesyllablespokenwords

Literature Respondtotexts,identifyingfavouritestories, authorsandillustrators(ACELT1577)

Elaborations
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talkingaboutstoriesandauthors,choosingfavourites, discussinghowstudentsfeelaboutwhathappensin stories engagingwiththehumourinsomestoriesandrepeating favouritelines,jokesandideas returningtopreferredtextsandcommentingonreasonsfor selection talkingaboutstoriesandauthors,choosingfavourites, discussinghowstudentsfeelaboutwhathappensin stories usingartformsandbeginningformsofwritingtoexpress personalresponsestoliteratureandfilmexperiences talkingaboutpeople,eventsandideasintexts,enabling studentstoconnectthemtotheirownexperiencesandto expresstheirownopinionsaboutwhatisdepicted usingmusicandactionstoenhanceappreciationof rhymes,poems,chantsandsongs recitingrhymeswithactions

Sharefeelingsandthoughtsabouttheeventsand charactersintexts(ACELT1783)

Replicatetherhythmsandsoundpatternsin stories,rhymes,songsandpoemsfromarangeof cultures(ACELT1579)

Literacy Listentoandrespondorallytotextsandtothe communicationofothersininformalandstructured classroomsituations(ACELY1646)

Elaborations
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listeningto,rememberingandfollowingsimple instructions sequencingideasinspokentexts,retellingwellknown stories,retellingstorieswithpicturecues,retelling informationusingstorymaps listeningforspecificthings,forexamplethemainideaofa shortstatement,thedetailsofastory,ortoansweragiven question participatingininformalsituations,forexampleplaybased experienceswhichinvolvetheimaginativeuseofspoken language participatinginclass,groupandpairdiscussionsabout sharedexperiencesincludingsharedtexts askingandansweringquestionstoclarifyunderstanding

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

17

English
Useinteractionskillsincludinglisteningwhile othersspeak,usingappropriatevoicelevels, articulationandbodylanguage,gesturesandeye contact(ACELY1784)
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learninghowtousedifferentvoicelevelsappropriatetoa situation,forexamplelearningaboutinsidevoicesand outsidevoices learningtoaskquestionsandprovideanswersthatare morethanoneortwowords participatinginspeakingandlisteningsituations, exchangingideaswithpeersinpairsandsmallgroups andengaginginclassdiscussions,listeningtoothersand contributingideas showingunderstandingofappropriatelisteningbehaviour, suchaslisteningwithoutinterrupting,andlookingatthe speakerifculturallyappropriate listeningandrespondingtooralandmultimodaltexts includingrhymesandpoems,textsreadaloudandvarious typesofdigitaltexts engaginginconversationswithpeersandadultsinhome languageordialect askingandansweringquestionsusingappropriate intonation speakingsothatthestudentcanbeheardandunderstood alteringvolumeforinsideandoutsidesituationsandwhen speakingtoanaudience sharingapersonalexperience,interestordiscoverywith peersinasemiformalsituation usingvisualcuestopractisestayingontopic

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Delivershortoralpresentationstopeers (ACELY1647)

FoundationLevelachievementstandard
Readingandviewing BytheendoftheFoundationlevel,studentsusepredictingandquestioningstrategiestomakemeaningfromtexts.They recalloneortwoeventsfromtextswithfamiliartopics.Theyunderstandthattherearedifferenttypesoftextsandthatthese canhavesimilarcharacteristics.Theyidentifyconnectionsbetweentextsandtheirpersonalexperience.Theyreadshort predictabletextswithfamiliarvocabularyandsupportiveimages,drawingontheirdevelopingknowledgeofconceptsabout printandsoundandletters.TheyidentifythelettersoftheEnglishalphabetandusethesoundsrepresentedbymostletters. Writing Whenwriting,studentsusefamiliarwordsandphrasesandimagestoconveyideas.Theirwritingshowsevidenceofsound andletterknowledge,beginningwritingbehavioursandexperimentationwithcapitallettersandfullstops.Theycorrectlyform knownupperandlowercaseletters. Speakingandlistening Theylistentoanduseappropriatelanguagefeaturestorespondtoothersinafamiliarenvironment.Theylistenforrhyme, letterpatternsandsoundsinwords.Studentsunderstandthattheirtextscanreflecttheirownexperiences.Theyidentifyand describelikesanddislikesaboutfamiliartexts,objects,charactersandevents.Ininformalgroupandwholeclasssettings, studentscommunicateclearly.Theyretelleventsandexperienceswithpeersandknownadults.Theyidentifyanduserhyme, letterpatternsandsoundsinwords.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

18

English
Level1
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas needed. InLevel1,studentscommunicatewithpeers,teachers,knownadultsandstudentsfromotherclasses. Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theylistento,read,viewandinterpretspoken,writtenand multimodaltextsdesignedtoentertainandinform.TheseencompasstraditionaloraltextsincludingAboriginalstories, picturebooks,varioustypesofstories,rhymingverse,poetry,nonfiction,film,dramaticperformances,andtextsusedby studentsasmodelsforconstructingtheirowntexts.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom andaboutAsia.


LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendLevel1studentsasindependentreadersinvolvestraightforwardsequencesof eventsandeverydayhappeningswithrecognisablyrealisticorimaginarycharacters.Informativetextspresentasmall amountofnewcontentaboutfamiliartopicsofinterestandtopicsbeingstudiedinotherareasofthecurriculum.These textsalsopresentasmallrangeoflanguagefeatures,includingsimpleandcompoundsentences,someunfamiliar vocabulary,asmallnumberofhighfrequencywordsandwordsthatneedtobedecodedphonically,andsentence boundarypunctuation,aswellasillustrationsanddiagramsthatsupporttheprintedtext. Studentscreateavarietyofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetextsincludingrecounts,procedures,performances, literaryretellingsandpoetry.

Level1contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing Language Understandthatthepurposestextsserveshape theirstructureinpredictableways(ACELA1447)
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Elaborations
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discussingandcomparingthepurposesoffamiliartexts drawnfromlocalcontextsandinterests becomingfamiliarwiththetypicalstagesoftypesoftext includingrecountandprocedure usingdifferenttypesoftexts,forexampleprocedures (includingrecipes)anddiscussingthetextstructure

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

19

English
Identifythepartsofasimplesentencethat representWhatshappening?,Whoorwhatis involved?andthesurroundingcircumstances (ACELA1451)
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knowingthat,intermsofmeaning,abasicclauserepresents: ahappeningorastate(verb),whoorwhatisinvolved(noun group/phrase),andthesurroundingcircumstances(adverb group/phrase) understandingthatasimplesentenceexpressesasingle idea,representedgrammaticallybyasingleindependent clause(forexample'Akangarooisamammal.Amammal sucklesitsyoung') talkingabouteffectivewordsthatdescribeaplace,personor event learninghowasentencecanbemademorevividbyadding adjectives,adverbsandunusualverbs

Exploredifferencesinwordsthatrepresent people,placesandthings(nouns,including pronouns),happeningsandstates(verbs), qualities(adjectives)anddetailssuchaswhen, whereandhow(adverbs)(ACELA1452) Comparedifferentkindsofimagesinnarrative andinformativetextsanddiscusshowthey contributetomeaning(ACELA1453) Understandconceptsaboutprintandscreen, includinghowdifferenttypesoftextsare organisedusingpagenumbering,tablesof content,headingsandtitles,navigationbuttons, barsandlinks(ACELA1450) Recognisesoundlettermatchesincluding commonvowelandconsonantdigraphsand consonantblends(ACELA1458)

talkingaboutwhatisrealandwhatisimaginedintexts,for exampleThisisthesectionaboutplatypusesinthebook aboutmammals

learningabouthowbooksanddigitaltextsareorganised includingpagenumbers,tableofcontents,headings,images withcaptionsandtheuseofscrollingtoaccessdigitaltexts

sayingwordswiththesameonsetasagivenword(for examplewordsthatbeginlike'd/og','bl/ue') sayingwordswiththesamerimeasagivenword(for examplewordsthatendlike'c/at','pl/ay') recognisingthatletterscanhavemorethanonesound(for exampleuincut,put,useandaincat,father,any) recognisingsoundsthatcanbeproducedbydifferentletters (forexamplethe/s/soundinsat,cent,scene) recognisingwordsthatstartwithagivensound,endwitha givensound,haveagivenmedialsound,rhymewithagiven word recognisingandproducingrhymingwords replacingsoundsinspokenwords(forexamplereplacethe min'mat'with'c'toformanewword'cat') sayingsoundsinorderforagivenspokenword(forexample f/i/sh,th/i/s)

Understandthevariabilityofsoundletter matches(ACELA1459)

Manipulatesoundsinspokenwordsincluding phonemedeletionandsubstitution(ACELA1457)

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VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Knowthatregularonesyllablewordsaremade upoflettersandcommonletterclustersthat correspondtothesoundsheard,andhowtouse visualmemorytowritehighfrequencywords (ACELA1778) Literacy Respondtotextsdrawnfromarangeofcultures andexperiences(ACELY1655)
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writingonesyllablewordscontainingknownblends,for examplebl,st learninganincreasingnumberofhighfrequencysightwords recognisedinsharedtextsandintextsbeingread independently(forexample'one','have','them','about')

Elaborations
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exploringsomeofthemeaningsandteachingsembeddedin Dreamingstories usingdrawingandwritingtodepictandcommentonpeople andplacesbeyondtheirimmediateexperience comparinganddiscussingtextsidentifyingsomefeatures thatdistinguishthosethattellstoriesfromthosethatgive opinions selectingtextsforaparticularpurposeortask,forexamplea websitethatwillgiveinformationaboutwhales,abookthat willtellastoryaboutapossum usingcontextualandsemanticknowledgetomake predictionsaboutatextspurposeandcontent combiningknowledgeofcontext,meaning,grammarand phonicstodecodetext recognisingmosthighfrequencysightwordswhenreading text selfcorrectingwhenreadingdoesnotmakesense,using pictures,context,meaning,phonicsandgrammatical knowledge readingaloudwithdevelopingfluencyandintonation usingelementsinbooksandscreentexts,forexample illustrations,diagrams,soundandmovement,tosupport reading makingconnectionsbetweenthetextandstudentsown experiences,andbetweeninformationinprintandimages findingkeyinformationinatext makinginferencesaboutcharactersfeelingsandmotives buildingknowledgeaboutthetopicofthetextandlearning newvocabularybeforeandduringreading makingpredictionsfromthecover,fromillustrationsandat pointsinthetextbeforereadingon retellingtheeventsorkeyinformationinthetextorally,in writingand/orthroughdigitalorartsmedia

Describesomedifferencesbetweenimaginative informativeandpersuasivetexts(ACELY1658)

Readsupportivetextsusingdeveloping phrasing,fluency,contextual,semantic, grammaticalandphonicknowledgeand emergingtextprocessingstrategies,forexample prediction,monitoringmeaningandrereading (ACELY1659)

Usecomprehensionstrategiestobuildliteral andinferredmeaningaboutkeyevents,ideas andinformationintextsthattheylistento,view andreadbydrawingongrowingknowledgeof context,textstructuresandlanguagefeatures (ACELY1660)

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Writing Language Elaborations

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Understandpatternsofrepetitionandcontrastin simpletexts(ACELA1448)
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identifyingpatternsofvocabularyitemsintexts(forexample class/subclasspatterns,part/wholepatterns, compare/contrastpatterns,causeandeffectpatterns,word associations/collocation) discussingdifferenttypesoftextsandidentifyingsome characteristicfeaturesandelements(forexamplelanguage patternsandrepetition)instoriesandpoetry buildingwordfamiliesfromcommonmorphemes(for example'play','plays','playing','played','playground') usingmorphemestoreadwords(forexamplebyrecognising the'stem'inwordssuchas'walk/ed') usingintonationandpausesinresponsetopunctuation whenreading readingtextsandidentifyingdifferentsentencelevel punctuation writingdifferenttypesofsentences,forexamplestatements andquestions,anddiscussingappropriatepunctuation

Recogniseandknowhowtousemorphemesin wordfamiliesforexampleplayinplayedand playing(ACELA1455)

Recognisethatdifferenttypesofpunctuation, includingfullstops,questionmarksand exclamationmarks,signalsentencesthatmake statements,askquestions,expressemotionor givecommands(ACELA1449)

Literature Recreatetextsimaginativelyusingdrawing, writing,performanceanddigitalformsof communication(ACELT1586)

Elaborations
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creatingvisualrepresentationsofliterarytextsfromAboriginal, TorresStraitIslanderorAsiancultures writingcharacterdescriptionsdrawnfromillustrationsin stories retellingkeyeventsinstoriesusingorallanguage,arts,digital technologiesandperformancemedia

Literacy Createshortimaginativeandinformativetexts thatshowemerginguseofappropriatetext structure,sentencelevelgrammar,wordchoice, spelling,punctuationandappropriate multimodalelements,forexampleillustrations anddiagrams(ACELY1661)

Elaborations
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referringtolearnedknowledgeoftextstructureandgrammar whencreatinganewtext applyingnewvocabularyappropriatelyincreatingtext learninghowtoplanspokenandwrittencommunicationsso thatlistenersandreadersmightfollowthesequenceofideas orevents beginningtoconsideraudienceindesigninga communicationinvolvingvisualcomponents,selecting imagesformaximumimpact

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VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

22

English
Rereadstudent'sowntextsanddiscuss possiblechangestoimprovemeaning,spelling andpunctuation(ACELY1662)
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addingordeletingwordsonpageorscreentoimprove meaning,forexampleaddinganadjectivetoanoun readingthestudentsownworkaloudtolistenfor grammaticalcorrectness:checkinguseofcapitalletters,full stops,questionmarksandexclamationmarks checkingforinclusionofcapitallettersandfullstops identifyingwordswhichmightnotbespeltcorrectly beginningtousedictionariesandclassroomchartstocheck andcorrectspellingoflessfamiliarwords usingcorrectpostureandpencilgrip learninghoweachletterisconstructedincludingwhereto startandthedirectiontofollow writingwordslegiblyusingunjoinedprintscriptofconsistent size creatingdigitalimagesandcomposingastoryorinformation sequenceonscreenusingimagesandcaptions addingimagestodigitalwrittencommunicationssuchas emailswithpicturesofself,classmatesorlocation

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Writeusingunjoinedlowercaseanduppercase letters(ACELY1663)

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Constructtextsthatincorporatesupporting imagesusingsoftwareincludingword processingprograms(ACELY1664)

Speakingandlistening Language Understandthatpeopleusedifferentsystemsof communicationtocatertodifferentneedsand purposesandthatmanypeoplemayusesign systemstocommunicatewithothers (ACELA1443) Understandthatlanguageisusedin combinationwithothermeansof communication,forexamplefacialexpressions andgesturestointeractwithothers (ACELA1444) Understandthattherearedifferentwaysof askingforinformation,makingoffersandgiving commands(ACELA1446)
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Elaborations
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recognisinghowandwheresignsandsymbolsareusedand placedinstudentsschoolandcommunity learningsomesignsinAuslanandfindingoutaboutHeara BookandBrailletechnologiesforhearingandvisually impairedpeople recognisingtheeffectofwords,symbols,gesturesandbody languageonthewaycommunicationsarereceivedbyothers

learningthedifferencebetweenquestionsandstatements, requestsandcommands learningaboutdifferenttypesofquestionsincludingclosed andopenquestionsandwhere,what,whoandwhy questions extendingstudentsvocabulariesfortheexpressionof feelingsandemotions consideringhowothersmightrespondbeforestudents expresstheirviewsandhowstudentsmightrespondto othersviewsincivilandconstructiveways

Exploredifferentwaysofexpressingemotions, includingverbal,visual,bodylanguageandfacial expressions(ACELA1787)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Understandtheuseofvocabularyineveryday contextsaswellasagrowingnumberofschool contexts,includingappropriateuseofformaland informaltermsofaddressindifferentcontexts (ACELA1454) Literature Expresspreferencesforspecifictextsand authorsandlistentotheopinionsofothers (ACELT1583)
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learningformsofaddressforvisitorsandhowtouse languageappropriatelytoaskdirectionsandforinformation, forexampleonexcursions

Elaborations
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sharingfavouritetextsandauthorsandsomereasonsfor preferences discussingdifferenttextsandconsideringwhatisentertaining orappealing usingartsmethodsandroleplaytoexpresspersonal responsestocharactersandeventsinstories discussingdifferenttextsandconsideringwhatisentertaining orappealingandwhy identifyingwhoistellingthestoryindifferenttexts discussingcharactersfrombooksandfilmsandwhether thesearelifelikeorimaginary(forexampletalkinganimals) comparingcharactersandeventsintextstostudentsown experiences identifyingsimilaritiesbetweentextsfromdifferentcultural traditions,forexamplerepresentationsofdragonsin traditionalEuropeanandAsiantexts,andhowspiritualbeings arerepresentedinAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander stories identifyingsomefeaturesofcharactersandhowparticular wordsandimagesconveyqualitiesoftheirnature,for examplesomecharactersareportrayedasshy,others adventurous discussingthecharactersoffictionalanimalsandhowthey relatetothoseofhumans examiningdifferenttypesofliteratureincludingtraditional tales,humorousstoriesandpoetry discussingsimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweentexts(for examplefeaturesofmaincharactersindifferentstories) discussingfeaturesofbooksettingsincludingtime(level, season)andplace(countryorcity,realisticorimagined) discussinghowplotsdevelopincluding:beginnings (orientation),howtheproblem(complication)isintroduced andsolved(resolution)

Discusscharactersandeventsinarangeof literarytextsandsharepersonalresponsesto thesetexts,makingconnectionswithstudents' ownexperiences(ACELT1582) Discusshowauthorscreatecharactersusing languageandimages(ACELT1581)

Discussfeaturesofplot,characterandsettingin differenttypesofliteratureandexploresome featuresofcharactersindifferenttexts (ACELT1584)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Listento,reciteandperformpoems,chants, rhymesandsongs,imitatingandinventing soundpatternsincludingalliterationandrhyme (ACELT1585) Elaborations
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exploringperformancepoetry,chantsandsongsfrom AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoplesandAsian cultures listeningtoandperformingsimplehaikupoemsabout familiartopicssuchasnatureandtheseasons

Literacy Engageinconversationsanddiscussions,using activelisteningbehaviours,showinginterest, andcontributingideas,informationand questions(ACELY1656)

listeningfordetailsinspokeninformativetexts participatingininformalandstructuredclass,groupandpair discussionsaboutcontentareatopics,ideasandinformation speakingclearlyandwithappropriatevolume interactingconfidentlyandappropriatelywithpeers,teachers, visitorsandcommunitymembers learningtovaluelistening,questioningandpositivebody languageandunderstandingthatdifferentculturesmay approachthesedifferently formulatingdifferenttypesofquestionstoaskaspeaker, suchasopenandclosedquestionsandwhen,whyand howquestions identifyingturntakingpatternsingroupandpairwork(for exampleinitiatingatopic,changingatopicwhenappropriate, stayingontask,supportingotherspeakers,eliciting responses,beingsupportiveandattentivelisteners,asking relevantquestions,providingusefulfeedback,prompting, checkingunderstanding,'sharingthetalkingspace') participatinginpair,groupandclassspeakingandlistening situations,includinginformalconversationsandclass discussions,contributingideasandlisteningtothe contributionsofothers takingturns,askingandansweringquestionsandattempting toinvolveothersindiscussions demonstratingactivelisteningbehaviourandrespondingto whatotherssayinpair,groupandclassdiscussions experimentingwithvoicevolumeandpaceforparticular purposesincludingmakingpresentations,retellingstories andrecitingrhymesandpoems attemptingcorrectpronunciationofnewvocabulary reportingtheresultsofgroupdiscussions providingsimpleexplanationsabouthowtodoormake something givingshortoralpresentationsaboutareasofinterestor contentareatopics,speakingclearlyandwithappropriate volumeandusingextendedvocabularyandagrowing knowledgeofcontentspecificwords

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Useinteractionskillsincludingturntaking, recognisingthecontributionsofothers,speaking clearlyandusingappropriatevolumeandpace (ACELY1788)

Makeshortpresentationsusingsome introducedtextstructuresandlanguage,for exampleopeningstatements(ACELY1657)

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Level1achievementstandard

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Readingandviewing BytheendofLevel1,studentsunderstandthedifferentpurposesoftexts.Theymakeconnectionstopersonalexperience whenexplainingcharactersandmaineventsinshorttexts.Theyidentifythelanguagefeatures,imagesandvocabularyused todescribecharactersandevents.Studentsreadaloud,withdevelopingfluencyandintonation,shorttextswithsome unfamiliarvocabulary,simpleandcompoundsentencesandsupportiveimages.Whenreading,theyuseknowledgeof soundsandletters,highfrequencywords,sentenceboundarypunctuationanddirectionalitytomakemeaning.Theyrecall keyideasandrecogniseliteralandimpliedmeaningintexts. Writing Whenwriting,studentsprovidedetailsaboutideasorevents.Theyaccuratelyspellwordswithregularspellingpatternsand usecapitallettersandfullstops.Theycorrectlyformallupperandlowercaseletters. Speakingandlistening Theylistentootherswhentakingpartinconversationsusingappropriatelanguagefeatures.Theylistenforandreproduce letterpatternsandletterclusters.Studentsunderstandhowcharactersintextsaredevelopedandgivereasonsforpersonal preferences.Theycreatetextsthatshowunderstandingoftheconnectionbetweenwriting,speechandimages.Theycreate shorttextsforasmallrangeofpurposes.Theyinteractinpair,groupandclassdiscussions,takingturnswhenresponding. Theymakeshortpresentationsofafewconnectedsentencesonfamiliarandlearnedtopics.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Level2
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas needed. InLevel2,studentscommunicatewithpeers,teachers,studentsfromotherclasses,andcommunitymembers. Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theylistento,read,viewandinterpretspoken,writtenand multimodaltextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeistoentertain,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformandpersuade.These encompasstraditionaloraltexts,picturebooks,varioustypesofprintanddigitalstories,simplechapterbooks,rhyming verse,poetry,nonfiction,film,multimodaltexts,dramaticperformances,andtextsusedbystudentsasmodelsfor constructingtheirownwork.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom andaboutAsia.


LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendLevel2studentsasindependentreadersinvolvesequencesofeventsthatspan severalpagesandpresentunusualhappeningswithinaframeworkoffamiliarexperiences.Informativetextspresent newcontentabouttopicsofinterestandtopicsbeingstudiedinotherareasofthecurriculum.Thesetextsinclude languagefeaturessuchasvariedsentencestructures,someunfamiliarvocabulary,asignificantnumberofhigh frequencysightwordsandwordsthatneedtobedecodedphonically,andarangeofpunctuationconventions,aswellas illustrationsanddiagramsthatbothsupportandextendtheprintedtext. Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetextsincludingimaginativeretellings,reports, performances,poetryandexpositions.

Level2contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing Language Understandthatdifferenttypesoftextshave identifiabletextstructuresandlanguagefeaturesthat helpthetextserveitspurpose(ACELA1463)
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Elaborations
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identifyingthetopicandtypeofatextthroughitsvisual presentation,forexamplecoverdesign,packaging, title/subtitleandimages becomingfamiliarwiththetypicalstagesoftexttypes,for examplesimplenarratives,instructionsandexpositions

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Knowsomefeaturesoftextorganisationincluding pageandscreenlayouts,alphabeticalorder,and differenttypesofdiagrams,forexampletimelines (ACELA1466)
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recognisinghowchaptersandtableofcontents, alphabeticalorderofindexandglossaryoperatetoguide accesstoinformation learningaboutfeaturesofscreentextsincludingmenu buttons,dropdownmenus,linksandliveconnections learninghowtoexpressideasusingcompound sentences learninghowtojoinsimplesentenceswithconjunctions, forexampleand,butors o,toconstructcompound sentences comparingtwoversionsofthesamestory,forexample JackandtheBeanstalk,identifyinghowacharacters actionsandreactionsaredepicteddifferentlybydifferent illustrators

Understandthatsimpleconnectionscanbemade betweenideasbyusingacompoundsentencewith twoormoreclausesusuallylinkedbyacoordinating conjunction(ACELA1467)

Identifyvisualrepresentationsofcharactersactions, reactions,speechandthoughtprocessesin narratives,andconsiderhowtheseimagesaddtoor contradictormultiplythemeaningofaccompanying words(ACELA1469) Understandthatnounsrepresentpeople,places, thingsandideasandcanbe,forexample,common, proper,concreteorabstract,andthatnoun groups/phrasescanbeexpandedusingarticlesand adjectives(ACELA1468)

exploringtextsandidentifyingnounsthatreferto characters,elementsofthesetting,andideas exploringillustrationsandnoungroups/phrasesin picturebookstoidentifyhowtheparticipantshavebeen representedbyanillustrator exploringnamesofpeopleandplacesandhowtowrite themusingcapitalletters buildingextendednoungroups/phrasesthatprovidea cleardescriptionofanitem recognisingwhensomelettersaresilent,forexample knife,listen,castle,andprovidingthesoundforless commonsoundlettermatches,forexampletion

Recognisemostsoundlettermatchesincluding silentletters,vowel/consonantdigraphsandmany lesscommonsoundlettercombinations (ACELA1474) Recognisecommonprefixesandsuffixesandhow theychangeawordsmeaning(ACELA1472) Literature

joiningdiscussionabouthowaprefixorsuffixaffects meaning,forexampleuncomfortable,older,anddivision

Elaborations

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Discussthecharactersandsettingsofdifferenttexts andexplorehowlanguageisusedtopresentthese featuresindifferentways(ACELT1591)
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describingfeaturesoftextsettingsincludingtime, coloursusedtoportraylevel,season,andplace(country orcity)andhowthisimpactsonthecharacters describingplotsincludingbeginnings(orientation),how theproblem(complication)isintroducedandsolved (resolution),andconsideringhowthesefeatures constructmeanings identifyingfeaturesofimaginaryorfantasytexts,for examplemagicpowers,shiftsintime investigatingAboriginalstories,foundfromonline sources,thatexplainphysicalfeaturesofthelandscape andidentifyanddescribethecommonfeaturesof languageused comparingtwoormoreversionsofthesamestoryby differentauthorsorfromdifferentcultures,describing similaritiesanddifferencesinauthorspointsofview

Literacy Discussdifferenttextsonasimilartopic,identifying similaritiesanddifferencesbetweenthetexts (ACELY1665)

Elaborations
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identifyingexamplesandfeaturesofdifferentkindsof spoken,nonverbal,writtenandvisualcommunication fromAboriginalandTorresStraitIslandercommunities andfromseveralAsiancultureswithinAustralia comparingtwoormoreversionsofthesametopicby differentauthorsorfromdifferentcultures,describing similaritiesanddifferences identifyingthemainpurposeofatext,includingwhether theauthorwantstoentertain,explainorpersuadeand consideringhowaudiencesmightrespondtothosetexts usingpriorandlearnedknowledgeandvocabularyto makeandconfirmpredictionswhenreadingtext usinggrammaticalknowledgetopredictlikelysentence patternswhenreadingmorecomplexnarrativesand informativetexts usingknowledgeofsoundletterrelationshipsandhigh frequencysightwordswhendecodingtext monitoringownreadingandselfcorrectingwhen readingdoesnotmakesense,usingillustrations, context,phonics,grammarknowledgeandpriorand learnedtopicknowledge usinggrammarandmeaningtoreadaloudwithfluency andintonation

Identifytheaudienceofimaginative,informativeand persuasivetexts(ACELY1668) Readlesspredictabletextswithphrasingandfluency bycombiningcontextual,semantic,grammaticaland phonicknowledgeusingtextprocessingstrategies, forexamplemonitoringmeaning,predicting, rereadingandselfcorrecting(ACELY1669)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Usecomprehensionstrategiestobuildliteraland inferredmeaningandbegintoanalysetextsby drawingongrowingknowledgeofcontext,language andvisualfeaturesandprintandmultimodaltext structures(ACELY1670)
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makingconnectionsbetweenthetextandstudentsown experiencesandexperienceswithothertexts,comparing authorsdifferingpointofviewonatopic makingconnectionsbetweeninformationinprintand images buildingonandusingpriorknowledgeandvocabulary makingvalidinferencesusinginformationinatextand studentsownpriorknowledge predicting,askingandansweringquestionsasthey read,andsummarisingandreviewingmeaning

Writing Language Understandhowtextsaremadecohesivethrough resources,forexamplewordassociations, synonyms,andantonyms(ACELA1464)


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Elaborations
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exploringhowtextsdeveloptheirthemesandideas, buildinginformationthroughconnectingsimilarand contrastingdissimilarthings mappingexamplesofwordassociationsintexts,for examplewordsthatrefertothemaincharacter talkingabouthowacommacanbeusedtoseparatetwo ormoreelementsinalist,forexampleAtthemuseum theysawatiger,adinosaurandtwosnakes drawingonknowledgeofhighfrequencysightwords drawingonknowledgeofsoundletterrelationships(for examplebreakingwordsintosyllablesandphonemes) usingknownwordsinwritingandspellunknownwords usingdevelopingvisual,graphophonicandmorphemic knowledge

Recognisethatcapitalletterssignalpropernouns andcommasareusedtoseparateitemsinlists (ACELA1465) Understandhowtousedigraphs,longvowels, blendsandsilentletterstospellwords,anduse morphemesandsyllabificationtobreakupsimple wordsandusevisualmemorytowriteirregularwords (ACELA1471)

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Literature Createeventsandcharactersusingdifferentmedia thatdevelopkeyeventsandcharactersfromliterary texts(ACELT1593)

Elaborations
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creatingimaginativereconstructionsofstoriesandpoetry usingarangeofprintanddigitalmedia tellingknownstoriesfromadifferentpointofview orally,inwritingorusingdigitalmedia,constructinga sequeltoaknownstory

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Literacy Createshortimaginative,informativeandpersuasive textsusinggrowingknowledgeoftextstructuresand languagefeaturesforfamiliarandsomelessfamiliar audiences,selectingprintandmultimodalelements appropriatetotheaudienceandpurpose (ACELY1671)

Elaborations
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learninghowtoplanspokenandwritten communicationssothatlistenersandreadersmight followthesequenceofideasorevents sequencingcontentaccordingtotextstructure usingappropriatesimpleandcompoundsentenceto expressandcombineideas usingvocabulary,includingtechnicalvocabulary, appropriatetotexttypeandpurpose

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VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Rereadandedittextforspelling,sentenceboundary punctuationandtextstructure(ACELY1672)
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readingtheirworkandadding,deletingorchanging words,prepositionalphrasesorsentencestoimprove meaning,forexamplereplacinganeverydaynounwitha technicaloneinaninformativetext checkingspellingusingadictionary checkingforinclusionofrelevantpunctuationincluding capitalletterstosignalnames,aswellassentence beginnings,fullstops,questionmarksandexclamation marks makingsignificantchangestotheirtextsusingaword processingprogram(forexampleadd,deleteormove sentences) usingcorrectpencilgripandposture writingsentenceslegiblyandfluentlyusingunjoinedprint scriptofconsistentsize experimentingwithandcombiningelementsofsoftware programstocreatetexts

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Writelegiblyandwithgrowingfluencyusingunjoined uppercaseandlowercaseletters(ACELY1673)

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Constructtextsfeaturingprint,visualandaudio elementsusingsoftware,includingwordprocessing programs(ACELY1674) Speakingandlistening Language Understandthatspoken,visualandwrittenformsof languagearedifferentmodesofcommunicationwith differentfeaturesandtheirusevariesaccordingtothe audience,purpose,contextandculturalbackground (ACELA1460)

Elaborations
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identifyingexamplesandfeaturesofdifferentkindsof spoken,nonverbal,writtenandvisualcommunication fromAboriginalandTorresStraitIslandercommunities andfromseveralAsiancultureswithinAustralia,and associatingthosefeatureswithparticularcommunities recognisingsomephrasesinthelanguagesoftheclass andcommunity,forexamplegreetingsandexpressions ofpoliteness exploringhowtermsofaddressareusedtosignal differentkindsofrelationships exploringthedifferencesbetweengivingapresentation andtalkingtofriends exploringculturallyspecificgreetingsandexpressionsof politeness

Understandthatlanguagevarieswhenpeopletake ondifferentrolesinsocialandclassroominteractions andhowtheuseofkeyinterpersonallanguage resourcesvariesdependingoncontext(ACELA1461)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Identifylanguagethatcanbeusedforappreciating textsandthequalitiesofpeopleandthings (ACELA1462)
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exploringhowlanguageisusedtoexpressfeelings includinglearningvocabularytoexpressagradationof feeling,forexamplehappy,joyful,pleased,contented exploringinstories,everydayandmediatextsmoraland socialdilemmassuchasrightandwrong, fairness/unfairness,inclusionandexclusionlearningto uselanguagetodescribeactionsandconsider consequences exploringhowlanguageisusedtoconstructcharacters andsettingsinnarratives,includingchoiceofnouns suchasgirl,princessororphan,andchoiceof adjectivessuchasgentle,timidorfrightened interpretingnewterminologydrawingonprior knowledge,analogiesandconnectionswithknown words

Understandtheuseofvocabularyaboutfamiliarand newtopicsandexperimentwithandbegintomake consciouschoicesofvocabularytosuitaudienceand purpose(ACELA1470) Literature Discusshowdepictionsofcharactersinprint,sound andimagesreflectthecontextsinwhichtheywere created(ACELT1587)

Elaborations
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exploringiconographyofAboriginalandTorresStrait Islandercultures recognisingrecurringcharacters,settingsandthemesin Dreamingstoriesexperiencedthroughtexts,filmsand onlinesources discussingmoralandteachingstoriesfromvaried cultures,identifyingandcomparingtheircentral messages describingfeaturesoftextsfromdifferentcultures includingrecurringlanguagepatterns,styleof illustrations,elementsofhumourordrama,and identifyingthefeatureswhichgiverisetotheirpersonal preferences connectingthefeelingsandbehavioursofanimalsin anthropomorphicstorieswithhumanemotionsand relationships drawing,writingandusingdigitaltechnologiestocapture andcommunicatefavouritecharactersandevents discussingeachotherspreferencesforstoriessetin familiarorunfamiliarworlds,oraboutpeoplewhose livesarelikeorunliketheirown exploringpoems,chants,rhymesorsongsfromdifferent cultureswhichclassmembersmaybringfromhome learningtorecite,singorcreateinterpretationsofpoems, chants,rhymesorsongsfromstudentsownandother differentcultures

Identifyaspectsofdifferenttypesofliterarytextsthat entertain,andgivereasonsforpersonalpreferences (ACELT1590)

Compareopinionsaboutcharacters,eventsand settingsinandbetweentexts(ACELT1589)

Identify,reproduceandexperimentwithrhythmic, soundandwordpatternsinpoems,chants,rhymes andsongs(ACELT1592)

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English
Literacy Listenforspecificpurposesandinformation, includinginstructions,andextendstudentsownand others'ideasindiscussions(ACELY1666)
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Elaborations
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usingspokenlanguageforproblemsolving,and exploringideasandconcepts listeningforspecificinformationandprovidingtwoor morekeyfactsfromaninformativetextspokenorread aloud listeningto,rememberingandrespondingtodetailed instructions discussingappropriateconventionstouseingroup discussions exploringwaystocommentonwhatotherssay,including usingsentencestarterssuchasIlikethewayyou,I agreethat,Ihaveadifferentthought,Idliketosay somethingdifferent participatinginpair,groupandclassspeakingand listeningsituations,includinginformalconversations, classdiscussionsandpresentations demonstratingappropriatelisteningbehaviour, respondingtoandparaphrasingapartnerscontribution toadiscussion,suchasthink/pair/shareactivities askingrelevantquestionsandmakingconnectionswith personalexperiencesandthecontributionsofothers brainstormingtopics,contributingideasand acknowledgingtheideasofothers speakingclearlyandwithappropriateintonation understandinghowtodisagreewithapointofviewor offeranalternativeideacourteously experimentingwithpresentationstrategiessuchaspitch, volumeandintonation adjustingpresentationfordifferentaudiences preparingandgivingoralpresentations,including reportsofgroupdiscussions,usingmoreformalspeech andspecificvocabularyaboutcontentareatopics listeningandrespondingtopresentations,including thoseusingmultimedia,onfamiliarandlearnedtopics, recordingkeyinformation,andconnectingnewand existingknowledgeaboutatopic

Useinteractionskillsincludinginitiatingtopics, makingpositivestatementsandvoicing disagreementinanappropriatemanner,speaking clearlyandvaryingtone,volumeandpace appropriately(ACELY1789)

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Rehearseanddelivershortpresentationsonfamiliar andnewtopics(ACELY1667)

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Level2achievementstandard
Readingandviewing

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

33

English
BytheendofLevel2studentsunderstandhowsimilartextssharecharacteristicsbyidentifyingtextstructuresandlanguage featuresusedtodescribecharacters,settingsandevents.Theyreadtextsthatcontainvariedsentencestructures,some unfamiliarvocabulary,asignificantnumberofhighfrequencysightwordsandimagesthatprovideadditionalinformation. Theymonitormeaningandselfcorrectusingcontext,priorknowledge,punctuation,languageandphonicknowledge.They identifyliteralandimpliedmeaning,mainideasandsupportingdetail.Studentsmakeconnectionsbetweentextsby comparingcontent. Writing Studentscreatetextsthatshowhowimagessupportthemeaningofthetext.Theyaccuratelyspellfamiliarwordsandattempt tospelllessfamiliarwordsandusepunctuationaccurately.Theylegiblywriteunjoinedupperandlowercaseletters. Speakingandlistening Theylistenforparticularpurposes.Theylistenforandmanipulatesoundcombinationsandrhythmicsoundpatterns.When discussingtheirideasandexperiences,studentsuseeverydaylanguagefeaturesandtopicspecificvocabulary.Theyexplain theirpreferencesforaspectsoftextsusingothertextsascomparisons.Theycreatetextsthatshowhowimagessupportthe meaningofthetext.Studentscreatetexts,drawingontheirownexperiences,theirimaginationandinformationtheyhave learned.Studentsuseavarietyofstrategiestoengageingroupandclassdiscussionsandmakepresentations.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Level3
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas needed. InLevels3and4,studentscommunicatewithpeersandteachersfromotherclassesandschoolsinarangeoffaceto faceandonline/virtualenvironments. Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theylistento,read,viewandinterpretspoken,writtenand multimodaltextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeistoentertain,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformandpersuade.These encompasstraditionaloraltextsincludingpicturebooks,varioustypesofprintanddigitaltexts,simplechapterbooks, rhymingverse,poetry,nonfictionfilm,multimodaltexts,dramaticperformances,andtextsusedbystudentsasmodels forconstructingtheirownwork.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom andaboutAsia.


LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendstudentsinLevels3and4asindependentreadersdescribecomplexsequencesof eventsthatextendoverseveralpagesandinvolveunusualhappeningswithinaframeworkoffamiliarexperiences. Informativetextspresentnewcontentabouttopicsofinterestandtopicsbeingstudiedinotherareasofthecurriculum. Thesetextsusecomplexlanguagefeatures,includingvariedsentencestructures,someunfamiliarvocabulary,a significantnumberofhighfrequencysightwordsandwordsthatneedtobedecodedphonically,andarangeof punctuationconventions,aswellasillustrationsanddiagramsthatbothsupportandextendtheprintedtext. Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetypesoftextsincludingnarratives,procedures, performances,reports,reviews,poetryandexpositions.

Level3contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing Language Understandhowdifferenttypesoftexts varyinuseoflanguagechoices, dependingontheirpurposeandcontext (forexample,tenseandtypesof sentences)(ACELA1478) Identifythefeaturesofonlinetextsthat enhancenavigation(ACELA1790)
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Elaborations
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becomingfamiliarwithtypicalstructuralstagesandlanguage featuresofvarioustypesoftext,forexamplenarratives,procedures, reports,reviewsandexpositions

becomingfamiliarwiththetypicalfeaturesofonlinetexts,forexample navigationbarsandbuttons,hyperlinksandsitemaps

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Identifytheeffectonaudiencesof techniques,forexampleshotsize,vertical cameraangleandlayoutinpicturebooks, advertisementsandfilmsegments (ACELA1483)
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notinghowtherelationshipbetweencharacterscanbedepictedin illustrationsthrough:thepositioningofthecharacters(forexample facingeachotherorfacingawayfromeachother)thedistance betweenthemtherelativesizeonecharacterlookingup(ordown)at theother(powerrelationships)facialexpressionsandbodygesture observinghowimagesconstructarelationshipwiththeviewer throughsuchstrategiesas:directgazeintotheviewer'seyes,inviting involvementandhowcloseupsaremoreengagingthandistanced images,whichcansuggestalienationorloneliness becomingfamiliarwithmosthighfrequencysightwords

Recognisehighfrequencysightwords (ACELA1486) Literature Drawconnectionsbetweenpersonal experiencesandtheworldsoftexts,and shareresponseswithothers (ACELT1596)

Elaborations
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discussingrelevantpriorknowledgeandpastexperiencestomake meaningfulconnectionstothepeople,places,events,issuesand ideasinthetext exploringtextsthathighlightissuesandproblemsinmakingmoral decisionsanddiscussingthesewithothers drawingonliteraturefromAboriginal,TorresStraitIslanderorAsian cultures,toexplorecommonalitiesofexperienceandideasaswell asrecognisingdifferenceinlifestyleandworldview buildingaconsciousunderstandingofpreferenceregardingtopics andgenresofpersonalinterest(forexamplehumorousshortstories, schoolandfamilystories,mysteries,fantasyandquest,series books) selectinganddiscussingfavouritetextsandexplainingtheirreasons forassigninggreaterorlessermerittoparticulartextsortypesof texts identifyinganddiscussingtheuseofdescriptiveadjectives(inthe middleofavast,bareplain)toestablishsettingandatmosphere (thecastleloomeddarkandforbidding)andtodrawreadersinto eventsthatfollow discussingthelanguageusedtodescribethetraitsofcharactersin stories,theiractionsandmotivations:Clairewassolonelyshe desperatelywantedapetandshewasafraidshewoulddoanything, justanything,tohaveonetocarefor identifyingtheeffectofimageryintexts,forexampletheuseof imageryrelatedtonatureinhaikupoems exploringhowrhythm,onomatopoeiaandalliterationgivemomentum topoetryandprosereadaloud,andenhanceenjoyment

Developcriteriaforestablishingpersonal preferencesforliterature(ACELT1598)

Discusshowlanguageisusedto describethesettingsintexts,andexplore howthesettingsshapetheeventsand influencethemoodofthenarrative (ACELT1599)

Discussthenatureandeffectsofsome languagedevicesusedtoenhance meaningandshapethereaders reaction,includingrhythmand onomatopoeiainpoetryandprose (ACELT1600) Literacy

Elaborations

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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English
Identifythepointofviewinatextand suggestalternativepointsofview (ACELY1675)
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discussinghowatextpresentsthepointofviewofthemain character,andspeculatingonwhatothercharactersmightthinkor feel recognisingthatthereismorethanonewayoflookingatthesame eventandthatstoriesseenthroughtheeyesofonecharacter privilegessomeaspectsofthestoryoverothers speculatingaboutwhatothercharactersmightthinkorfeeland retellingthestoryfromotherperspectives(forexampleCinderella fromtheviewoftheUglySisters) identifyingtheauthorspointofviewonatopicandkeywordsand imagesthatseemintendedtopersuadelisteners,viewersor readerstoagreewiththeviewpresented combiningdifferenttypesofknowledge(forexampleworld knowledge,vocabulary,grammar,phonics)tomakedecisionsabout unknownwords,readingon,reviewingandsummarisingmeaning analysingthewayillustrationshelptoconstructmeaningand interpretingdifferenttypesofillustrationsandgraphics readingtexttypesfromastudentsculturetoenhanceconfidencein buildingreadingstrategies readingaloudwithfluencyandintonation readingawiderrangeoftexts,includingchapterbooksand informativetexts,forpleasure makingconnectionsbetweenthetextandstudentsownexperience andothertexts makingconnectionsbetweentheinformationinprintandimages makingpredictionsandaskingandansweringquestionsaboutthe textdrawingonknowledgeofthetopic,subjectspecificvocabulary andexperienceoftextsonthesametopic usingtextfeaturesandsearchtoolstolocateinformationinwritten anddigitaltextsefficiently determiningimportantideas,eventsordetailsintextscommenting onthingslearnedorquestionsraisedbyreading,referringexplicitly tothetextforverification makingconsideredinferencestakingintoaccounttopicknowledgeor acharacterslikelyactionsandfeelings

Identifytheaudienceandpurposeof imaginative,informativeandpersuasive texts(ACELY1678) Readanincreasingrangeofdifferent typesoftextsbycombiningcontextual, semantic,grammaticalandphonic knowledge,usingtextprocessing strategies,forexamplemonitoring, predicting,confirming,rereading,reading onandselfcorrecting(ACELY1679)

Usecomprehensionstrategiestobuild literalandinferredmeaningandbeginto evaluatetextsbydrawingonagrowing knowledgeofcontext,textstructuresand languagefeatures(ACELY1680)

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Writing Language Understandthatparagraphsareakey organisationalfeatureofwrittentexts (ACELA1479) Elaborations


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noticinghowlongertextsareorganisedintoparagraphs,each beginningwithatopicsentence/paragraphopenerwhichpredicts howtheparagraphwilldevelopandisthenelaboratedinvarious ways

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English
Understandthataclauseisaunitof grammarusuallycontainingasubject andaverbandthattheseneedtobein agreement(ACELA1481)
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knowingthataclauseisbasicallyagroupofwordsthatcontainsa verb knowingthat,intermsofmeaning,abasicclauserepresents:what ishappeningwhoorwhatisparticipating,andthesurrounding circumstances identifyingdifferenttypesofverbsandthewaytheyaddmeaningtoa sentence exploringactionandsayingverbsinnarrativetextstoshowhowthey giveinformationaboutwhatcharactersdoandsay exploringtheuseofsensingverbsandhowtheyallowreadersto knowwhatcharactersthinkandfeel exploringtheuseofrelatingverbsinconstructingdefinitionsand descriptions learninghowtimeisrepresentedthroughthetenseofaverband otherstructural,languageandvisualfeatures usingspellingstrategiessuchas:phonologicalknowledge(for examplediphthongsandotherambiguousvowelsoundsinmore complexwords)threeletterclusters(forexample'thr','shr','squ') visualknowledge(forexamplemorecomplexsinglesyllable homophonessuchas'break/brake','ate/eight')morphemic knowledge(forexampleinflectionalendingsinsinglesyllablewords, pluralandpasttense)generalisations(forexampletomakeaword pluralwhenitendsin's','sh','ch',or'z'add'es') recognisingbothgrammaticallyaccurateandinaccurateusageofthe apostropheineverydaytextssuchassignsinthecommunityand newspaperadvertisements

Understandthatverbsrepresentdifferent processes(doing,thinking,saying,and relating)andthattheseprocessesare anchoredintimethroughtense (ACELA1482)

Understandhowtousesoundletter relationshipsandknowledgeofspelling rules,compoundwords,prefixes, suffixes,morphemesandlesscommon lettercombinations,forexample tion(ACELA1485)

Knowthatwordcontractionsareafeature ofinformallanguageandthat apostrophesofcontractionareusedto signalmissingletters(ACELA1480) Literature Createimaginativetextsbasedon characters,settingsandeventsfrom studentsownandotherculturesusing visualfeatures,forexampleperspective, distanceandangle(ACELT1601) Createtextsthatadaptlanguagefeatures andpatternsencounteredinliterarytexts, forexamplecharacterisation,rhyme, rhythm,mood,music,soundeffectsand dialogue(ACELT1791)

Elaborations
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drawingonliterarytextsread,viewedandlistenedtoforinspiration andideas,appropriatinglanguagetocreatemoodand characterisation innovatingontextsread,viewedandlistenedtobychangingthepoint ofview,revisinganendingorcreatingasequel creatingvisualandmultimodaltextsbasedonAboriginalandTorres StraitIslanderorAsianliterature,applyingoneormorevisual elementstoconveytheintentoftheoriginaltext creatingmultimodaltextsthatcombinevisualimages,soundeffects, musicandvoiceoverstoconveysettingsandeventsinafantasy world

Literacy

Elaborations

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English
Plan,draftandpublishimaginative, informativeandpersuasivetexts demonstratingincreasingcontrolovertext structuresandlanguagefeaturesand selectingprint,andmultimodalelements appropriatetotheaudienceandpurpose (ACELY1682)
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usingprintanddigitalresourcestogatherinformationaboutatopic selectingappropriatetextstructureforawritingpurposeand sequencingcontentforclarityandaudienceimpact usingappropriatesimple,compoundandcomplexsentencesto expressandcombineideas usingvocabulary,includingtechnicalvocabulary,relevanttothetext typeandpurpose,andappropriatesentencestructurestoexpress andcombineideas usingglossaries,printanddigitaldictionariesandspellchecktoedit spelling,realisingthatspellcheckaccuracydependson understandingthewordfunction,forexamplethere/theirrain/reign practisinghowtojoinletterstoconstructafluenthandwritingstyle

Rereadandedittextsformeaning, appropriatestructure,grammatical choicesandpunctuation(ACELY1683) Writeusingjoinedlettersthatareclearly formedandconsistentinsize (ACELY1684) Usesoftwareincludingwordprocessing programswithgrowingspeedand efficiencytoconstructandedittexts featuringvisual,printandaudioelements (ACELY1685) Speakingandlistening Language Understandthatlanguageshavedifferent writtenandvisualcommunication systems,differentoraltraditionsand differentwaysofconstructingmeaning (ACELA1475)

usingfeaturesofrelevanttechnologiestoplan,sequence,compose andeditmultimodaltexts

Elaborations
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learningthatawordorsigncancarrydifferentweightindifferent culturalcontexts,forexamplethatparticularrespectisduetosome peopleandcreaturesandthatstoriescanbepassedontoteachus howtoliveappropriately

Understandthatsuccessfulcooperation withothersdependsonshareduseof socialconventions,includingturntaking patterns,andformsofaddressthatvary accordingtothedegreeofformalityin socialsituations(ACELA1476) Examinehowevaluativelanguagecanbe variedtobemoreorlessforceful (ACELA1477) Learnextendedandtechnicalvocabulary andwaysofexpressingopinionincluding modalverbsandadverbs(ACELA1484)

identifyingrolesandcollaborativepatternsinstudentsowngroups andpairwork(forexampleinitiatingatopic,changingatopicthrough negotiation,affirmingotherspeakersandbuildingontheir comments,askingrelevantquestions,providingusefulfeedback, promptingandcheckingindividualandgroupunderstanding)

exploringhowmodalverbs,forexamplemust,might,orcould indicatedegreesofcertainty,commandorobligation distinguishinghowchoiceofadverbs,nounsandverbspresent differentevaluationsofcharactersintexts exploringexamplesoflanguagewhichdemonstratearangeof feelingsandpositions,andbuildingavocabularytoexpress judgmentsaboutcharactersorevents,acknowledgingthatlanguage andjudgmentsmightdifferdependingontheculturalcontext

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English
Literature Discusstextsinwhichcharacters,events andsettingsareportrayedindifferent ways,andspeculateontheauthors reasons(ACELT1594)
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Elaborations
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readingtextsinwhichAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander children/youngpeoplearethecentralcharacters/protagonistsand makinglinkstostudentsownlives,notingsimilarities exploringthewaysthatthesamestorycanbetoldinmanycultures, identifyingvariationsinthestorylineandinmusic(forexampleThe RamayanastorywhichistoldtochildreninIndia,Indonesia, Thailand,Cambodia,Burma,Laos,TibetandMalaysia)

Literacy Listentoandcontributetoconversations anddiscussionstoshareinformation andideasandnegotiateincollaborative situations(ACELY1676) Useinteractionskills,includingactive listeningbehavioursandcommunicatein aclear,coherentmannerusingavariety ofeverydayandlearnedvocabularyand appropriatetone,pace,pitchandvolume (ACELY1792)

Elaborations
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participatingincollaborativediscussions,buildingonandconnecting ideasandopinionsexpressedbyothers,andcheckingstudents ownunderstandingagainstgroupviews

participatinginpair,groupandclassspeakingandlistening situations,includinginformalconversations,classdiscussionsand presentations listeningactivelyincludinglisteningforspecificinformation, recognisingthevalueofotherscontributionsandresponding throughcomments,recountsandsummariesofinformation learningthespecificspeakingorlisteningskillsofdifferentgroup roles,forexamplegroupleader,notetakerandreporter acquiringnewvocabularyinallcurriculumareasthroughlistening, reading,viewinganddiscussionandusingthisvocabularyinspecific wayssuchasdescribingpeople,places,thingsandprocesses usinglanguageappropriatelyindifferentsituationssuchasmakinga requestofateacher,explainingaproceduretoaclassmate, engaginginagamewithfriends experimentingwithvoiceeffectsinformalpresentationssuchas tone,volumeandpace drawingonrelevantresearchintoatopictoprepareanoralor multimodalpresentation,usingdevicessuchasstoryboardstoplan thesequenceofideasandinformation

Plananddelivershortpresentations, providingsomekeydetailsinlogical sequence(ACELY1677)

Level3achievementstandard
Readingandviewing BytheendofLevel3,studentsunderstandhowcontentcanbeorganisedusingdifferenttextstructuresdependingonthe purposeofthetext.Theyunderstandhowlanguagefeatures,imagesandvocabularychoicesareusedfordifferenteffects. Theyreadtextsthatcontainvariedsentencestructures,arangeofpunctuationconventions,andimagesthatprovide additionalinformation.Theyidentifyliteralandimpliedmeaningconnectingideasindifferentpartsofatext.Theyselect information,ideasandeventsintextsthatrelatetotheirownlivesandtoothertexts. Writing

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English
Theirtextsincludewritingandimagestoexpressanddevelopinsomedetailexperiences,events,information,ideasand characters.Theydemonstrateunderstandingofgrammarandchoosevocabularyandpunctuationappropriatetothepurpose andcontextoftheirwriting.Theyuseknowledgeofsoundsandhighfrequencywordstospellwordsaccurately,checking theirworkformeaning.Theylegiblywriteusingconsistentlysizedjoinedletters. Speakingandlistening Studentslistentoothersviewsandrespondappropriately.Theyunderstandhowlanguagefeaturesareusedtolinkand sequenceideas.Theyunderstandhowlanguagecanbeusedtoexpressfeelingsandopinionsontopics.Theycreatea rangeoftextsforfamiliarandunfamiliaraudiences.Theycontributeactivelytoclassandgroupdiscussions,asking questions,providingusefulfeedbackandmakingpresentations.

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English
Level4
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas needed. InLevels3and4,studentsexperiencelearninginfamiliarcontextsandarangeofcontextsthatrelatetostudyinother areasofthecurriculum.Theyinteractwithpeersandteachersfromotherclassesandschoolsinarangeoffacetoface andonline/virtualenvironments. Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theylistento,read,viewandinterpretspoken,writtenand multimodaltextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeisaesthetic,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformandpersuade.These encompasstraditionaloraltextsincludingAboriginalstories,picturebooks,varioustypesofprintanddigitaltexts,simple chapterbooks,rhymingverse,poetry,nonfiction,film,multimodaltexts,dramaticperformances,andtextsusedby studentsasmodelsforconstructingtheirownwork.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom andaboutAsia.


LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendstudentsinLevels3and4asindependentreadersdescribecomplexsequencesof eventsthatextendoverseveralpagesandinvolveunusualhappeningswithinaframeworkoffamiliarexperiences. Informativetextspresentnewcontentabouttopicsofinterestandtopicsbeingstudiedinotherareasofthecurriculum. Thesetextsusecomplexlanguagefeatures,includingvariedsentencestructures,someunfamiliarvocabulary,a significantnumberofhighfrequencysightwordsandwordsthatneedtobedecodedphonically,andavarietyof punctuationconventions,aswellasillustrationsanddiagramsthatbothsupportandextendtheprintedtext. Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetypesoftextsincludingnarratives,procedures, performances,reports,reviews,poetryandexpositions.

Level4contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing Language Understandhowtextsvaryincomplexityand technicalitydependingontheapproachtothe topic,thepurposeandtheintendedaudience (ACELA1490) Identifyfeaturesofonlinetextsthatenhance readabilityincludingtext,navigation,links, graphicsandlayout(ACELA1793)
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Elaborations
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becomingfamiliarwiththetypicalstagesandlanguage featuresofsuchtexttypesas:simplenarrative,procedure, simplepersuasiontextsandinformationreports

participatinginonlinesearchesforinformationusingnavigation toolsanddiscussingsimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenprint anddigitalinformation

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English
Exploretheeffectofchoiceswhenframingan image,placementofelementsintheimage, andsalienceoncompositionofstilland movingimagesinarangeoftypesoftexts (ACELA1496) Understandhowadverbgroups/phrasesand prepositionalphrasesworkindifferentwaysto providecircumstantialdetailsaboutanactivity (ACELA1495)
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examiningvisualandmultimodaltexts,buildingavocabularyto describevisualelementsandtechniquessuchasframing, compositionandvisualpointofviewandbeginningto understandhowthesechoicesimpactonviewerresponse

investigatingintextshowadverbgroup/phrasesand prepositionalphrasescanprovidedetailsofthecircumstances surroundingahappeningorstate(forexample,Atmidnight (time)heroseslowly(manner)fromthechair(place)andwent upstairs(place) investigatingexamplesofquoted(direct)speech(Hesaid,Ill gototheparktoday)andreported(indirect)speech(Hetold mehewasgoingtotheparktoday)andcomparingsimilarities anddifferences

Investigatehowquoted(direct)andreported (indirect)speechworkindifferenttypesoftext (ACELA1494)

Literature Discusshowauthorsandillustratorsmake storiesexciting,movingandabsorbingand holdreadersinterestbyusingvarious techniques,forexamplecharacter developmentandplottension(ACELT1605)

Elaborations
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examiningtheauthorsdescriptionofacharactersappearance, behaviourandspeechandnotinghowthecharacters developmentisevidentthroughhisorherdialogueand changingrelationshipsandthereactionsofothercharactersto himorher identifyingpivotalpointsintheplotwherecharactersarefaced withchoicesandcommentingonhowtheauthormakesus careabouttheirdecisionsandconsequences commentingonhowauthorshaveestablishedsettingand periodindifferentculturesandtimesandtherelevanceof characters,actionsandbeliefstotheirowntime comparingdifferentauthorstreatmentofsimilarthemesand textpatterns,forexamplecomparingfablesandallegoriesfrom differentculturesandquestnovelsbydifferentauthors definingspoonerisms,neologismsandpunsandexploring howtheyareusedbyauthorstocreateasenseoffreshness, originalityandplayfulness discussingpoeticlanguage,includingunusualadjectivaluse andhowitengagesusemotionallyandbringstolifethepoets subjectmatter(forexampleHegraspsthecragwithcrooked hands/weetimorousbeastie) examiningtheauthorsdescriptionofacharactersappearance, behaviourandspeechandnotinghowthecharacters developmentisevidentthroughhisorherdialogueand changingrelationshipsandthereactionsofothercharactersto himorher sharingviewsusingappropriatemetalanguage(forexample Theuseoftheadjectivesindescribingthecharacterreally helpstocreateimagesforthereader)

Makeconnectionsbetweenthewaysdifferent authorsmayrepresentsimilarstorylines,ideas andrelationships(ACELT1602)

Understand,interpretandexperimentwitha rangeofdevicesanddeliberatewordplayin poetryandotherliterarytexts,forexample nonsensewords,spoonerisms,neologisms andpuns(ACELT1606)

Usemetalanguagetodescribetheeffectsof ideas,textstructuresandlanguagefeaturesof literarytexts(ACELT1604)

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English
Literacy Identifyandexplainlanguagefeaturesoftexts fromearliertimesandcomparewiththe vocabulary,images,layoutandcontentof contemporarytexts(ACELY1686) Elaborations
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viewingdocumentariesandnewsfootagefromdifferent periods,comparingthestyleofpresentation,including costumesandiconographywithcontemporarytextsonsimilar topicsandtrackingchangingviewsonissues,forexamplewar, race,gender describingthelanguagewhichauthorsusetocreateimaginary worldshowtextualfeaturessuchasheadings,subheadings, boldtypeandgraphicorganisersareusedtoorderandpresent information,andhowvisualcodesareused,forexamplethose usedinadvertisingtorepresentchildrenandfamiliessothat viewersidentifywiththem readingnewanddifferentkindsoftextswiththeuseof establishedwordidentificationstrategies,includingknowledge ofthetopicandoftexttypetogetherwithselfmonitoring strategiesincludingrereading,selfquestioningandpausing, andincludingselfcorrectionstrategiessuchconfirmingand crosschecking readingaloudwithfluencyandexpression readingawiderangeofdifferenttypesoftextsforpleasure makingconnectionsbetweenthetextandstudentsown experienceandothertexts makingconnectionsbetweeninformationinprintandimages buildingandusingpriorknowledgeandvocabulary findingspecificliteralinformation askingandansweringquestions creatingmentalimages findingthemainideaofatext inferringmeaningfromthewayscommunicationoccursin digitalenvironmentsincludingtheinterplaybetweenwords, images,andsounds bringingsubjectandtechnicalvocabularyandconcept knowledgetonewreadingtasks,selectingandusingtextsfor theirpertinencetothetaskandtheaccuracyoftheirinformation

Identifycharacteristicfeaturesusedin imaginative,informativeandpersuasivetextsto meetthepurposeofthetext(ACELY1690)

Readdifferenttypesoftextsbycombining contextual,semantic,grammaticalandphonic knowledgeusingtextprocessingstrategiesfor examplemonitoringmeaning,crosschecking andreviewing(ACELY1691)

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Usecomprehensionstrategiestobuildliteral andinferredmeaningtoexpandcontent knowledge,integratingandlinkingideasand analysingandevaluatingtexts(ACELY1692)

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Writing Language Elaborations

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English
Understandhowtextsaremadecohesive throughtheuseoflinkingdevicesincluding pronounreferenceandtextconnectives (ACELA1491)
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knowinghowauthorsconstructtextsthatarecohesiveand coherentthroughtheuseof:pronounsthatlinktosomething previouslymentioneddeterminers(forexamplethis,that, these,those,the,)textconnectivesthatcreatelinksbetween sentences(forexamplehowever,therefore,nevertheless,in addition,bycontrast,insummary) identifyinghowparticipantsaretrackedthroughatextby,for example,usingpronounstoreferbacktonoungroups/phrases describinghowtextsconnectiveslinksectionsofatext providingsequencesthroughtime,forexamplefirstly,then, next,andfinally creatingricher,morespecificdescriptionsthroughtheuseof noungroups/phrases(forexample,innarrativetexts,theirvery oldSiamesecatinreports,'itsextremelyhighmountain ranges') buildingetymologicalknowledgeaboutwordorigins(for example'thermometer')andbuildingvocabularyfromresearch abouttechnicalandsubjectspecifictopics

Understandthatthemeaningofsentencescan beenrichedthroughtheuseofnoun groups/phrasesandverbgroups/phrasesand prepositionalphrases(ACELA1493) Incorporatenewvocabularyfromarangeof sourcesintostudentsowntextsincluding vocabularyencounteredinresearch (ACELA1498) Understandhowtousestrategiesforspelling words,includingspellingrules,knowledgeof morphemicwordfamilies,spelling generalisations,andlettercombinations includingdoubleletters(ACELA1779)

usingphonologicalknowledge(forexamplelongvowelpatterns inmultisyllabicwords)consonantclusters(forexample 'straight','throat','screen','squawk') usingvisualknowledge(forexamplediphthongsinmore complexwordsandotherambiguousvowelsounds,asin'oy', 'oi','ou','ow','ould','u','ough','au','aw')silentbeginning consonantpatterns(forexample'gn'and'kn') applyinggeneralisations,forexampledoubling(forexample 'running')'e'drop(forexample'hoping') usingmeaningandcontextwhenspellingwords(forexample whendifferentiatingbetweenhomophonessuchasto,too, two exploringtextstoidentifytheuseofquotationmarks experimentingwiththeuseofquotationmarksinstudentsown writing

Recognisehomophonesandknowhowtouse contexttoidentifycorrectspelling(ACELA1780)

Recognisehowquotationmarksareusedin textstosignaldialogue,titlesandquoted (direct)speech(ACELA1492) Literature Createliterarytextsbydevelopingstorylines, charactersandsettings(ACELT1794)

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Elaborations
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collaborativelyplan,compose,sequenceandpreparealiterary textalongafamiliarstoryline,usingfilm,soundandimagesto conveysetting,charactersandpointsofdramaintheplot drawinguponliterarytextsstudentshaveencounteredand experimentingwithchangingparticularaspects,forexamplethe timeorplaceofthesetting,addingcharactersorchangingtheir personalities,orofferinganalternativepointofviewonkey ideas

Createliterarytextsthatexplorestudentsown experiencesandimagining(ACELT1607)

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English
Literacy Plan,draftandpublishimaginative,informative andpersuasivetextscontainingkey informationandsupportingdetailsfora wideningrangeofaudiences,demonstrating increasingcontrolovertextstructuresand languagefeatures(ACELY1694)
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Elaborations
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usingresearchfromprintanddigitalresourcestogatherideas, integratinginformationfromarangeofsourcesselectingtext structureandplanninghowtogroupideasintoparagraphsto sequencecontent,andchoosingvocabularytosuittopicand communicationpurpose usingappropriatesimple,compoundandcomplexsentences toexpressandcombineideas usinggrammaticalfeaturesincludingdifferenttypesofverb groups/phrases,noungroups/phrases,adverbgroups/phrases andprepositionalphrasesforeffectivedescriptionsasrelated topurposeandcontext(forexample,developmentofa charactersactionsoradescriptioninareport) revisingwrittentexts:editingforgrammaticalandspelling accuracyandclarityofthetext,toimprovetheconnection betweenideasandtheoverallflowofthepiece usinghandwritingfluencywithspeedforawiderangeoftasks

Rereadandeditformeaningbyadding, deletingormovingwordsorwordgroupsto improvecontentandstructure(ACELY1695) Writeusingclearlyformedjoinedletters,and developincreasedfluencyandautomaticity (ACELY1696) Usearangeofsoftwareincludingword processingprogramstoconstruct,editand publishwrittentext,andselect,editandplace visual,printandaudioelements(ACELY1697) Speakingandlistening Language UnderstandthatStandardAustralianEnglishis oneofmanysocialdialectsusedinAustralia, andthatwhileitoriginatedinEnglandithas beeninfluencedbymanyotherlanguages (ACELA1487)

identifyingandselectingappropriatesoftwareprogramsfor constructingtext

Elaborations
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identifyingwordsusedinStandardAustralianEnglishthatare derivedfromotherlanguages,includingAboriginalandTorres StraitIslanderlanguages,anddeterminingiftheoriginal meaningisreflectedinEnglishusage,forexamplekangaroo, tsunami,typhoon,amok,orangutan identifyingcommonlyusedwordsderivedfromothercultures

Understandthatsocialinteractionsinfluence thewaypeopleengagewithideasand respondtoothersforexamplewhenexploring andclarifyingtheideasofothers,summarising theirownviewsandreportingthemtoalarger group(ACELA1488)

recognisingthatwecanuselanguagedifferentlywithour friendsandfamilies,butthatStandardAustralianEnglishis typicallyusedinwrittenschooltextsandmoreformalcontexts recognisingthatlanguageisadjustedindifferentcontexts,for exampleindegreeofformalitywhenmovingbetweengroup discussionsandpresentingagroupreport understandinghowage,status,expertiseandfamiliarity influencethewaysinwhichweinteractwithpeopleandhow thesecodesandconventionsvaryacrosscultures recognisingtheimportanceofusinginclusivelanguage

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English
Understanddifferencesbetweenthelanguage ofopinionandfeelingandthelanguageof factualreportingorrecording(ACELA1489) Literature Discussliteraryexperienceswithothers, sharingresponsesandexpressingapointof view(ACELT1603)
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identifyingwaysthinkingverbsareusedtoexpressopinion,for exampleIthink,Ibelieve,andwayssummaryverbsareused toreportfindings,forexampleweconcluded

Elaborations
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sharinganddiscussingstudentsownandothers understandingoftheeffectsofparticularliterarytechniqueson theirappreciationoftexts drawingcomparisonsbetweenmultipletextsandstudents ownexperiences.Commentingorally,inwrittenformandin digitalreviewsonaspectssuchas:'DoIrecognisethisinmy ownworld?''Howisthistextsimilartoordifferentfromother textsIveread?''Howcommonisittohumanexperienceinthe realworld?''Whatnewideasdoesitbring?'Howdotheyfit withwhatIbelieve?'

Literacy Interpretideasandinformationinspokentexts andlistenforkeypointsinordertocarryout tasksanduseinformationtoshareandextend ideasandinformation(ACELY1687)

Elaborations
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makingnotesaboutatask,askingquestionstoclarifyorfollow upinformation,andseekingassistanceifrequired discussinglevelsoflanguageslang,colloquial(everyday) andformallanguageandhowtheirappropriateness changeswiththesituationandaudience.Presentingideasand opinionsatlevelsofformalityappropriatetothecontextand audience participatinginpair,group,classandschoolspeakingand listeningsituations,includinginformalconversations,class discussionsandpresentations developingappropriatespeakingandlisteningbehaviours includingacknowledgingandextendingotherscontributions, presentingideasandopinionsclearlyandcoherently choosingavarietyofappropriatewordsandprepositional phrases,includingdescriptivewordsandsometechnical vocabulary,tocommunicatemeaningaccurately exploringtheeffectsofchangingvoicetone,volume,pitchand paceinformalandinformalcontexts reportingonatopicinanorganisedmanner,providingrelevant factsanddescriptivedetailtoenhanceaudience understanding,andbeginningtorefertoreliablesourcesto supportclaims

Useinteractionskillssuchasacknowledging anotherspointofviewandlinkingstudents responsetothetopic,usingfamiliarandnew vocabularyandarangeofvocaleffectssuchas tone,pace,pitchandvolumetospeakclearly andcoherently(ACELY1688)

Plan,rehearseanddeliverpresentations incorporatinglearnedcontentandtakinginto accounttheparticularpurposesandaudiences (ACELY1689)

Level4achievementstandard
Readingandviewing

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English
BytheendofLevel4,studentsunderstandthattextshavedifferentstructuresdependingonthepurposeandaudience.They explainhowlanguagefeatures,imagesandvocabularyareusedtoengagetheinterestofaudiences.Theydescribeliteral andimpliedmeaningconnectingideasindifferenttexts.Theyexpresspreferencesforparticulartexts,andrespondtoothers viewpoints. Writing Studentsuselanguagefeaturestocreatecoherenceandadddetailtotheirtexts.Theyunderstandhowtoexpressanopinion basedoninformationinatext.Theycreatetextsthatshowunderstandingofhowimagesanddetailcanbeusedtoextend keyideas.Studentscreatestructuredtextstoexplainideasfordifferentaudiences.Theydemonstrateunderstandingof grammar,selectvocabularyfromarangeofresourcesanduseaccuratespellingandpunctuation,editingtheirworkto improvemeaning. Speakingandlistening Studentslistenforkeypointsindiscussions.Theyuselanguagefeaturestocreatecoherenceandadddetailtotheirtexts. Theyunderstandhowtoexpressanopinionbasedoninformationinatext.Theycreatetextsthatshowunderstandingofhow imagesanddetailcanbeusedtoextendkeyideas.Studentscreatestructuredtextstoexplainideasfordifferentaudiences. Theymakepresentationsandcontributeactivelytoclassandgroupdiscussions,varyinglanguageaccordingtocontext.

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English
Level5
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas needed. InLevels5and6,studentscommunicatewithpeersandteachersfromotherclassesandschools,community members,andindividualsandgroups,inarangeoffacetofaceandonline/virtualenvironments. Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theylistento,read,view,interpretandevaluatespoken,writtenand multimodaltextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeisaesthetic,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformandpersuade.These includevarioustypesofmediatextsincludingnewspapers,filmanddigitaltexts,juniorandearlyadolescentnovels, poetry,nonfiction,anddramaticperformances.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom andaboutAsia.


LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendstudentsinLevels5and6asindependentreadersdescribecomplexsequences,a rangeofnonstereotypicalcharactersandelaboratedeventsincludingflashbacksandshiftsintime.Thesetextsexplore themesofinterpersonalrelationshipsandethicaldilemmaswithinrealworldandfantasysettings.Informativetexts supplytechnicalandcontentinformationaboutawiderangeoftopicsofinterestaswellastopicsbeingstudiedinother areasofthecurriculum.Textstructuresincludechapters,headingsandsubheadings,tablesofcontents,indexesand glossaries.Languagefeaturesincludecomplexsentences,unfamiliartechnicalvocabulary,figurativelanguage,and informationpresentedinvarioustypesofgraphics. Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetypesoftextsincludingnarratives,procedures, performances,reports,reviews,explanationsanddiscussions.

Level5contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing Language Understandhowtextsvaryinpurpose, structureandtopicaswellasthe degreeofformality(ACELA1504) Elaborations
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becomingfamiliarwiththetypicalstagesandlanguagefeaturesofsuch texttypesas:narrative,procedure,exposition,explanation,discussion andinformativetextandhowtheycanbecomposedandpresentedin written,digitalandmultimediaforms

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English
Investigatehowtheorganisationof textsintochapters,headings, subheadings,homepagesandsub pagesforonlinetextsandaccordingto chronologyortopiccanbeusedto predictcontentandassistnavigation (ACELA1797) Explainsequencesofimagesinprint textsandcomparethesetotheways hyperlinkeddigitaltextsareorganised, explainingtheireffectonviewers interpretations(ACELA1511) Understandhowtousebanksof knownwords,aswellaswordorigins, prefixesandsuffixes,tolearnand spellnewwords(ACELA1513)
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interpretingnarrativetextstoldaswordlesspicturebooks identifyingandcomparingsequencesofimagesrevealedthrough differenthyperlinkchoices

learningthatmanycomplexwordswereoriginallyhyphenatedbuthave becomeprefixedasinuncommon,renewemailandrefine talkingabouthowsuffixeschangeovertimeandnewformsareinvented toreflectchangingattitudestogender,forexamplepolicewoman, salespersonairhostess/stewardorflightattendant usingknowledgeofwordoriginsandrootsandrelatedwordsto interpretandspellunfamiliarwords,andlearningabouthowtheseroots impactonplurals

Recogniseuncommonplurals,for examplefoci(ACELA1514)

Literature Recognisethatideasinliterarytexts canbeconveyedfromdifferent viewpoints,whichcanleadtodifferent kindsofinterpretationsandresponses (ACELT1610)

Elaborations
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identifyingthenarrativevoice(thepersonorentitythroughwhomthe audienceexperiencesthestory)inaliterarywork,discussingtheimpact offirstpersonnarrationonempathyandengagement examiningtextswrittenfromdifferentnarrativepointsofviewand discussingwhatinformationtheaudiencecanaccess,howthisimpacts ontheaudiencessympathies,andwhyanauthormightchoosea particularnarrativepointofview examiningthenarrativevoiceintextsfromAboriginalandTorresStrait Islandertraditions,whichincludeperspectivesofanimalsandspirits, abouthowweshouldcarefortheEarth,forexamplereflectingonhow thisaffectssignificance,interpretationandresponse describinghowaspectsofliterature,forexamplevisuals,symbolic elements,dialogueandcharacterdescriptions,canconveyinformation aboutculturalelements,suchasbeliefs,traditionsandcustoms identifyingvariabilitywithinculturalcontextsinliterarytexts,recognising thediversityofpeoplesexperienceswithinaculturalgroupsuchas differencesinsettingandlifestylebetweenurbanandremoteAboriginal andTorresStraitIslanderpeoples

Identifyaspectsofliterarytextsthat conveydetailsorinformationabout particularsocial,culturalandhistorical contexts(ACELT1608)

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English
Understand,interpretandexperiment withsounddevicesandimagery, includingsimile,metaphorand personification,innarratives,shape poetry,songs,anthemsandodes (ACELT1611)
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discussinghowfigurativelanguageincludingsimileandmetaphorcan makeuseofacomparisonbetweendifferentthings,forexampleMy loveislikeared,redroseTyger!,Tyger!burningbright,Intheforestsof thenightandhowbyappealingtotheimagination,itprovidesnew waysoflookingattheworld investigatingthequalitiesofcontemporaryprotestsongs,forexample thoseaboutIndigenouspeoplesandthoseabouttheenvironment

Usemetalanguagetodescribethe effectsofideas,textstructuresand languagefeaturesonparticular audiences(ACELT1795) Literacy Showhowideasandpointsofviewin textsareconveyedthroughtheuseof vocabulary,includingidiomatic expressions,objectiveandsubjective language,andthatthesecanchange accordingtocontext(ACELY1698) Identifyandexplaincharacteristictext structuresandlanguagefeatures usedinimaginative,informativeand persuasivetextstomeetthepurpose ofthetext(ACELY1701) Navigateandreadtextsforspecific purposesapplyingappropriatetext processingstrategies,forexample predictingandconfirming,monitoring meaning,skimmingandscanning (ACELY1702)

orally,inwritingorusingdigitalmedia,givingaconsideredinterpretation andopinionaboutaliterarytext,recognisingthatastudentsviewmay notbesharedbyothersandthatothershaveequalclaimstodivergent views

Elaborations
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identifyingthenarrativevoice(thepersonorentitythroughwhomthe audienceexperiencesthestory)inaliterarywork,discussingtheimpact offirstpersonnarrationonempathyandengagement

explaininghowthefeaturesofatextadvocatingcommunityaction,for exampleactiononalocalareapreservationissue,areusedtomeetthe purposeofthetext

bringingsubjectandtechnicalvocabularyandconceptknowledgeto newreadingtasks selectingandusingtextsfortheirpertinencetothetaskandthe accuracyoftheirinformation usingwordidentification,selfmonitoringandselfcorrectingstrategies toaccessmaterialonlessfamiliartopics,skimmingandscanningto checkthepertinenceofparticularinformationtostudentstopicandtask readingawiderangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetextsfor pleasureandtofindanduseinformation usingresearchskillsincludingidentifyingresearchpurpose,locating texts,gatheringandorganisinginformation,evaluatingitsrelativevalue, andtheaccuracyandcurrencyofprintanddigitalsourcesand summarisinginformationfromseveralsources

Usecomprehensionstrategiesto analyseinformation,integratingand linkingideasfromavarietyofprintand digitalsources(ACELY1703) Writing Language

Elaborations

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English
Understandthatthestartingpointofa sentencegivesprominencetothe messageinthetextandallowsfor predictionofhowthetextwillunfold (ACELA1505) Understandthedifferencebetween mainandsubordinateclausesand thatacomplexsentenceinvolvesat leastonesubordinateclause (ACELA1507)
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observinghowwritersusethebeginningofasentencetosignaltothe readerhowthetextisdeveloping(forexample'Snakesarereptiles.They havescalesandnolegs.Manysnakesarepoisonous.However,in Australiatheyareprotected')

knowingthatthefunctionofcomplexsentencesistomakeconnections betweenideas,suchas:toprovideareason(forexample'Hejumped upbecausethebellrang.')tostateapurpose(forexample'Sheraced homeinordertoconfrontherbrother.')toexpressacondition(for example'Itwillbreakifyoupushit.')tomakeaconcession(forexample 'Shewenttoworkeventhoughshewasnotfeelingwell.')tolinktwo ideasintermsofvarioustimerelations(forexample'Nerofiddledwhile Romeburned.') learninghowtoexpandadescriptionbycombiningarelatedsetof nounsandadjectivesTwooldbrowncattledogssatontheruined frontverandaofthedesertedhouse observinghowdescriptivedetailscanbebuiltuparoundanounoran adjective,formingagroup/phrase(forexample,thisverysmelly cleaningclothinthesinkisanoungroup/phraseandasprettyasthe flowersinMayisanadjectivegroup/phrase) movingfromgeneral,allpurposewords,forexamplecuttomore specificwords,forexampleslice,dice,fillet,segment

Understandhownoun groups/phrasesandadjective groups/phrasescanbeexpandedina varietyofwaystoprovideafuller descriptionoftheperson,place,thing oridea(ACELA1508)

Understandtheuseofvocabularyto expressgreaterprecisionofmeaning, andknowthatwordscanhavedifferent meaningsindifferentcontexts (ACELA1512) Understandhowthegrammatical categoryofpossessivesissignalled throughapostrophesandhowtouse apostropheswithcommonandproper nouns(ACELA1506)

learningthatinStandardAustralianEnglishregularpluralnounsending insformthepossessivebyaddingjusttheapostrophe(forexample myparents'car) learningthatinStandardAustralianEnglishforpropernounsavariant formwithoutthesecondsissometimesfound(forexampleJamess houseorJameshouse)

Literature Createliterarytextsthatexperiment withstructures,ideasandstylistic featuresofselectedauthors (ACELT1798)

Elaborations
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drawinguponfictionelementsinarangeofmodeltextsforexample mainidea,characterisation,setting(timeandplace),narrativepointof viewanddevices,forexamplefigurativelanguage(simile,metaphor, personification),aswellasnonverbalconventionsindigitalandscreen textsinordertoexperimentwithnew,creativewaysofcommunicating ideas,experiencesandstoriesinliterarytexts usingtextswithcomputerbasedgraphics,animationand2Dqualities, considerhowandwhyparticulartraitsforacharacterhavebeenchosen

Createliterarytextsusingrealisticand fantasysettingsandcharactersthat drawontheworldsrepresentedin textsstudentshaveexperienced (ACELT1612) Literacy

Elaborations

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English
Plan,draftandpublishimaginative, informativeandpersuasiveprintand multimodaltexts,choosingtext structures,languagefeatures,images andsoundappropriatetopurposeand audience(ACELY1704)
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usingresearchfromprintanddigitalresourcestogatherandorganise informationforwriting selectinganappropriatetextstructureforthewritingpurposeand sequencingcontentaccordingtothattextstructure,introducingthetopic, andgroupingrelatedinformationinwellsequencedparagraphswitha concludingstatement usingvocabulary,includingtechnicalvocabulary,appropriatetopurpose andcontext usingparagraphstopresentandsequenceatext usingappropriategrammaticalfeatures,includingmorecomplex sentencesandrelevantverbtense,pronounreference,adverbandnoun groups/phrasesforeffectivedescriptions editingforflowandsense,organisationofideasandchoiceof language,revisingandtryingnewapproachesifanelementisnot havingthedesiredimpact

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Rereadandeditstudent'sownand othersworkusingagreedcriteriafor textstructuresandlanguagefeatures (ACELY1705) Developahandwritingstylethatis becominglegible,fluentandautomatic (ACELY1706) Usearangeofsoftwareincluding wordprocessingprogramswith fluencytoconstruct,editandpublish writtentext,andselect,editandplace visual,printandaudioelements (ACELY1707) Speakingandlistening Language Understandthatthepronunciation, spellingandmeaningsofwordshave historiesandchangeovertime (ACELA1500)

usinghandwritingwithincreasingfluencyandlegibilityappropriatetoa widerangeofwritingpurposes

writinglettersinprintandbyemail,composingwithincreasingfluency, accuracyandlegibilityanddemonstratingunderstandingofwhatthe audiencemaywanttohear

Elaborations
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recognisingthataknowledgeofwordoriginsisnotonlyinterestinginits ownright,butthatitextendsstudentsknowledgeofvocabularyand spelling exploringexamplesofwordsinwhichpronunciation,writingand meaninghaschangedovertime,includingwordsfromarangeof cultures identifyingwaysinwhichculturesdifferinmakingandrespondingto commonrequests,forexampleperiodsofsilence,degreesofformality

Understandthatpatternsoflanguage interactionvaryacrosssocialcontexts andtypesoftextsandthattheyhelpto signalsocialrolesandrelationships (ACELA1501)

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English
Understandhowtomovebeyond makingbareassertionsandtake accountofdifferingperspectivesand pointsofview(ACELA1502)
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recognisingthatabareassertion(forexample'It'sthebestfilmthis level')oftenneedstobetemperedby:usingthe'impersonalit'to distanceoneself(forexample'Itcouldbethatitisthebestfilmthis level')recruitinganonymoussupport(forexample'Itisgenerallyagreed thatitisthebestfilmthislevel.')indicatingageneralsourceofthe opinion(forexample'Mostcriticsagreethatitisthebestfilmthislevel.') specifyingthesourceoftheopinion(forexample'DavidandMargaret bothagreethatitisthebestfilmthislevel')andreflectingontheeffectof thesedifferentchoices

Literature Presentapointofviewaboutparticular literarytextsusingappropriate metalanguage,andreflectingonthe viewpointsofothers(ACELT1609) Literacy Clarifyunderstandingofcontentasit unfoldsinformalandinformal situations,connectingideasto studentsownexperiencesand presentandjustifyapointofview (ACELY1699) Useinteractionskills,forexample paraphrasing,questioningand interpretingnonverbalcuesand choosevocabularyandvocaleffects appropriatefordifferentaudiencesand purposes(ACELY1796)

Elaborations
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posinganddiscussingquestions,suchasShouldthischaracterhave behavedastheydid?,andbeginningtomakebalancedjudgments aboutthedilemmascharactersfaceandrelativemeritandharm

Elaborations
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askingspecificquestionstoclarifyaspeakersmeaning,making constructivecommentsthatkeepconversationmoving,reviewingideas expressedandconveyingtentativeconclusions

participatinginpair,group,classandschoolspeakingandlistening situations,includinginformalconversations,discussionsand presentations usingeffectivestrategiesfordialogueanddiscussionincluding speakingclearlyandtothepoint,pausinginappropriateplacesfor otherstorespond,askingpertinentquestionsandlinkingstudentsown responsestothecontributionsofothers choosingvocabularyandsentencestructuresforparticularpurposes includingformalandinformalcontexts,toreportandexplainnew conceptsandtopics,toofferapointofviewandtopersuadeothers experimentingwithvoiceeffectsinformalpresentationssuchastone, volume,pitchandpace,recognisingtheeffectsthesehaveonaudience understanding planningareportonatopic,sequencingideaslogicallyandproviding supportingdetail,includinggraphics,soundandvisualstoenhance audienceengagementandunderstanding

Plan,rehearseanddeliver presentationsfordefinedaudiences andpurposesincorporatingaccurate andsequencedcontentand multimodalelements(ACELY1700)

Level5achievementstandard
Readingandviewing

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English
BytheendofLevel5,studentsexplainhowtextstructuresassistinunderstandingthetext.Theyunderstandhowlanguage features,imagesandvocabularyinfluenceinterpretationsofcharacters,settingsandevents.Theyanalyseandexplainliteral andimpliedinformationfromavarietyoftexts.Theydescribehowevents,charactersandsettingsintextsaredepictedand explaintheirownresponsestothem. Writing Studentsuselanguagefeaturestoshowhowideascanbeextended.Theydevelopandexplainapointofviewaboutatext. Theycreateavarietyofsequencedtextsfordifferentpurposesandaudiences.Whenwriting,theydemonstrate understandingofgrammar,selectspecificvocabularyanduseaccuratespellingandpunctuation,editingtheirworkto providestructureandmeaning. Speakingandlistening Studentslistenandaskquestionstoclarifycontent.Theyuselanguagefeaturestoshowhowideascanbeextended.They developandexplainapointofviewaboutatextselectinginformation,ideasandimagesfromarangeofresources.They createavarietyofsequencedtextsfordifferentpurposesandaudiences.Theymakepresentationsandcontributeactivelyto classandgroupdiscussions,takingintoaccountotherperspectives.

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English
Level6
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas needed. InLevels5and6,studentscommunicatewithpeersandteachersfromotherclassesandschools,community members,andindividualsandgroups,inarangeoffacetofaceandonline/virtualenvironments. Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theylistento,read,view,interpretandevaluatespoken,writtenand multimodaltextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeisaesthetic,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformandpersuade.These includevarioustypesofmediatextsincludingnewspapers,filmanddigitaltexts,juniorandearlyadolescentnovels, poetry,nonfictionanddramaticperformances.Studentsdeveloptheirunderstandingofhowtexts,includingmediatexts, areinfluencedbycontext,purposeandaudience.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom andaboutAsia.


LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendstudentsinLevels5and6asindependentreadersdescribecomplexsequences,a rangeofnonstereotypicalcharactersandelaboratedeventsincludingflashbacksandshiftsintime.Thesetextsexplore themesofinterpersonalrelationshipsandethicaldilemmaswithinrealworldandfantasysettings.Informativetexts supplytechnicalandcontentinformationaboutawiderangeoftopicsofinterestaswellastopicsbeingstudiedinother areasofthecurriculum.Textstructuresincludechapters,headingsandsubheadings,tablesofcontents,indexesand glossaries.Languagefeaturesincludecomplexsentences,unfamiliartechnicalvocabulary,figurativelanguage,and informationpresentedinvarioustypesofgraphics. Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetypesoftextssuchasnarratives,procedures, performances,reports,reviews,explanationsanddiscussions.

Level6contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing Language Elaborations

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English
Understandhowauthorsofteninnovate ontextstructuresandplaywith languagefeaturestoachieveparticular aesthetic,humorousandpersuasive purposesandeffects(ACELA1518)
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exploringarangeofeveryday,community,literaryandinformativetexts discussingelementsoftextstructureandlanguagefeaturesand comparingtheoverallstructureandeffectofauthorschoicesintwoor moretexts examiningdifferentworksbyanauthorwhospecialisesinhumouror pathostoidentifystrategiessuchasexaggerationandcharacter embarrassmenttoamuseandtoofferinsightsintocharacters feelings,sobuildingempathywiththeirpointsofviewandconcernfor theirwelfare observinghowsequentialeventscanberepresentedvisuallybya seriesofimages,includingcomicstrips,timelines,photostories, procedurediagramsandflowcharts,lifecyclediagrams,andtheflowof imagesinpicturebooks observinghowconcepts,informationandrelationshipscanbe representedvisuallythroughsuchimagesastables,maps,graphs, diagrams,andicons

Identifyandexplainhowanalytical imageslikefigures,tables,diagrams, mapsandgraphscontributetoour understandingofverbalinformationin factualandpersuasivetexts (ACELA1524)

Literature Analyseandevaluatesimilaritiesand differencesintextsonsimilartopics, themesorplots(ACELT1614)

Elaborations
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exploringtextsonasimilartopicbyauthorswithverydifferentstyles,for examplecomparingfantasyquestnovelsorrealisticnovelsona specifictheme,identifyingdifferencesintheuseofnarrator,narrative structureandvoiceandlanguagestyleandregister exploringtwoormoretextsbythesameauthor,drawingoutthe similarities,forexamplesubjectortheme,characterisation,text structure,plotdevelopment,tone,vocabulary,senseofvoice,narrative pointofview,favouredgrammaticalstructuresandvisualtechniquesin sophisticatedpicturebooks

Identify,describe,anddiscuss similaritiesanddifferencesbetween texts,includingthosebythesame authororillustrator,andevaluate characteristicsthatdefineanauthors individualstyle(ACELT1616) Identifyandexplainhowchoicesin language,forexamplemodality, emphasis,repetitionandmetaphor, influencepersonalresponseto differenttexts(ACELT1615)

notinghowdegreesofpossibilityareopenedupthroughtheuseof modalverbs(forexample,ItmaybeasolutionascomparedtoItcould beasolution),aswellasthroughotherresourcessuchasadverbs(for example,Itspossibly/probably/certainlyasolution),adjectives(for example,Itsapossible/probable/certainsolution)andnouns(for example,Itsapossibility/probability) identifyinghowlanguagechoiceandimagerybuildemotional connectionandengagementwiththestoryortheme describinghowacharactersexperienceexpressedthroughaverse novelimpactsonstudentspersonally,howtheauthorcontrolsthe revelationoftheexperiencesandhowtheversestorybuildsmeaningto itsclimaxwhenweunderstandthewhole

Identifytherelationshipbetween words,sounds,imageryandlanguage patternsinnarrativesandpoetrysuch asballads,limericksandfreeverse (ACELT1617)

Literacy Analysehowtextstructuresand languagefeaturesworktogetherto meetthepurposeofatext (ACELY1711)

Elaborations
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comparingthestructuresandfeaturesofdifferenttexts,includingprint anddigitalsourcesonsimilartopics,andevaluatingwhichfeatures bestaidnavigationandclearcommunicationaboutthetopic

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English
Analysestrategiesauthorsuseto influencereaders(ACELY1801) Select,navigateandreadtextsfora rangeofpurposes,applying appropriatetextprocessingstrategies andinterpretingstructuralfeatures,for exampletableofcontents,glossary, chapters,headingsandsubheadings (ACELY1712)
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identifyhowauthorsuselanguagetopositionthereaderandgive reasons bringingsubjectandtechnicalvocabularyandconceptknowledgeto newreadingtasks,selecting,evaluatingandusingtextsfortheir pertinencetothetaskandtheaccuracyoftheirinformation usingwordidentification,selfmonitoringandselfcorrectingstrategies usingresearchskillsincludingidentifyingresearchpurpose,locating texts,gatheringandorganisinginformation,evaluatingandusing information identifyingandusingtextsforawiderangeofpurposes,selectingtexts byfavouriteauthorsandtryingnewones makingconnectionsbetweenthetextandstudentsownexperienceor othertexts makingconnectionsbetweeninformationinprintandimages findingspecificliteralinformation usingpriorknowledgeandtextualinformationtomakeinferencesand predictions askingandansweringquestions findingthemainideaofatext summarisingatextorpartofatext

Usecomprehensionstrategiesto interpretandanalyseinformationand ideas,comparingcontentfromavariety oftextualsourcesincludingmediaand digitaltexts(ACELY1713)

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Writing Language Understandthatcohesivelinkscanbe madeintextsbyomittingorreplacing words(ACELA1520)


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Elaborations
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notinghowwritersoftensubstituteageneralwordforamorespecific wordalreadymentioned,thuscreatingacohesivelinkbetweenthe words(forexample,Lookatthoseapples.CanItakethesebigones?, whereonessubstitutesforapples) notinghowwritersoftensubstituteageneralwordforamorespecific wordalreadymentioned,thuscreatingacohesivelinkbetweenthe words(forexample'Lookatthoseapples.CanIhaveone?') recognisinghowcohesioncanbedevelopedthroughrepeatingkey wordsorbyusingsynonymsorantonyms observinghowrelationshipsbetweenconceptscanberepresented visuallythroughsimilarity,contrast,juxtaposition,repetition,class subclassdiagrams,partwholediagrams,causeandeffectfigures, visualcontinuitiesanddiscontinuities

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English
Investigatehowcomplexsentences canbeusedinavarietyofwaysto elaborate,extendandexplainideas (ACELA1522)
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knowingthatacomplexsentencetypicallyconsistsofamainclause andasubordinateclause knowingthatthefunctionofcomplexsentencesistomakeconnections betweenideas,suchas:toprovideareason(forexample'Hejumped upbecausethebellrang')tostateapurpose(forexample'Sheraced homeinordertoconfrontherbrother')toexpressacondition(for example'Itwillbreakifyoupushit')tomakeaconcession(forexample 'Shewenttoworkeventhoughshewasnotfeelingwell')tolinktwo ideasintermsofvarioustimerelations(forexample'Nerofiddledwhile Romeburned') knowingthatverbsoftenrepresentactionsandthatthechoiceofmore expressiveverbsmakesanactionmorevivid(forexample'Sheateher lunch'comparedto'Shegobbledupherlunch') knowingthatadverbgroups/phrasesandprepositionalphrasescan provideimportantdetailsaboutahappening(forexample,Atnine o'clockthebuzzerrangloudlythroughouttheschool)orstate(for example,Thetigerisamemberofthecatfamily) knowingthedifferencebetweenthesimplepresenttense(forexample 'Pandaseatbamboo.')andthesimplepasttense(forexample'She replied.') knowingthatthesimplepresenttenseistypicallyusedtotalkabout eitherpresentstates(forexample,HelivesinDarwin)oractionsthat happenregularlyinthepresent(forexample,Hewatchestelevision everynight)orthatrepresenttimelesshappenings,asininformation reports(forexample,Bearshibernateinwinter) knowingthattherearevariouswaysinEnglishtorefertofuturetime(for example'Shewillcallyoutomorrow''Iamgoingtothemovies tomorrow''TomorrowIleaveforHobart') identifying(forexamplefromreviews)thewaysinwhichevaluative languageisusedtoassessthequalitiesofthevariousaspectsofthe workinquestion

Understandhowideascanbe expandedandsharpenedthrough carefulchoiceofverbs,elaborated tensesandarangeofadverb groups/phrases(ACELA1523)

Investigatehowvocabularychoices, includingevaluativelanguagecan expressshadesofmeaning,feeling andopinion(ACELA1525) Understandhowtousebanksof knownwords,wordorigins,base words,suffixesandprefixes, morphemes,spellingpatternsand generalisationstolearnandspellnew words,forexampletechnicalwords andwordsadoptedfromother languages(ACELA1526) Understandtheusesofcommasto separateclauses(ACELA1521) Literature

adoptingarangeofspellingstrategiestorecallandattempttospell newwords usingadictionarytocorrectstudentsownspelling

identifyingdifferentusesofcommasintexts

Elaborations

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English
Experimentwithtextstructuresand languagefeaturesandtheireffectsin creatingliterarytexts,forexample, usingimagery,sentencevariation, metaphorandwordchoice (ACELT1800) Createliterarytextsthatadaptor combineaspectsoftextsstudents haveexperiencedininnovativeways (ACELT1618)
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selectingandusingsensorylanguagetoconveyavividpictureof places,feelingsandeventsinasemistructuredverseform

creatingnarrativesinwritten,spokenormultimodal/digitalformatfor morethanonespecifiedaudience,requiringadaptationofnarrative elementsandlanguagefeatures planningandcreatingtextsthatentertain,inform,inspireand/or emotionallyengagefamiliarandlessfamiliaraudiences

Literacy Comparetextsincludingmediatexts thatrepresentideasandeventsin differentways,explainingtheeffectsof thedifferentapproaches(ACELY1708) Plan,draftandpublishimaginative, informativeandpersuasivetexts, choosingandexperimentingwithtext structures,languagefeatures,images anddigitalresourcesappropriateto purposeandaudience(ACELY1714) Rereadandeditstudentsownand othersworkusingagreedcriteriaand explainingeditingchoices (ACELY1715) Developahandwritingstylethatis legible,fluentandautomaticandvaries accordingtoaudienceandpurpose (ACELY1716) Usearangeofsoftware,including wordprocessingprograms,learning newfunctionsasrequiredtocreate texts(ACELY1717) Speakingandlistening Language

Elaborations
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identifyingandexploringnewsreportsofthesameevent,anddiscuss thelanguagechoicesandpointofviewofthewriters usingdisplayadvertisingasatopicvehicleforcloseanalysisofthe waysimagesandwordscombinefordeliberateeffectincluding examplesfromthecountriesofAsia(forexamplecomparingHollywood filmposterswithIndianBollywoodfilmposters) creatinginformativetextsfortwodifferentaudiences,suchasavisiting academicandaLevel3class,thatexploreanaspectofbiodiversity usingrhetoricaldevices,images,surprisetechniquesandjuxtaposition ofpeopleandideasandmodalverbsandmodalauxiliariestoenhance thepersuasivenatureofatext,recognisingandexploitingaudience susceptibilities

editingforcoherence,sequence,effectivechoiceofvocabulary,opening devices,dialogueanddescription,humourandpathos,asappropriate tothetaskandaudience

usinghandwritingefficientlyasatoolforawiderangeofformaland informaltextcreationtasks

selectingandcombiningsoftwarefunctionsasneededtocreatetexts

Elaborations

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English
Understandthatdifferentsocialand geographicaldialectsoraccentsare usedinAustraliainadditionto StandardAustralianEnglish (ACELA1515)
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recognisingthattherearemorethan150Aboriginallanguagesandtwo TorresStraitIslanderlanguagesandthattheyrelatetogeographic areasinAustralia recognisingthatalllanguagesanddialectsareofequalvalue,although weusedifferentonesindifferentcontexts,forexampletheuseof StandardAustralianEnglish,AboriginalEnglishandformsofCreole usedbysomeTorresStraitIslandergroupsandsomeofAustralias nearneighbours identifyandappreciatedifferencesinlanguageusedindiversefamily settings

Understandthatstrategiesfor interactionbecomemorecomplexand demandingaslevelsofformalityand socialdistanceincrease(ACELA1516) Understandtheusesofobjectiveand subjectivelanguageandbias (ACELA1517)

understandingwhenitisappropriatetosharefeelingsandopinions (forexampleinapersonalrecount)andwhenitisappropriatetoremain moreobjective(forexampleinafactualrecount) differentiatingbetweenreportingthefacts(forexampleinanewsstory) andprovidingacommentary(forexampleinaneditorial)

Literature Makeconnectionsbetweenstudents ownexperiencesandthoseof charactersandeventsrepresentedin textsdrawnfromdifferenthistorical, socialandculturalcontexts (ACELT1613)

Elaborations
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recognisingtheinfluenceourdifferenthistorical,socialandcultural experiencesmayhaveonthemeaningwemakefromthetextandthe attitudeswemaydeveloptowardscharacters,actionsandevents

Literacy Participateinandcontributeto discussions,clarifyingand interrogatingideas,developingand supportingarguments,sharingand evaluatinginformation,experiences andopinions(ACELY1709)

Elaborations
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usingstrategies,forexamplepausing,questioning,rephrasing, repeating,summarising,reviewingandaskingclarifyingquestions exploringpersonalreasonsforacceptanceorrejectionofopinions offeredandlinkingthereasonstothewayourculturalexperiencescan affectourresponses recognisingthatclosedquestionsaskforpreciseresponseswhile openquestionspromptaspeakertoprovidemoreinformation

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English
Useinteractionskills,varying conventionsofspokeninteractions suchasvoicevolume,tone,pitchand pace,accordingtogroupsize,formality ofinteractionandneedsandexpertise oftheaudience(ACELY1816)
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participatinginpair,group,class,schoolandcommunityspeakingand listeningsituations,includinginformalconversations,discussions, debatesandpresentations usingeffectivestrategiesfordialogueanddiscussioninrangeof familiarandnewcontexts,includingspeakingclearlyandcoherently andatappropriatelength,acknowledgingandextendingthe contributionsofothers,askingpertinentquestionsandanswering othersquestions choosingvocabularyandspokentextandsentencestructuresfor particularpurposesandaudiences,adaptinglanguagechoicestomeet theperceivedaudienceneeds,suchasrecountinganexcursiontoa youngerclassorwelcomingavisitortoaschoolfunction experimentingwithvoiceeffectsfordifferentaudiencesandpurposes, suchastone,volume,pitchandpace,recognisingtheeffectsthese haveonaudienceunderstandingandengagement usingtechnologiestocollaborativelyprepareahumorous,dynamic groupviewonadebatabletopic,suchasKidsshouldbeallowedto readandviewwhattheylike,tobepresentedtoteachersandparents

Plan,rehearseanddeliver presentations,selectingand sequencingappropriatecontentand multimodalelementsfordefined audiencesandpurposes,making appropriatechoicesformodalityand emphasis(ACELY1710)

Level6achievementstandard
Readingandviewing BytheendofLevel6,studentsunderstandhowtheuseoftextstructurescanachieveparticulareffects.Theyanalyseand explainhowlanguagefeatures,imagesandvocabularyareusedbydifferentauthorstorepresentideas,charactersand events.Theycompareandanalyseinformationindifferenttexts,explainingliteralandimpliedmeaning.Theyselectanduse evidencefromatexttoexplaintheirresponsetoit. Writing Studentsunderstandhowlanguagefeaturesandlanguagepatternscanbeusedforemphasis.Theyshowhowspecific detailscanbeusedtosupportapointofview.Theyexplainhowtheirchoicesoflanguagefeaturesandimagesareused. Theycreatedetailedtextselaboratinguponkeyideasforarangeofpurposesandaudiences.Theydemonstrate understandingofgrammar,makeconsideredchoicesfromanexpandingvocabulary,use,accuratespellingandpunctuation forclarityandmakeandexplaineditorialchoices. Speakingandlistening Studentslistentodiscussions,clarifyingcontentandchallengingothersideas.Theyunderstandhowlanguagefeaturesand languagepatternscanbeusedforemphasis.Theyshowhowspecificdetailscanbeusedtosupportapointofview.They explainhowtheirchoicesoflanguagefeaturesandimagesareused.Theycreatedetailedtexts,elaboratingonkeyideasfor arangeofpurposesandaudiences.Theymakepresentationsandcontributeactivelytoclassandgroupdiscussions,using avarietyofstrategiesforeffect.

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English
Level7
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas needed. InLevels7and8,studentscommunicatewithpeers,teachers,individuals,groupsandcommunitymembersinarange offacetofaceandonline/virtualenvironments.Theyexperiencelearninginbothfamiliarandunfamiliarcontextsthat relatetotheschoolcurriculum,localcommunity,regionalandglobalcontexts. Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theylistento,read,view,interpret,evaluateandperformarangeof spoken,writtenandmultimodaltextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeisaesthetic,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformand persuade.Theseincludevarioustypesofmediatextsincludingnewspapers,magazinesanddigitaltexts,early adolescentnovels,nonfiction,poetryanddramaticperformances.Studentsdeveloptheirunderstandingofhowtexts, includingmediatexts,areinfluencedbycontext,purposeandaudience.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom andaboutAsia.


LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendstudentsinLevels7and8asindependentreadersaredrawnfromarangeof realistic,fantasy,speculativefictionandhistoricalgenresandinvolvesomechallengingandunpredictableplot sequencesandarangeofnonstereotypicalcharacters.Thesetextsexplorethemesofinterpersonalrelationshipsand ethicaldilemmaswithinrealworldandfictionalsettingsandrepresentavarietyofperspectives.Informativetextspresent technicalandcontentinformationfromvarioussourcesaboutspecialisedtopics.Textstructuresaremorecomplex includingchapters,headingsandsubheadings,tablesofcontents,indexesandglossaries.Languagefeaturesinclude successivecomplexsentenceswithembeddedclauses,unfamiliartechnicalvocabulary,figurativeandrhetorical language,andinformationsupportedbyvarioustypesofgraphicspresentedinvisualform. Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetypesoftexts,forexamplenarratives,procedures, performances,reportsanddiscussions,andarebeginningtocreateliteraryanalysesandtransformationsoftexts.

Level7contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing Language Elaborations

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Analysehowpointofviewisgeneratedinvisualtexts bymeansofchoices,forexamplegaze,angleand socialdistance(ACELA1764)
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comparingchoicesforpointofviewinanimations, advertisementsandotherpersuasivetexts comparinghowdifferentadvertisementsusevisual elementstoadvertisethesameproduct experimentingwithdigitalstorytellingconventionsto createpersonalreflectionsonsharedexperiences

Investigatevocabularytypicalofextendedandmore academictextsandtheroleofabstractnouns, classification,descriptionandgeneralisationin buildingspecialisedknowledgethroughlanguage (ACELA1537) Understandhowlanguageisusedtoevaluatetexts andhowevaluationsaboutatextcanbesubstantiated byreferencetothetextandothersources (ACELA1782)


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defendingpointsofviewinreadingcirclediscussions respondingtopointsofviewbydevelopingand elaboratingonothersresponses buildingaknowledgebaseaboutwordsofevaluation, includingwordstoexpressemotionalresponsesto texts,judgmentofcharactersandtheiractions,and appreciationoftheaestheticqualitiesoftext learningaboutthestructureofthebookorfilmreview andhowitmovesfromcontextdescriptiontotext summaryandthentoatextjudgment

Understandandexplainhowthetextstructuresand languagefeaturesoftextsbecomemorecomplexin informativeandpersuasivetextsandidentify underlyingstructuressuchastaxonomies,causeand effect,andextendedmetaphors(ACELA1531) Literature Recogniseandanalysethewaysthat characterisation,eventsandsettingsarecombinedin narratives,anddiscussthepurposesandappealof differentapproaches(ACELT1622)

Elaborations
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analysingandexplainingthestructureandfeaturesof shortstoriesdiscussingthepurposesandappealof differentauthorialchoicesforstructureandlanguage exploringtraditionalstoriesfromAsiaanddiscussing theirengagingfeatures,forexampleuseoftheoral mode,visualelements,verse,useofpuppetstoconvey thenarrative analysingwritersdepictionsofchallengesintexts,for examplethosefacedbyAboriginalandTorresStrait Islanderpeople discussingatextsintendedaudience,whetherthetext istypicalofitstypeandwhetherithasfulfilledits purpose identifyingstereotypes,prejudiceandoversimplifications intexts exploringethicalissuesinliterarytextsdrawingona rangeofexamplesfromthetextstoillustrateand substantiatetheviewsexpressed

Comparethewaysthatlanguageandimagesare usedtocreatecharacter,andtoinfluenceemotions andopinionsindifferenttypesoftexts(ACELT1621)

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Understand,interpretanddiscusshowlanguageis compressedtoproduceadramaticeffectinfilmor drama,andtocreatelayersofmeaninginpoetry,for examplehaiku,tankas,couplets,freeverseandverse novels(ACELT1623) Discussaspectsoftexts,forexampletheiraesthetic andsocialvalue,usingrelevantandappropriate metalanguage(ACELT1803) Literacy Analyseandexplainthewaystextstructuresand languagefeaturesshapemeaningandvaryaccording toaudienceandpurpose(ACELY1721) Elaborations
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experiencingthesoundandrhythmofpoetryandusing metalanguage,forexamplerefrain,chanttodiscuss thelayersofmeaningthatarecreated

identifyingthepurposeandpossibleaudienceforatext explainingtherelationshipbetweentextfeaturesand structuresandaudienceandpurpose,suchas identifyingwhichgroupwouldbethemostlikelytargetfor theinformationinanadvertisementandjustifyingwhyon thebasisoftextualfeatures

Comparethetextstructuresandlanguagefeaturesof multimodaltexts,explaininghowtheycombineto influenceaudiences(ACELY1724) Usepriorknowledgeandtextprocessingstrategiesto interpretarangeoftypesoftexts(ACELY1722)


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identifyingcauseandeffectinexplanationsandhow theseareusedtoconvinceanaudienceofacourseof action inferringthetoneandemotionalintentofacharacterin dialogueinanarrative

Usecomprehensionstrategiestointerpret,analyse andsynthesiseideasandinformation,critiquing ideasandissuesfromavarietyoftextualsources (ACELY1723) Analyseandexplaintheeffectoftechnological innovationsontexts,particularlymediatexts (ACELY1765)


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investigatingtheinfluenceonwrittenlanguageof communicativetechnologieslikeSMS,text,emailand Twitter analysingtheimpactofinteractiveelementsofdigital magazines

Writing Language Understandthatthecoherenceofmorecomplextexts reliesondevicesthatsignaltextstructureandguide readers,forexampleoverviews,initialandconcluding paragraphsandtopicsentences,indexesorsite mapsorbreadcrumbtrailsforonlinetexts (ACELA1763)


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Elaborations
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analysingthestructureofmediatextssuchastelevision newsitemsandbroadcastsandvarioustypesof newspaperandmagazinearticles writingstructuredparagraphsforuseinarangeof academicsettingssuchasparagraphresponses, reportsandpresentations

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English
Understandtheuseofpunctuationtosupport meaningincomplexsentenceswithprepositional phrasesandembeddedclauses(ACELA1532) Recogniseandunderstandthatsubordinateclauses embeddedwithinnoungroups/phrasesarea commonfeatureofwrittensentencestructuresand increasethedensityofinformation(ACELA1534) Understandhowmodalityisachievedthrough discriminatingchoicesinmodalverbs,adverbs, adjectivesandnouns(ACELA1536) Understandhowtousespellingrulesandword origins,forexampleGreekandLatinroots,base words,suffixes,prefixes,spellingpatternsand generalisationstolearnnewwordsandhowtospell them(ACELA1539) Literature Experimentwithtextstructuresandlanguagefeatures andtheireffectsincreatingliterarytexts,forexample, usingrhythm,soundeffects,monologue,layout, navigationandcolour(ACELT1805)
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discussinghowqualifyingstatementsaddmeaningto opinionsandviewsinspokentexts

identifyingandexperimentingwitharangeofclause typesanddiscussingtheeffectoftheseinthe expressionanddevelopmentofideas

observinganddiscussinghowasenseofcertainty, probabilityandobligationiscreatedintexts

Elaborations
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experimentingwithdifferentnarrativestructuressuchas theepistolaryform,flashback,multipleperspectives transformingfamiliarprintnarrativesintoshortvideoor filmnarratives,drawingonknowledgeofthetypeoftext andpossibleadaptationsnecessarytoanewmode drawingonliteratureandlifeexperiencestocreatea poem,forexampleballad,seriesofhaiku usingaspectsoftextsinimaginativerecreationssuchas resituatingacharacterfromatextinanewsituation imaginingacharacterslifeevents(forexample misadventuresorganisedretrospectivelytobe presentedasaseriesofflashbacksinscripted monologuesupportedbysingleimages),makinga sequelorprequelorrewritinganending creatingchaptersforanautobiography,shortstoryor diary

Createliterarytextsthatadaptstylisticfeatures encounteredinothertexts,forexample,narrative viewpoint,structureofstanzas,contrastand juxtaposition(ACELT1625)

Literacy Plan,draftandpublishimaginative,informativeand persuasivetexts,selectingaspectsofsubjectmatter andparticularlanguage,visual,andaudiofeaturesto conveyinformationandideas(ACELY1725)

Elaborations
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compilingaportfoliooftextsinarangeofmodesrelated toaparticularconcept,purposeoraudience,forexample aclassanthologyofpoemsorstories usingappropriatetextualconventions,createscriptsfor interviews,presentations,advertisementsandradio segments writinganddeliveringpresentationswithspecific rhetoricaldevicestoengageanaudience

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Editformeaningbyremovingrepetition,refining ideas,reorderingsentencesandaddingor substitutingwordsforimpact(ACELY1726) Consolidateapersonalhandwritingstylethatis legible,fluentandautomaticandsupportswritingfor extendedperiods(ACELY1727) Usearangeofsoftware,includingwordprocessing programs,toconfidentlycreate,editandpublish writtenandmultimodaltexts(ACELY1728)
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usingcollaborativetechnologiestojointlyconstructand edittexts

understandingconventionsassociatedwithparticular kindsofsoftwareandusingthemappropriately,for examplesynthesisinginformationandideasindot pointsandsequencinginformationinpresentationsor timingscenesinanimation

Speakingandlistening Language Understandthewaylanguageevolvestoreflecta changingworld,particularlyinresponsetotheuseof newtechnologyforpresentingtextsand communicating(ACELA1528)


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Elaborations
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exploringlanguagesanddialectsthroughbuilding webcamrelationshipswithschoolsacrossAustraliaand Asia investigatingchangesinworduseandmeaningover timeandsomeofthereasonsforthesechanges,for exampletheinfluenceonspellingandvocabularyofnew formsofcommunicationliketexting,emoticonsand email buildingadatabaseoflocalidiomsandtheirmeanings, accentsandstylesofspeechfordifferentcontexts, exploringthepossibilitiesofthesechoicesindramaand roleplay,anddiscussingtheirconnectionwithpersonal andsocialidentities developingdialoguesauthentictocharactersincomics, cartoonsandanimations

Understandhowaccents,stylesofspeechand idiomsexpressandcreatepersonalandsocial identities(ACELA1529)

Literature Identifyandexploreideasandviewpointsabout events,issuesandcharactersrepresentedintexts drawnfromdifferenthistorical,socialandcultural contexts(ACELT1619)

Elaborations
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buildingknowledge,understandingandskillsinrelation tothehistory,culture,andliteraryheritageofAboriginal andTorresStraitIslanderpeoples identifyingandexplainingdifferencesbetweenpointsof viewintexts,forexamplecontrastingthecityandthe bushordifferentperspectivesbasedonculture,gender orage exploringconceptsaboutthecriteriaforheroismand testingthesecriteriainarangeoftexts,includingmore complexoneswheretheheromaybeflawed establishingforumsfordiscussingtherelativemeritsof fictionandfilmtexts comparingpersonalviewpointsontextsandjustifying responsesinactualandvirtualdiscussions

Reflectonideasandopinionsaboutcharacters, settingsandeventsinliterarytexts,identifyingareasof agreementanddifferencewithothersandjustifyinga pointofview(ACELT1620)

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English
Literacy Identifyanddiscussmainideas,conceptsandpoints ofviewinspokentextstoevaluatequalities,for examplethestrengthofanargumentorthelyrical powerofapoeticrendition(ACELY1719) Useinteractionskillswhendiscussingand presentingideasandinformation,selectingbody language,voicequalitiesandotherelements,(for examplemusicandsound)toaddinterestand meaning(ACELY1804)
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Elaborations
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identifying,discussingandinterpretingideasand conceptsthatotherindividualsandgroupsvalue identifyingkeyevidencesupportinganargumentina discussionbetweentwospeakers participatinginpair,group,class,schoolandcommunity speakingandlisteningsituations,includinginformal conversations,discussions,debatesandpresentations usingeffectivestrategiesfordialogueanddiscussionin rangeofformalandinformalcontexts,including speakingclearlyandcoherentlyandatappropriate length,clarifyingandrephrasingcommentsofothers choosingvocabularyandspokentextandsentence structuresforparticularpurposesandaudiences, adaptinglanguagechoicestomeettheperceived audienceneeds,suchasdebatingatopicwithateam fromanotherschool,introducingaspeakerataschool function selectingvoiceeffectsfordifferentaudiencesand purposes,suchastone,volume,pitchandpace, recognisingtheeffectsthesehaveonaudience understandingandengagement preparingapresentationcombiningprint,visualand audioelementstoexploreandinterpretideas,drawing onknowledgeandresearchaboutperspectivesdifferent fromstudentsown

Plan,rehearseanddeliverpresentations,selecting andsequencingappropriatecontentandmultimodal elementstopromoteapointofvieworenableanew wayofseeing(ACELY1720)

Level7achievementstandard
Readingandviewing BytheendofLevel7,studentsunderstandhowtextstructurescaninfluencethecomplexityofatextandaredependenton audience,purposeandcontext.Theydemonstrateunderstandingofhowthechoiceoflanguagefeatures,imagesand vocabularyaffectsmeaning.Theyexplainissuesandideasfromavarietyofsources,analysingsupportingevidenceand impliedmeaning.Theyselectspecificdetailsfromtextstodeveloptheirownresponse,recognisingthattextsreflectdifferent viewpoints. Writing Studentsunderstandhowtheselectionofavarietyoflanguagefeaturescaninfluenceanaudience.Theyunderstandhowto drawonpersonalknowledge,textualanalysisandothersourcestoexpressorchallengeapointofview.Theycreatetexts showinghowlanguagefeatures,textstructures,andimagesfromothertextscanbecombinedforeffect.Theycreate structuredandcoherenttextsforarangeofpurposesandaudiences.Whencreatingandeditingtextstheydemonstrate understandingofgrammar,useavarietyofmorespecialisedvocabulary,useaccuratespellingandpunctuation. Speakingandlistening

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Studentslistenforandexplaindifferentperspectivesintexts.Theyunderstandhowtheselectionofavarietyoflanguage featurescaninfluenceanaudience.Theyunderstandhowtodrawonpersonalknowledge,textualanalysisandother sourcestoexpressorchallengeapointofview.Theycreatetextsshowinghowlanguagefeaturesandimagesfromother textscanbecombinedforeffect.Theycreatetextsstructuredandcoherenttextsforarangepurposesandaudiences.They makepresentationsandcontributeactivelytoclassandgroupdiscussions,usinglanguagefeaturestoengagethe audience.

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English
Level8
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas needed. InLevels7and8,studentsinteractwithpeers,teachers,individuals,groupsandcommunitymembersinarangeofface tofaceandonline/virtualenvironments.Theyexperiencelearninginbothfamiliarandunfamiliarcontextsthatrelatetothe schoolcurriculum,localcommunity,regionalandglobalcontexts. Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theylistento,read,view,interpret,evaluateandperformarangeof spoken,writtenandmultimodaltextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeisaesthetic,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformand persuade.Theseincludevarioustypesofmediatextsincludingnewspapers,magazinesanddigitaltexts,early adolescentnovels,nonfiction,poetryanddramaticperformances.Studentsdeveloptheirunderstandingofhowtexts, includingmediatexts,areinfluencedbycontext,purposeandaudience.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom andaboutAsia.


LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendstudentsinLevels7and8asindependentreadersaredrawnfromarangeof realistic,fantasy,speculativefictionandhistoricalgenresandinvolvesomechallengingandunpredictableplot sequencesandarangeofnonstereotypicalcharacters.Thesetextsexplorethemesofinterpersonalrelationshipsand ethicaldilemmaswithinrealworldandfictionalsettingsandrepresentavarietyofperspectives.Informativetextspresent technicalandcontentinformationfromvarioussourcesaboutspecialisedtopics.Textstructuresaremorecomplex includingchapters,headingsandsubheadings,tablesofcontents,indexesandglossaries.Languagefeaturesinclude successivecomplexsentenceswithembeddedclauses,unfamiliartechnicalvocabulary,figurativeandrhetorical language,andinformationsupportedbyvarioustypesofgraphicspresentedinvisualform. Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetypesoftexts,forexamplenarratives,procedures, performances,reportsanddiscussions,andbegintocreateliteraryanalysesandtransformationsoftexts.

Level8contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing Language Analysehowthetextstructuresandlanguage featuresofpersuasivetexts,includingmedia texts,varyaccordingtothemediumandmode ofcommunication(ACELA1543) Elaborations
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discussinghowparticularperspectivesofthesameeventare portrayedthroughthecombinationofimagesandwordsin variousmediatexts

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English
Understandhowcohesionintextsisimproved bystrengtheningtheinternalstructureof paragraphsthroughtheuseofexamples, quotationsandsubstantiationofclaims (ACELA1766) Analyseandexaminehoweffectiveauthors controlanduseavarietyofclausestructures, includingclausesembeddedwithinthe structureofanoungroup/phraseorclause (ACELA1545) Recognisethatvocabularychoicescontribute tothespecificity,abstractionandstyleoftexts (ACELA1547) Understandhowrhetoricaldevicesareused topersuadeandhowdifferentlayersof meaningaredevelopedthroughtheuseof metaphor,ironyandparody(ACELA1542)
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writingparagraphsofextendedlengththatexplainand substantiateaparticularpersonalviewpoint

evaluatinghowspeechmakersinfluenceaudiencesthough specificlanguagefeaturessuchastheuseofembedded clausestoaddinformation

experimentingwithvocabularychoicesinarangeofwrittenand spokentextsandassessingthedifferenteffectsthesechoices generate identifyingandevaluatingexamplesofhowrhetoricaldevices revealthedarkorseriousaspectsofatopicinwaysthatcause laughteroramusement,forexamplebymakingastatementbut implying/meaningtheopposite(irony)exaggeratingor overstatingsomething(hyperbole)imitatingorsendingup something(parody),andmakingsomethingappearless seriousthanitreallyis(understatement) comprehendingaseriesofstaticimagesandcombinationsof languageandimagesinapicturebook,forexampletitle,setting, characters,actions,aswellastechnicalelementsincluding position,size,colour,angle,framing,pointofview analysingtherelationshipbetweenvisualelementsandtextin nonfictiontextssuchasdocumentaries,televisionnews,online newspapersanddigitalmagazines

Investigatehowvisualandmultimodaltexts alludetoordrawonothertextsorimagesto enhanceandlayermeaning(ACELA1548)

Literature Explorethewaysthatideasandviewpointsin literarytextsdrawnfromdifferenthistorical, socialandculturalcontextsmayreflector challengethevaluesofindividualsandgroups (ACELT1626)

Elaborations
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investigatingtextsaboutAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander historyfromdifferentsourcesandexplainingdifferingviewpoints comparingattitudesandideasintextsdrawnfromcontextsthat aredifferenttostudentsown

Understandandexplainhowcombinationsof wordsandimagesintextsareusedto representparticulargroupsinsociety,and howtextspositionreadersinrelationtothose groups(ACELT1628)

recognisingthesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweentypesof texts(forexampleacomplexpicturebookandafeaturefilm)in ordertounderstandhowdifferentcombinationsofwordsand imagesleadreaderstointerpretvisualtextsinparticularways, accordingtoaudience,purposeandcontext

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English
Recognise,explainandanalysetheways literarytextsdrawonreadersknowledgeof othertextsandenablenewunderstandingand appreciationofaestheticqualities (ACELT1629)
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exploringhowsomewritersuseterseandrelativelysimple languagechoiceswhileothersusemoreelaborateandcomplex syntax examiningthelanguagepatterns,includingsentencepatterns, inarangeofshorttextsanddiscussingtheeffectonreaders interpretationofthesechoices writingorspeakingaboutaliterarytextandoutliningtheimpact ofthetextonalistener,viewerorreader,forexampleinajournal inwhichstudentsreflectontheirpersonalresponsesandon howlanguageandstructuralfeaturesinthetextcontributetoits impact discussing,debatingandassessingremakesofliterarytexts andtheireffectivenessandpurpose discussing,debatingandassessingbookorfilmseries, sequels,prequels,fanfictionsites,tieinpublicationsor merchandise understandingthattone(serious,bitter,sincere,amused) indicatesattitudetothesubjectandtoreaders/listeners,who canidentifyorjudgetonethroughpastexperienceandlanguage cluesinthetext identifyinganddescribingthewaysfilmssuggestCountry/Place andIdentitythroughlanguagefeaturessuchasimage, soundtrackandnarrativecontrol selectingaspectsofatextrelatedtoCountryandPlace,People, IdentityandCultureandadaptitforanewcontext,notingif changesinoneaspectwillresultinchangesinanother explaininghowindividualinterpretationsoftheseaspectsare influencedbystudentsownknowledge,valuesandcultural assumptions selectanaspectofatextsuchasasentencepatternoran imageorwordandadaptitforanewcontextexplaininghowthe changewillaffectmeaning

Identifyandevaluatedevicesthatcreatetone, forexamplehumour,wordplay,innuendoand parodyinpoetry,humorousprose,dramaor visualtexts(ACELT1630) ExploretheinterconnectednessofCountry andPlace,People,IdentityandCultureintexts includingthosebyAboriginalandTorresStrait Islanderauthors(ACELT1806)

Interpretandanalyselanguagechoices, includingsentencepatterns,dialogue, imageryandotherlanguagefeatures,inshort stories,literaryessaysandplays (ACELT1767) Recogniseandexplaindifferingviewpoints abouttheworld,cultures,individualpeople andconcernsrepresentedintexts (ACELT1807)

analysingargumentsforandagainstaparticularissuein currentcommunitydebatesandjustifyingapersonalstance

Literacy

Elaborations

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English
Applyincreasingknowledgeofvocabulary,text structuresandlanguagefeaturesto understandthecontentoftexts(ACELY1733)
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identifyingthemeaningofawiderangeofwords,including technicalandliterarylanguageinvariouscontexts usingprintanddigital/onlinethesaurusesanddictionariesof synonyms,antonymsandhomonymsandsubjectspecific dictionaries reflectingoncontentbyconnectingandcomparinginformation foundinatexttoknowledgesourcedelsewhere determiningandapplyingcriteriaforevaluatingthecredibilityofa website explainingwhethertheauthorconveysmeaningadequately, particularlyindistinguishingfactfromopinion identifyingandexplaininghowmobiletechnologiesare influencinglanguageusesandstructures analysingthewaysthatidentitymaybecreatedindigitalcontexts identifyinghowmeaningsorwordschangeorshiftdepending oncontext,forexamplethewordcoolisusedtodescribe temperatureortoexpressapprovalwhenusedininformal contexts evaluatinganauthor'suseofparticulartextualstructuresand languagefeaturesinachievingtherepresentationofapointof view makingassertionsaboutthesufficiencyandadequacyof informationorevidenceandthecredibilityofsources exploringtextsthatattempttosolvemoralproblemsina particularway,forexamplebyconsiderationofconsequencesor rights/duties,andbyidentifyingstrengthsaswellasproblems thatarisefromthisapproach comparingrepresentationsofdifferentsocialgroupsintexts drawnfromdifferentmodesandmedia,forexamplecomparing contemporaryrepresentationsofhomelesspeoplewith romanticrepresentationsoftheswagmanandtheimpactof theserepresentationsontheaudience

Usecomprehensionstrategiestointerpret andevaluatetextsbyreflectingonthevalidity ofcontentandthecredibilityofsources, includingfindingevidenceinthetextforthe authorspointofview(ACELY1734)

Analyseandexplainhowlanguagehas evolvedovertimeandhowtechnologyandthe mediahaveinfluencedlanguageuseand formsofcommunication(ACELY1729)

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Analyseandevaluatethewaysthattext structuresandlanguagefeaturesvary accordingtothepurposeofthetextandthe waysthatreferencedsourcesaddauthorityto atext(ACELY1732)

Exploreandexplainthewaysauthorscombine differentmodesandmediaincreatingtexts, andtheimpactofthesechoicesonthe viewer/listener(ACELY1735)

Writing Language Understandhowcoherenceiscreatedin complextextsthroughdeviceslikelexical cohesion,ellipsis,grammaticalthemeand textconnectives(ACELA1809) Understandtheeffectofnominalisationinthe writingofinformativeandpersuasivetexts (ACELA1546)


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Elaborations
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interpretingcomplexsentencestructuresthroughreadingaloud literarytextssuchassonnetsorplays usingcohesivedeviceswhenwritingcomplextexts

analysingformalandpersuasivetextstoidentifyandexplain languagechoicessuchasnominalisation

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Understandhowtoapplylearnedknowledge consistentlyinordertospellaccuratelyandto learnnewwordsincludingnominalisations (ACELA1549) Understandtheuseofpunctuation conventions,includingcolons,semicolons, dashesandbracketsinformalandinformal texts(ACELA1544) Literature Experimentwithparticularlanguagefeatures drawnfromdifferenttypesoftexts,including combinationsoflanguageandvisualchoices tocreatenewtexts(ACELT1768) Createliterarytextsthatdrawupontext structuresandlanguagefeaturesofothertexts forparticularpurposesandeffects (ACELT1632)
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understandingthedifferentwayscomplexwordsareconstructed and,whenspellingthesewords,drawingonmorphemic knowledgeandknowledgeofunusuallettercombinations

creatingdialogueindramashowinginterruptions,asidesand pausesforeffect

Elaborations
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creatingandperformingscriptsforshortplaysthatmakeuseof theaffordancesofvisual,verbalandadditionalmodes(for examplemusic)tocreateatmosphere,todeepeninterpretation ofverbalmeaningandtoenhancethedramaofaperformance creatingliteraryinterpretationsofshortstoriesbasedon understandingandanalysisoftheircontext,narrativestructure (includingthetwistattheend),layersofmeaning,themes,point ofviewandstyle combiningvisualanddigitalelementstocreatelayersof meaningforseriousandhumorouspurposes

Literacy Createimaginative,informativeand persuasivetextsthatraiseissues,report eventsandadvanceopinions,using deliberatelanguageandtextualchoices,and includingdigitalelementsasappropriate (ACELY1736) Experimentwithtextstructuresandlanguage featurestorefineandclarifyideastoimprove theeffectivenessofstudentsowntexts (ACELY1810)

Elaborations
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integratingmultimodalapproacheswithinaspoken presentationtopurposefullydevelopmeaningforagiven audience selectingvocabularytoinfluencemeaningandtopositionand persuadetheaudience,forexampleadjustinglanguagetoshow oracknowledgepower experimentingwithtextstructuresandlanguagefeatures,for exampleparagraphorderandcontent,languagechoicesor modeofdelivery,torefineandclarifyideasandtoimprovetext effectiveness combiningverbal,visualandsoundelementsinimaginative multimodaltexts orderingparagraphstobestsupportandsustainanargument andtoorganiseandconveyinformationclearly

Usearangeofsoftware,includingword processingprograms,tocreate,editand publishtextsimaginatively(ACELY1738) Speakingandlistening Language Elaborations

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English
Understandtheinfluenceandimpactthatthe Englishlanguagehashadonother languagesordialectsandhowEnglishhas beeninfluencedinreturn(ACELA1540) Understandhowconventionsofspeech adoptedbycommunitiesinfluencethe identitiesofpeopleinthosecommunities (ACELA1541) Literature Share,reflecton,clarifyandevaluateopinions andargumentsaboutaspectsofliterarytexts (ACELT1627) Literacy Interpretthestatedandimpliedmeaningsin spokentexts,anduseevidencetosupportor challengedifferentperspectives(ACELY1730)
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exploringexamplesofSinglish(SingaporeEnglish)froma Singlishdictionary investigatingborrowingsfromarangeoflanguagesinto English,forexamplefromFrenchandItalian

understandingthatouruseoflanguagehelpstocreatedifferent identities,forexampleteenagegroupsandsportspeoplehave adoptedparticularwordsorwaysofspeaking

Elaborations
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discussingtherelativemeritsofliterarytextsandcomparingand evaluatingpersonalviewpointsontexts

Elaborations
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listentoaconversationorspeechandidentifythepointbeing madeandexplainthetoneandmannerofpresentation.Change thefocusoftheconversationorspeechandidentifyhow meaninghaschanged changethetoneinwhichthespeechorconversationis presentedanddiscusshowinterpretationscanalsochange. participatinginpair,group,class,schoolandcommunity speakingandlisteningsituations,includinginformal conversations,discussions,debatesandpresentations usingeffectivestrategiesfordialogueanddiscussioninrange offormalandinformalcontexts,includingspeakingclearlyand coherentlyandatappropriatelength,askingquestionsabout statedandimpliedideas,andrestatingandsummarisingmain ideas choosingvocabularyandspokentextandsentencestructures forparticularpurposesandaudiences,suchasdebatingatopic withateamfromanotherschool,creatingavoiceoverfora mediapresentation,andadaptinglanguagechoicessuchas useofsimiles,metaphorsandpersonification,tomeet perceivedaudienceneeds selectingvoiceeffects,suchastone,volume,pitchandpace, withparticularattentiontotheeffectsthesemayhaveon audiencereactionandacceptanceoftheideaspresented creatingtextsthatexpressviewsandvaluesotherthanstudents own researchingsubjectmatteronsocialissuesand/or relationshipsandpresentingideasinparticularwaystoappeal todifferentaudiences

Useinteractionskillsforidentifiedpurposes, usingvoiceandlanguageconventionstosuit differentsituations,selectingvocabulary, modulatingvoiceandusingelementssuchas music,imagesandsoundforspecificeffects (ACELY1808)

Plan,rehearseanddeliverpresentations, selectingandsequencingappropriatecontent, includingmultimodalelements,toreflecta diversityofviewpoints(ACELY1731)

Level8achievementstandard

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English
Readingandviewing BytheendofLevel8,studentsunderstandhowtheselectionoftextstructuresisinfluencedbytheselectionoflanguage modeandhowthisvariesfordifferentpurposesandaudiences.Theyexplainhowlanguagefeatures,imagesand vocabularyareusedtorepresentdifferentideasandissuesintexts.Theyinterprettexts,questioningthereliabilityofsources ofideasandinformation.Theyselectevidencefromthetexttoshowhowevents,situationsandpeoplecanberepresented fromdifferentviewpoints. Writing Studentsunderstandhowtheselectionoflanguagefeaturescanbeusedforparticularpurposesandeffects.Theyexplain theeffectivenessoflanguagechoicestheyusetoinfluencetheaudience.Throughcombiningideas,imagesandlanguage featuresfromothertextsstudentsshowhowideascanbeexpressedinnewways.Theycreatetextsfordifferentpurposes selectinglanguagetoinfluenceaudienceresponse.Whencreatingandeditingtextsforspecificeffects,theytakeinto accountintendedpurposesandtheneedsandinterestsofaudiences.Theydemonstrateunderstandingofgrammar,select vocabularyforeffectanduseaccuratespellingandpunctuation. Speakingandlistening Studentslistenforandidentifydifferentemphasesintexts,usingthatunderstandingtoelaborateupondiscussions.They understandhowtheselectionoflanguagefeaturescanbeusedforparticularpurposesandeffects.Theyexplainthe effectivenessoflanguagechoicestheyusetoinfluencetheaudience.Throughcombiningideas,imagesandlanguage featuresfromothertextsstudentsshowhowideascanbeexpressedinnewways.Theycreatetextsfordifferentpurposes selectinglanguagetoinfluenceaudienceresponse.Theymakepresentationsandcontributeactivelytoclassandgroup discussions,usinglanguagepatternsforeffect.

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English
Level9
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas needed. InLevels9and10,studentsinteractwithpeers,teachers,individuals,groupsandcommunitymembersinarangeof facetofaceandonline/virtualenvironments.Theyexperiencelearninginfamiliarandunfamiliarcontexts,includinglocal community,vocationalandglobalcontexts. Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theyinterpret,create,evaluate,discussandperformawiderange ofliterarytextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeisaesthetic,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformandpersuade.These includevarioustypesofmediatexts,includingnewspapers,filmanddigitaltexts,fiction,nonfiction,poetry,dramatic performancesandmultimodaltexts,withthemesandissuesinvolvinglevelsofabstraction,higherorderreasoningand intertextualreferences.Studentsdevelopacriticalunderstandingofthecontemporarymedia,andthedifferences betweenmediatexts.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom andaboutAsia.


LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendstudentsinLevels9and10asindependentreadersaredrawnfromarangeof genresandinvolvecomplex,challengingandunpredictableplotsequencesandhybridstructuresthatmayservemultiple purposes.Thesetextsexplorethemesofhumanexperienceandculturalsignificance,interpersonalrelationships,and ethicalandglobaldilemmaswithinrealworldandfictionalsettingsandrepresentavarietyofperspectives.Informative textsrepresentasynthesisoftechnicalandabstractinformation(fromcredible/verifiablesources)aboutawiderangeof specialisedtopics.Textstructuresaremorecomplexincludingchapters,headingsandsubheadings,tablesofcontents, indexesandglossaries.Languagefeaturesincludesuccessivecomplexsentenceswithembeddedclauses,ahigh proportionofunfamiliarandtechnicalvocabulary,figurativeandrhetoricallanguage,anddenseinformationsupportedby varioustypesofgraphicspresentedinvisualform. Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetypesoftextsincludingnarratives,procedures, performances,reports,discussions,literaryanalyses,transformationsoftextsandreviews.

Level9contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing Language Understandthatauthorsinnovatewithtext structuresandlanguageforspecific purposesandeffects(ACELA1553) Elaborations
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experimentingwithwaystopresentpersonalviewpointsthrough innovatingwithtexts

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English
Compareandcontrasttheuseofcohesive devicesintexts,focusingonhowtheyserve tosignpostideas,tomakeconnectionsand tobuildsemanticassociationsbetween ideas(ACELA1770) Investigatehowevaluationcanbe expresseddirectlyandindirectlyusing devices,forexampleallusion,evocative vocabularyandmetaphor(ACELA1552)
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sequencinganddevelopinganargumentusingbasiclanguage structuresthatsuggestconclusions(therefore,thusands o)or givereasons(since,because)orsuggestconditionals(if then)

comparingtextsthatuseevaluativelanguageindifferentways printadvertisements,editorials,talkbackradioandpoetryand identifyingwordingsthatappraisethingsindirectly,through evocativelanguage,similesandmetaphorsthatdirecttheviewsof thereadersinparticularways investigatingtheuseofsymbols,forexampletheflag,thediggers hatandtheSouthernCrossinimages,filmsandpicturebooks, andevaluatingtheircontributiontoviewersunderstandingof issues,forexamplenationalidentity,recognisingthatvisualand verbalsymbolshavedifferentmeaningsfordifferentgroups comparingandcontrastingvocabularychoicesininformativeand narrativetexts,consideringhowtheyareusedtocreateprecise information,abstractideasand/orstylisticinterpretationsoftexts identifyingexamplesofacronyms,abbreviationsandproprietary wordswhichareusedcreativelyintexts

Analyseandexplaintheuseofsymbols, iconsandmythinstillandmovingimages andhowtheseaugmentmeaning (ACELA1560)

Identifyhowvocabularychoicescontribute tospecificity,abstractionandstylistic effectiveness(ACELA1561)

Understandhowspellingisusedcreatively intextsforparticulareffects,forexample characterisationandhumourandto representaccentsandstylesofspeech (ACELA1562) Explainhowauthorscreativelyusethe structuresofsentencesandclausesfor particulareffects(ACELA1557) Literature Interpretandcomparehowrepresentations ofpeopleandcultureinliterarytextsare drawnfromdifferenthistorical,socialand culturalcontexts(ACELT1633)
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identifyingandanalysingaspectsofrhetoricinspeechesdrawn fromcontemporaryandearliercontextsandstudentscreating speechesoftheirown

Elaborations
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exploringandreflectingonrepresentationsofvalues(forexample love,freedom,integrity)inliteraturedrawnfromculturesandtimes differentfromthestudentsown exploringandreflectingonpersonalunderstandingoftheworld andhumanexperience,interpretedinliteraturedrawnfrom culturesandtimesdifferentfromthestudentsown reviewinghistoricalfictionornonfictionwrittenbyandaboutthe peoplesofAsia analysingliterarytextscreatedbyandaboutAboriginalandTorres StraitIslanderpeoples(includingdocumentaries,picturebooks, printtextsandothermultimodaltexts)andalsotextsincludingfilm producedbyandaboutpeoplesofAsianbackground,and consideringthedifferentwaysthesetextsrepresentpeople, places,thingsandissues

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English
Presentanargumentaboutaliterarytext basedoninitialimpressionsand subsequentanalysisofthewholetext (ACELT1771) Analysetextsfromfamiliarandunfamiliar contexts,anddiscussandevaluatetheir contentandtheappealofanindividual authorsliterarystyle(ACELT1636)
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interrogatingandmakingjudgmentsaboutatext,comparing othersideasagainstthestudentsownandreachingan independentdecisionorsharedconsensusaboutthe interpretationsandideasexpressed comparingtextscreatedbythesameauthortodetermineliterary style,assessingitsappealandpresentingthiscomparisonto others examininghowdifferentauthorsmakeuseofdeviceslikemyth, iconsandimageryandevaluatingtheeffectofthesechoiceson audiences establishingawidereadinglistonaparticularissuebasedon personalpreferenceandestablishingreasonsfortheinclusionof thesetexts

Exploreandreflectonpersonal understandingoftheworldandsignificant humanexperiencegainedfrominterpreting variousrepresentationsoflifemattersin texts(ACELT1635) Analysetextstructuresandlanguage featuresofliterarytexts,andmakerelevant comparisonswithothertexts(ACELT1772)

evaluatingtheeffectonreadersoftextstructuresandlanguage featuresofaliterarytextandcomparingthesewithothertexts bycomparingtexts,writingorspeakingabouthowwelltheauthor constructedtheopeningandclosingsectionsofthetextandused hookstokeepthereader/viewer/listenerengagedandreading on/watching/listeningtotheend identifyingexamplesoflanguagedevicesinarangeofpoems, balladsorpoeticextracts,andconsideringhowtheiruseaddsto meaningandmayalsoinfluencetheemotionalresponsesof listenersorreaders,invaryingways exploringhowlanguagedeviceslookorsoundinwrittenorspoken texts,howtheycanbeidentified,purposestheyserveandwhat effecttheymighthaveonhowtheaudienceresponds takingaparticularareaofstudy,atopicorthemeandexamining howdifferentauthorsmakeuseofdeviceslikemyth,iconsand imageryintheirwork

Investigateandexperimentwiththeuseand effectofextendedmetaphor,metonymy, allegory,icons,mythsandsymbolismin texts,forexamplepoetry,shortfilms, graphicnovels,andplaysonsimilar themes(ACELT1637)

Literacy

Elaborations

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English
Interpret,analyseandevaluatehowdifferent perspectivesofissue,event,situation, individualsorgroupsareconstructedto servespecificpurposesintexts (ACELY1742)
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debatingthereliabilityofthecoverageinarangeofnewsmediaof acontentiousissuesuchascommercialloggingofoldgrowth forests evaluatingtechniquesusedtoconstructplotandcreateemotional responsessuchascomparison,contrast,exaggeration, juxtaposition,thechangingofchronologicalorder,ortheexpansion andcompressionoftime constructingquestionstoframeananalysisofdiffering representationsonmoralissuesintexts,andincludingacritical analysisofapersonalviewintheoverallanalysisoftheissue identifyingwhethertwotextsmayshareacommonpurposeor audience,forexampleafeaturearticleonaparticularwebsiteorin aparticularnewspaper analysinghowissuesaredebatedandreportedinthemediain differentcountries,andthepossiblereasonsforthis,forexample whalinginJapanandAustralia analysingandinterpretingassumptionsaboutgroupsthathave shapedorinfluencedrepresentationsofpeople,places,events andthingsidentifyinghowlisteners,viewersandreadersare positionedbytheserepresentations,andsupportingidentified pointswithexamples identifyingorcommentingontheauthor'sapproachesanduseof techniques,design,formandstyle

Exploreandexplainthecombinationsof languageandvisualchoicesthatauthors maketopresentinformation,opinionsand perspectivesindifferenttexts(ACELY1745) Usecomprehensionstrategiestointerpret andanalysetexts,comparingand evaluatingrepresentationsofanevent, issue,situationorcharacterindifferenttexts (ACELY1744) Analysehowtheconstructionand interpretationoftexts,includingmediatexts, canbeinfluencedbyculturalperspectives andothertexts(ACELY1739)

evaluatingtechniquesusedtoconstructplotandcreateemotional responses,forexamplecomparison,contrast,exaggeration, juxtaposition,thechangingofchronologicalorder,ortheexpansion andcompressionoftime

comparingperspectivesrepresentedintextsfromdifferenttimes andplaces,includingtextsdrawnfrompopularculture identifying,comparingandcreatingrelationshipsbetweentexts (includingnovels,illustratedstories,socialissuecartoons, documentaries,multimodaltexts) reflectingonthenotionthatalltextsbuildonabodyofpriortextsin aculture analysingandidentifyinghowsocioculturalvalues,attitudesand beliefsareconveyedintexts,forexamplecomparingandanalysing perspectivesaboutanAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderissue reportedincommercialmediacomparedtopublicandAboriginal andTorresStraitIslandermedia analysingandinterpretingassumptionsaboutgroupsthathave shapedorinfluencedrepresentationsofpeople,places,events andthingsandidentifyinghowlistenersandreadersare positionedbytheserepresentations

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English
Applyanexpandingvocabularytoread increasinglycomplextextswithfluencyand comprehension(ACELY1743) Writing Language Understandhowcertainabstractnounscan beusedtosummariseprecedingor subsequentstretchesoftext(ACELA1559) Understandhowpunctuationisusedalong withlayoutandfontvariationsin constructingtextsfordifferentaudiences andpurposes(ACELA1556)
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predictingmeaningsofunfamiliarwordsbyusingmorphographic patterns

Elaborations
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exploringsectionsofacademicandtechnicaltextsandanalysing theuseofabstractnounstocompactanddistilinformation, structureargumentandsummariseprecedingexplanations experimentingwiththeuseofcolonsandsemicolonsin expositionsandotherextendedwritingtoimproveprecisionand clarityofexpression investigatinginstancesofcolonsandsemicolonsinexpository textsanddiscusstheirusesinelaboratingonandclarifyingideas incomplexsentences

Literature Experimentwiththewaysthatlanguage features,imageandsoundcanbeadapted inliterarytexts,forexampletheeffectsof stereotypicalcharactersandsettings,the playfulnessofhumourandpunandtheuse ofhyperlink(ACELT1638)

Elaborations
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makinglanguagechoicesandchoosingparticularlanguage devicestoachieveintendedeffects,forexamplebuildingina surpriseortwistintheendingofashortstoryorfinalsceneofa film takinganexistingshortstory,poem,playorspeechinprintform andcreatingashortvisualtextwhichisaccompaniedbyasound trackcontainingmusicandsoundeffects,andwhichisintendedto amuseaudienceswhoarefamiliarwiththeoriginaltext creatingwritteninterpretationsoftraditionalandcontemporary literaturewhichemploysdeviceslikemetaphor,symbol,allegory andmyth,andevaluatingthecontributionofthesedevicestothe interpretationofthetext creatingwritteninterpretationsoftraditionalandcontemporary poetry(forexamplesonnetsandcontemporarysonglyrics) focusingontheiruseofsymbol,myth,iconsandimagery

Createliterarytexts,includinghybridtexts, thatinnovateonaspectsofothertexts,for examplebyusingparody,allusionand appropriation(ACELT1773) Literacy Elaborations

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English
Createimaginative,informativeand persuasivetextsthatpresentapointofview andadvanceorillustratearguments, includingtextsthatintegratevisual,print and/oraudiofeatures(ACELY1746)
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presentingargumentsthatadvanceopinions,justifypositions,and makejudgmentsinordertopersuadeothersaboutissuessuch theimportanceofmaintainingbalanceinthebiosphere creatingimaginativetextswithmainideasdevelopedthroughthe interconnectionsofplot,settings,characters,thechangingof chronologicalorder,foreshadowinginwritten,spokenanddigital texts creatinginformativeandargumentativetextswithexplanations, detailsandevidence followingthestructureofanargumentwhichhasaseriesof sequencedandlinkedparagraphs,beginningwithanoutlineofthe stancetobetaken,aseriesofsupportedpointsthatdevelopaline ofargument,andaconclusionwhichsummarisesthemainlineof argument checkingforrunonsentences,eliminatingunnecessarydetailor repetition,andprovidingclearintroductoryandconcluding paragraphs

Reviewandeditstudentsownandothers textstoimproveclarityandcontrolover content,organisation,paragraphing, sentencestructure,vocabularyand audio/visualfeatures(ACELY1747) Usearangeofsoftware,includingword processingprograms,flexiblyand imaginativelytopublishtexts(ACELY1748) Speakingandlistening Language UnderstandthatStandardAustralian Englishisalivinglanguagewithinwhich thecreationandlossofwordsandthe evolutionofusageisongoing(ACELA1550) Understandthatrolesandrelationshipsare developedandchallengedthrough languageandinterpersonalskills (ACELA1551)

applyingwordprocessingfunctions,forexampleoutlining, standardstylesandindexing

Elaborations
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identifyingsomeofthechangesinthegrammarofEnglishover time,forexamplefromtheeandthoutoyou exploringexamplesofGlobishEnglish

identifyingthevariouscommunitiestowhichstudentsbelongand howlanguagereinforcesmembershipofthesecommunities(the intimatelanguageoffamilymembers,thejargonofteenage groups,thetechnicalityofsomeonlinecommunities,thelanguage specifictorecreationalgroups,theinteractionpatternsofthe classroom,thecommonalitiesinmigrantandculturalgroups)

Literature

Elaborations

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English
Reflecton,discussandexplorenotionsof literaryvalueandhowandwhysuchnotions varyaccordingtocontext(ACELT1634)
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reflectingonanddiscussingresponsestoliteratureincludingplot events,settingdetails,characterisation,themes,structureand languagedevicesusedtoachieveparticulareffects,and collaborativelyformulatingalistoffactorsthatcharacterisemerit discussing,debatingandevaluatingthecinematicqualitiesand successofafilmornewversionsofafilm exploringthewaysthatcontexthasshapedtherepresentationof particularcultures,suchasthroughtheanalysisofdiffering viewpointsintextsaboutdifferentculturesorbycomparingthe waystextsfromdifferentperiodsrevealdifferencesinviewpoints (forexampledifferencesintheportrayalofmigrantsintraditional andmorecontemporaryliterature)

Literacy Listentospokentextsconstructedfor differentpurposes,forexampletoentertain andtopersuade,andanalysehow languagefeaturesofthesetextsposition listenerstorespondinparticularways (ACELY1740)

Elaborations
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comparingandevaluatingbiasorstereotypingandpresenting findingsindiscussionsandpresentations identifyingandcommentingonomissionsofinformationin differenttexts exploringandidentifyingmoralandethicaldimensionsofanissue representedindifferenttexts,andhowthesealignorcontradict withpersonalandothersperspectives understandingtheroleofintonation,pausing,combinationsof clauseandrhythminspokenlanguageandofpunctuation participatinginpair,group,class,schoolandcommunityspeaking andlisteningsituations,includinginformalconversations, discussions,debatesandpresentations usingeffectivestrategiesfordialogueanddiscussioninarangeof formalandinformalcontexts,includingspeakingclearlyand coherentlyandatappropriatelength,presentingapointofviewand listeningtootherviewpoints,andnegotiatinganagreedpositionon anissue choosingvocabulary,spokentextandsentencestructuresfor particularpurposesandaudiences,suchasdebatingatopicwith ateamfromanotherschool,creatingavoiceoverforamedia presentation,andadaptinglanguagechoicessuchasuseof similes,metaphorsandpersonificationtomeettheperceived audienceneeds selectingvoiceeffectssuchastone,volume,pitchandpacefor theirspecificeffects,suchasputtingforwardapointofviewor attemptingtopersuadeanaudiencetoacourseofaction usinggraphicsandtextanimationstoaccompanyspokentext,for examplepresentinganewsitemsuitableforacurrentaffairs programthatalignsimagetospokentext,orestablishinghumour bycreatingadisjunctbetweensound,imageandspokentext

Useinteractionskillstopresentand discussanideaandtoinfluenceand engageanaudiencebyselecting persuasivelanguage,varyingvoicetone, pitch,andpace,andusingelementssuch asmusicandsoundeffects(ACELY1811)

Plan,rehearseanddeliverpresentations, selectingandsequencingappropriate contentandmultimodalelementsfor aestheticandplayfulpurposes (ACELY1741)

Level9achievementstandard
Readingandviewing

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English
BytheendofLevel9,studentsanalysethewaysthattextstructurescanbemanipulatedforeffect.Theyanalyseandexplain howimages,vocabularychoicesandlanguagefeaturesdistinguishtheworkofindividualauthors.Theyevaluateand integrateideasandinformationfromtextstoformtheirowninterpretations.Theyselectevidencefromthetexttoanalyseand explainhowlanguagechoicesandconventionsareusedtoinfluenceanaudience. Writing Studentsunderstandhowtouseavarietyoflanguagefeaturestocreatedifferentlevelsofmeaning.Theyunderstandhow interpretationscanvarybycomparingtheirresponsestotextstotheresponsesofothers.Increatingtextsstudents demonstratehowmanipulatinglanguagefeaturesandimagescancreateinnovativetexts.Theycreatetextsthatrespondto issuesinterpretingandintegratingideasfromothertexts.Theyeditforeffect,selectingvocabularyandgrammarthat contributetotheprecisionandpersuasivenessoftextsandusingaccuratespellingandpunctuation. Speakingandlistening Theylistenforwaystextspositionanaudience.Theyunderstandhowtouseavarietyoflanguagefeaturestocreatedifferent levelsofmeaning.Theyunderstandhowinterpretationscanvarybycomparingtheirresponsestotextstotheresponsesof others.Increatingtexts,studentsdemonstratehowmanipulatinglanguagefeaturesandimagescancreateinnovativetexts. Theycreatetextsthatrespondtoissues,interpretingandintegratingideasfromtexts.Theymakepresentationsand contributeactivelytoclassandgroupdiscussions,comparingandevaluatingresponsestoideasandissues.

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English
Level10
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas needed. InLevels9and10,studentsinteractwithpeers,teachers,individuals,groupsandcommunitymembersinarangeof facetofaceandonline/virtualenvironments.Theyexperiencelearninginfamiliarandunfamiliarcontexts,includinglocal community,vocationalandglobalcontexts. Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theyinterpret,create,evaluate,discussandperformawiderange ofliterarytextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeisaesthetic,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformandpersuade.These includevarioustypesofmediatexts,includingnewspapers,filmanddigitaltexts,fiction,nonfiction,poetry,dramatic performancesandmultimodaltexts,withthemesandissuesinvolvinglevelsofabstraction,higherorderreasoningand intertextualreferences.Studentsdevelopcriticalunderstandingofthecontemporarymedia,andthedifferencesbetween mediatexts.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom andaboutAsia.


LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendstudentsinLevels9and10asindependentreadersaredrawnfromarangeof genresandinvolvecomplex,challengingandunpredictableplotsequencesandhybridstructuresthatmayservemultiple purposes.Thesetextsexplorethemesofhumanexperienceandculturalsignificance,interpersonalrelationships,and ethicalandglobaldilemmaswithinrealworldandfictionalsettingsandrepresentavarietyofperspectives.Informative textsrepresentasynthesisoftechnicalandabstractinformation(fromcredible/verifiablesources)aboutawiderangeof specialisedtopics.Textstructuresaremorecomplexincludingchapters,headingsandsubheadings,tablesofcontents, indexesandglossaries.Languagefeaturesincludesuccessivecomplexsentenceswithembeddedclauses,ahigh proportionofunfamiliarandtechnicalvocabulary,figurativeandrhetoricallanguage,anddenseinformationsupportedby varioustypesofgraphicsandimages. Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetypesoftextsincludingnarratives,procedures, performances,reports,discussions,literaryanalyses,transformationsoftextsandreviews.

Level10contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing Language Elaborations

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English
Comparethepurposes,textstructures andlanguagefeaturesoftraditionaland contemporarytextsindifferentmedia (ACELA1566)
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reproducingandadaptingexistingprinttextsforanonline environmentandexplainingthereasonsfortheadaptations(for exampleaccountingforthenavigationanduseofhyperlinksas structuringprinciplesinhypertextnarratives) investigatingthestructureandlanguageofsimilartexttypeslike informationreportsandnarrativesandhowtheseareinfluencedby differenttechnologicalaffordances(forexamplehyperlinksas structuringprinciplesinhypertextnarrativesversuslineartext sequencingprinciplesinprintnarratives) experimentingwithaspectsofvisualtextstoestablishdifferent nuances,forexampleevaluatingtheimpactofthemovementof cameraorlightinmovingimages consideringwhetherethicaljudgmentsofgood,bad,rightorwrong areabsoluteorrelativethroughconsiderationoftextswithvarying pointsofviewandthroughdiscussionwithothers interpretingtextsbydrawingonknowledgeofthehistoricalcontextin whichtextswerecreated

Evaluatetheimpactonaudiencesof differentchoicesintherepresentationof stillandmovingimages(ACELA1572) Understandthatpeoplesevaluationsof textsareinfluencedbytheirvaluesystems, thecontextandthepurposeandmodeof communication(ACELA1565)

Literature Compareandevaluatearangeof representationsofindividualsandgroups indifferenthistorical,socialandcultural contexts(ACELT1639)

Elaborations
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investigatingandanalysingthewaysculturalstoriesmayberetold andadaptedacrossarangeofcontextssuchastheCinderella storyandtheantihero imaginativelyadaptingtextsfromanearliertimeordifferentsocial contextforanewaudience exploringandreflectingonpersonalunderstandingoftheworldand humanexperiencegainedfrominterpretingliteraturedrawnfrom culturesandtimesdifferentfromthestudentsown lookingatarangeoftextstoconsiderhowtheuseofastructural device,forexampleafemalenarrator,mayinfluencefemale readers/viewers/listenerstorespondsympatheticallytoaneventor issue

Analyseandexplainhowtextstructures, languagefeaturesandvisualfeaturesof textsandthecontextinwhichtextsare experiencedmayinfluenceaudience response(ACELT1641) Identify,explainanddiscusshownarrative viewpoint,structure,characterisationand devicesincludinganalogyandsatire shapedifferentinterpretationsand responsestoatext(ACELT1642) Analyseandevaluatetextstructuresand languagefeaturesofliterarytextsand makerelevantthematicandintertextual connectionswithothertexts(ACELT1774)

lookingatarangeofshortpoems,ashortstory,orextractsfroma novelorfilmtofindanddiscussexamplesofhowlanguagedevices layermeaningandinfluencetheresponsesoflisteners,viewersor readers

usingtermsassociatedwithliterarytextanalysis(forexample narrative,characters,poetry,figurativelanguage,symbolism, soundtrack)whenevaluatingaspectsthatarevaluedandthat containaestheticqualities writingorspeakingabouthoweffectivelytheauthorconstructedthe textandengagedandsustainedthereaders/viewers/listeners personalinterest

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English
Compareandevaluatehowvoiceasa literarydevicecanbeusedinarangeof differenttypesoftextssuchaspoetryto evokeparticularemotionalresponses (ACELT1643) Evaluatethesocial,moralandethical positionsrepresentedintexts (ACELT1812)
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creatingextendedwrittenresponsestoliterarytexts,making referencetovaryingpointsofviewabouttheissuesraised

identifyingandanalysingethicalpositionsonacurrentissue debatedinblogsoronlinediscussionforums,includingvalues and/orprinciplesinvolvedandthestrengthsandweaknessesofthe positioninthecontextoftheissue

Literacy Analyseandevaluatehowpeople, cultures,places,events,objectsand conceptsarerepresentedintexts, includingmediatexts,throughlanguage, structuraland/orvisualchoices (ACELY1749)

Elaborations
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consideringethicalpositionsacrossmorethanonecultureas representedintextandconsiderthesimilaritiesanddifferences questioningtherepresentationofstereotypesofpeople,cultures, places,eventsandconcepts,andexpressingviewsonthe appropriatenessoftheserepresentations identifyingandexplainingsatiricalevents,includingeventsinother cultures,forexampledepictionsinpoliticalcartoons identifyingandevaluatingpoetic,lyricallanguageinthedepictionof people,culture,places,events,thingsandconceptsintexts analysingthewayssocioculturalvalues,attitudesandbeliefsare presentedintextsbycomparingthewaysnewsisreportedin commercialmediaandAboriginalandTorresStraitIslandermedia skimreadingsectionsofapersuasivetexttoidentifythemain contention,keyargumentsinlinkedparagraphsandsupporting evidenceinordertolocatepointsforbuildingrebuttalorcounter argument assessingtheimpactofhyperlinkedtextinawebsitesnavigation usingappropriatemetalanguageassociatedwithdigital technologiestoanalysereadingpathwaysonwebsites

Identifyandanalyseimplicitorexplicit values,beliefsandassumptionsintexts andhowtheseareinfluencedbypurposes andlikelyaudiences(ACELY1752) Chooseareadingtechniqueandreading pathappropriateforthetypeoftext,to retrieveandconnectideaswithinand betweentexts(ACELY1753) Usecomprehensionstrategiesto compareandcontrastinformationwithin andbetweentexts,identifyingand analysingembeddedperspectives,and evaluatingsupportingevidence (ACELY1754) Writing Language

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identifyingthemeaningofanincreasingrangeofsubtlevocabulary, forexampleinferringthedifferentconnotationsofwordsin advertisingtextsfromothercultures

Elaborations

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English
Understandhowparagraphsandimages canbearrangedfordifferentpurposes, audiences,perspectivesandstylistic effects(ACELA1567) Analyseandevaluatetheeffectivenessof awiderangeofsentenceandclause structuresasauthorsdesignandcraft texts(ACELA1569)
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analysingandexperimentingwithcombinationsofgraphics,textand soundintheproductionofmultimodaltextssuchasdocumentaries, mediareports,onlinemagazinesanddigitalbooks

recognisinghowemphasisinsentencescanbechangedby reorderingclauses(forexample,Shemadeherwayhomebecause shewasfeelingillascomparedwithBecauseshewasfeelingill, shemadeherwayhome)orpartsofclauses(forexample,The horsesracedupfromthevalleyascomparedwithUpfromthe valleyracedthehorses) recognisinghowthefocusofasentencecanbechangedthrough theuseofthepassivevoice(forexamplecompareactive,The policehadcaughtthethief.withpassiveThethiefhadbeen caught.) observinghowauthorssometimesuseverblessclausesforeffect (forexample,Andwhatabouttheotherwoman?Withherlongblack eyelashesandredlipstick) understandingthatasentencecanbeginwithacoordinating conjunctionforstylisticeffect(forexample,Andshewenton planningtoherselfhowshewouldmanageit) consideringhownominalisationaffectsthewayinwhicheventsare constructedandexplained,makingsomeinformationmoreexplicit andotherinformationlessso analysinghowlogicalrelationsbetweenideasarebuiltupby combiningmainwithsubordinateclausesindicatingcause,result, manner,concession,condition,andsoon(forexample,Although hispoemswerenotgenerallywellreceivedbycriticsduringhislife (concession),Keatsreputationgrewsubstantiallyafterhisdeath) notinghowtechnicalityallowsforefficientreferencetoshared knowledge,indicatinggrowingexpertiseinthefield(forexample, TheRomanticpoetryofKeatsischaracterisedbysensualimagery, mostnotablyintheseriesofodes.) observinghowabstractionallowsforgreatergeneralisationata higherlevel(forexample,thepolitical,religious,socialand economicfeaturesofthesocietywhichisanabstractnoun group/phrase) creatingtextsthatdemandcomplexprocessesofresponding,for exampletheinclusionofsymbolisminadvertising,foreshadowing indocumentaryandironyinhumoroustexts

Analysehowhigherorderconceptsare developedincomplextextsthrough languagefeaturesincluding nominalisation,clausecombinations, technicalityandabstraction(ACELA1570)

Refinevocabularychoicestodiscriminate betweenshadesofmeaning,with deliberateattentiontotheeffecton audiences(ACELA1571) Understandhowtouseknowledgeofthe spellingsystemtospellunusualand technicalwordsaccurately,forexample thosebasedonuncommonGreekand Latinroots(ACELA1573)

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English
Understandconventionsforcitingothers, andhowtoreferencetheseindifferent ways(ACELA1568) Literature Createliterarytextsthatreflectan emergingsenseofpersonalstyleand evaluatetheeffectivenessofthesetexts (ACELT1814) Createliterarytextswithasustained voice,selectingandadaptingappropriate textstructures,literarydevices,language, auditoryandvisualstructuresandfeatures foraspecificpurposeandintended audience(ACELT1815) Createimaginativetextsthatmake relevantthematicandintertextual connectionswithothertexts(ACELT1644) Literacy Createsustainedtexts,includingtextsthat combinespecificdigitalormediacontent, forimaginative,informative,orpersuasive purposesthatreflectuponchallenging andcomplexissues(ACELY1756)
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understandingwhotociteinessays,reviewsandacademic assignmentsandwhenitisappropriatetousedirectquotationsor toreportsourcesmoregenerally

Elaborations
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creatingtextswhichdrawonstudentsexperienceofothertextsand whichhaveapersonalaestheticappeal reflectontheauthorswhohaveinfluencedstudentsownaesthetic styleandevaluatetheirimpact creatingarangeofstudentsownspoken,writtenormultimodal texts,experimentingwithandmanipulatinglanguagedevicesfor particularaudiences,purposesandcontexts usinghumouranddramaasdevicestoentertain,informand persuadelisteners,viewersandreaders

creatingtextsthatrefertothemesormakeparticularconnectionsto texts,forexamplewritingcrimefictionorromanceshortstories

Elaborations
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presentingastructuredargumentbyprovidingastatementofthe majorperspectivesorconcernsrelatingtoanissuepreviewingthe structureofargumentsstructuringthetexttoprovideamajorpoint foreachparagraphwithsuccinctelaboration,andconcludingwitha summaryofthemainissuesorrecommendationsinanargument creatingspoken,writtenandmultimodaltextsthatcompelreadersto empathisewiththeideasandemotionsexpressedorimplied exploringmodelsofsustainedtextscreatedforpersuasive purposesaboutachallengingorcomplexissuefromothercultures, includingAsia reflectingon,critiquingandrefiningstudentsowntextspriorto publishingforanauthenticaudience,suchasuploadingamovieto awebsite,contributingtoananthology,writingtextsappropriatefor theworkplace,ordeliveringapresentation

Review,editandrefinestudentsownand otherstextsforcontrolofcontent, organisation,sentencestructure, vocabulary,and/orvisualfeaturesto achieveparticularpurposesandeffects (ACELY1757) Usearangeofsoftware,includingword processingprograms,confidently,flexibly andimaginativelytocreate,editand publishtexts,consideringtheidentified purposeandthecharacteristicsofthe user(ACELY1776) Speakingandlistening

designingawebpagethatcombinesnavigation,text,soundand movingandstillimagesforaspecificaudience

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Language UnderstandthatStandardAustralian Englishinitsspokenandwrittenforms hasahistoryofevolutionandchangeand continuestoevolve(ACELA1563)
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Elaborations
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investigatingdifferencesbetweenspokenandwrittenEnglishby comparingthelanguageofconversationandinterviewswiththe writtenlanguageofprinttexts experimentingwithandincorporatingnewwordsandcreative inventionsinstudentsownwrittenandspokentexts understandinghowandwhyspellingbecamestandardisedand howconventionshavechangedovertimeandcontinuetochange throughcommonusage,theinventionofnewwordsandcreative combinationsofexistingwords identifyinglanguagethatseekstoalignthelistenerorreader(for example'ofcourse','obviously','asyoucanimagine') identifyingtheuseoffirstperson(I,we)andsecondperson pronouns(you)todistanceorinvolvetheaudience,forexampleina speechmadetoalocalculturalcommunity identifyingreferencestosharedassumptions identifyingappealstosharedculturalknowledge,valuesandbeliefs reflectingonexperiencesofwhenlanguageincludes,distancesor marginalisesothers creatingtextsthatrepresentpersonalbeliefsystems(suchas credos,statementsofethicaljudgements,guidelines,letterstothe editorandblogentries)

Understandhowlanguageusecanhave inclusiveandexclusivesocialeffects,and canempowerordisempowerpeople (ACELA1564)

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Literature Reflecton,extend,endorseorrefute othersinterpretationsofandresponsesto literature(ACELT1640)

Elaborations
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determining,throughdebate,whetheratextpossessesuniversal qualitiesandremainsrelevant presentingargumentsbasedonclosetextualanalysistosupportan interpretationofatext,forexamplewritinganessayorcreatingaset ofdirectorsnotes creatingpersonalreadinglistsinavarietyofgenresandexplainwhy thetextsqualifyforinclusiononaparticularlist reflectinguponandaskingquestionsaboutinterpretationsoftexts relevanttoastudentsculturalbackground

Literacy Identifyandexplorethepurposesand effectsofdifferenttextstructuresand languagefeaturesofspokentexts,and usethisknowledgetocreatepurposeful textsthatinform,persuadeandengage (ACELY1750)

Elaborations
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identifyingstereotypesofpeople,cultures,places,events,and conceptsandexplainingwhytheyarestereotypes identifyingandexplainingsatiricalevents,includingeventsinother cultures,forexampledepictionsinpoliticalcartoons applyingknowledgeofspoken,visual,auditory,technicaland multimodalresources(forexamplesoundandsilence,camerashot types,lightingandcolour)inconjunctionwithverbalresourcesfor varyingpurposesandcontexts selectingsubjectmatterandlanguagetopositionreaderstoaccept representationsofpeople,events,ideasandinformation

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Useorganisationpatterns,voiceand languageconventionstopresentapointof viewonasubject,speakingclearly, coherentlyandwitheffect,usinglogic, imageryandrhetoricaldevicestoengage audiences(ACELY1813)
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participatinginpair,group,class,schoolandcommunityspeaking andlisteningsituations,includinginformalconversations, discussions,debatesandpresentations usingeffectivestrategiesfordialogueanddiscussioninarangeof formalandinformalcontexts,includingspeakingclearlyand coherentlyandatappropriatelength,activatingpriorknowledgeto assessthecredibilityofaspeakersassertions,andsummarising alternativeviewsonanissue choosingvocabularyandspokentextandsentencestructuresfor particularpurposesandaudiences,suchasdebatingatopicwitha teamfromanotherschool,creatingavoiceoverforamedia presentation,andadaptinglanguagedevicessuchasevaluative language,causeandeffect,anecdotesandhumourforparticular effects adaptingvoiceeffects,suchastone,volume,pitch,pausesand changeofpace,fortheirspecificeffectssuchasputtingforwarda pointofvieworattemptingtopersuadeanaudiencetoacourseof action usingassumptionsaboutlisteners,viewersandreaderstotryto positionthemtoacceptaparticularpointofview

Plan,rehearseanddeliverpresentations, selectingandsequencingappropriate contentandmultimodalelementsto influenceacourseofaction(ACELY1751)

Level10achievementstandard
Readingandviewing BytheendofLevel10,studentsevaluatehowtextstructurescanbeusedininnovativewaysbydifferentauthors.Theyexplain howthechoiceoflanguagefeatures,imagesandvocabularycontributestothedevelopmentofindividualstyle. Theydevelopandjustifytheirowninterpretationsoftexts.Theyevaluateotherinterpretations,analysingtheevidenceusedto supportthem. Writing Studentsshowhowtheselectionoflanguagefeaturescanachieveprecisionandstylisticeffect.Theyexplaindifferent viewpoints,attitudesandperspectivesthroughthedevelopmentofcohesiveandlogicalarguments.Theydeveloptheirown stylebyexperimentingwithlanguagefeatures,stylisticdevices,textstructuresandimages.Theycreateawiderangeoftexts toarticulatecomplexideas.Theydemonstrateunderstandingofgrammar,varyvocabularychoicesforimpact,andaccurately usespellingandpunctuationwhencreatingandeditingtexts. Speakingandlistening Studentslistenforwaysfeatureswithintextscanbemanipulatedtoachieveparticulareffects.Theyshowhowtheselectionof languagefeaturescanachieveprecisionandstylisticeffect.Theyexplaindifferentviewpoints,attitudesandperspectives throughthedevelopmentofcohesiveandlogicalarguments.Theydeveloptheirownstylebyexperimentingwithlanguage features,stylisticdevices,textstructuresandimages.Theycreateawiderangeoftextstoarticulatecomplexideas.They makepresentationsandcontributeactivelytoclassandgroupdiscussionsbuildingonothers'ideas,solvingproblems, justifyingopinionsanddevelopingandexpandingarguments.

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Health and Physical Education


TableofContents Overview Introduction Domainstructure Stagesoflearning Safetyandsensitiveissues Sexualityeducation CurriculumF10 Foundationlevel Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level5 Level6 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10

2 2 2 3 6 7 9 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29

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IntroductiontoHealthandPhysicalEducation
TheHealthandPhysicalEducationdomainprovidesstudentswithknowledge,skillsandbehaviourstoenablethemto achieveadegreeofautonomyindevelopingandmaintainingtheirphysical,mental,socialandemotionalhealth.This domainfocusesontheimportanceofahealthylifestyleandphysicalactivityinthelivesofindividualsandgroupsinour society. Thisdomainisuniqueinhavingthepotentialtoimpactonthephysical,social,emotionalandmentalhealthofstudents.It promotesthepotentialforlifelongparticipationinphysicalactivitythroughthedevelopmentofmotorskillsandmovement competence,healthrelatedphysicalfitnessandsporteducation. Engaginginphysicalactivity,games,sportandoutdoorrecreationcontributestoasenseofcommunityandsocial connectedness.Thesearevitalcomponentsofimprovedwellbeing. Studentsinvolvementinphysicalactivitycantakemanyforms,rangingfromindividual,noncompetitiveactivitythroughto competitiveteamgames.Emphasisisplacedoncombiningmotorskillsandtacticalknowledgetoimproveindividualand teamperformance.Studentsprogressfromthedevelopmentofbasicmotorskillstotheperformanceofcomplexmovement patternsthatformpartofteamgames.Theylearnhowdevelopingphysicalcapacityinareassuchasstrength,flexibilityand enduranceisrelatedtobothfitnessandphysicalperformance. Studentsprogressfromlearningsimplerulesandprocedurestoenablethemtoparticipateinmovementandphysical activitysafely,tousingequipmentsafelyandconfidently.Studentsundertakeavarietyofroleswhenparticipatinginsports suchasumpire,coach,playerandadministratorandassumeresponsibilityfortheorganisationofaspectsofasporting competition. Thisdomainexploresthedevelopmentalchangesthatoccurthroughoutthehumanlifespan.Itbeginsbyidentifyingthe healthneedsnecessarytopromoteandmaintaingrowthanddevelopment,followedbydiscussionofsignificanttransitions acrossthelifespanincludingpuberty,togaininganunderstandingofhumansexualityandfactorsthatinfluenceits expression.Theexplorationofhumandevelopmentalsoincludesafocusontheestablishmentofpersonalidentity,factors thatshapeidentityandthevalidityofstereotypes. Studentsdevelopanunderstandingoftherighttobesafeandexploretheconceptsofchallenge,riskandsafety.Theyidentify theharmsassociatedwithparticularsituationsandbehavioursandhowtotakeactiontominimisetheseharms. Throughtheprovisionofhealthknowledge,thisdomaindevelopsanunderstandingoftheimportanceofpersonaland communityactionsinpromotinghealthandknowledgeaboutthefactorsthatpromoteandprotectthephysical,social,mental andemotionalhealthofindividuals,familiesandcommunities.Studentsinvestigateissuesrangingfromindividuallifestyle choicestoprovisionofhealthservicesbybothgovernmentandnongovernmentbodies.Ininvestigatingtheseissues,they exploredifferingperspectivesanddevelopinformedpositions. Thisdomainexaminestheroleoffoodinmeetingdietaryneedsandthefactorsthatinfluencefoodchoice.Students progressfromlearningabouttheimportanceofeatingavarietyoffoodstounderstandingtheroleofahealthydietinthe preventionofdisease. TheHealthandPhysicalEducationdomainprovidesstudentswiththeknowledge,skillsandbehavioursnecessaryforthe pursuitoflifelonginvolvementinphysicalactivity,healthandwellbeing.

StructureoftheHealthandPhysicalEducationdomain

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Health and Physical Education


TheHealthandPhysicalEducationdomaininAusVELSusesanelevenlevelstructuretobothreflectthedesignofthenew AustralianCurriculumandtoprovideaconsistentstructureacrossalltheAusVELSdomains(formoredetailspleasesee

Overview).Eachlevelincludesalearningfocusstatementandasetofstandardsorganisedbydimension.

Learningfocus
Learningfocusstatementsarewrittenforeachlevel.Theseoutlinethelearningthatstudentsneedtofocusoniftheyareto progressinthedomainandachievethestandardsatthelevelswheretheyapply.Theysuggestappropriatelearning experiencesfromwhichteacherscandrawtodeveloprelevantteachingandlearningactivities.

Standards
Standardsdefinewhatstudentsshouldknowandbeabletodoatdifferentlevelsandarewrittenforeachdimension.In HealthandPhysicalEducation,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementapplyfromFoundationto Level10.

Dimensions
StandardsintheHealthandPhysicalEducationdomainareorganisedintwodimensions.
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MovementandphysicalactivityfromLevel1 HealthknowledgeandpromotionfromLevel3.

Movementandphysicalactivity
TheMovementandphysicalactivitydimensionfocusesontheimportantrolethatphysicalactivity,sportandrecreationneed toplayinthelivesofallAustraliansbyprovidingopportunitiesforchallenge,personalgrowth,enjoymentandfitness.It promotesinvolvementinamannerthatreflectsawarenessthateveryonehastherighttoparticipateinahealthyandactive lifestyle.Itdevelopsstudentsconfidenceinusingmovementskillsandstrategiestoincreasetheirmotivationtobecome activeaswellasimprovetheirperformanceandmaintainaleveloffitnessthatallowsthemtoparticipateinphysicalactivity withoutunduefatigue.Itbuildsunderstandingofhowtrainingandexerciseinareassuchasstrength,flexibilityand endurancerelatetophysicalperformance.

Healthknowledgeandpromotion
TheHealthknowledgeandpromotiondimensionexaminesphysical,social,emotionalandmentalhealthandpersonal developmentacrossvariousstagesofthelifespan.Itfocusesonsafetyandtheidentificationofstrategiestominimiseharms associatedwithparticularsituationsorbehaviours.Studentsexaminethepromotionofhealthofindividualsandthe communitythroughtheuseofspecificstrategiesandtheprovisionofhealthresources,servicesandproducts.Theyexamine thefactorsthatinfluencefoodselectionandtheroleofnutritiononhealthgrowthanddevelopment.

HealthandPhysicalEducation
Stagesoflearning
AusVELStakesaccountofthedevelopmentalstagesoflearningyoungpeopleexperienceatschool.Whilestudentlearning isacontinuumanddifferentstudentsdevelopatdifferentrates,theybroadlyprogressthroughthreestagesoflearning. Thefollowingstatementsdescribewaysinwhichthesecharacteristicsrelatetolearningexperiencesandstandardsineach ofthethreestagesoflearningintheHealthandPhysicalEducationdomain.

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Health and Physical Education


FoundationtoLevel4Layingthefoundations Studentsintheearlylevelsofschoolingexperiencesteadygrowththeygenerallyhaveabundantenergyandasenseof adventure.Duringmostofthisperiodthereislittledifferencebetweenboysandgirlsinheight,weight,strengthandspeed. LearninginHealthandPhysicalEducationlaysthefoundationsforthedevelopmentoffundamentalorbasicmotorskillsthat willassiststudentstoparticipateinphysicalactivityandinahealthyandactivelifestyle.Knowledge,skillsandbehaviours developedinthisstageformthebasisforfuturelearning,andcontributetoastudentsphysical,social,emotionaland cognitivedevelopmentandwellbeing. Duringthisstage,studentsbegintodevelopbasicmotorskillsandmovementpatterns,includinglocomotorand manipulativeskills,inarangeofmovementenvironments(indoor,outdoorandaquatic).Thedevelopmentofbasicmotor skillsiscriticalandlaysthefoundationforfutureparticipationinphysicalactivity.Althoughplayhasanimportantroleinthe contributiontoastudentssocial,emotionalandcognitivegrowth,evidencesuggeststhatplayinggamesisnotaneffective methodforthedevelopmentofbasicmotorskills.Teachersshouldaimtoteachforskillmasteryratherthanjustskill awareness.Thisrequiresdirectteachingofthecomponentsofbasicmotorskills.Whileattemptingtoengagestudentsin physicalactivitythroughparticipationinorganisedgames,teachersneedtobemindfulthatthefocusofgamesatthisstage shouldbeonspecificskilldevelopment. Atthebeginningofthisstage,studentsdevelopbasicmotorskillssuchasrunning,hopping,jumping,skipping,catching, throwing,kicking,rolling,balancing,twistingandturning.Latertheydevelopthecapacitytolinktheseskillsintomorecomplex andcoordinatedmovementsequences.Towardstheendofthisstageoflearning,studentsdevelopincreasinglycomplex motorskillsandbegintoapplythesetoappropriatelymodifiedgamesandsportspecificsettings.Studentswillalsobeginto usebasictacticsinappropriatelymodifiedgamesandsportspecificsituations,andapplytheirincreasingknowledgeof rulestokeepgamesandactivitiessafe. Studentsusetheirnewlydevelopedskillswhileregularlyparticipatinginmoderatetovigorousactivitiesaspartofanactive andhealthylife.Theybegintoformunderstandingsaboutthelinksbetweenphysicalactivityandhealth.Theyalsolearnthat theyneedenergytomaintaintheiractivitylevels. Throughparticipationinphysicalactivity,studentsdeveloptheirmovementvocabulary,includingmotortermsandwaysof describingthephysicalresponsesoftheirbodiestomovementandfeelingsassociatedwithparticipationinphysicalactivity. Studentsintheearlylevelsofschoolingtendtounderstandtheworldbylinkingnewconceptstotheirownexperiences.Their initialexplorationofthemeaningofhealthisthroughtheirownexperiencesathomeandatschool,whichprovideconcrete examplesofrelationships,food,physicalactivity,safety,care,illnessandchangesassociatedwiththetransitionfromhome toschool. Asstudentsgrowanddevelop,theybecomemoreawareofthebroaderworldofothersviewsandperspectives,how peoplediffer,andthephysicalandsocialenvironmentsinwhichtheylive,learnandplay.Theybecomemoreskilledat observingwhatmakesfamiliarenvironmentssafeorunsafeandhealthyorunhealthy.Theirincreasingcapacitytoquestion allowsthemtoconsiderhowtheywouldrespondtodifferentscenarioswheretheirhealthorsafetycouldbethreatened. Studentsincreasingattentionspan,recognitionofaspectsoftheworldoutsidethemselvesandcontinuingintellectual curiositymakesthemmorereflectiveandabletosettheirexperienceswithinthebroaderfamilyandcommunitycontext.For example,theylearnaboutinfluencesontheirchoicesandactionsrelatedtohealthandphysicalactivity,howtheypromote feelingsofselfworthinothers,andthecharacteristicsandneedsofpeopleatdifferentstagesofthehumanlifespan. Levels5to8Buildingbreadthanddepth

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Health and Physical Education


Duringthisstageoflearning,studentsbegintodevelopmorecomplexthinkingskillsandcanapplymoreabstractthinking strategiestotheirlearning. Studentsintheselevelsofschoolingareexperiencingrapidpersonalchange,includingphysicalgrowth,emotionaland socialdevelopment,andsexualdevelopmentassociatedwithpuberty.Thedifferentratesatwhichindividualsdevelopisalso amajorissue. Thedevelopmentassociatedwithpubertyaffectsstudentsinvolvementinphysicalactivity.Theirincreasingstrength, coordinationandcontrolallowsthemtodevelopandrefinelocomotorandmanipulativeskillsthroughpractiseandrehearsal, sothattheycanparticipateeffectivelyingames,activitiesandsports.Atthisstage,studentsrefinebasicandcomplexmotor skillsandapplythemtoincreasinglycomplexgames,activitiesandsportspecificsituations.Studentsparticipateinoutdoor adventureactivitiesinnaturalenvironments,whichdevelopskills,knowledgeandbehaviourstoenhanceandpromotesafety. Theyuseskillssuchasstrategicthinkingtosolvereallifeproblemstoimprovegameperformance. Studentslearnskillssuchasmonitoringintensityduringexercise,whichhelpthemmaintainhealthenhancinglevelsof physicalactivity.Theyparticipateregularlyinmoderatetovigorousphysicalactivityandexplorefactorsthatinfluence participation. Theirsocialdevelopmenthelpsfacilitatecooperation,communication,planningandteamdevelopmentinsportsand games,andtheyconsiderhowthesefactorscaninfluenceparticipationandperformance.Theyfavourworkingwiththeir peersduringlearningactivitiestoimproveperformance,anddevelopskillsinprovidingconstructivefeedbacktoapartner basedonperformancecriteria.Theyalsomonitorandanalysetheirownperformance. Studentsatthisstageacquiredescriptiveandanalyticalskillsfordiscussingrolesandrulesincompetitivesports.They undertakeavarietyofrolesinteamgames,includingplayer,coach,umpireandadministrator.Theyreflectontheir experiencesanddevelopanawarenessoftheresponsibilitiesthataccompanyleadershiproles. Studentsatthisstageareexperiencingsignificantphysical,socialandemotionalchangesassociatedwithpuberty.The changesassociatedwithpubertyusuallyoccurbetweentheagesof10and14levels.Forafew,pubertymaybeginasearly as8or9levelsandforothersitmaybemuchlater.TheHealthknowledgeandpromotiondimensiontakesinto considerationtheintensedevelopmentalchangesthatstudentsmayexperienceatthisstage.Asstudentsincreasingly differentiatethemselvesfromtheirpeers,theyreflectonthecommonlyaskedquestion,AmInormal?. Studentsincreasingrecognitionofbelongingtoapeergroupparallelstheirdevelopingsenseofself.Theyexplorehowthey definetheirownidentityandthatofothers,includinglookingatbeliefsandgeneralisationsassociatedwithcharacteristics suchasgender,raceandreligion.Theydiscussthevalidityofsuchclassifications.Atthisstage,theyuseproblemsolving strategiesrelevanttothehealthinterestsandneedsofyoungpeople,suchasissuesassociatedwithsexualhealthand druguse.Theydiscussandevaluatestrategiestominimiseharmandprotecttheirownandothershealth. Theyincreasinglyidentifywithgroupsandcommunitiesoutsidethefamily,whichprovidesacontextforstudyingtherangeof peersandsocialinfluencesontheirhealthrelatedbehaviours,learningaboutestablishingandmaintainingrelationships andconsideringviewsofwhatisright/wrong,good/bad,acceptable/unacceptable.Theybegintoseethemselvesas membersoflargercommunitiesandtoconsiderfactorsthataffecttheirownandothersabilitytoaccessandusehealth information,productsandserviceswithintheirlocalarea. Studentsregularlyengagewithnewsubjectmatterforexample,discoveringtherangeofinfluencesonfoodandthe importanceofnutritionalrequirementsforgrowthandactivityatdifferentstagesoflife.Accordingly,theylearnhowtoset nutritionalgoalsusingfoodselectionmodels. Levels9to10Developingpathways

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Health and Physical Education


Studentsengageinauthenticandpersonallymeaningfulactivitiesthatassistindevelopingpathwaysfortheirfuture.They explorehowtheirlearninglinkstotheworldaroundthemandappliestospecificsituations.Importantly,studentsbecome morefocusedonhowtheirlearningrelatestotheirpersonalfuture. Studentsincreasingstrengthanddevelopmentallowsforgreatercontrolandskillinphysicalactivity.Studentsdevelop proficiencyinarangeofhighlevelmovementandmanipulativeskillsforexample,combiningseveralskillssimultaneously, devisingandemployingtacticsandstrategiestocountertacticalchallenges.Theirincreasingskillsinplanning,observation andanalysisallowthemtodevelopandevaluatewaysofrefiningtechniquesandenhancingtheirownandothers performance.Theyarecapableofanalysingtheirpersonalskilllevelandmovementstrengthsinordertodeviseeffective individualgamestrategies.Theyareabletosetpersonalfitnessgoalsandimplementplanstoachievethese. Theyareintroducedtonewsportsthatrequirethelearningofnewskills,ortheadaptationofpreviouslylearntskillsinnew contexts,andimplementwaystoimprovethequalityoftheirownperformance. Studentsregularlyparticipateinmoderatetovigorousphysicalactivity,setpersonalfitnessgoals,developafitnessprogram andevaluateitssuccess.However,duringthisstageofschooling,involvementinphysicalactivitybecomesproblematicfor somestudents,particularlyyoungwomenastheyexperienceissuessuchasbodyimage,socialpressuresabout appropriatebehaviourforyoungpeople,andcompetinginterestsfortime. Studentsparticipateinpeerteachingorcoaching,withafocusonskilldevelopmentandimprovement.Theyengageina varietyofrecreationalandoutdooradventureactivities,anddevelopskills,knowledgeandbehavioursforsafeparticipationin theseactivities.Theylearnbasicfirstaidskills. Studentsatthisstagerealisethattheyhavesomeinputintofactors,viewsoractionsaffectingtheenvironmentoftheir classesandtheircommunity.Theydevelopanappreciationoftheimportanceofsportingcodesofconduct,implementingfair playandmodellinggoodsportingbehavioursforyoungermembersofthecommunity.Theyalsoassumeresponsibilityfor theorganisationofasportingcompetition. Studentsareatastagewhentheirbodies,emotionsandsocialbehavioursarecontinuingtochangerapidly.TheHealth knowledgeandpromotiondimensionacknowledgesthesocialrealityofyoungpeople.Atthisstage,youngpeopleare acknowledgedassexualbeingswithfeelingsanddesiresthatareanormalpartofdevelopment.Theyareawareoftheir developingsexuality,andconsiderhowdifferentrolesandresponsibilitiesinsexualrelationshipscanaffecttheirhealthand wellbeing.Theyexploretheassumptions,communityattitudesandstereotypesaboutyoungpeopleandsexuality.They evaluatepoliciesandpracticesinrelationtosexualharassment,homophobiaand/ordiscrimination,andconsidertheir rightsandresponsibilitiesintheseareas.Theylearnaboutdifferentviewsofsexualityandsexualbehaviour,rightsand responsibilitiesinrelationships,andeffectivewaysofestablishing,maintainingandendingrelationships. Studentsexaminetheperceptionsofchallenge,riskandsafetyinavarietyofsettings.Theyexaminestrategiesthatpromote safety,includingthoseassociatedwiththeworkplace.Theyalsodemonstrateanunderstandingofhowtoexpress independence,andusestrategiesforbeingassertivewhenprotectingtheirownandothershealthintheirclassroom,home andcommunity.Theyexploreissuesrelatedtotheirincreasingindependence,suchastheprovisionofservicesthrough Medicare. Studentsdevelopgreaterindependence.Theyseekdeeperconnectionsbetweentheirlearningandtheworldaroundthem. Theyusehealthdatatoexplorepersonalbehavioursandcommunityactionsthatcontributetothehealthofspecificgroups. Theyinvestigatecommunityfacilitiesavailableforhealthandphysicalfitnessactivities,andexplorehowtheymightusethem tomaintaintheirwellbeing.

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Health and Physical Education

SafetyandsensitiveissuesinHealthandPhysicalEducation
Furtherconsiderations
Communityconcernsandkeyinitiatives
Therearevariousissuesthatelicitahighlevelofcommunityawarenessandconcern.Thegovernmentsector,business communityandmanynongovernmentagenciesprovideandsupportinitiativesthatcomplementtheHealthandPhysical Educationdomain.TheflexibilityandcontemporarynatureofAusVELSallowstheincorporationofcurrentandfuture initiativesaspartoftheongoingteachingandlearningprocess.Examplesinclude:
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healthpromotingschools drugeducation watersafety:PlayitSafebytheWater healthyeatingandphysicalactivity:GoforYourLife roadsafety NationalMentalHealthinSchoolsProject:MindMatters.

Safety
TheHealthandPhysicalEducationdomainincludespracticalactivitiesaswellaslearningexperiencesthatexplorearange ofpersonalissues.Teachingpracticesneedtoensurethatcarefulconsiderationisgiventothephysical,socialand emotionalsafetyofeachindividualstudentatalltimes.Inplanningandimplementingcoursesofthisnature,teachers shouldconferwiththePrincipalforrelevantprocedures,guidelinesanddocumentation. TheimportanceofsafetyintheHealthandPhysicalEducationdomainisimplicitineachofthedimensionsothatstudents areawareofandtakeaproactiveroleinthesafetyofthemselvesandothers.

Sensitiveissues
TheVCAArecognisesthatanumberofissueswithintheHealthandPhysicalEducationdomainneedtobehandled sensitively. Thepartnershipbetweenschoolandhomeisespeciallyimportant.ThepreparationandimplementationoftheHealthand PhysicalEducationcurriculumshouldbeconsistentwiththeschoolethos,communityandparentalexpectationsand prescribedguidelinesoftherelevanteducationalsector.ThePrincipalshouldbeconsultedtoclarifyappropriateprocedures, guidelinesanddocumentation.

SexualityEducationandAusVELS
Introduction
TheSexualityEducationCurriculumAuditToolassistsschoolstoevaluatetheirsexualityeducationcurriculumagainst AusVELS.Inusingthetool,schoolswillidentify:
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thecomponentsofsexualityeducationthatarecurrentlyincludedintheschoolcurriculum topicsandthemesrelevanttosexualityeducationthatarenotcurrentlyaddressedintheschoolcurriculumthatcould beincludedinthefuture theteachingandlearningresourcesrequiredtosupporttheteachingofspecifictopicsorthemesrelevanttosexuality education

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Health and Physical Education


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theadditionalskillsandsupportrequiredtoimplementacomprehensivesexualityeducationcurriculum.

ThisaudittoolfocusesontheHealthandPhysicalEducationandInterpersonalDevelopmentdomainswhichhavethe strongestcurriculumlinkstosexualityeducation.Auditpageshavebeenprovidedforthesetwodomains.Otherdomains suchasEnglish,History,CivicsandCitizenshipandSciencecouldpotentiallyprovideopportunitiestoaddresstopics relevanttosexualityeducation.Ablankauditformathasbeenprovidedtoallowschoolstoinvestigateotherdomainsthatmay addresstopicsrelevanttosexualityeducation.

Downloads
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SexualityEducationCurriculumAuditTool(

PDF141KB)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Health and Physical Education

Foundationlevel
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofFoundationstandardsintheMovementandphysicalactivitydimension, theyengageinavarietyofphysicalactivitiesontheirownandwiththeirpeers,withandwithoutequipment,andinarange ofenvironments(indoor,outdoorandaquatic).Theybegintodevelopbasicmotorskillssuchasrunning,hopping, jumping,skipping,catching,throwing,kicking,rolling,balancing,twistingandturning.Througharangeofactivities,such asdance,gymnasticsandgames,studentsprogressivelygaincontroloftheirmovementsinpersonalandgeneral space,whilestationaryandmoving.Theypractisearangeofmovementpatternsinaquaticenvironmentssuchas:wade inentrytoandexitfromshallowwaterfloatwithabuoyancyaidperformabasiclegkickingactionwithabuoyancyaid recoveryfromanunaidedfacedownfloatglidetoastandingpositionandberescuedwitharopeorstick.Theyexplore waysofmovinganddevelopingcontrolwhenstopping,starting,springing,landing,andchangingdirectionandspeed. Theyrespondtomovementstimulisuchasrhythm,beat,musicandwords. Theyregularlyengageinactivitiesdescribedasmoderatetovigorous,suchasbriskwalkingorrunning,activeplay, swimming,dance,sportsandgames,whichincreasestudentbreathingandsweating. Studentsbegintodevelopamovementvocabulary,includingmovementwords,waysofdescribingthephysical responsesoftheirbodiestomovementandthefeelingsassociatedwithparticipationinphysicalactivityforexample,hot, tired,sweaty,puffed,excited,scaredandhappy. Theylearnsimplerulesandproceduresforsafemovement,andhowtofollowinstructions.Theybegintocombine movementwiththeuseofequipment.Whileparticipatinginmovementandphysicalactivities,theylearntoconsider, supportandencourageotherstoshareequipment,andtoadheretorulesthataidparticipationandcooperation. AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsintheHealthknowledgeandpromotiondimension,they explorebasichealthneedsthatmustbemettomaintainorpromotetheirhealthandtohelpthemgrowanddevelop.They discussphysicalchangesaspeoplegrowanddevelop,anddescribehowtheirownbodieshavechangedovertime. Studentsexploretheiremotionsandidentifythedifferentwaysinwhichpeopleexpressandrespondtoemotions. Studentsstartidentifyingnewthingstheycandoandtheresponsibilitiesassociatedwiththese.Theybegintolearnabout thedevelopmentofpersonalidentity. Studentslearntoidentifythoseenvironmentswheretheyfeelconfidentandthosewheretheymaybeafraidorconcerned fortheirsafety.Theypractisehowtorespondtosituationsthatmakethemfeelunsafe,andlearnaboutwhocanhelp them.Theylearnaboutlocalsignsandsymbolsrelatedtosafety(forexample,trafficsignsorsymbolsonmedicines)and explorepossibleactionstotakewhentheyfeelthreatenedorunsafe. Studentsareintroducedtothebasicprinciplesoflivinganactiveandhealthylifeandbegintolearnabouttheimportance ofeatingavarietyoffoods.Theylearnabouthowfoodsdifferinlook,taste,feelandsmell,andbegintounderstandhow goodfoodchoicescontributetoanactiveandhealthylife.

Standards
Movementandphysicalactivity

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Health and Physical Education


AtFoundation,studentsperformbasicmotorskillsandmovementpatterns,withorwithoutequipment,inarangeof environments.Theyregularlyengageinperiodsofmoderatetovigorousphysicalactivity.Theyusesimplevocabularyto describemovement,thephysicalresponsesoftheirbodiestoactivityandtheirfeelingsaboutparticipationinphysical activity.Whenparticipatinginmovementandphysicalactivities,theyfollowrulesandproceduresandshareequipment andspacesafely. Healthknowledgeandpromotion

InHealthandPhysicalEducation,standardsfortheHealthknowledgeandpromotiondimensionareintroducedatLevel 3.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Level1
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel2standardsintheMovementandphysicalactivitydimension,they participateinavarietyofphysicalactivitiesinarangeofenvironments(indoor,outdoorandaquatic).Theyexploredifferent actionsofthebodyandbegintounderstandhowtheseactionsaffectmovementefficiency.Theypractisebasicmotor skillssuchasrunning,hopping,jumping,skipping,catching,throwing,kicking,rolling,balancing,twistingandturning andareintroducedtomorecomplexskillssuchasleaping,dodging,theoverarmthrow,dribblingandstrikingballs, cartwheelingandhandstanding.Theyparticipateinanddevelopcontroloverarangeoflocomotoractivitiesthatrequirea changeofspeed(suchasfastandslowmovements),direction(suchasup/down,forward/backward,right/left, clockwise/anticlockwise)andlevel.Levelsdefinetherelationshipofthebodytothefloor.Lowlevelactivitiescouldinclude movingclosetothefloorsuchascrawlingorcraborsealwalking,whileactivitiesatahigherlevelinvolveagreater distancefromthefloorsuchasjumping,climbingoractivitiesonabalancebenchorbar.Theypractisearangeof movementpatternsinaquaticenvironments.Thesecouldinclude:combiningarmandlegmovementstomovethrough wateronthefrontandbackfor10metresperformingatorpedoonthefrontforthreetofivemetrespushingoffthebottom orsideofthepoolandglidingbothwithandwithoutflotationaidandtreadingwater. Theyadvancefromcreatingandplayinggamesontheirownorwithapartnertoplayinginsmallandlargegroups.They begintocombinemotorskillsintomovementsequences,andcreatesimplemovementsequencesinresponsetoa varietyofstimuli.Theybegintoadaptmovementskillstochangingenvironmentalconditionsforexample,adaptingthe techniqueofbouncingaballtocaterfordifferentsurfacessuchasasphaltorgrass. Studentsbegintounderstandthelinkbetweenphysicalactivityandhealth,andlearnthattheyneedenergytoparticipate inphysicalactivity.Theylearntodescribetheirphysiologicalresponsestoparticipationinbothmoderateandvigorous activityusingvocabularysuchasoutofbreathandheartbeatingfaster.Theydiscusshowactivitiesthatmakethemhuff andpuffimproveheartandlungfunction. Studentsdiscusstheneedforsafetyrulesforequipmentuse,andpractiseappropriatesafetyskillsandprocedures. AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsintheHealthknowledgeandpromotiondimension,they beginlearningabouthowtheydevelop.Theyexplorepeoplesneedsatvariousstagesofdevelopmentandrecognise thatsomeneedsapplytoallstagesoflife.Theydescribewhattheylikeaboutthemselves,howtheyaresimilartoothers andhowtheyareunique. Theybegintoidentifythebenefitsofsafebehavioursandlearnhowtheycanprotectandincreasetheirhealthandsafety andthehealthandsafetyofothers.Inconsideringpersonalsafetyissues,theydiscussthewayvarioussituationsand behavioursaffectthewaytheyfeel,anddeveloppersonalresponsestosuchbehavioursandsituations. Withguidance,theylearntomakehealthyfoodchoicesaccordingtohealthyeatingmodels,andtoconsiderthefactors thatinfluencetheirchoiceoffoods.Theybegintorecognisetheimportanceofvarietyandfrequencyoffoodconsumption foranactiveandhealthylife.

Standards
Movementandphysicalactivity

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


AtLevel1,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel2standards. Healthknowledgeandpromotion

InHealthandPhysicalEducation,standardsfortheHealthknowledgeandpromotiondimensionareintroducedatLevel 3.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Level2
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel2standardsintheMovementandphysicalactivitydimension,they participateinavarietyofphysicalactivitiesinarangeofenvironments(indoor,outdoorandaquatic).Theyexploredifferent actionsofthebodyandbegintounderstandhowtheseactionsaffectmovementefficiency.Theypractisebasicmotor skillssuchasrunning,hopping,jumping,skipping,catching,throwing,kicking,rolling,balancing,twistingandturning andareintroducedtomorecomplexskillssuchasleaping,dodging,theoverarmthrow,dribblingandstrikingballs, cartwheelingandhandstanding.Theyparticipateinanddevelopcontroloverarangeoflocomotoractivitiesthatrequirea changeofspeed(suchasfastandslowmovements),direction(suchasup/down,forward/backward,right/left, clockwise/anticlockwise)andlevel.Levelsdefinetherelationshipofthebodytothefloor.Lowlevelactivitiescouldinclude movingclosetothefloorsuchascrawlingorcraborsealwalking,whileactivitiesatahigherlevelinvolveagreater distancefromthefloorsuchasjumping,climbingoractivitiesonabalancebenchorbar.Theypractisearangeof movementpatternsinaquaticenvironments.Thesecouldinclude:combiningarmandlegmovementstomovethrough wateronthefrontandbackfor10metresperformingatorpedoonthefrontforthreetofivemetrespushingoffthebottom orsideofthepoolandglidingbothwithandwithoutflotationaidandtreadingwater. Theyadvancefromcreatingandplayinggamesontheirownorwithapartnertoplayinginsmallandlargegroups.They begintocombinemotorskillsintomovementsequences,andcreatesimplemovementsequencesinresponsetoa varietyofstimuli.Theybegintoadaptmovementskillstochangingenvironmentalconditionsforexample,adaptingthe techniqueofbouncingaballtocaterfordifferentsurfacessuchasasphaltorgrass. Studentsbegintounderstandthelinkbetweenphysicalactivityandhealth,andlearnthattheyneedenergytoparticipate inphysicalactivity.Theylearntodescribetheirphysiologicalresponsestoparticipationinbothmoderateandvigorous activityusingvocabularysuchasoutofbreathandheartbeatingfaster.Theydiscusshowactivitiesthatmakethemhuff andpuffimproveheartandlungfunction. Studentsdiscusstheneedforsafetyrulesforequipmentuse,andpractiseappropriatesafetyskillsandprocedures. AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsintheHealthknowledgeandpromotiondimension,they beginlearningabouthowtheydevelop.Theyexplorepeoplesneedsatvariousstagesofdevelopmentandrecognise thatsomeneedsapplytoallstagesoflife.Theydescribewhattheylikeaboutthemselves,howtheyaresimilartoothers andhowtheyareunique. Theybegintoidentifythebenefitsofsafebehavioursandlearnhowtheycanprotectandincreasetheirhealthandsafety andthehealthandsafetyofothers.Inconsideringpersonalsafetyissues,theydiscussthewayvarioussituationsand behavioursaffectthewaytheyfeel,anddeveloppersonalresponsestosuchbehavioursandsituations. Withguidance,theylearntomakehealthyfoodchoicesaccordingtohealthyeatingmodels,andtoconsiderthefactors thatinfluencetheirchoiceoffoods.Theybegintorecognisetheimportanceofvarietyandfrequencyoffoodconsumption foranactiveandhealthylife.

Standards
Movementandphysicalactivity

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


AtLevel2,studentsdemonstratebasicmotorskillsandsomemorecomplexskills.Theycombinemotorskillsand movementpatternsduringindividualandgroupactivities.Theydemonstratecontrolwhenparticipatinginlocomotor activitiesrequiringchangeofspeed,directionandlevel.Theycreateandperformsimplerhythmicalmovement sequencesinresponsetostimuli.Theyregularlyengageinsessionsofmoderatetovigorousphysicalactivityand describethelinkbetweenphysicalactivityandhealth.Theyexplainthecontributionrulesandproceduresmaketosafe conductofgamesandactivities.Theyuseequipmentandspacesafely. Healthknowledgeandpromotion

InHealthandPhysicalEducation,standardsfortheHealthknowledgeandpromotiondimensionareintroducedatLevel 3.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Level3
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinHealthandPhysicalEducation,theypractiseanduse complexmanipulativeandlocomotorskillsinarangeofmovementenvironments(indoor,outdoorandaquatic).They practiseanddevelopcompetencyinarangeofcomplexmotorskillssuchasleaping,dodging,theoverarmthrow, dribblingandstrikingballs,cartwheelingandhandstanding.Inaquaticenvironmentstheypractisearangeof movementssuchas:propellingthebodyonthefrontandbackusingfreestyle,backstroke,breaststrokeandsurvival backstrokefor10to20metresandalandbasedrescue.Theydiscusstheperformancecriteriaofmotorskillsand practiseobservingapartnersperformance.Throughmodifiedmajorgames(forexample,gameswithmodifiedrules, equipment,playingfield,lengthofgameornumbersonateamsuchasmodifiednetball),andathleticsactivities(for example,discus,shotputandmodifiedversionsofjumps),studentsbegintoapplytheirskillsinsportspecificsettings. Duringgymnasticsordancesessionsstudentslearn,reproduceandchoreographmorecomplexmovementsequences. Studentsparticipateinarangeofactivitiesthatpromotehealthrelatedfitnesscomponentsofcardiorespiratoryfitness, flexibilityandstrengthandexplorethelinkbetweenhealthrelatedfitnessandlifestyleactivities. Theyexplorebasicgamestacticssuchas:introducingtheconceptsofattackanddefencefollowingtherulesofthe gameanddescribingtherolesofvariouspositions.Theybegintoworkwithotherstosetandachievegoalsinboth cooperativeandcompetitivegamessettings.Theyinventgamesforthemselvesandotherstoplay,anddiscussand practiseappropriatesafetyconsiderationsforthesegames.Studentsconsiderthedifferenttasksundertakenbyofficials toensureagameoractivitycanproceedsmoothly.Theydiscusshowallstudentscanhaveequalopportunityto participate,irrespectiveofskilllevel.Whereappropriate,theyparticipateincompetitiveactivitiesthroughintraschool sport. Studentslearnaboutoutdooradventureactivitiestoenablethemtobetterunderstandthenatureofoutdoorenvironments andhowtheycanpreparethemselvesforsafeinvolvementinsuchactivities. Studentsexaminetheirphysicaldevelopmentindetailforexample,changesintheirheight.Theydevelopan understandingofhumandevelopmentacrossthelifespanasacontinuousprocessinvolvingchangesandpredictable stagessuchasconception,prenatal,infancy,childhood,adolescence,adulthoodandaging.Studentslearnthatwhilethe natureofchangesassociatedwiththesestagesispredictable,thetimingwillvaryforindividuals.Studentsbeginto explorehowtheiremotionsareaffectedbythewaytheyviewthemselves,identifyingfactors(includingtheinfluenceof peersandfamily)thataffect,positivelyornegatively,theirsenseofidentityandselfworth.Theylearnskillsformaintaining andsupportingtheirselfworth.Theyexaminerolesandexpectationsofpeoplewhicharisefromgender,cultureandage. Theyinvestigateavarietyofscenariosidentifyingpotentialhazardsandharmsathome,atschoolandinthecommunity, usinggivencriteriasuchasahomesafetychecklist.Theybegintoexploretherelationshipbetweensafety,riskand challenge,withanemphasisondevelopingtheirknowledgeandunderstandingofstrategiesandskillstoreduceharms, preventaccidentsandcreatesafeandsupportiveenvironments. Studentsexplorehowtheschoolandcommunitycontributetothehealthofitsmembers,boththroughtheimpactofits physicalandsocialenvironmentsandthroughtheservicesandfacilitiesitprovides.Examplesoffacilitiesandservices thatcontributetohealthcouldincludeschoolcrossings,safetysigns,playgrounds,parks,clubsandaschool environmentfreeofbullying.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Studentsdeveloptheirunderstandingoftheneedforvarietyandfrequencyoffoodintakeinactiveandhealthylives,and begintorelatethefoodstheyeatwiththeenergytheyneedforeverydayandphysicalactivities.Theyconsiderthe physiological,social,culturalandeconomicfactorsthatinfluencefoodchoice,andtheimpactofthesefactorsonhealthy eating.Examplescouldinclude:howtasteormoodaffectsfoodchoicetheimpactofmeetingnutritionalrequirementsfor growthandenergytheinfluenceofpeersandfamilyonfoodchoicepopularfoodsinothercountriesandtheavailability oflowcosthealthysnacksorlunches.Studentsreflectontheimportanceofhealthyeatingandparticipationinphysical activityfortheirphysical,socialandemotionalhealth.

Standards
AtLevel3,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel4standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Level4
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinHealthandPhysicalEducation,theypractiseanduse complexmanipulativeandlocomotorskillsinarangeofmovementenvironments(indoor,outdoorandaquatic).They practiseanddevelopcompetencyinarangeofcomplexmotorskillssuchasleaping,dodging,theoverarmthrow, dribblingandstrikingballs,cartwheelingandhandstanding.Inaquaticenvironmentstheypractisearangeof movementssuchas:propellingthebodyonthefrontandbackusingfreestyle,backstroke,breaststrokeandsurvival backstrokefor10to20metresandalandbasedrescue.Theydiscusstheperformancecriteriaofmotorskillsand practiseobservingapartnersperformance.Throughmodifiedmajorgames(forexample,gameswithmodifiedrules, equipment,playingfield,lengthofgameornumbersonateamsuchasmodifiednetball),andathleticsactivities(for example,discus,shotputandmodifiedversionsofjumps),studentsbegintoapplytheirskillsinsportspecificsettings. Duringgymnasticsordancesessionsstudentslearn,reproduceandchoreographmorecomplexmovementsequences. Studentsparticipateinarangeofactivitiesthatpromotehealthrelatedfitnesscomponentsofcardiorespiratoryfitness, flexibilityandstrengthandexplorethelinkbetweenhealthrelatedfitnessandlifestyleactivities. Theyexplorebasicgamestacticssuchas:introducingtheconceptsofattackanddefencefollowingtherulesofthe gameanddescribingtherolesofvariouspositions.Theybegintoworkwithotherstosetandachievegoalsinboth cooperativeandcompetitivegamessettings.Theyinventgamesforthemselvesandotherstoplay,anddiscussand practiseappropriatesafetyconsiderationsforthesegames.Studentsconsiderthedifferenttasksundertakenbyofficials toensureagameoractivitycanproceedsmoothly.Theydiscusshowallstudentscanhaveequalopportunityto participate,irrespectiveofskilllevel.Whereappropriate,theyparticipateincompetitiveactivitiesthroughintraschool sport. Studentslearnaboutoutdooradventureactivitiestoenablethemtobetterunderstandthenatureofoutdoorenvironments andhowtheycanpreparethemselvesforsafeinvolvementinsuchactivities. Studentsexaminetheirphysicaldevelopmentindetailforexample,changesintheirheight.Theydevelopan understandingofhumandevelopmentacrossthelifespanasacontinuousprocessinvolvingchangesandpredictable stagessuchasconception,prenatal,infancy,childhood,adolescence,adulthoodandaging.Studentslearnthatwhilethe natureofchangesassociatedwiththesestagesispredictable,thetimingwillvaryforindividuals.Studentsbeginto explorehowtheiremotionsareaffectedbythewaytheyviewthemselves,identifyingfactors(includingtheinfluenceof peersandfamily)thataffect,positivelyornegatively,theirsenseofidentityandselfworth.Theylearnskillsformaintaining andsupportingtheirselfworth.Theyexaminerolesandexpectationsofpeoplewhicharisefromgender,cultureandage. Theyinvestigateavarietyofscenariosidentifyingpotentialhazardsandharmsathome,atschoolandinthecommunity, usinggivencriteriasuchasahomesafetychecklist.Theybegintoexploretherelationshipbetweensafety,riskand challenge,withanemphasisondevelopingtheirknowledgeandunderstandingofstrategiesandskillstoreduceharms, preventaccidentsandcreatesafeandsupportiveenvironments. Studentsexplorehowtheschoolandcommunitycontributetothehealthofitsmembers,boththroughtheimpactofits physicalandsocialenvironmentsandthroughtheservicesandfacilitiesitprovides.Examplesoffacilitiesandservices thatcontributetohealthcouldincludeschoolcrossings,safetysigns,playgrounds,parks,clubsandaschool environmentfreeofbullying.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Studentsdeveloptheirunderstandingoftheneedforvarietyandfrequencyoffoodintakeinactiveandhealthylives,and begintorelatethefoodstheyeatwiththeenergytheyneedforeverydayandphysicalactivities.Theyconsiderthe physiological,social,culturalandeconomicfactorsthatinfluencefoodchoice,andtheimpactofthesefactorsonhealthy eating.Examplescouldinclude:howtasteormoodaffectsfoodchoicetheimpactofmeetingnutritionalrequirementsfor growthandenergytheinfluenceofpeersandfamilyonfoodchoicepopularfoodsinothercountriesandtheavailability oflowcosthealthysnacksorlunches.Studentsreflectontheimportanceofhealthyeatingandparticipationinphysical activityfortheirphysical,socialandemotionalhealth.

Standards
Movementandphysicalactivity

AtLevel4,studentsperformabroadrangeofcomplexmotorskills.Theydemonstrateawidevarietyofmotorskillsand applythemtobasic,sportspecificsituations.Theycreateandperformcoordinatedmovementsequencesthatcontaina varietyofmotorskillsandmovementpatterns.Theyparticipateregularlyinphysicalactivitiesforthepurposeofimproving skillandhealth,andidentifyanddescribethecomponentsofhealthrelatedfitness.Theybegintousebasicgames tactics.Theyworkwithotherstoachievegoalsinbothcooperativeandcompetitivesportingandgamessituations, explaintheconceptoffairplay,andrespecttherolesofofficials.Studentsfollowsafetyprinciplesingamesandactivities. Healthknowledgeandpromotion

AtLevel4,studentsdescribethestagesofhumandevelopmentacrossthehumanlifespan.Studentsexplainbasic conceptsofidentityandusesimplestrategiestomaintainandsupporttheirselfworth.Theyidentifybasicsafetyskills andstrategiesathome,schoolandinthecommunity,anddescribemethodsforrecognisingandavoidingharmful situations.Theydescribehowphysicalandsocialcomponentsinthelocalenvironmentcontributetowellbeingand identifyhowhealthservicesandproductsaddressthehealthneedsandconcernsofthelocalcommunity.Theyidentify healthyeatingpracticesandexplainsomephysiological,social,culturalandeconomicreasonsforpeoplesfood choices.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Level5
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinHealthandPhysicalEducation,theyrefineandexpand theirrangeofskills,andperformthemwithincreasingprecision,accuracyandcontrolinmorecomplexmovements, sequencesandgames.Studentsbegintoobserve,andgiveconstructivefeedbackon,theskillperformanceoftheir peers.Theyconsolidatetheirmobilityandsafetyskillsinaquaticenvironmentsanddevelopconfidenceandresponsibility inthewaterby,forexample:swimmingcompetentlyforacontinuousdistanceof50metres(25metersinfreestyleand25 metresinanotherstroke)demonstratingsoundbreathingandstroketechniquesthrowingaropeorbuoyantobjecttoa personatleastfivemetresfromthesideofthepoolandpullingorinstructingthemtosafetyandperformingsurvival techniquesofsculling,treadingwater,floatingandsurvivalstrokesforanextendedtime(fourtosixminutes),while clothed,inapooland/orinopenwater. Studentslearnaboutandexperienceavarietyofoutdooradventureactivitiesinnaturalenvironmentssuchas bushwalkingandbasicorienteering. Asstudentscontinuetoparticipateinregularperiodsofmoderatetovigorousphysicalactivity,theyexplorethetraining principlesforimprovingcomponentsofhealthrelatedfitnessandwaystomonitorexerciseintensity. Theyusestrategicthinking,communicationandcooperationtoenhanceperformanceandparticipationinorderto improvegameperformanceforexample,encouragingtacticalawarenessofspace,force,time,selfandotherswhen makinggamesbaseddecisions.Studentsbegintosetpersonalgoalstoimproveperformancebyreflectingontheirskill developmentneeds,andexplorestrategiestoachievethem. Studentsundertakeavarietyofroleswhenparticipatinginmodifiedsports,suchasumpire,coachorselector,andare supportedintakingresponsibilityfororganisingandconductingcompetitiveactivitiesinwhichdecisionsaremadeabout procedures,rulesandfairplay. Workingingroups,theydiscusswaystodesignormodifyasimpleactivityorgame,andconsidertheobjectofthegame, theplayingconditions,thescoringandtherulesandproceduresforitssafeconduct. Studentsdiscusssignificanttransitionsbetweenlifestages,particularlythechangesassociatedwithpubertyandthe changingrolesandresponsibilitiesduringthesestages.Theydiscusshowtheirroleandresponsibilitieswithinthe familysettingandamongfriendsmaychange.Theydiscussreproductivesystems,sexualdevelopmentandsexual maturation.Theyconsiderthevariouswaysthatpeoplevieweachotheronthebasisofcharacteristicssuchasgender, raceandreligion,aswellasqualitiessuchasneeds,abilitiesandaspirations.Theydiscussthevalidity,advantagesand disadvantagesofsuchclassifications. Studentsdevelopanunderstandingoftherighttobesafe.Theylearntodescribeandassessthestrategiesfor respondingtosituationsthatarepotentiallyunsafe,riskyorharmfulinarangeofsettings(athome,atschoolandinthe community).

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Studentsconsiderwhatitmeanstobephysically,sociallyandemotionallyhealthy.Theyexploretheirownandothers viewsabouthealthandsuggestwhatitmightmeanforcertaingroupsofpeopleforexample,theelderly,peoplewitha disabilityorthosefromanotherculture.Studentsconsiderfactorsthataffecttheirownandothersabilitytoaccessand effectivelyusehealthinformation,productsandservices.Theydiscussanddevelopstrategiesforimprovingtheir personalhealth. TheyinvestigatedifferentfoodselectionmodelssuchastheHealthyEatingPyramidandtheAustralianGuidetoHealthy Eatingandtheircharacteristics,andreflectonhowtheycanbeusedtoassistindecisionsaboutfoodchoices.Theylearn aboutthesafeandhygienicpreparationandstorageoffood.

Standards
AtLevel5,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel6standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Level6
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinHealthandPhysicalEducation,theyrefineandexpand theirrangeofskills,andperformthemwithincreasingprecision,accuracyandcontrolinmorecomplexmovements, sequencesandgames.Studentsbegintoobserve,andgiveconstructivefeedbackon,theskillperformanceoftheir peers.Theyconsolidatetheirmobilityandsafetyskillsinaquaticenvironmentsanddevelopconfidenceandresponsibility inthewaterby,forexample:swimmingcompetentlyforacontinuousdistanceof50metres(25metersinfreestyleand25 metresinanotherstroke)demonstratingsoundbreathingandstroketechniquesthrowingaropeorbuoyantobjecttoa personatleastfivemetresfromthesideofthepoolandpullingorinstructingthemtosafetyandperformingsurvival techniquesofsculling,treadingwater,floatingandsurvivalstrokesforanextendedtime(fourtosixminutes),while clothed,inapooland/orinopenwater. Studentslearnaboutandexperienceavarietyofoutdooradventureactivitiesinnaturalenvironmentssuchas bushwalkingandbasicorienteering. Asstudentscontinuetoparticipateinregularperiodsofmoderatetovigorousphysicalactivity,theyexplorethetraining principlesforimprovingcomponentsofhealthrelatedfitnessandwaystomonitorexerciseintensity. Theyusestrategicthinking,communicationandcooperationtoenhanceperformanceandparticipationinorderto improvegameperformanceforexample,encouragingtacticalawarenessofspace,force,time,selfandotherswhen makinggamesbaseddecisions.Studentsbegintosetpersonalgoalstoimproveperformancebyreflectingontheirskill developmentneeds,andexplorestrategiestoachievethem. Studentsundertakeavarietyofroleswhenparticipatinginmodifiedsports,suchasumpire,coachorselector,andare supportedintakingresponsibilityfororganisingandconductingcompetitiveactivitiesinwhichdecisionsaremadeabout procedures,rulesandfairplay. Workingingroups,theydiscusswaystodesignormodifyasimpleactivityorgame,andconsidertheobjectofthegame, theplayingconditions,thescoringandtherulesandproceduresforitssafeconduct. Studentsdiscusssignificanttransitionsbetweenlifestages,particularlythechangesassociatedwithpubertyandthe changingrolesandresponsibilitiesduringthesestages.Theydiscusshowtheirroleandresponsibilitieswithinthe familysettingandamongfriendsmaychange.Theydiscussreproductivesystems,sexualdevelopmentandsexual maturation.Theyconsiderthevariouswaysthatpeoplevieweachotheronthebasisofcharacteristicssuchasgender, raceandreligion,aswellasqualitiessuchasneeds,abilitiesandaspirations.Theydiscussthevalidity,advantagesand disadvantagesofsuchclassifications. Studentsdevelopanunderstandingoftherighttobesafe.Theylearntodescribeandassessthestrategiesfor respondingtosituationsthatarepotentiallyunsafe,riskyorharmfulinarangeofsettings(athome,atschoolandinthe community).

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Studentsconsiderwhatitmeanstobephysically,sociallyandemotionallyhealthy.Theyexploretheirownandothers viewsabouthealthandsuggestwhatitmightmeanforcertaingroupsofpeopleforexample,theelderly,peoplewitha disabilityorthosefromanotherculture.Studentsconsiderfactorsthataffecttheirownandothersabilitytoaccessand effectivelyusehealthinformation,productsandservices.Theydiscussanddevelopstrategiesforimprovingtheir personalhealth. TheyinvestigatedifferentfoodselectionmodelssuchastheHealthyEatingPyramidandtheAustralianGuidetoHealthy Eatingandtheircharacteristics,andreflectonhowtheycanbeusedtoassistindecisionsaboutfoodchoices.Theylearn aboutthesafeandhygienicpreparationandstorageoffood.

Standards
Movementandphysicalactivity

AtLevel6,studentsperformconfidentlyandefficientlyinarangeofmovementenvironments(indoor,outdoor,and aquatic).Theyrefinebasicandcomplexmotorskillsandapplytheseskillsinincreasinglycomplexgamesandactivities. Theymaintainregularparticipationinmoderatetovigorousphysicalactivityandmonitorexerciseintensity.Theyexplain theprocessforimprovinghealthrelatedfitness.Studentseffectivelyusestrategicthinkingandworkwithbothmoreand lessskilledpeerstoimprovegameperformance.Studentsworkindependentlytoimproveperformance.Theyevaluate theperformanceofapartnerandprovideconstructivefeedbackbasedonperformancecriteriatoassistskill development.Studentsdescribeandanalysethevariousrolesrequiredincompetitivesports.Theyworkinagroupto createagame,andestablishrulesandproceduresforitssafeconduct. Healthknowledgeandpromotion

AtLevel6,studentsidentifythelikelyphysical,emotionalandsocialchangesthatoccurduringpuberty.Theyidentifyand discussthevalidityofthewaysinwhichpeopledefinetheirownandotherpeoplesidentity.Theydescribetheactions theycantakeiftheyfeelunsafeathome,schoolandinthecommunity.Theydescribethephysical,socialandemotional dimensionsofhealthandestablishhealthgoalsandplanstrategiesforimprovingtheirpersonalhealth.Theydescribea rangeofhealthservices,productsandinformationthatcanbeaccessedtohelpmeethealthneedsandconcerns.They analyseandexplainphysiological,social,culturalandeconomicreasonsforfoodchoicesandanalyseanddescribefood selectionmodels.Theydescribehowtoprepareandstorefoodhygienically.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Level7
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinHealthandPhysicalEducation,theydevelopand refinearangeofmovementandmanipulativeskillsforexample,gymnasticsroutinesandhighlevelballskillssuchas shootingabasketinbasketballorspikingavolleyball.Theyparticipateinavarietyofteamandindividualgamesand activities,usingandbuildingonskillsandstrategiesfromothersportsaswellascontinuingtodevelopnew,sport specific,skills. Studentsdeveloptheirswimmingstroketechniquesandproficiencyinarangeofwatersafetyskillsastheyparticipate withinanaquaticenvironment.Thiscouldinclude:swimmingforacontinuousdistanceof150metres,changingbetween freestyle,backstroke,breaststrokeorsurvivalbackstrokeandwhileclothed,performingcorrectsurvivaltechniques, includingsculling,treadingwater,floatingandsurvivalstrokesforanextendedperiodoftimeinapooloropenwater. Duringparticipationinarangeofoutdoorrecreationandadventureactivities,studentsdevelopskills,knowledgeand behaviourswhichenhancesafeparticipationintheseactivities.Forexample,aspartofabushwalkingactivity,students coulddevelopanunderstandingofappropriateclothingandfootwearrequiredandtheneedforsunprotectionand accesstodrinkingwater. Studentsexploreviewsaboutfitnessandsuggestwhatfitnessmightmeantovariousgroupsinsociety.Theydevelop theirunderstandingofthephysical,mental,socialandemotionalbenefitsofparticipationinphysicalactivity,andexamine factorswhichinfluencesuchparticipation.Theyconsidertherelationshipbetweenphysicalactivity,fitnessandhealth, andexplorewaystomeasuretheirownfitnessandphysicalactivitylevels.Theyexploretherelationshipbetweentheir physicalactivityandnutritioninordertounderstandhowtheycanmaintainphysicalhealth.Theyinvestigateandaddress positiveandnegativemotivationalfactorsthatinfluencethevaluetheyplaceonparticipatinginphysicalactivity.Theyare introducedtothecomponentsofperformancerelatedfitness,andlearnhowtoanalyseandevaluatesportsandactivities fromthisperspective. Studentsengageinactivitieswhichdevelopstrategicthinkingandtacticalknowledgetoimproveindividualandteam performanceincompetitivesportsorgames.Theycollaboratewithteammembersplanningstrategiesandpractisingset playsforrespondingtogamesbasedtacticalchallenges.Studentsobservepeerperformance,developingandusing criteriatoprovideprecisefeedbackabouttheperformanceofmotorskillsandtacticsusedinaspecificsportorgame. Theyalsomonitorandanalysetheirownperformance. Studentsundertakeavarietyofrolesinteamgames(forexample,player,coach,umpireoradministrator)andreflecton theirexperiences.Theyrespecttherightofotherstoparticipate.Theyreflectontheirownpersonalandsocialbehaviours inphysicalactivitysettings,andhowtheycontributetocreatinganinclusiveandsupportiveenvironmentforlearningand fairplay. Studentscontinuetheirstudyofthechangesassociatedwithadolescencebyidentifyingwhatchangeshavealready occurredandwhatchanges(physical,socialandemotional)theycanexpecttoexperience.Theydescribetheinfluenceof thefamilyonshapingpersonalidentityandvalues.Theyexplainhowcommunityattitudesandlawsinfluencethesense ofrightandwrong.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Indevelopingstrategiestominimiseharmandtoprotecttheirownandothershealth,studentsconsiderhealth resources,productsandservices,andtheinfluencesofthelaw,publichealthprograms,theirconscience,community attitudes,andreligiousbeliefs.Theybegintoclarifyacohesivesetofpersonalvaluesandhowtheycouldbeusedto improvetheirhealth. Studentsdescribethehealthinterestsandneedsofyoungpeopleasagroup,includingthoserelatedtosexualhealth (forexample,safesex,contraception,abstinenceandpreventionandcureofsexuallytransmittedinfections)anddrug issues(forexample,tobacco,alcohol,cannabisuse).Theyexploreactionsatpersonal,familyandsocietallevelsthat helptomeettheseneeds,andidentifytheinfluencesofindividualsandgroups.Theyexplorewaysofdealingwith change,especiallythesocialandemotionalaspectsoftransitionfromprimarytosecondaryschool.Theylearnhowto accessreliableinformationabouthealthissuesaffectingthemandtoidentifybarriersandenablerstoaccessinghealth services. Studentsreflectontherangeofinfluencesonpersonalfoodintake:peers,advertising,massmedia,mood,convenience, habit,culturalbeliefsandvalues,andaccesstofoodproductsandservices.Theyexploretopicalissuesrelatedtoeating, andidentifypersonalandcommunityfactorsthatinfluencetheirownfoodselection.Studentsconsiderthenutritional requirementsforgrowthandactivityatdifferentstagesoflife,andlearntosetnutritionalgoalsusingfoodselection models.Theylearnhowtoanalysenutritionalinformationprovidedinadvertisingandproductlabels,andtomake decisionsabouthowthisinformationcanbeusedby,orinfluence,individualsintheirfoodchoices.

Standards
AtLevel7,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel8standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Level8
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinHealthandPhysicalEducation,theydevelopand refinearangeofmovementandmanipulativeskillsforexample,gymnasticsroutinesandhighlevelballskillssuchas shootingabasketinbasketballorspikingavolleyball.Theyparticipateinavarietyofteamandindividualgamesand activities,usingandbuildingonskillsandstrategiesfromothersportsaswellascontinuingtodevelopnew,sport specific,skills. Studentsdeveloptheirswimmingstroketechniquesandproficiencyinarangeofwatersafetyskillsastheyparticipate withinanaquaticenvironment.Thiscouldinclude:swimmingforacontinuousdistanceof150metres,changingbetween freestyle,backstroke,breaststrokeorsurvivalbackstrokeandwhileclothed,performingcorrectsurvivaltechniques, includingsculling,treadingwater,floatingandsurvivalstrokesforanextendedperiodoftimeinapooloropenwater. Duringparticipationinarangeofoutdoorrecreationandadventureactivities,studentsdevelopskills,knowledgeand behaviourswhichenhancesafeparticipationintheseactivities.Forexample,aspartofabushwalkingactivity,students coulddevelopanunderstandingofappropriateclothingandfootwearrequiredandtheneedforsunprotectionand accesstodrinkingwater. Studentsexploreviewsaboutfitnessandsuggestwhatfitnessmightmeantovariousgroupsinsociety.Theydevelop theirunderstandingofthephysical,mental,socialandemotionalbenefitsofparticipationinphysicalactivity,andexamine factorswhichinfluencesuchparticipation.Theyconsidertherelationshipbetweenphysicalactivity,fitnessandhealth, andexplorewaystomeasuretheirownfitnessandphysicalactivitylevels.Theyexploretherelationshipbetweentheir physicalactivityandnutritioninordertounderstandhowtheycanmaintainphysicalhealth.Theyinvestigateandaddress positiveandnegativemotivationalfactorsthatinfluencethevaluetheyplaceonparticipatinginphysicalactivity.Theyare introducedtothecomponentsofperformancerelatedfitness,andlearnhowtoanalyseandevaluatesportsandactivities fromthisperspective. Studentsengageinactivitieswhichdevelopstrategicthinkingandtacticalknowledgetoimproveindividualandteam performanceincompetitivesportsorgames.Theycollaboratewithteammembersplanningstrategiesandpractisingset playsforrespondingtogamesbasedtacticalchallenges.Studentsobservepeerperformance,developingandusing criteriatoprovideprecisefeedbackabouttheperformanceofmotorskillsandtacticsusedinaspecificsportorgame. Theyalsomonitorandanalysetheirownperformance. Studentsundertakeavarietyofrolesinteamgames(forexample,player,coach,umpireoradministrator)andreflecton theirexperiences.Theyrespecttherightofotherstoparticipate.Theyreflectontheirownpersonalandsocialbehaviours inphysicalactivitysettings,andhowtheycontributetocreatinganinclusiveandsupportiveenvironmentforlearningand fairplay. Studentscontinuetheirstudyofthechangesassociatedwithadolescencebyidentifyingwhatchangeshavealready occurredandwhatchanges(physical,socialandemotional)theycanexpecttoexperience.Theydescribetheinfluenceof thefamilyonshapingpersonalidentityandvalues.Theyexplainhowcommunityattitudesandlawsinfluencethesense ofrightandwrong.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Indevelopingstrategiestominimiseharmandtoprotecttheirownandothershealth,studentsconsiderhealth resources,productsandservices,andtheinfluencesofthelaw,publichealthprograms,theirconscience,community attitudes,andreligiousbeliefs.Theybegintoclarifyacohesivesetofpersonalvaluesandhowtheycouldbeusedto improvetheirhealth. Studentsdescribethehealthinterestsandneedsofyoungpeopleasagroup,includingthoserelatedtosexualhealth (forexample,safesex,contraception,abstinenceandpreventionandcureofsexuallytransmittedinfections)anddrug issues(forexample,tobacco,alcohol,cannabisuse).Theyexploreactionsatpersonal,familyandsocietallevelsthat helptomeettheseneeds,andidentifytheinfluencesofindividualsandgroups.Theyexplorewaysofdealingwith change,especiallythesocialandemotionalaspectsoftransitionfromprimarytosecondaryschool.Theylearnhowto accessreliableinformationabouthealthissuesaffectingthemandtoidentifybarriersandenablerstoaccessinghealth services. Studentsreflectontherangeofinfluencesonpersonalfoodintake:peers,advertising,massmedia,mood,convenience, habit,culturalbeliefsandvalues,andaccesstofoodproductsandservices.Theyexploretopicalissuesrelatedtoeating, andidentifypersonalandcommunityfactorsthatinfluencetheirownfoodselection.Studentsconsiderthenutritional requirementsforgrowthandactivityatdifferentstagesoflife,andlearntosetnutritionalgoalsusingfoodselection models.Theylearnhowtoanalysenutritionalinformationprovidedinadvertisingandproductlabels,andtomake decisionsabouthowthisinformationcanbeusedby,orinfluence,individualsintheirfoodchoices.

Standards
Movementandphysicalactivity

AtLevel8,studentsproficientlyperformcomplexmovementandmanipulativeskills.Studentsmeasuretheirownfitness andphysicalactivitylevelsandidentifyfactorsthatinfluencemotivationtobephysicallyactive.Theymaintainregular participationinmoderatetovigorousphysicalactivityandanalyseandevaluatetheirlevelofinvolvementinphysical activity.Theycombinemotorskills,strategicthinkingandtacticalknowledgetoimproveindividualandteamperformance. Healthknowledgeandpromotion

AtLevel8,studentsdescribethephysical,emotionalandsocialchangesthatoccurasaresultoftheadolescentstageof thelifespanandthefactorsthatinfluencetheirowndevelopment.Theydescribetheeffectoffamilyandcommunity expectationsonthedevelopmentofpersonalidentityandvalues.Theyidentifyoutcomesofrisktakingbehavioursand evaluateharmminimisationstrategies.Theyidentifythehealthconcernsofyoungpeopleandthestrategiesthatare designedtoimprovetheirhealth.Theydescribethehealthresources,productsandservicesavailableforyoungpeople andconsiderhowtheycouldbeusedtoimprovehealth.Theyanalysearangeofinfluencesonpersonalandfamilyfood selection,andidentifymajornutritionalneedsforgrowthandactivity.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Level9
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinHealthandPhysicalEducation,theydevelop proficiencyinarangeofhighlevelmovementandmanipulativeskillssuchasasmashintennis,andfocusonidentifying andimplementingwaysofimprovingthequalityoftheirperformanceduringgames,physicalactivitiesandsports.They maybeintroducedtonewsports,gamesoractivitieswhichwillrequirethemtolearnnewskillsoradaptpreviouslylearnt skillsinanewcontext. Theyinvestigatedifferentcomponentsoffitness,howthesevarybetweenactivitiesandhowtheycontributetothe wellbeingofpeopleatdifferentstagesoftheirlives.Studentslearntosetpersonalphysicalactivityand/orfitnessgoals, developanactivityand/orfitnessprogramandevaluateitssuccess.Theyinvestigatecommunityfacilitiesavailablefor healthandphysicalfitnessactivities,engageinavarietyofrecreationalandoutdooradventureactivities,anddevelop skills,knowledgeandbehavioursforenhancingsafeparticipationintheseactivities. Theylearnandpractisetacticsandstrategiesrelevanttothesportsandactivitiesinwhichtheyareparticipating,including thedevelopmentofstrategiestocountertacticalchallengesingamesituations.Studentsparticipateinpeerteachingor coachingsituationswithafocusonskilldevelopmentandimprovement.Theydiscusssportingconduct,andimplement fairplayandgoodsportingbehaviours.Theyundertakeavarietyofrolesinteamgames(forexample,player,coach, umpireandadministrator)andassumeresponsibilityfortheorganisationofaspectsofasportingcompetition. Studentsextendtheirlearningaboutthemajortasksinestablishingpersonalidentity.Theydescribesocialandcultural factors,suchasfamily,themedia,communityexpectationsinfluencingthedevelopmentofpersonalidentity,includingthe developmentofidentityasitrelatestogender.Theydiscusswaystoexpressindependenceandtherightsand responsibilitiesassociatedwiththedevelopmentofincreasingindependence.Theyrehearsestrategiesforbeing assertivewhenprotectingtheirownandothershealth. Studentsdiscussrelationshipsandhowthedifferentaspectsofrelationshipsvarybetweenpeopleandovertime.They considerhowthedifferentrolesandresponsibilitiesinsexualrelationshipscanaffecttheirhealthandwellbeing.They explorearangeofissuesrelatedtosexualityandsexualhealthsuchassafesexpractices,sexualnegotiation,samesex attractionandtheimpactofalcoholonsexualandpersonalsafety.Studentsexploreassumptions,communityattitudes andstereotypesaboutyoungpeopleandsexuality.Theylearnstrategiesforsupportingthemselvesandotheryoung peopleexperiencingdifficultiesinrelationshipsorwiththeirsexuality,andlearnaboutthecommunityservicesavailable toassist.Studentsinvestigateandevaluatethepoliciesandpracticesintheirschoolinrelationtosexualandracial harassment,homophobiaand/ordiscrimination,andconsidertheirrightsandresponsibilitiesintheseareas. Studentsexaminementalhealthissuesrelevanttoyoungpeopleandconsidertheimportanceoffamilyandfriendsin supportingtheirmentalhealthandemotionalhealthneeds.Theyconsiderthestigmaofmentalillnessaswellasthe challengesforthosewithamentalillnessandforthosecaringforthem. Studentsexamineperceptionsofchallenge,riskandsafetyinavarietyofsettingssuchasinthehome,school,the workplaceandthecommunity.Theycontrastrisksthatpromotepersonalandsocialgrowthwiththosethatendanger health.Theydiscusswaystobalanceriskandsafety,andrefineandevaluateharmminimisationstrategies.They examinestrategiestopromotesafetysuchasthoseassociatedwithoccupationalhealthandsafety.Studentsexamine theconceptofadventureinoutdooractivitiesaswellasperceivedandactualrisk.Theylearnbasicfirstaidskillssuchas cardiopulmonaryresuscitation(CPR),asthmamanagementandsportsinjurymanagement.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Studentsexploreassertivenessandresiliencestrategiesthatcouldbeusedinarangeofsituations.Usingtechniques suchasroleplayorsimulationgames,studentsareprovidedwithopportunitiestopractiseandreflectontheusefulness ofthesestrategies. Studentslearntousesimplehealthdatatoidentifythemajorcausesofillness,injuryanddeathinAustralia.They investigatepersonalbehavioursandcommunityactionsthatmaycontributetothehealthofspecificgroups.Students investigatetheworkofgovernmentdepartmentsandnongovernmentbodiesinpromotingandprotectingthehealthof youngpeople,includinglaws,policiesandprovisionofhealthservices.Theyidentifytheservicesprovidedthrough Medicare. Studentsexaminetherelationshipbetweennutritionandstagesofgrowthanddevelopment,andtheeatingpractices associatedwithdifferentstagesinlife.Theylearntoanalysethelinksbetweendietandcurrentcommunityhealthissues, andconsiderspecialdietaryneeds,andwaysofimprovingtheirowndiet.Theyresearchpatternsoffoodconsumptionin Australiaandinvestigatefactorsthatinfluencefoodchoice,suchaschangesinfamilylife.

Standards
AtLevel9,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel10standards.

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Health and Physical Education


Level10
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinHealthandPhysicalEducation,theydevelop proficiencyinarangeofhighlevelmovementandmanipulativeskillssuchasasmashintennis,andfocusonidentifying andimplementingwaysofimprovingthequalityoftheirperformanceduringgames,physicalactivitiesandsports.They maybeintroducedtonewsports,gamesoractivitieswhichwillrequirethemtolearnnewskillsoradaptpreviouslylearnt skillsinanewcontext. Theyinvestigatedifferentcomponentsoffitness,howthesevarybetweenactivitiesandhowtheycontributetothe wellbeingofpeopleatdifferentstagesoftheirlives.Studentslearntosetpersonalphysicalactivityand/orfitnessgoals, developanactivityand/orfitnessprogramandevaluateitssuccess.Theyinvestigatecommunityfacilitiesavailablefor healthandphysicalfitnessactivities,engageinavarietyofrecreationalandoutdooradventureactivities,anddevelop skills,knowledgeandbehavioursforenhancingsafeparticipationintheseactivities. Theylearnandpractisetacticsandstrategiesrelevanttothesportsandactivitiesinwhichtheyareparticipating,including thedevelopmentofstrategiestocountertacticalchallengesingamesituations.Studentsparticipateinpeerteachingor coachingsituationswithafocusonskilldevelopmentandimprovement.Theydiscusssportingconduct,andimplement fairplayandgoodsportingbehaviours.Theyundertakeavarietyofrolesinteamgames(forexample,player,coach, umpireandadministrator)andassumeresponsibilityfortheorganisationofaspectsofasportingcompetition. Studentsextendtheirlearningaboutthemajortasksinestablishingpersonalidentity.Theydescribesocialandcultural factors,suchasfamily,themedia,communityexpectationsinfluencingthedevelopmentofpersonalidentity,includingthe developmentofidentityasitrelatestogender.Theydiscusswaystoexpressindependenceandtherightsand responsibilitiesassociatedwiththedevelopmentofincreasingindependence.Theyrehearsestrategiesforbeing assertivewhenprotectingtheirownandothershealth. Studentsdiscussrelationshipsandhowthedifferentaspectsofrelationshipsvarybetweenpeopleandovertime.They considerhowthedifferentrolesandresponsibilitiesinsexualrelationshipscanaffecttheirhealthandwellbeing.They explorearangeofissuesrelatedtosexualityandsexualhealthsuchassafesexpractices,sexualnegotiation,samesex attractionandtheimpactofalcoholonsexualandpersonalsafety.Studentsexploreassumptions,communityattitudes andstereotypesaboutyoungpeopleandsexuality.Theylearnstrategiesforsupportingthemselvesandotheryoung peopleexperiencingdifficultiesinrelationshipsorwiththeirsexuality,andlearnaboutthecommunityservicesavailable toassist.Studentsinvestigateandevaluatethepoliciesandpracticesintheirschoolinrelationtosexualandracial harassment,homophobiaand/ordiscrimination,andconsidertheirrightsandresponsibilitiesintheseareas. Studentsexaminementalhealthissuesrelevanttoyoungpeopleandconsidertheimportanceoffamilyandfriendsin supportingtheirmentalhealthandemotionalhealthneeds.Theyconsiderthestigmaofmentalillnessaswellasthe challengesforthosewithamentalillnessandforthosecaringforthem. Studentsexamineperceptionsofchallenge,riskandsafetyinavarietyofsettingssuchasinthehome,school,the workplaceandthecommunity.Theycontrastrisksthatpromotepersonalandsocialgrowthwiththosethatendanger health.Theydiscusswaystobalanceriskandsafety,andrefineandevaluateharmminimisationstrategies.They examinestrategiestopromotesafetysuchasthoseassociatedwithoccupationalhealthandsafety.Studentsexamine theconceptofadventureinoutdooractivitiesaswellasperceivedandactualrisk.Theylearnbasicfirstaidskillssuchas cardiopulmonaryresuscitation(CPR),asthmamanagementandsportsinjurymanagement.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Health and Physical Education


Studentsexploreassertivenessandresiliencestrategiesthatcouldbeusedinarangeofsituations.Usingtechniques suchasroleplayorsimulationgames,studentsareprovidedwithopportunitiestopractiseandreflectontheusefulness ofthesestrategies. Studentslearntousesimplehealthdatatoidentifythemajorcausesofillness,injuryanddeathinAustralia.They investigatepersonalbehavioursandcommunityactionsthatmaycontributetothehealthofspecificgroups.Students investigatetheworkofgovernmentdepartmentsandnongovernmentbodiesinpromotingandprotectingthehealthof youngpeople,includinglaws,policiesandprovisionofhealthservices.Theyidentifytheservicesprovidedthrough Medicare. Studentsexaminetherelationshipbetweennutritionandstagesofgrowthanddevelopment,andtheeatingpractices associatedwithdifferentstagesinlife.Theylearntoanalysethelinksbetweendietandcurrentcommunityhealthissues, andconsiderspecialdietaryneeds,andwaysofimprovingtheirowndiet.Theyresearchpatternsoffoodconsumptionin Australiaandinvestigatefactorsthatinfluencefoodchoice,suchaschangesinfamilylife.

Standards
Movementandphysicalactivity

AtLevel10,studentsdemonstrateproficiencyintheexecutionofmanipulativeandmovementskillsduringcomplex activities.Theydemonstrateadvancedskillsinselectedphysicalactivities.Theyusetrainingmethodstoimprovetheir fitnesslevel,andparticipateinsports,games,recreationalandleisureactivitiesthatmaintainregularparticipationin moderatetovigorousphysicalactivity.Theyemployanddeviseskillsandstrategiestocountertacticalchallengesin gamessituations.Theyassumeresponsibilityforconductofaspectsofasportingcompetitioninwhichrolesareshared anddisplayappropriatesportingbehaviour. Healthknowledgeandpromotion

AtLevel10,studentsidentifyanddescribearangeofsocialandculturalfactorsthatinfluencethedevelopmentof personalidentityandvalues.Theyidentifyandexplaintherightsandresponsibilitiesassociatedwithdevelopinggreater independence,includingthoserelatedtosexualmattersandsexualrelationships.Theydescribementalhealthissues relevanttoyoungpeople.Theycompareandevaluateperceptionsofchallenge,riskandsafety.Theydemonstrate understandingofappropriateassertivenessandresiliencestrategies.Theyanalysethepositiveandnegativehealth outcomesofarangeofpersonalbehavioursandcommunityactions.Theyidentifythehealthservicesandproducts providedbygovernmentandnongovernmentbodiesandanalysehowthesecanbeusedtosupportthehealthneedsof youngpeople.TheyidentifyanddescribestrategiesthataddresscurrenttrendsinthenutritionalstatusofAustralians. TheyanalyseandevaluatethefactorsthataffectfoodconsumptioninAustralia.

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The Humanities
TableofContents Overview Introduction Domainstructure CurriculumF10 Foundationlevel Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4

2 2 2 5 5 6 7 8 9

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities

IntroductiontoTheHumanities
TheHumanitiesinFoundationtoLevel10involvethestudyofhumansocietiesandenvironments,peopleandtheircultures inthepastandthepresent.TheHumanitiesprovideaframeworkfordevelopinginstudentsthekeyideasandconceptsthat enablethemtounderstandthewayinwhichpeopleandsocietieshaveorganisedtheirworldunderparticularconditionsand mademeaningofit. TheHumanitiestakeastheirsubjectmatterhumanbehaviour.Theyprovideuniquewaystounderstandhowandwhygroups ofpeoplehavesettledwheretheyhave,organisedtheirsocieties,developedmeansofgeneratinganddistributingwealth, developedcodes,lawsandbeliefsystems,relatedtoothergroupsofpeopleandinteractedwiththeirphysicalenvironment. TheHumanitiesencourageuseofresearchskillsandinquiryprocesses.Studentslearntoplananinvestigationandaskkey questions.Theyquestionandanalysearangeofdataandsourcesincludingartefacts,photographs,maps,stories,special events,interviews,sitevisitsandelectronicmedia.Theyformconclusionssupportedbyevidenceandpresentinformationin avarietyofways.

StructureoftheHumanitiesDomain
TheHumanitiesdomainisorganisedasfollows:
l l l l

TheHumanities:FoundationLevel4(includesHistory AC) TheHumanities:History ACLevels510 TheHumanities:GeographyLevels510 TheHumanities:EconomicsLevels510

AusVELSusesanelevenlevelstructuretobothreflectthedesignofthenewAustralianCurriculumandtoprovidea consistentstructureacrossalltheAusVELSdomains(formoredetails,pleaseseeOverview).ToviewtheHumanities: History ACcontentdescriptorsandachievementstandardsforF10,gotoTheHumanitiesHistory AC.

TheHumanities(FoundationLevel2)
AtFoundationtoLevel2,studentsareintroducedtobasicconceptsrelatedtohistory,geographyandeconomics.These conceptsaresetoutindiscretecontentdescriptionsandachievementstandardsforHistory ACandunderthegeneral umbrellaofTheHumanitiesforGeographyandEconomics.AchievementstandardsforHistory ACareintroducedfrom Foundation.StandardsfortherestoftheHumanitiesareintroducedfromLevel3.

TheHumanities(Levels34)
TheHumanities(34)includestheHistory ACcontentdescriptionsandachievementstandardsforlevels34.Thelearning focusandstandardsforGeographyandEconomicscontinuetobesetoutunderthegeneralumbrellaofTheHumanities.

TheHumanities(Levels510)
TheHumanities(510)arestructuredbytheseparatedomainsofHistory,GeographyandEconomics.Thedomainsof GeographyandEconomicsincludeslearningfocusstatementsandstandardsforlevels510.ThedomainofHistory AC includescontentdescriptionsandachievementstandardsforlevels510. ThefollowingprovidesasummaryofthestructuralelementsoftheHumanities.

TheHumanitiesGeographyandEconomics

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities
Learningfocus
Learningfocusstatementsarewrittenforeachlevel.Theseoutlinethelearningthatstudentsneedtofocusoniftheyareto progressinthedomainandachievethestandardsatthelevelswheretheyapply.Theysuggestappropriatelearning experiencesfromwhichteacherscandrawtodeveloprelevantteachingandlearningactivities.

Standards
Standardsdefinewhatstudentsshouldknowandbeabletodoatdifferentlevelsandarewrittenforeachdimension. StandardsthatfocusonhistoricalandgeographicalknowledgeandunderstandingareintroducedatLevel3.Standardsfor assessingandreportingonstudentachievementforEconomicsandGeographyareintroducedatLevel5.

Dimensions
StandardsintheHumanitiesforGeographyandEconomicsareorganisedintwodimensions:
l l

Humanitiesknowledgeandunderstanding Humanitiesskills.

Humanitiesknowledgeandunderstanding
TheHumanitiesknowledgeandunderstandingdimensionfocusesonkeyhumanitiesknowledgeandconcepts.Students learnabouttheirimmediateandlocalcommunityandenvironmentandareintroducedtothehistoryandgeographyoftheir countryandthediversityofcultureandenvironment.Throughstructuredactivitiestheylearntheconceptsoftimechronology andsequencing,changeandcontinuityandthespatialconceptsoflocation,distance,scaleanddistribution.

Humanitiesskills
TheHumanitiesskillsdimensionfocusesonthedevelopmentofbasicinquiryskillsincludingobservation,thecollectionof varioustypesofevidence,askingandansweringquestionsaboutevidenceandpresentinginformationinavarietyofways.

TheHumanitiesHistory AC
ContentDescriptions
Contentdescriptionsspecifywhatteachersareexpectedtoteach.ContentelaborationsareincludedforHistory AC.The contentelaborationsareintendedtoprovideadditionalclaritybywayofillustrativeexamplesonly.Theyarenotstatementsof mandatorycontent.

AchievementStandards
Achievementstandardsdescribesthequalityoflearning(theextentofknowledge,thedepthofunderstandingandthe sophisticationofskills)thatwouldindicatethestudentiswellplacedtocommencethelearningrequiredatthenextlevelof achievement.

Strands
History ACisorganisedintotwointerrelatedstrands:
l l

Historicalknowledgeandunderstanding Historicalskills

Historicalknowledgeandunderstanding

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities
Thisstrandincludespersonal,family,local,stateorterritory,national,regionalandworldhistory.Thereisanemphasison AustralianhistoryinitsworldhistorycontextatFoundationtoLevel10andafocusonworldhistoryintheseniorsecondary levels.Thestrandincludesastudyofsocieties,events,movementsanddevelopmentsthathaveshapedworldhistoryfrom thetimeoftheearliesthumancommunitiestothepresentday. Thisstrandexploreskeyconceptsfordevelopinghistoricalunderstanding,suchas:evidence,continuityandchange,cause andeffect,significance,perspectives,empathyandcontestability.Theseconceptsmaybeinvestigatedwithinaparticular historicalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusforhistoricalinquiries.

Historicalskills
Thisstrandpromotesskillsusedintheprocessofhistoricalinquiry:chronology,termsandconceptshistoricalquestions andresearchtheanalysisanduseofsourcesperspectivesandinterpretationsexplanationandcommunication.Withinthis strandthereisanincreasingemphasisonhistoricalinterpretationandtheuseofevidence.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities

Foundationlevel
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsintheHumanities,theydrawontheirownexperienceto helpthemunderstandtheworldaroundthem. Studentsdevelopanawarenessofspatialconceptsthroughstructuredexperienceswithintheirimmediateenvironment. Theyinvestigatetherelativelocation,directionanddistanceoftheirhome,school,classroom,localparks,shopsand othersignificantfeaturesoftheirenvironmentandbegintounderstandthegeographyoftheirlocalarea.Theylearnto giveandfollowsimpledirections,anddescribelocationrelativetootherpeopleandplacesusingeverydayspatialterms suchasfront/back,up/down,right/left,near/far,above/below.Theydrawsimplepictorialmapsfromtheirdeveloping mentalmapsoffamiliarenvironments. Studentsexplorehowandwhynaturalfactors(forexample,changesintheweather)andhumanactivities(forexample, theclosingofapark)affecttheirlives.Theydevelopbasicnarrativesthatlinkeventsintheirownexperience.Participating inactivitiessuchaswearingprotectionfromthesun,savingenergy,savingwater,andrecycling,theydeveloptheir awarenessofenvironmentalissues.

Standards
IntheHumanities,achievementstandardsforHistoryareintroducedfromFoundationlevel.Standardsfortheother HumanitiesdomainsareintroducedfromLevel4.

FoundationLevelHistory AC

Thecurriculum(contentdescriptionsandachievementstandards)forHistory ACFoundationtoLevel4islocatedhere.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities
Level1
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsintheHumanitiestheydeveloptheirunderstandingof thelocalcommunity. Studentsdeveloptheirawarenessofspatialconceptsandusetermsthatdemonstrateanunderstandingofabsoluteand relativelocations.Withguidance,theyrecogniseandpointtotheirstreet,townorcityandstateonanappropriatemap. TheyrecognisetheglobeasamodelrepresentationofEarthandcanlocateAustraliaandotherplaceswithwhichthey havelinks.Studentslearntoidentifyandnamephysicalfeaturesanddistinguishthemonthebasisofvariables, includingsize(scale/height/distribution)andcolour.Throughobservation,theyinvestigateanddescribeelementsofthe naturalandbuiltenvironmentsintheirlocalarea. Byobservingthecharacteristicsofdifferentplaces,andpromptedbyquestions,studentsthinkaboutenvironmental differences,locallyandinotherpartsofAustraliaandtheworld,andwhythesedifferencesexist. Studentsareintroducedtotheconceptofresourcesandtheirmanagement,andbegintounderstandhowresourceuse reflectscommunityinterdependenceandeconomicsustainability.Theybegintounderstandhowlocalresourcesare usedtomakeproductswhichmeetlocalpeople'sneedsandtheneedsofpeopleinotherplaces.Theyalsobeginto understandthatresourcesfromotherplacesmaybeusedtomakeproductslocallytomeettheirneeds.

Standards
IntheHumanities,achievementstandardsforHistoryareintroducedfromFoundationlevel.Standardsfortheother Humanitiesdomainsareintroducedfromlevel4.

Level1History AC

Thecurriculum(contentdescriptionsandachievementstandards)forHistory ACFoundationtoLevel4islocatedhere.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities
Level2
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsintheHumanities,theydeveloptheirunderstandingof thelocalcommunity. Studentsdeveloptheirawarenessofspatialconceptsandusetermsthatdemonstrateanunderstandingofabsoluteand relativelocations.Withguidance,theyrecogniseandpointtotheirstreet,townorcityandstateonanappropriatemap. TheyrecognisetheglobeasamodelrepresentationofEarthandcanlocateAustraliaandotherplaceswithwhichthey havelinks.Studentslearntoidentifyandnamephysicalfeaturesanddistinguishthemonthebasisofvariables, includingsize(scale/height/distribution)andcolour.Throughobservation,theyinvestigateanddescribeelementsofthe naturalandbuiltenvironmentsintheirlocalarea. Byobservingthecharacteristicsofdifferentplaces,andpromptedbyquestions,studentsthinkaboutenvironmental differences,locallyandinotherpartsofAustraliaandtheworld,andwhythesedifferencesexist. Studentsareintroducedtotheconceptofresourcesandtheirmanagement,andbegintounderstandhowresourceuse reflectscommunityinterdependenceandeconomicsustainability.Theybegintounderstandhowlocalresourcesare usedtomakeproductswhichmeetlocalpeople'sneedsandtheneedsofpeopleinotherplaces.Theyalsobeginto understandthatresourcesfromotherplacesmaybeusedtomakeproductslocallytomeettheirneeds.

Standards
IntheHumanities,achievementstandardsforHistoryareintroducedfromFoundationlevel.Standardsfortheother Humanitiesdomainsareintroducedfromlevel4.

Level2History AC

Thecurriculum(contentdescriptionsandachievementstandards)forHistory ACFoundationtoLevel4islocatedhere.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities
Level3
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsintheHumanities,theyconsiderthefeaturesand characteristicsoftheirlocalareaandVictoria. StudentsinvestigatethehumanandphysicalcharacteristicsoftheirlocalareaandotherpartsofVictoriaandconsider featuresoftheirlocalcommunitythathavechangedovertime.Theylearnaboutsettlementpatterns,majorlanduses, communicationnetworks,andthelocationandvarietyofnationalparksinVictoria.Theybegintomakesomesimple comparisonsbetweenlocalandotherVictorianenvironments:naturalfeatures,climate,landuseandtypesofhuman activities.Studentsdevelopawarenessandunderstandingoftheeffectsofpeople'sinteractionswiththeirenvironment andthewaysinwhichtheseaffecttheirlives.Studentsbegintovisualiseanddescribelocationanddirectionusing simplealphanumericgridsandcompasspoints.Theylearntouseatlasmapsandaglobetolocateandnamethe statesandterritoriesofAustralia. Studentslearntodistinguishbetweenbasicneedsandwants(forexample,food,clothing,shelter,andaffection),saving andspending,buyers(consumers)andsellers(producers),andgoodsandservices.Theydevelopanunderstandingof theroleofmoneyandidentifywaystosaveforexample,usingasavingsaccount,andbegintounderstandthe importanceofbudgeting.Theyexamineandcomparedifferenttypesofworkandspecificjobs.

Standards
Humanitiesknowledgeandunderstanding

AtLevel3,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel4standardsforHumanities. Humanitiesskills

AtLevel3,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel4standardsforHumanities.

Level3History AC

Thecurriculum(contentdescriptionsandachievementstandards)forHistory ACFoundationtoLevel4islocatedhere.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities
Level4
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsintheHumanities,theyconsiderthefeaturesand characteristicsoftheirlocalareaandVictoria. StudentsinvestigatethehumanandphysicalcharacteristicsoftheirlocalareaandotherpartsofVictoriaandconsider featuresoftheirlocalcommunitythathavechangedovertime.Theylearnaboutsettlementpatterns,majorlanduses, communicationnetworks,andthelocationandvarietyofnationalparksinVictoria.Theybegintomakesomesimple comparisonsbetweenlocalandotherVictorianenvironments:naturalfeatures,climate,landuseandtypesofhuman activities.Studentsdevelopawarenessandunderstandingoftheeffectsofpeople'sinteractionswiththeirenvironment andthewaysinwhichtheseaffecttheirlives.Studentsbegintovisualiseanddescribelocationanddirectionusing simplealphanumericgridsandcompasspoints.Theylearntouseatlasmapsandaglobetolocateandnamethe statesandterritoriesofAustralia. Studentslearntodistinguishbetweenbasicneedsandwants(forexample,food,clothing,shelter,andaffection),saving andspending,buyers(consumers)andsellers(producers),andgoodsandservices.Theydevelopanunderstandingof theroleofmoneyandidentifywaystosaveforexample,usingasavingsaccount,andbegintounderstandthe importanceofbudgeting.Theyexamineandcomparedifferenttypesofworkandspecificjobs.

Standards
Humanitiesknowledgeandunderstanding

AtLevel4,studentsdescribefromdirectobservationorobservationofavarietyofmedia,thehumanandphysical characteristicsoftheirlocalareaandotherpartsofVictoria.Theydescribehowpeopleuseandaffectdifferent environmentsinVictoria. Humanitiesskills

AtLevel4,studentsdrawsimplemapsandplansoffamiliarenvironmentsobservingbasicmappingconventions.They identifythelocationofplacesonasimplemapusinganalphanumericgridanddescribedirectionusingthefourcardinal compasspoints.Usingatlasmapsandaglobe,theylocateandnamethestatesandterritoriesofAustralia. IntheHumanities,achievementstandardsforHistoryareintroducedfromFoundationlevel.Standardsfortheother Humanitiesdomainsareintroducedfromlevel4.

Level4History AC

Thecurriculum(contentdescriptionsandachievementstandards)forHistory ACFoundationtoLevel4islocatedhere.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities - Economics


TableofContents Overview Introduction Domainstructure Stagesoflearning CurriculumF10 Level5 Level6 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10

2 2 2 3 7 7 8 9 10 11 12

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities - Economics

IntroductiontoTheHumanitiesEconomics
Economicsisthestudyofhowdifferentsocietiesallocatescarceresourcestosatisfythewantsandneedsofitsmembers. Aswithanysocialscience,economicsisconcernedwithhumansocialbehaviour:thebehaviourofindividualsandthe interactionamongthem.Economicsisalsoconcernedwithhowtobestmanageresourcescarcityandaddressesthe requirementsforhumansurvivalandeconomicsustainability. Economicdecisionstakenbyindividuals,groups,businessesandgovernmentshaveimplicationsforthewelfareof individuals,families,communities,countries,regionsandgeopoliticalunionsofnations.Allpeoplearetouchedbyeconomic decisionsonmultipleoccasionseveryday.Economicsplaysacriticaland,often,contestedroleinlocal,state,nationaland internationalpublicpolicy.Lifegloballyisdominatedbyeconomictransactionsanditisthequalityofeconomicdecision makingatalllevelsofsocietythatsignificantlydeterminesthewellbeingofindividualsandnations. ThestudyofEconomicsassistsstudentstobetterunderstandhowwealthisgeneratedanddistributed,andtounderstand:
l l

microeconomicconceptsthatexplainhowbusinessesandmarketsoperate macroeconomicconceptsthathelptoexplainhowanationseconomyworks.

Itenablesstudentstounderstandtheimportanceofentrepreneurshipandenterpriseingeneratingahealthyeconomy. Economicsprovidesstudentswiththeknowledgeandskillstoengagewitheconomicmattersandtoconsidertheeffectsof alternativeeconomicdecisionsonthemselvesandothers.Theyaretheninabetterpositionto:


l l l

actrationallyandethicallywhenmakingeconomicandpersonalfinancialdecisions appreciatethecomplexityofeconomicdecisionmaking understandtheeconomicdecisionsmadebyothers.

Notonlycantheymanagetheirpersonalaffairsbetter,theycanbemoreeffectiveandproductivemembersofsocietyasthey arecapableofmakingreasonablejudgmentsonpublicpolicyissuesthathaveabearingontheirpersonalprospectsand thoseofthenation.

StructureofTheHumanitiesEconomicsdomain
TheEconomicsdomaininAusVELSusesasixlevelstructurefromLevels5to10tobothreflectthedesignofthenew AustralianCurriculumandtoprovideaconsistentstructureacrossalltheAusVELSdomains. Eachlevelincludesalearningfocusstatementandasetofstandardsorganisedbydimension.Aglossaryisincludedwhich providesdefinitionsofunderlinedterms.

Learningfocus
LearningfocusstatementsarewrittenforLevels5to10.AtFoundationtoLevel4,basicconceptsrelatedtohistory, geographyandeconomicsareincludedunderthegeneralumbrellaofTheHumanities.Learningfocusstatementsoutline thelearningthatstudentsneedtofocusoniftheyaretoprogressinthedomainandachievethestandardsatthelevels wheretheyapply.Theysuggestappropriatelearningexperiencesfromwhichteacherscandrawtodeveloprelevantteaching andlearningactivities.

Standards

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities - Economics


Standardsdefinewhatstudentsshouldknowandbeabletodoatdifferentlevelsandarewrittenforeachdimension.Inthe Humanities,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedatLevel3.Thesefocuson historicalandgeographicalknowledgeandunderstanding.SpecificstandardsforEconomicsapplyfromLevel5.

Dimensions
StandardsintheEconomicsdomainareorganisedintwodimensions:
l l

Economicknowledgeandunderstanding Economicreasoningandinterpretation.

Economicknowledgeandunderstanding
TheEconomicknowledgeandunderstandingdimensionfocusesoneconomicconcepts,principles,methodsandmodels. Studentslearnhowtheirneedsandwantsaremetandunderstandtheirrolesasproducers,workersandconsumersand recognisetheimpactofmarketforces.Theylearnthateconomicdecisionsareabouttheallocationofresourcesinproducing goodsandservicesandaboutthedistributionoftheproceedsofproductionandthatthesedecisionshavelocal,national andglobalconsequences.Theyexploretheimportanceandtheroleofenterpriseandentrepreneurshipintheproduction processandintheconstruction,developmentandprosperityofaneconomicsystem. Studentslearnhowtomanagetheirpersonalfinancesandhowtobeinformedconsumers.Theyexploretheworldofworkin ordertodeveloptheabilitytomakeinformeddecisionsabouttheirfutureeducationandtrainingneeds,andemployment. StudentsinvestigatefactorsaffectingtheAustralianandinternationaleconomiesandtheroleofgovernmentinestablishing conditionsforeconomicactivityandtheydeveloptheabilitytouseeconomicknowledgeandunderstandingtoevaluate economicdecisionsandpolicies.

Economicreasoningandinterpretation
TheEconomicreasoningandinterpretationdimensioncoversthenatureofeconomicthinking.Studentslearntouseand practiserational,objectivedecisionmakingbyapplyingeconomicreasoning,includingthefundamentaleconomicconcepts ofopportunitycostandcostbenefitanalysis,tosolveproblemswhichassisttheminunderstandingtheeconomy,society andenvironment.Theydevelopanabilitytoidentify,collectandprocessdatafromarangeofsources,includingelectronic media,andtointerprettables,chartsandgraphsdisplayingeconomicdata.Theylearntoclarifyandjustifypersonalvalues andattitudesaboutissuesaffectingtheeconomy,societyandenvironment.Theydevelopanunderstandingofthestrengths andlimitationsofeconomicreasoninganditsrelationshiptoothersourcesofdecisionmaking.

StagesofLearninginTheHumanitiesEconomics
AusVELStakesaccountofthedevelopmentalstagesoflearningyoungpeopleexperienceatschool.Whilestudentlearning isacontinuumanddifferentstudentsdevelopatdifferentrates,theybroadlyprogressthroughthreestagesoflearning. Thefollowingstatementsdescribewaysinwhichthesecharacteristicsrelatetolearningexperiencesandstandardsineach ofthethreestagesoflearningintheEconomicsdomain. Acrossthestagesoflearningstudentsareintroducedtokeyeconomicthemesandthenrevisitthesekeythemesinorderto embedunderstandingsandbuildtheireconomic,consumerandfinancialliteracies.Studentsdevelopeconomicknowledge andunderstandingsandtheabilitytouseeconomicreasoningandinterpretationskillsandindoingso,recognisethe importanceoftheseknowledge,skillsandbehavioursinensuringAustraliasfutureeconomicgrowth,developmentand livingstandards.

FoundationtoLevel4Layingthefoundations

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The Humanities - Economics


InFoundationtoLevel4,learningabouteconomicstakesplacethroughthegeneralHumanitiesdomain.Studentsare introducedtoeconomicknowledgeandthenatureofeconomicthinkingbymakingobservationsabouttheirworldandtheir interactionswithit.Theyexplorehowtheirneeds(forexample,food,clothing,shelter)andwants(forexample,askateboard, anelectronicgame)aremet.Theyalsoidentifyresources(land,minerals,labour,machinery)usedathome,atschoolandin thelocalcommunityanddescribehowsomeoftheseresourcesareusedtomeetparticularneeds.Theybegintoinvestigate waysinwhichresourcesareallocatedwithintheirfamily,schoolandlocalcommunity.Theybegintolearnhowandwhy resourcesareusedandmanaged,reflectingtheinterdependenceofcommunitiesandtheneedforsustainability. Intheselevels,studentsbegintocomparedifferenttypesofworkandenterpriseintheirlocalcommunityandidentifythe specificjobsandthevarietyoftasksinvolvedindifferentworkplacessuchastheirschool.Theyusethisknowledgeto describethenatureofworkandrelateittocontemporaryissues,suchastheimpactoftechnologicalchange. Theybegintodevelopaneconomicvocabularytodiscuss,forexample,needs,wants,markets,goods,services,money, banking,choice,buying,selling,workandtrade.Theyusethisvocabularytodescribeandexplaintheirobservationsandto framequestionsrelatingtoeconomicdecisions.Theyareintroducedtothelinksbetweentheeconomy,societyand environment.

Levels5to8Buildingbreadthanddepth
InLevels5to8studentsdevelopfurtherknowledgeofeconomicconceptslearnedinFoundationtoLevel4.Therelevanceof economicsisillustratedandreinforcedthroughexamplesdrawnfrompersonal,localandnationalexperience.Studentsare introducedtorelevanteconomictheories,modelsandsystemssuchasthemarketsystemandthewaystheseareusedto helpexplainwhathappensandwhyandtheycontinuetoexpandtheireconomicvocabulary.Theyexplainhoweconomic decisionmakingaffectstheuseofresourcesanddescribetherelationshipbetweenspendingandresourceuse.They analysethenatureandmeaningofwork,appreciatingthedifferencebetweenpaidandunpaidworkanditsrelationshipto otheractivitiesinpeopleslivessuchasleisure.Theyexamineviewsaboutdifferenttypesofworkandenterpriseandidentify particularskillsinarangeofjobsandexaminehowtheyareacquired. Studentslearntouseandpractiserational,objectivedecisionmakingbyapplyingeconomicreasoningandcostbenefit analysistosolveproblemswhichassisttheminunderstandingthewayresourcesareallocatedbothpersonallyandinthe economy.Theydevelopanabilitytoidentify,collectandprocesseconomicdatafromarangeofsources,includingelectronic mediaandbegintousetheinquiryprocesstoplaneconomicsinvestigations,analysedataandformconclusionssupported byevidence.Studentsbegintodevelopskillstocontestideas,todebateandtouseevidencetoformandexpressopinions oneconomicissuesthatinterestand/orimpactonthempersonallyandonsociety.

Levels9to10Developingpathways
InLevels9to10,studentsdevelopconfidenceintheirabilitytoidentifyeconomicproblems,alternatives,costs,andbenefits analysetheincentivesatworkineconomicsituationsexaminetheconsequencesofchangesineconomicconditionsand publicpoliciescollectandorganiseeconomicevidenceandweighcostsagainstbenefits.Theyareprogressivelymore independentlearnersandabletosystematicallyplantheirowninvestigationsandusetheskillsofposingquestions,testing hypotheses,collectingdata,analysis,synthesis,criticalthinking,decisionmakingandformingconclusionssupportedby evidence. Studentsinterpretmediareportsaboutcurrenteconomicconditionslocally,nationallyandgloballyandexplainhowthese conditionscaninfluencedecisionsmadebyconsumers,producersandgovernmentpolicymakers.Predictionsaboutthe economicconsequencesofproposedgovernmentpoliciesaredevelopedandinformedopinionsaremadeconcerning alternativepublicpolicyproposals.Studentsdevelopanabilitytopredicttheimpactofeconomicpoliciesonthemselvesand others.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities - Economics


Studentsexplorewhatitmeanstobeanethicalproducerandconsumerandtheroleofvaluesineconomicdecisionmaking ofproducersandconsumers.Theyexaminewayspoliticalandfinancialsystemsandinstitutionsimpactoneconomicactivity andthewelfareofcitizens.Studentsdevelopanunderstandingofhowtheeconomyismanagedandareawarethat economicpoliciesadvancedbygovernmentswillhaveanimpactonthempersonallyandontheirfellowcitizens.Students investigateeconomicdisparityacrosstheglobeandstudentsseekreasonsforwhythismightbesoandwhatcouldbedone tomakeresourcedistributionmoreequitableamongstnations.Theyrecognisetheimportanceofeconomicallyliterate citizenstoAustraliasfutureeconomicgrowthanddevelopment. Studentsdeveloptheabilitytousedatatoanalyseeconomicperformanceofbusinessandeconomies.Studentsbecome moreconfidentinusingeconomicreasoning,includingcost/benefitanalysis,tosolveproblemswhichassisttheminmaking meaningabouttheeconomy,societyandenvironmentandtoclarifyandjustifyvaluesandattitudesaboutissuesaffectingthe economy,societyandenvironment. Studentsidentifydifferentwaystomanagepersonalresourcesbyreferringtotheirownandothersexperiencesofresource management.Theyexaminefactorsthatinfluencepersonalfinancialwellbeingandarebuildingtheirowncapacityin relationtofinancialliteracy.Theydeveloptheabilitytoapplyknowledgeandskillstotheirpersonalfinancialcircumstances. Studentslearnabouttherelationshipbetweeneducation,trainingandworkoptions.Theydevelopandapplyappropriate knowledge,skillsandbehavioursfortransitiontoemploymentand/orfurthereducationandtraining.Theylearnabout enterpriseskillsandattributesandhowenterpriseandinnovationaffecttheeconomy,societyandenvironment.

ExamplesacrosstheStagesoflearning
TheEconomicsstandardshavebeenwrittenaroundtheideaofthecurriculumasaspiralratherthanlinealprogression. Thismeansthatkeyconceptsandthemesassociatedwithresourceallocationandecologicalsustainability,consumerand financialliteracy,enterprise,innovationandworkrelatededucationareexaminedandreviewedoverarangeoflevelssothat theknowledge,skillsandbehavioursbecomeembeddedacrossthestagesoflearning.Seethetablebelowforsome examples. FoundationtoLevel 4 Identifyand investigate issuesrelated toresource allocation, ecological sustainability andeconomic activities Studentsdescribea varietyofeconomic thoseinwhichthey areinvolvedsuchas shopping,makinga sandwich,tendinga garden,keepinga pet EconomicsStandards Level6 EconomicsStandards Level8 EconomicsStandards Level10 Studentsappreciatethe complexityofeveryform ofeconomicactivityand thewaysresourcesare allocatedwhetherwithin internationalsetting, understandingthe sourcesofconflict motivesforeconomic activity.

Studentsunderstandthat Studentsdistinguish resourcesarelimitedin wantsandthatpeople makechoicesbecause theywant.Studentsare abletoidentifysome choicestheyhavemade tomakeachoice. betweentheuse, ownershipand managementof resourcesinpersonal, contextsandappreciate thateconomicchoices involvetradeoffsthat futureconsequences.

activities,inparticular relationtounlimited

theycan'thaveeverything businessandcommunity theirfamilycontextor

andexplainwhytheyhad havebothimmediateand betweendifferent

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities - Economics


Identifyand investigate issuesrelated tothenature andmeaningof work. Studentsrecognise andareableto identifyavarietyof jobsusing categoriesor pictures. Studentsdistinguish workandcompare differenttypesofwork andenterpriseinthe localcommunity. Studentsdescribe ofemploymentand opportunitiesforcurrent andfuturework,and explaintherelationship betweeneducation, trainingandwork opportunities Studentsdemonstrate skillsrequiredformoving fromschoolto employmentorfurther education.

betweenpaidandunpaid factorsthataffectchoice

Useskillsof economic reasoningand interpretation.

Studentsorganise informationfroma reviewindividual economicactions suchassavingfora treatorrecycling waste.

Studentsorganise informationfroma reviewgroupeconomic tobuyanewpetforthe familyororganisinga schoolfair.

Studentsorganise informationfroma numberofsourcesto

Studentsorganise informationfroma numberofsourcesto viewsaboutsome internationaleconomic issuesuchaswhether Australiashould increasetheintakeof skilledmigrantsorwhy Australianeedsexports.

numberofsourcesto numberofsourcesto

advocateandreviewtheir advocateandreviewtheir ornationaleconomic issuesuchaswhether tollsshouldbecharged onanewfreewayintheir areaorwhether unemployedpeople shouldworkforthedole.

actionssuchasplanning viewsaboutsomelocal

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities - Economics

Level5
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinEconomics,theylearnaboutthenatureofthe economicproblem(scarcity):thatis,thatourneedsandwantsareunlimitedbuttheresourcesavailabletosatisfythese wantsarelimited.Theyexplorehowthecommunitydefines,classifiesandusesresources.Theylearnaboutthe processesofconsumption,productionanddistributioninmeetingneedsandwants,andtheroleofconsumers,workers andproducersintheeconomy.Theyconsiderfactorsaffectingtheirspendingandwhyitisimportanttobeaninformed consumerwhenmakingspendingdecisions.Theyinvestigatetheimportanceofpersonalmoneymanagementandthe roleofbanking,budgetingandsaving. Studentsconsiderthenatureandmeaningofworkanditsrelationshiptootheractivitiesinpeople'slives,including leisure.Theyexaminevarioustypesofworkandenterpriseinarangeofsettings,includinghome,schoolandthe community,andidentifythedifferentnaturesofpaidandunpaidwork. Studentsusetheinquiryprocesstoplaninvestigationsabouteconomicissuesinthehome(forexample,whichmobile phoneorpairofrunnerstobuy),school(forexample,whichbuscompanytohireforanexcursion)orlocalcommunity(for example,whetherasmallfactoryorresidentialtownhousesshouldbebuiltonavacantlotnexttotheschool)andform conclusionssupportedbyevidence. Studentspractisecontestingideas,debatingandusingevidencetoformandexpressopinionsoneconomicissuesthat interestand/orhaveanimpactonthemselvesandonsociety,particularlytheirlocalcommunity. Theyexpandtheireconomicvocabularytoincludesuchtermsasconsumption,production,distribution,enterpriseand identify,andlearntocollectandprocessdatafromarangeofsources,includingelectronicmedia.

Standards
AtLevel5,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel6standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities - Economics


Level6
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinEconomics,theylearnaboutthenatureofthe economicproblem(scarcity):thatis,thatourneedsandwantsareunlimitedbuttheresourcesavailabletosatisfythese wantsarelimited.Theyexplorehowthecommunitydefines,classifiesandusesresources.Theylearnaboutthe processesofconsumption,productionanddistributioninmeetingneedsandwants,andtheroleofconsumers,workers andproducersintheeconomy.Theyconsiderfactorsaffectingtheirspendingandwhyitisimportanttobeaninformed consumerwhenmakingspendingdecisions.Theyinvestigatetheimportanceofpersonalmoneymanagementandthe roleofbanking,budgetingandsaving. Studentsconsiderthenatureandmeaningofworkanditsrelationshiptootheractivitiesinpeople'slives,including leisure.Theyexaminevarioustypesofworkandenterpriseinarangeofsettings,includinghome,schoolandthe community,andidentifythedifferentnaturesofpaidandunpaidwork. Studentsusetheinquiryprocesstoplaninvestigationsabouteconomicissuesinthehome(forexample,whichmobile phoneorpairofrunnerstobuy),school(forexample,whichbuscompanytohireforanexcursion)orlocalcommunity(for example,whetherasmallfactoryorresidentialtownhousesshouldbebuiltonavacantlotnexttotheschool)andform conclusionssupportedbyevidence. Studentspractisecontestingideas,debatingandusingevidencetoformandexpressopinionsoneconomicissuesthat interestand/orhaveanimpactonthemselvesandonsociety,particularlytheirlocalcommunity. Theyexpandtheireconomicvocabularytoincludesuchtermsasconsumption,production,distribution,enterpriseand identify,andlearntocollectandprocessdatafromarangeofsources,includingelectronicmedia.

Standards
Economicknowledgeandunderstanding

AtLevel6,studentsdescribethenatureoftheeconomicproblem(scarcity)andexplainhowselectedgoodsandservices areproducedanddistributed.Studentsdescribethedifferencebetweenneedsandwants,andtheirownrolesas producersandconsumersofgoodsandservices.Theyexplaintheneedtobeaninformedconsumer.Theyexplainthe roleofworkinsocietyanddistinguishbetweenpaidandunpaidwork.Theycomparedifferenttypesofworkand enterpriseinthelocalcommunity.Studentsdemonstratebasicunderstandingofpersonalmoneymanagementandthe roleofbanking,budgetingandsaving. Economicreasoningandinterpretation

AtLevel6,studentsusetheinquiryprocesstoplaneconomicsinvestigationsabouteconomicissuesinthehome, schoolorlocalcommunityandformconclusionssupportedbyevidence.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities - Economics


Level7
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinEconomics,theydevelopanunderstandingofthe natureofscarcity,opportunitycostandresourceallocation,andhowtheseinfluencetheAustralianeconomy. Theyconsidertheuse,ownershipandmanagementofresourcesinpersonal,businessandcommunitycontexts,and participateinactivitiesinwhichtheybegintoappreciatethateconomicchoicesinvolvetradeoffsthathaveboth immediateandfutureconsequences.Theylearnthatamarket,consistingofbuyersandsellers,isonemethodof allocatingresources.Studentsbegintoidentifymarketsinwhichtheyparticipate,andhowtheinteractionofbuyersand sellersinfluencesprices.Theyexplorehowaccesstoresourcesisasignificantfactorindeterminingincomelevelsand appreciatethatpeople'sincomes,inpart,reflectchoicestheyhavemadeabouteducation,work,careersandskill development. Studentsdeveloppersonalfinancialliteracyskillsandanunderstandingoftheimportanceofbeinganinformed consumer.Theypractisemakinginformedconsumerdecisions.Theyconsiderthenatureofcurrentandfuturework opportunitiesandfactorsthatinfluencesuchopportunities.Theylearnaboutthenatureofbusinessandbusiness ownership,andbegintogainanunderstandingofconceptssuchasrisktaking,competition,andsupplyanddemand. Studentslearnabouttheroleofgovernmentininfluencingeconomicactivityandmanagingtheeconomy. Studentsusetheinquiryprocesstoplaneconomicinvestigations,analyseandinterpretdata,andformconclusions supportedbyevidence.Forexample,studentsinvestigatethewayresourcesareallocatedinvariousmarketssuchasthe housingmarket,theAustralianFootballLeagueplayersmarket,thelocalcommunitymarketandthechocolatemarket. Theybegintoformandexpressopinionsoneconomicissuesthatinterestand/orimpactonthempersonally,orlocally andnationally.

Standards
AtLevel7,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel8standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities - Economics


Level8
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinEconomics,theydevelopanunderstandingofthe natureofscarcity,opportunitycostandresourceallocation,andhowtheseinfluencetheAustralianeconomy. Theyconsidertheuse,ownershipandmanagementofresourcesinpersonal,businessandcommunitycontexts,and participateinactivitiesinwhichtheybegintoappreciatethateconomicchoicesinvolvetradeoffsthathaveboth immediateandfutureconsequences.Theylearnthatamarket,consistingofbuyersandsellers,isonemethodof allocatingresources.Studentsbegintoidentifymarketsinwhichtheyparticipate,andhowtheinteractionofbuyersand sellersinfluencesprices.Theyexplorehowaccesstoresourcesisasignificantfactorindeterminingincomelevelsand appreciatethatpeople'sincomes,inpart,reflectchoicestheyhavemadeabouteducation,work,careersandskill development. Studentsdeveloppersonalfinancialliteracyskillsandanunderstandingoftheimportanceofbeinganinformed consumer.Theypractisemakinginformedconsumerdecisions.Theyconsiderthenatureofcurrentandfuturework opportunitiesandfactorsthatinfluencesuchopportunities.Theylearnaboutthenatureofbusinessandbusiness ownership,andbegintogainanunderstandingofconceptssuchasrisktaking,competition,andsupplyanddemand. Studentslearnabouttheroleofgovernmentininfluencingeconomicactivityandmanagingtheeconomy. Studentsusetheinquiryprocesstoplaneconomicinvestigations,analyseandinterpretdata,andformconclusions supportedbyevidence.Forexample,studentsinvestigatethewayresourcesareallocatedinvariousmarketssuchasthe housingmarket,theAustralianFootballLeagueplayersmarket,thelocalcommunitymarketandthechocolatemarket. Theybegintoformandexpressopinionsoneconomicissuesthatinterestand/orimpactonthempersonally,orlocally andnationally.

Standards
Economicknowledgeandunderstanding

AtLevel8,studentsexplainthenatureoftheeconomicproblemandhoweconomicchoicesinvolvetradeoffsthathave bothimmediateandfutureconsequences.TheyexplainkeyfactorsthatinfluencetheAustralianeconomy,includingthe quantityandqualityoffactorsinvolvedinproduction,resourceuse,ownershipandmanagement,andtypesof businesses.Studentsmakeinformedeconomicandconsumerdecisions,demonstratingthedevelopmentofpersonal financialliteracy.Theydescribefactorsthataffectchoiceofemploymentandopportunitiesforcurrentandfuturework,and explaintherelationshipbetweeneducation,trainingandworkopportunities.Studentsidentifyanddescribewaysthe governmentinfluenceseconomicoutcomesatthepersonal,localandnationallevel. Economicreasoningandinterpretation

AtLevel8,studentsusetheinquiryprocesstoplaneconomicsinvestigations,analyseandinterpretdata,andform conclusionssupportedbyevidence.Theyformandexpressopinionsoneconomicissuesthatinterestand/orimpacton thempersonally,orlocallyand/ornationally.

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10

The Humanities - Economics


Level9
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinEconomics,theydeveloptheirunderstandingofhow theAustralianeconomyismanaged,particularlywithintheinternationaleconomiccontext.Theyanalysehow macroeconomicandmicroeconomicpoliciesandprogramsadvancedbygovernmentsandotherinstitutionsaffectthem andtheirfellowcitizens.Theyexaminetheroleofexchange,tradeandglobalisationininfluencingAustraliasstandardof living.Theydevelopanunderstandingofenterpriseattributesandskills,anddescribetheimpactofinnovationand enterpriseontheeconomyandsociety. Studentsinvestigatetherelationshipbetweeneconomicgrowth,ecologicalsustainabilityandthestandardofliving,and explorewhatitmeanstobeanethicalproducerandconsumer.Theybegintoreflectontheroleofvaluesintheeconomic decisionmakingofproducers,consumersandgovernments. Theydevelopskillsinusingeconomicreasoning,includingcostbenefitanalysis,toresearcheconomicissuesand proposesolutionsforeconomicproblemsofglobalsignificance.Theyresearcheconomicproblemsandarguethe validityorotherwiseoftheirownhypotheses.Economicproblemscouldincludeexamplessuchaswhythepriceofacan ofsoftdrinkvariesdependingonwhereitissoldwhetherwelfareisarightoraprivilegeandwhethertollsshouldbe chargedonnewfreeways.Suchresearchassistsstudentsinunderstanding,clarifyingandjustifyingvaluesandattitudes aboutissuesaffectingtheeconomy,societyandtheenvironment. Studentsextendtheirpersonalfinancialliteracyskillsandunderstandingabouttheroleofsavingsandinvestment.They examinevocationalpathwaysandeducationandtrainingrequirements,consideringpossibleworkandcareeroptions. Theydevelopskillsandstrategiesfortransitiontoemploymentandfurthereducationandtraining,includingjobseeking, jobapplicationandinterviewskills.

Standards
AtLevel9,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel10standards.

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The Humanities - Economics


Level10
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinEconomics,theydeveloptheirunderstandingofhow theAustralianeconomyismanaged,particularlywithintheinternationaleconomiccontext.Theyanalysehow macroeconomicandmicroeconomicpoliciesandprogramsadvancedbygovernmentsandotherinstitutionsaffectthem andtheirfellowcitizens.Theyexaminetheroleofexchange,tradeandglobalisationininfluencingAustraliasstandardof living.Theydevelopanunderstandingofenterpriseattributesandskills,anddescribetheimpactofinnovationand enterpriseontheeconomyandsociety. Studentsinvestigatetherelationshipbetweeneconomicgrowth,ecologicalsustainabilityandthestandardofliving,and explorewhatitmeanstobeanethicalproducerandconsumer.Theybegintoreflectontheroleofvaluesintheeconomic decisionmakingofproducers,consumersandgovernments. Theydevelopskillsinusingeconomicreasoning,includingcostbenefitanalysis,toresearcheconomicissuesand proposesolutionsforeconomicproblemsofglobalsignificance.Theyresearcheconomicproblemsandarguethe validityorotherwiseoftheirownhypotheses.Economicproblemscouldincludeexamplessuchaswhythepriceofacan ofsoftdrinkvariesdependingonwhereitissoldwhetherwelfareisarightoraprivilegeandwhethertollsshouldbe chargedonnewfreeways.Suchresearchassistsstudentsinunderstanding,clarifyingandjustifyingvaluesandattitudes aboutissuesaffectingtheeconomy,societyandtheenvironment. Studentsextendtheirpersonalfinancialliteracyskillsandunderstandingabouttheroleofsavingsandinvestment.They examinevocationalpathwaysandeducationandtrainingrequirements,consideringpossibleworkandcareeroptions. Theydevelopskillsandstrategiesfortransitiontoemploymentandfurthereducationandtraining,includingjobseeking, jobapplicationandinterviewskills.

Standards
Economicknowledgeandunderstanding

AtLevel10,studentsdescribehowmarkets,governmentpolicies,enterpriseandinnovationaffecttheeconomy,society andenvironmentintermsofemployment,economicgrowth,theuseofresources,exportsandimports,andecological sustainability. Theyanalysehowgoodsandservicesareproducedandhowmarketswork.Theypredicthowpriceswillchangewhen thereiseitherasurplusorshortage,andexplainhowthismightinfluencethebehaviourofconsumersandproducers. Theyanalysetheroleandsignificanceofexchange,tradeandglobalisationininfluencingAustraliasstandardofliving. Theydiscussandexplainwhatitmeanstobeanethicalconsumerandproducerandidentifyexamplesofwaysvalues canaffecttheeconomicdecisionmakingofconsumers,producersandgovernments. Studentsanalysetherolethatgovernmentsandotherinstitutionssuchasbanks,theAustralianCouncilofTradeUnions (ACTU)playintheeconomy,andevaluatetheirperformanceinachievingappropriateeconomicoutcomesforindividuals andforsociety.Theyexplaintheroleandsignificanceofsavingsandinvestmentforindividualsandfortheeconomy,and demonstratetheskillsrequiredtosuccessfullyplanandmanagepersonalfinances.

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The Humanities - Economics


Studentspredicttheeconomicconsequencesofproposedgovernmentpoliciesandmakeinformedchoicesamong alternativepublicpolicyproposals.Studentsexplaintheimpactofmacroeconomicandmicroeconomicpolicieson themselvesandothers,includingbusinesses. Studentsanalysevocationalpathwaysandeducationandtrainingrequirementsandidentifypossiblecareerpathsand opportunities.Theydemonstrateskillsrequiredformovingfromschooltoemploymentorfurthereducation. Economicreasoningandinterpretation

AtLevel10,studentsuseeconomicreasoning,includingcostbenefitanalysis,toresearchandproposesolutionsto economicissuesandproblemsofglobalsignificance,andtoclarifyandjustifyvaluesandattitudes.Theyplanand conductinvestigationsinordertoresearchaneconomicproblemand/orarguethevalidityorotherwiseoftheirown hypotheses.Theyuserelevanteconomicconceptsandrelationshipstoevaluateeconomicpropositions,proposalsand policies,anddebatethecostsandbenefitsofcontentiouseconomicsrelatedissuesoflocal,nationalorinternational concern. Studentsinterpretreportsaboutcurrenteconomicconditions,bothnationalandglobal,andexplainhowtheseconditions caninfluencedecisionsmadebyconsumers,producersandgovernmentpolicymakers.Studentsdemonstratean awarenessoftheimpactofvaluesandbeliefsoneconomicissues,andhowdifferencesmaybeidentified,negotiated, explainedandpossiblyresolved.

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The Humanities - Geography


TableofContents Overview Introduction Domainstructure Stagesoflearning CurriculumF10 Level5 Level6 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10

2 2 2 3 6 6 7 8 9 11 12

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The Humanities - Geography

IntroductiontoTheHumanitiesGeography
Geographyisthestudyofphysicalandhumanenvironmentsfromaspatialperspective.Itprovidesstudentswiththe knowledgeandskillstoobserveanddescribeplacesonthesurfaceoftheEarthandtoanalyseandprovideexplanations fromaspatialperspectiveofhumanandphysicalphenomenaandtheircomplexinteractions.Studentsevolving understandingoftheirworldprovidesabasisforevaluatingstrategiesforthesustainableuseandmanagementofthe worldsresources. Geographersuseanumberofspatialconcepts(suchaslocation,distribution,spatialinteractionandscale)astoolstohelp themtoinvestigate,interpretandexplainpatternsonthesurfaceoftheEarthandtheprocessesthatcreatedthem.These spatialconceptsprovideauniqueconceptualstructureandframeworkofideasforageographicinvestigationofphenomena andprovidethekeytodeterminingmeasuresofthespatialvariationbetweenplaces.TheessenceoftheGeographydomain isthatitisaninquirybasedapproachwhichfocusesonquestionsofwhat,where,how,why,whatimpact,whatought. Thefundamentaltoolofgeographyisthemap,andinaworldwhereover75percentofdataisreferencedspatiallytoa location,geographicunderstandingisavitalskill.TheessentialskillsstudentsdevelopinGeographyaretheabilityto:
l

identifyandcollectevidencefrom l primarysourcesthroughfieldwork
l l

secondarysources,includingmapsatavarietyofscales,photographs,satelliteimages,statisticaldata informationandcommunicationstechnologybasedresources

record,representandinterpretdataindifferenttypesofmaps,graphs,tables,sketches,diagramsandphotographs.

StructureofTheHumanitiesGeographyDomain
TheGeographydomaininAusVELSusesasixlevelstructurefromLevels5to10tobothreflectthedesignofthenew AustralianCurriculumandtoprovideaconsistentstructureacrossalltheAusVELSdomains. Eachlevelincludesalearningfocusstatementandasetofstandardsorganisedbydimension.Aglossaryisincludedwhich providesdefinitionsofunderlinedterms.

Learningfocus
LearningfocusstatementsarewrittenforLevels5to10.AtFoundationtoLevel4,basicconceptsrelatedtohistory, geographyandeconomicsareincludedunderthegeneralumbrellaofTheHumanities.Learningfocusstatementsoutline thelearningthatstudentsneedtofocusoniftheyaretoprogressinthedomainandachievethestandardsatthelevels wheretheyapply.Theysuggestappropriatelearningexperiencesfromwhichteacherscandrawtodeveloprelevantteaching andlearningactivities.

Standards
Standardsdefinewhatstudentsshouldknowandbeabletodoatdifferentlevelsandarewrittenforeachdimension.Inthe Humanities,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementareintroducedatLevel3.Thesefocuson historicalandgeographicalknowledgeandunderstanding.SpecificstandardsforGeographyapplyfromLevel5.

Dimensions
StandardsintheGeographydomainareorganisedintwodimensions:
l

Geographicalknowledgeandunderstanding

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The Humanities - Geography


l

Geospatialskills.

Geographicalknowledgeandunderstanding
TheGeographicalknowledgeandunderstandingdimensioncoversthepatternsandinteractionsofphysicalandhuman phenomenaonthesurfaceoftheEarthandtheprocessesthatcreatedthem.Itfocusesonspatialconcepts:location, distance,distribution,location,movement,region,scale,spatialchangeovertime,spatialassociation,spatialinteractionand scale.Theseconceptsunderpinthekindsofquestionsgeographersaskandhelpstudentstoorganisethevastamountof informationandideasthatgeographyusestounderstandtheregularities,intricaciesanduncertaintiesofoccurrencesonthe Earthssurface. Studentslearntoaskaseriesofgeographicalquestionsandfollowaninquirybasedapproachincorporatingidentification, observation,description,analysis,explanation,synthesisandevaluation.Thisextendstheirunderstandingandprovides studentswithawellresearched,informedspatialperspectivetoapplytolocalandglobalissues,includingsustainableuse andmanagementoftheworldsresources.

Geospatialskills
IntheGeospatialskillsdimensionstudentsreadandinterpretmapsofdifferentkindsandatdifferentscales,includingstreet directories,atlasmaps,ordnancesurveymapsandtopographicmaps.Studentsidentifyandcollectinformationfrommaps, plans,photographs,satelliteimages,statisticaldata,andinformationandcommunicationstechnologybasedresources andrecordandrepresentdataindifferenttypesofmaps,graphs,tables,sketches,diagramsandphotographs.Students developskillsingatheringinformationfirsthandfromfieldworkstudies.Theymakeobservations,takefieldmeasurements, conductsurveysandinterviews,mapandrecordphenomenainarangeofsettings.

StagesofLearninginTheHumanitiesGeography
AusVELStakesaccountofthedevelopmentalstagesoflearningyoungpeopleexperienceatschool.Whilestudentlearning isacontinuumanddifferentstudentsdevelopatdifferentrates,theybroadlyprogressthroughthreestagesoflearning. Thefollowingstatementsdescribewaysinwhichthesecharacteristicsrelatetolearningexperiencesandstandardsineach ofthethreestagesoflearningintheGeographydomain. Geographyhelpsstudentstounderstandtheirindividualworldandtheglobalworldinspatialterms.Geographyhelpsto developanunderstandingofglobalcitizenshipandthewaysinwhichplacesandenvironmentsareinterdependent. FoundationtoLevel4Layingthefoundations InFoundationtoLevel4,geographylearningtakesplacethroughthegeneralHumanitiesdomain.Asastartingpointfor learningstudentsengagewiththeirownexperiencestohelpthemunderstandtheworldaroundthem.Studentsdeveloptheir spatialawarenessthroughaconsiderationofthelocalcommunity,thedifferentgroupsinsocietyandtheirplaceinoneor moregroups.Byseeingandhearingaboutotherplacesoutsidetheirexperience,theirsenseofcuriosityandwonderleads themtoconsiderhowandwhyotherplacesaredifferentfromtheirown.TowardstheendofLevel4studentsdistinguishand describethenaturalandbuiltfeaturesoftheenvironmentsidentifyingandexplainingchanges.Theymakecomparisons betweenavarietyofplacesanddeveloptheirunderstandingofthegeographyofVictoria.Theybegintodevelopan understandingoftheinterconnectednatureoftheworld.

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The Humanities - Geography


Throughstructuredexperienceswithintheirimmediateenvironmentandcommunity,studentsdevelopspatialawareness andcanbegintoorganisetheirideasthroughtheapplicationofthespatialconceptsingeographysuchaslocation,distance anddirectiontogetherwithsimplespatialassociationsandspatialchangeovertime.Intheselevelsstudentsdeveloptheir knowledgeandspatialawarenessaboutwherehome,schoolandtheplaygroundarelocatedandwheretheyareinrelation tooneanother.Theyextendtheirunderstandingtothegeographyoftheirlocalareaandinvestigateanddescribeelementsof thenaturalandhumanenvironments.Studentsdevelopavocabularytodescribetheirobservationsandinvestigations. Earlyinthisstagethegeospatialskillsofstudentsinvolvethedrawingofsimplepictorialmapsofwheretheyareinspacein relationtootherphenomena.Studentsdevelopincreasinglysophisticatedmapskillsenablingthemtovisualiseand describelocationanddirectionusinggridsandcompasspoints. Studentsexplorehowandwhynaturalfactorsandhumanactivitiesaffecttheirlives.Beginningintheirlocalenvironment,for example,selectingsaferoutestoschools(spatialconceptsoflocation,directionanddistance)theyprogresstogroupand collaborativetasksandconsiderenvironmentaldifferencesandresourcemanagementthroughoutAustralia.Students collect,recordanddescribedataobtainedthroughfieldstudysurveysandmeasurementstoformconclusionsabouttheuse ofresources. Levels5to8Buildingbreadthanddepth Intheselevelswithincreasingcognitivedevelopmentandexperience,studentsbegintodevelopabreadthofunderstanding aboutnaturalprocessesandhumanactivitiesbeyondtheirimmediateenvironment.Theydevelopanexpanded understandingofAustraliaandtheregionofwhichAustraliaisaparttheAsiaPacific.Studentsbegintoapplythemore abstractcognitiveprocessestoenvironmentalissues. Studentsapplytheirspatialawarenessinamoresophisticatedwaytomorecomplexquestionsandissuesthroughtheuse ofadditionalcoreconceptssuchasspatialinteraction,movement,regionandscale.Studentsidentifypatternsand processesinnaturalenvironmentsandhumanactivitiestounderstandincreasinglycomplexinteractionsofphysicaland humanphenomenawithinAustralianandotherenvironmentsandtogeneralisefromparticularcontexts.Theylearntousea processofinquirythatasks:What?Where?How?Why?Whatought?Theyinvestigateenvironmentalissuesandanalyse differentperspectivesandconsiderpossiblesolutionstocurrentandfuturechallengestoenablesustainableuseof resources.Theydescribeandexplainspatialchangesthroughtimefromtheirowndirectobservationandbycomparing maps,photographsandothervisualmedia. Studentsdescribespecificlocationsthroughreadingandinterpretingtopographicandotherlargescalemaps.Theyapply theirunderstandingofscale(distance),grids(location),compassbearings(direction)andlegendtoidentifyfeaturesand patternsandinterprettrendswhenusingmapsassourcesofinformation.Theyparticipateinfieldworkandusean increasingvarietyoftechniquesforcollectingandpresentingdata.Studentsapplymanyofthepracticalskillsthattheyhave acquiredoverthepreviouslevels. Levels9and10Developingpathways Intheselevelsstudentsdeveloptheabilitytoanalyseandexplainincreasinglycomplexspatialassociationsandinteractions ofnaturalsystemsandhumanactivitiesinAustraliaandinotherpartsoftheworld.Theyapplyinquirybasedstrategiesto investigateissuesandcommunicatetheirfindingsasarangeofscales:local,regional,nationalandglobal.Studentsask questionsthatfocusnotonlyonwhat,where,how,why,butalsoonwhatimpact,howoughtandwhatwillitbeinthefuture? Theybecomeincreasinglyawareofthegloballinksbetweensocieties,culturesandnaturalenvironmentsandtheimpactof globalisationontheirownandotherpeopleslives.Studentsusetheirunderstandingofsustainabilitytoevaluatevarious managementstrategiesanddeveloppoliciestoresolveanissue.

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The Humanities - Geography


Studentsareskilledininterpretingdifferentkindsofmaps,photographsandsatelliteimagesatdifferentscales.Theyapply theirgeospatialskillssuchasmapoverlays,databasemanipulationsandgeographicinformationsystem(GIS)tothespatial analysisofphenomena. Studentsundertakefieldinvestigationstocollect,collate,analyseandevaluatedata.Theypresentdatausingavarietyof maps,graphs,photographs,diagramsandotherforms.Theyanalysefieldworkandotherdatatoprovideexplanations,make informeddecisionsanddevelopapolicyforthemanagementofalocalissuethatisimportantandrelevanttotheirlives. Aguidetointroducingthespatialconcepts Spatialconcept Fto4:Layingthe foundations 5to8:Buildingbreadthand depth 9to10:Developingpathways

Location

Introducingconceptual understanding

Applyingtheconcepts

Applyinggeographicterminology

Scale

Distance

Distribution

Region

Spatialchangeover time

Movement

Introducingconceptual understanding

Applyingconceptsand geographicterminology

Spatialassociation

Introducingandapplying conceptualunderstandingwith theuseofgeographic

Spatialinteraction

terminology

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The Humanities - Geography

Level5
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinGeography,theyinvestigatesomeofthesignificant naturalprocessesthatoperateacrossAustralia(forexample,rainfall,drought,flood,earthquake,cyclonesandbushfire), andhowpeoplereacttothem,includingtheirpreparationfor,andmanagementof,naturaldisasters. StudentsexplorehowhumanshaveaffectedtheAustralianenvironment.Examplescouldinclude:AboriginalandTorres StraitIslandercommunitiescareofthelandclearancebyfarmersandsubsequentproblemsoflanddegradationand salinityandprotectionofthenaturalenvironmentthroughthecreationofnatureparks,nationalparksandmarineparks. Usinganinquirybasedapproach,studentsexploreenvironmentalissuesandconsiderpossiblesolutionstocurrentand futurechallenges.Studentslearnaboutenvironmentallysensitiveareassuchaslocalremnantvegetation,rivers,alpine Victoria,GippslandLakesandnationalparksandexplorewaysofprotectingtheseuniqueenvironmentsinasustainable wayforfuturegenerations. Studentsdevelopmappingskillsanduseconventionalgeographiclanguage,includingscale,compasspointsfor direction,alphanumericgridreferencesandlegends,tolocateplaces.Theylearnaboutandinterprettheirlocation relativetootherplaces.Theybegintoidentifyfeaturesonmaps,satelliteimages,andobliquephotographsanduse mapsatdifferentscalestolocateplaces,findtheirwayaround,andplantripstovisitspecificplaces.Toenhancethe electronicpresentationstheydevelop,studentssearchforandannotaterelevantimagesfromtheInternet. Studentsparticipateinfieldworkusingsimpletechniquesforexample,collectingandrecordingdataonhowthehuman andphysicalcharacteristicsofaselectedsitearechangingorhavechanged.Theyexploreeffectivewaystocareforlocal places,andareprovidedwithopportunitiestoinitiateandparticipateinanactiononanenvironmentalissueofpersonal orgroupconcernforexample,pollutionofalocalwaterway.

Standards
AtLevel5,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel6standards.

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The Humanities - Geography


Level6
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinGeography,theyinvestigatesomeofthesignificant naturalprocessesthatoperateacrossAustralia(forexample,rainfall,drought,flood,earthquake,cyclonesandbushfire), andhowpeoplereacttothem,includingtheirpreparationfor,andmanagementof,naturaldisasters. StudentsexplorehowhumanshaveaffectedtheAustralianenvironment.Examplescouldinclude:AboriginalandTorres StraitIslandercommunitiescareofthelandclearancebyfarmersandsubsequentproblemsoflanddegradationand salinityandprotectionofthenaturalenvironmentthroughthecreationofnatureparks,nationalparksandmarineparks. Usinganinquirybasedapproach,studentsexploreenvironmentalissuesandconsiderpossiblesolutionstocurrentand futurechallenges.Studentslearnaboutenvironmentallysensitiveareassuchaslocalremnantvegetation,rivers,alpine Victoria,GippslandLakesandnationalparksandexplorewaysofprotectingtheseuniqueenvironmentsinasustainable wayforfuturegenerations. Studentsdevelopmappingskillsanduseconventionalgeographiclanguage,includingscale,compasspointsfor direction,alphanumericgridreferencesandlegends,tolocateplaces.Theylearnaboutandinterprettheirlocation relativetootherplaces.Theybegintoidentifyfeaturesonmaps,satelliteimages,andobliquephotographsanduse mapsatdifferentscalestolocateplaces,findtheirwayaround,andplantripstovisitspecificplaces.Toenhancethe electronicpresentationstheydevelop,studentssearchforandannotaterelevantimagesfromtheInternet. Studentsparticipateinfieldworkusingsimpletechniquesforexample,collectingandrecordingdataonhowthehuman andphysicalcharacteristicsofaselectedsitearechangingorhavechanged.Theyexploreeffectivewaystocareforlocal places,andareprovidedwithopportunitiestoinitiateandparticipateinanactiononanenvironmentalissueofpersonal orgroupconcernforexample,pollutionofalocalwaterway.

Standards
Geographicalknowledgeandunderstanding

AtLevel6,studentsidentifyanddescribeAustraliassignificantnaturalprocesses.Theydescribethereactionofpeople totheseprocessesincludingthemanagementofnaturaldisasters.Theycomparethevariouswayshumanshaveused andaffectedtheAustralianenvironment.Studentsrecommendwaysofprotectingenvironmentallysensitiveareasina sustainableway.Theyprovideexamplesandevidencebasedontheirinquiries.Theyusegeographiclanguagetoidentify anddescribethehumanandphysicalcharacteristicsoflocalandglobalenvironmentsdepictedbydifferentkindsof maps,diagrams,photographsandsatelliteimages. Geospatialskills

AtLevel6,studentsuseatlases,streetdirectoriesandtownplanmapstoaccuratelydescribethedistance,directionand locationofplaces.Theyidentifyfeaturesfrommaps,satelliteimages,andobliquephotographs.Theydrawsketchmaps oftheirneighbourhoodusingsimplemappingconventionssuchastitle,scale,northpointandlegend.Theyresearch, collect,recordanddescribedataobtainedthroughfieldstudysurveysandmeasurementstoformconclusionsaboutthe useofresources.

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The Humanities - Geography


Level7
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinGeography,theyuseavarietyofgeographictoolsand skills,togetherwithaninquirybasedapproach,toinvestigatethecharacteristicsoftheregionsofAustraliaandthose surroundingit:Asia,thePacificandAntarctica.Theyexplorehowandwhy,overtime,humanandphysicalinteractions producechangestothecharacteristicsofregions,forexample,settlementpatternsandagriculturalandurbanlanduse. Studentsextendtheirknowledgeandunderstandingofphysicalphenomena,includingnaturalhazards,andofthe physicalprocessesthatproducethem.Theyidentifypatternsofdistributionandoccurrenceofmajorphysicalfeatures andtheirinterrelationshipwithhumanactivitiessuchasfarming,fishing,manufacturingandsettlement.Students becomeawareofcontrastswithintheregionsofAustraliaandthosesurroundingitfromtheirinvestigationofanumberof smallerregionssuchasSouthEastAsia,theSouthPacificnationsandPapuaNewGuinea.Theydevelopan appreciationofdifferencesintheculture,livingconditionsandoutlooksofpeople,includingtheAboriginalandTorres StraitIslanderpeoples,intheseareas. Studentsinvestigateenvironmentalissuessuchasforestuseandglobalwarming.Theybegintodesignpolicies,and evaluateexistingpolicies,formanagingtheimpactoftheseissuesandensuringthesustainabilityofresources. Studentsapplytheirknowledgeandunderstandingofscale,gridreferences,legendanddirectiontouselargescale maps(suchastopographicmaps),assourcesofspatialinformation,aswellasotherspatialrepresentations(suchas thosefoundinatlasesandgeographicinformationsystems).Studentsresearchandanalysephotographs,maps, satelliteimagesandtextfromelectronicmediaandaddthesetotheirpresentations. Observingbasicmappingconventions,studentslearntodrawoverlaythememaps.Theyrecognisethatpartsofthe Earthssurfacecanberepresentedinvariousways,atdifferentscales,andfromdifferentperspectivesonarangeof maps,photographsandsatelliteimages.Theyareprovidedwithopportunitiestocollectandprocessdataandpresenta summaryofresultsusingarangeoftechniquessuchassketchmaps,graphsandelectronicmedia(suchas geographicinformationsystemsandspreadsheets). Studentsundertakefieldworktoinvestigatethecharacteristicsofaselectedlocalregionandthephysicalprocessesand humanactivitiesthatformandtransformit.Studentsareencouragedtoparticipateinactivitiestocontributetothe sustainablemanagementoflocalplaces.

Standards
AtLevel7,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel8standards.

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The Humanities - Geography


Level8
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinGeography,theyuseavarietyofgeographictoolsand skills,togetherwithaninquirybasedapproach,toinvestigatethecharacteristicsoftheregionsofAustraliaandthose surroundingit:Asia,thePacificandAntarctica.Theyexplorehowandwhy,overtime,humanandphysicalinteractions producechangestothecharacteristicsofregions,forexample,settlementpatternsandagriculturalandurbanlanduse. Studentsextendtheirknowledgeandunderstandingofphysicalphenomena,includingnaturalhazards,andofthe physicalprocessesthatproducethem.Theyidentifypatternsofdistributionandoccurrenceofmajorphysicalfeatures andtheirinterrelationshipwithhumanactivitiessuchasfarming,fishing,manufacturingandsettlement.Students becomeawareofcontrastswithintheregionsofAustraliaandthosesurroundingitfromtheirinvestigationofanumberof smallerregionssuchasSouthEastAsia,theSouthPacificnationsandPapuaNewGuinea.Theydevelopan appreciationofdifferencesintheculture,livingconditionsandoutlooksofpeople,includingtheAboriginalandTorres StraitIslanderpeoples,intheseareas. Studentsinvestigateenvironmentalissuessuchasforestuseandglobalwarming.Theybegintodesignpolicies,and evaluateexistingpolicies,formanagingtheimpactoftheseissuesandensuringthesustainabilityofresources. Studentsapplytheirknowledgeandunderstandingofscale,gridreferences,legendanddirectiontouselargescale maps(suchastopographicmaps),assourcesofspatialinformation,aswellasotherspatialrepresentations(suchas thosefoundinatlasesandgeographicinformationsystems).Studentsresearchandanalysephotographs,maps, satelliteimagesandtextfromelectronicmediaandaddthesetotheirpresentations. Observingbasicmappingconventions,studentslearntodrawoverlaythememaps.Theyrecognisethatpartsofthe Earthssurfacecanberepresentedinvariousways,atdifferentscales,andfromdifferentperspectivesonarangeof maps,photographsandsatelliteimages.Theyareprovidedwithopportunitiestocollectandprocessdataandpresenta summaryofresultsusingarangeoftechniquessuchassketchmaps,graphsandelectronicmedia(suchas geographicinformationsystemsandspreadsheets). Studentsundertakefieldworktoinvestigatethecharacteristicsofaselectedlocalregionandthephysicalprocessesand humanactivitiesthatformandtransformit.Studentsareencouragedtoparticipateinactivitiestocontributetothe sustainablemanagementoflocalplaces.

Standards
Geographicknowledgeandunderstanding

AtLevel8,studentsdemonstrateknowledgeandunderstandingofthecharacteristicsoftheregionsofAustraliaand thosesurroundingit:Asia,thePacificandAntarctica.Theyexplain,usingexamples,howtheinteractionofphysical processesandhumanactivitiescreatevariationswithintheregions.Theyuseevidenceandappropriategeographical languagetoexplaincontrastswithinsmallerregionssurroundingAustralia.Studentsdescribedifferencesinculture, livingconditionsandoutlook,includingattitudestoenvironmentalissues,intheseregions.Theydemonstrate understandingofenvironmentalissuesbasedoninquiryandproposewaysofensuringthesustainabilityofresources. Geospatialskills

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The Humanities - Geography


AtLevel8,studentscollectgeographicalinformationfromelectronicandprintmedia,includingsatelliteimagesandatlas mapsandanalyse,evaluateandpresentitusingarangeofforms.Theyconstructoverlaythememapsusingmap conventionsofscale,legend,title,andnorthpoint.Theyidentifyandgathergeographicalinformationfromfieldworkand organise,processandcommunicateitusingarangeofwritten,oral,visualandgraphicforms.

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The Humanities - Geography


Level9
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinGeography,theydevelopknowledgeaboutthe operationofoneofthemajornaturalsystemsthatarepartofthebiosphereandatmosphereforexample,thehydrologic cycle,platetectonicsortheweather.Studentsinvestigatetheinteractionofhumanactivitieswiththenaturalenvironment throughastudyofissuessuchasglobalwarmingandclimatechange,landdegradationanddesertification,andairand waterpollution.Studentsdevelopskillstoevaluatethefactorscontributingtothedevelopmentoftheseissues,identify strategiestoaddressthemandexplorewaysofmanagingthem. Studentsinvestigatethecharacteristicsofdevelopmentthatoccuracrosstheglobe.Theyuseaninquirybasedapproach toexplorehowcombinationsofvariousphysicalandhumanfactorsinteracttoproduceobservableandsometimes predictablepatternsatlocal,regionalandglobalscales.Studentsexamineglobalpatternsofdevelopment,considering classificationsusedbyUnitedNationagencies,NonGovernmentOrganisations(NGOs)andotherorganisations,and evaluatingtherelevanceofsuchclassificationsatglobal,national,regionalandlocalscales. Studentsresearchatleasttwodevelopmenttopicsandtheimpactofglobalisationincreatingandreducingdifferencesin developmentlevels,forexample,throughtechnologytransfers,resourceuse,andindebtedness.Examplesof developmenttopicsinclude:povertythelinksbetweenfood,hungerandtechnologyandthesocialandeconomic consequencesofdevelopmentincreatingrapidlygrowingcities,megacities,informalsettlementsandrural depopulation. Studentsinvestigateandlearntoevaluatetheimpactand/oreffectivenessofdevelopmentrelatedprojects,policiesand strategies(suchaslargescalewaterprojects,tourism,theuseofforeignaid,socialreformandpopulationcontrol)on physicalandhumanlandscapes,locally,nationallyandglobally.Theyapplytheirknowledgeandunderstandingto provideexplanationsandjustifyrecommendationsaboutlocal,nationalandglobalsituationsrelatedtodevelopment,and theirimpactonlivingstandards.Theyreflectonplansofactionandpastactions,consideringthevaluepositions underlyingthem,includingacommitmenttotheprinciplesofsustainability. Studentsundertakefieldinvestigationsinthelocalareatogather,collate,analyseandevaluatedatarelatingtothe naturalenvironment.Theycollectevidencefromthefieldworksitetoexplainandpredicttheeffectsofnaturalprocesses andhumanactivitiesontheenvironment,includingconsiderationofthewayspeoplerespondtochange.Students developapolicyforthemanagementofalocalissue,includingconsiderationofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander communities.Studentsapplygeographicaltechniques,includingrepresentationofmultivariabledataandcomplex mappingoperations,tointerpretenvironmentalchangeandresearch,discriminate,evaluateandpresentarguments usingelectronicandotherformats.

Standards
AtLevel9,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel10standards.

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The Humanities - Geography


Level10
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinGeography,theydevelopknowledgeaboutthe operationofoneofthemajornaturalsystemsthatarepartofthebiosphereandatmosphereforexample,thehydrologic cycle,platetectonicsortheweather.Studentsinvestigatetheinteractionofhumanactivitieswiththenaturalenvironment throughastudyofissuessuchasglobalwarmingandclimatechange,landdegradationanddesertification,andairand waterpollution.Studentsdevelopskillstoevaluatethefactorscontributingtothedevelopmentoftheseissues,identify strategiestoaddressthemandexplorewaysofmanagingthem. Studentsinvestigatethecharacteristicsofdevelopmentthatoccuracrosstheglobe.Theyuseaninquirybasedapproach toexplorehowcombinationsofvariousphysicalandhumanfactorsinteracttoproduceobservableandsometimes predictablepatternsatlocal,regionalandglobalscales.Studentsexamineglobalpatternsofdevelopment,considering classificationsusedbyUnitedNationagencies,NonGovernmentOrganisations(NGOs)andotherorganisations,and evaluatingtherelevanceofsuchclassificationsatglobal,national,regionalandlocalscales. Studentsresearchatleasttwodevelopmenttopicsandtheimpactofglobalisationincreatingandreducingdifferencesin developmentlevels,forexample,throughtechnologytransfers,resourceuse,andindebtedness.Examplesof developmenttopicsinclude:povertythelinksbetweenfood,hungerandtechnologyandthesocialandeconomic consequencesofdevelopmentincreatingrapidlygrowingcities,megacities,informalsettlementsandrural depopulation. Studentsinvestigateandlearntoevaluatetheimpactand/oreffectivenessofdevelopmentrelatedprojects,policiesand strategies(suchaslargescalewaterprojects,tourism,theuseofforeignaid,socialreformandpopulationcontrol)on physicalandhumanlandscapes,locally,nationallyandglobally.Theyapplytheirknowledgeandunderstandingto provideexplanationsandjustifyrecommendationsaboutlocal,nationalandglobalsituationsrelatedtodevelopment,and theirimpactonlivingstandards.Theyreflectonplansofactionandpastactions,consideringthevaluepositions underlyingthem,includingacommitmenttotheprinciplesofsustainability. Studentsundertakefieldinvestigationsinthelocalareatogather,collate,analyseandevaluatedatarelatingtothe naturalenvironment.Theycollectevidencefromthefieldworksitetoexplainandpredicttheeffectsofnaturalprocesses andhumanactivitiesontheenvironment,includingconsiderationofthewayspeoplerespondtochange.Students developapolicyforthemanagementofalocalissue,includingconsiderationofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander communities.Studentsapplygeographicaltechniques,includingrepresentationofmultivariabledataandcomplex mappingoperations,tointerpretenvironmentalchangeandresearch,discriminate,evaluateandpresentarguments usingelectronicandotherformats.

Standards
Geographicknowledgeandunderstanding

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The Humanities - Geography


AtLevel10,studentsexplaintheoperationofamajornaturalsystemanditsinteractionwithhumanactivities.They evaluatetheconsequencesoftheinteractionanddevelopapolicytoaddressanissuerelatedtoit.Studentsdescribe globalpatternsofdevelopmentfromarangeofperspectivesandidentifyanddescribethefactorsthatdeterminethese patterns.Theyanalysedevelopmentissuesandformulateandevaluatecomprehensivepolicies,includingthosefor sustainableuseandmanagementofresources,toalterdevelopmentpatternsatarangeofscales.Theyuseevidence basedontheirinquiriesandgeographicallanguageandconcepts. Geospatialskills

AtLevel10,studentsaccuratelyinterpretinformationondifferenttypesofmapsandphotographsatarangeofscales, andusemapevidencetosupportexplanations,drawinferencesandpredictassociatedoutcomes.Theycollectand collateinformationgatheredfromfieldworkobservationsandpresenttheirfindingsobservinggeographicalpresentation conventions.

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The Humanities - History


TableofContents Overview RationaleandAims Contentstructure HistoryacrossFoundationtoLevel10 Achievementstandards Diversityoflearners Crosscurriculumpriorities CurriculumF10 FoundationLevel Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level5 Level6 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10

2 2 2 4 6 6 7 9 9 12 15 18 22 25 29 34 43 53 61

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The Humanities - History

Rationale
Historyisadisciplinedprocessofinquiryintothepastthatdevelopsstudents'curiosityandimagination.Awarenessof historyisanessentialcharacteristicofanysociety,andhistoricalknowledgeisfundamentaltounderstandingourselvesand others.Itpromotestheunderstandingofsocieties,events,movementsanddevelopmentsthathaveshapedhumanityfrom earliesttimes.Ithelpsstudentsappreciatehowtheworldanditspeoplehavechanged,aswellasthesignificantcontinuities thatexisttothepresentday.History,asadiscipline,hasitsownmethodsandprocedureswhichmakeitdifferentfromother waysofunderstandinghumanexperience.Thestudyofhistoryisbasedonevidencederivedfromremainsofthepast.Itis interpretativebynature,promotesdebateandencouragesthinkingabouthumanvalues,includingpresentandfuture challenges.Theprocessofhistoricalinquirydevelopstransferableskills,suchastheabilitytoaskrelevantquestions criticallyanalyseandinterpretsourcesconsidercontextrespectandexplaindifferentperspectivesdevelopandsubstantiate interpretations,andcommunicateeffectively. ThecurriculumgenerallytakesaworldhistoryapproachwithinwhichthehistoryofAustraliaistaught.Itdoesthisinorderto equipstudentsfortheworld(local,regionalandglobal)inwhichtheylive.Anunderstandingofworldhistoryenhances studentsappreciationofAustralianhistory.Itenablesthemtodevelopanunderstandingofthepastandpresentexperiences ofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,theiridentityandthecontinuingvalueoftheirculture.Italsohelpsstudents toappreciateAustralia'sdistinctivepathofsocial,economicandpoliticaldevelopment,itspositionintheAsiaPacificregion, anditsglobalinterrelationships.Thisknowledgeandunderstandingisessentialforinformedandactiveparticipationin Australia'sdiversesociety.

Aims
TheAustralianCurriculum:Historyaimstoensurethatstudentsdevelop:
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interestin,andenjoymentof,historicalstudyforlifelonglearningandwork,includingtheircapacityandwillingnessto beinformedandactivecitizens knowledge,understandingandappreciationofthepastandtheforcesthatshapesocieties,includingAustralian society understandinganduseofhistoricalconcepts,suchasevidence,continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives, empathy,significanceandcontestability capacitytoundertakehistoricalinquiry,includingskillsintheanalysisanduseofsources,andinexplanationand communication.

ContentStructure
TheAustralianCurriculum:Historyisorganisedintotwointerrelatedstrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingand HistoricalSkills.

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding
Thisstrandincludespersonal,family,local,stateorterritory,national,regionalandworldhistory.Thereisanemphasison AustralianhistoryinitsworldhistorycontextatFoundationtoLevel10andafocusonworldhistoryintheseniorsecondary levels.Thestrandincludesastudyofsocieties,events,movementsanddevelopmentsthathaveshapedworldhistoryfrom thetimeoftheearliesthumancommunitiestothepresentday.

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The Humanities - History


Thisstrandexploreskeyconceptsfordevelopinghistoricalunderstanding,suchas:evidence,continuityandchange,cause andeffect,significance,perspectives,empathyandcontestability.Theseconceptsmaybeinvestigatedwithinaparticular historicalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusforhistoricalinquiries.

HistoricalSkills
Thisstrandpromotesskillsusedintheprocessofhistoricalinquiry:chronology,termsandconceptshistoricalquestions andresearchtheanalysisanduseofsourcesperspectivesandinterpretationsexplanationandcommunication.Withinthis strandthereisanincreasingemphasisonhistoricalinterpretationandtheuseofevidence.

Relationshipbetweenthestrands
Thetwostrandsareintegratedinthedevelopmentofateachingandlearningprogram.TheHistoricalKnowledgeand Understandingstrandprovidesthecontextsthroughwhichparticularskillsaretobedeveloped.HistoricalSkillshavebeen describedinbandsofschooling(overthreelevelsatFoundationtoLevel2andattwolevelintervalsinsubsequentlevels). ThesequencinganddescriptionoftheHistoricalSkillsstrand,inbandsofschoolingwillassistinmultiageprogrammingby providingacommonfocusfortheteachingandlearningofcontentintheHistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingstrand.

Inquiryquestions
EachlevelfromFoundationtoLevel10includeskeyinquiryquestionsthatprovideaframeworkfordevelopingstudents historicalknowledge,understandingandskills.

Overviews
HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingincludesanoverviewofthehistoricalperiodtobecoveredineachlevel710.The overviewisnotintendedtobetaughtindepthitwillconstituteapproximately10%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.The overviewcontentidentifiesimportantfeaturesofthehistoricalperiodattherelevantlevelandprovidesanexpansive chronologythathelpsstudentsunderstandbroadpatternsofhistoricalchange.

Depthstudies
Inadditiontotheoverview,HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingincludesthreedepthstudiesforthehistoricalperiodat eachlevel710.Foreachdepthstudy,thereareuptothreeelectivesthatfocusonaparticularsociety,event,movementor development.ItisexpectedthatONEelectiveisstudiedindetail,whichwillconstituteapproximately30%ofthetotalteaching timeforthelevel.Thecontentineachelectiveisdesignedtoallowdetailedstudyofspecificaspectsofthehistoricalperiod. Theorderanddetailinwhichcontentistaughtisaprogrammingdecision.Contentmaybeintegratedinwaysappropriateto thespecificlocalcontextanditmaybeintegratedwiththecontentofotherdepthstudyelectives.

Relationshipbetweenoverviewsanddepthstudies
Aspartofateachingandlearningprogram,thedepthstudycontentateachlevel710maybeintegratedwiththeoverview content.Theoverviewprovidesthebroadercontextfortheteachingofdepthstudycontent.Thismeansthattheoverview contentcanprovidestudentswithanintroductiontothehistoricalperioditcanmakethelinkstoandbetweenthedepth studies,anditcanconsolidateunderstandingthroughareviewoftheperiod.

Conceptsfordevelopinghistoricalunderstanding
TheAustralianCurriculum:Historyincludesconceptsfordevelopinghistoricalunderstanding,suchas:evidence,continuity andchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathy,significanceandcontestability.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

The Humanities - History


InFoundationtoLevel2,thereisaparticularemphasisontheconceptsofcontinuityandchange,causeandeffect,and significancewithinthecontextofpersonal,familyandlocalhistory.TheseconceptscontinuetobeafocusofstudyinLevels 36withtheinclusionofcontentrelatedtoperspectiveschallengingthenotionthatthepastisagivenandisunproblematic. InLevels710theconceptsofevidenceandcontestabilityareintroducedtofurtherdevelopstudent'sunderstandingofthe natureofhistoricalinterpretationandargument.

Leveldescriptions
Leveldescriptionsprovideanoverviewofthecontentthatisbeingstudiedatthatlevel.Theyalsoemphasisetheinterrelated natureofthetwostrandsandtheexpectationthatplanningwillinvolveintegrationofcontentfromacrossthestrands.

Contentdescriptions
TheAustralianCurriculum:Historyincludescontentdescriptionsateachlevel.Thesesetouttheknowledge,understanding andskillsthatteachersareexpectedtoteachandstudentsareexpectedtolearn.Howevertheydonotprescribeapproaches toteaching.Thecontentdescriptionshavebeenwrittentoensurethatlearningisappropriatelyorderedandthatunnecessary repetitionisavoided.However,aconceptorskillintroducedatonelevelmayberevisited,strengthenedandextendedatlater levelsasneeded.

Contentelaborations
ContentelaborationsareprovidedforFoundationtoLevel10toillustrateandexemplifycontentandtoassistteachersin developingacommonunderstandingofthecontentdescriptions.Theyarenotintendedtobecomprehensivecontentpoints thatallstudentsneedtobetaught.

Glossary
Aglossaryisprovidedtosupportacommonunderstandingofkeytermsandconceptsinthecontentdescriptions.

HistoryacrossFoundationtoLevel10
Althoughthecurriculumisdescribedbylevel,thisdocumentprovidesadvicebylevelandage,onthenatureoflearnersand therelevantcurriculum:
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FoundationtoLevel2:typicallystudentsfrom5to8yearsofage Levels3to6:typicallystudentsfrom8to12yearsofage Levels7to10:typicallystudentsfrom12to16yearsofage.

FoundationtoLevel2
Curriculumfocus:Awarenessoffamilyhistoryandcommunityheritage
Throughexperimentation,practiceandplay,childrenintheselevelsusetheirinterestinpeopleandhowthingsworktomake senseoftheirworld. ThishistorycurriculumenablesstudentsinFoundationtoLevel2tolearnabouttheirownsocialcontextoffamily,friendsand school,andthesignificanceofthepast.Theyengagewiththeremainsofthepastdevelopaconceptoftimeaspresent,past andfuture,andthroughroleplayusetheirimaginationtospeculateaboutthelivesofothersinthepast.

Levels3to6

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The Humanities - History


Curriculumfocus:Local/nationalhistoryanduseofarangeofsources
Studentsdrawontheirgrowingexperienceoffamily,schoolandthewidercommunitytodeveloptheirunderstandingofthe worldandtheirrelationshiptootherspastandpresent.Intheselevels,studentsbegintobetterunderstandandappreciate differentpointsofviewandtodevelopanawarenessofjusticeandfairplay. ThishistorycurriculumseekstotargetthedistinctnatureoflearnersinLevels3to6byincludingcontentaboutAboriginal andTorresStraitIslandersocieties,democraticconceptsandrights,andthediversityofAustraliansociety. Inthisway,studentsdevelopanunderstandingoftheheritageoftheircommunityandoftheirabilitytocontributetoit.They becomeawareofsimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenpeopleandbecomemoreawareofdiversityinthewidercommunity aswellastheconceptofchangeovertime.

Levels7to10
Curriculumfocus:WorldandAustralianhistory,theanalysisanduseofsourcesandhistorical interpretation
Asstudentsmoveintoadolescence,theyundergoarangeofimportantphysical,cognitive,emotionalandsocialchanges. Studentsoftenbegintoquestionestablishedconventions,practicesandvalues.Theirinterestsextendwellbeyondtheirown communitiesandtheybegintodevelopconcernsaboutwiderissues. Studentsinthisagerangeincreasinglylookforandvaluelearningthatisperceivedtoberelevant,isconsistentwithpersonal goals,and/orleadstoimportantoutcomes.Increasinglytheyareabletoworkwithmoreabstractconceptsandarekeento explorethenatureofevidenceandthecontestabilityofideas. Throughthishistorycurriculum,studentsinLevels7to10pursuebroadquestionssuchas:Howdoweknowaboutthe ancientpast?Whatkeybeliefsandvaluesemergedandhowdidtheyinfluencesocieties?Howdidthenatureofglobal conflictchangeduringthetwentiethcentury?Thiscurriculumalsoprovidesopportunitiestoengagestudentsthrough contextsthataremeaningfulandrelevanttothemandthroughpastandpresentdebates.

Curriculumstructure:FoundationtoLevel6andLevels7to10
Thecurriculumstructureateachlevel(Fto6)includesadescriptionofthecontentfocusandkeyinquiryquestions.The curriculumprovidesopportunitiesforthecontenttobetaughtusingspecificlocalcontexts. Thecurriculumstructureateachlevel(7to10)includesadescriptionofthecontentfocus,keyinquiryquestions,overviewof thehistoricalperiod,anddepthstudies.Theoverviewisdesignedtointroducethebroadcontentandcontextsforstudy.In addition,forLevels7to10therearethreedepthstudiesthatprovideanopportunitytoinvestigateaspectsingreaterdepth andthusprovidescopeforthedevelopmentofhistoricalknowledge,understandingandskills.Thecurriculumprovides opportunitiesforthecontenttobetaughtusingspecificlocalcontexts.ThestudyofhistoryinLevels7to10consistsoffour historicalperiods:
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theLevel7curriculumfocusesonhistoryfromthetimeoftheearliesthumancommunitiestotheendoftheancient period(approximately60,000BCEc.650CE)aperioddefinedbythedevelopmentofculturalpracticesandorganised societies theLevel8curriculumfocusesonhistoryfromtheendoftheancientperiodtothebeginningofthemodernperiod (c.6501750)aspanofhumanhistorymarkedbysignificanteconomic,religiousandpoliticalchange theLevel9curriculumfocusesonthemakingofthemodernworldandAustraliafrom1750to1918aneraof industrialism,nationalismandimperialism theLevel10curriculumfocusesonthehistoryofthemodernworldandAustraliafrom1918tothepresentThe twentiethcenturywasanimportantperiodinAustraliassocial,cultural,economicandpoliticaldevelopment.

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The Humanities - History


TheAusVELSHistoryScopeandSequencechartisavailablefromtheVCAAwebsite.

AchievementStandards
AcrossFoundationtoLevel10,achievementstandardsindicatethequalityoflearningthatstudentsshouldtypically demonstratebyaparticularpointintheirschooling.Achievementstandardscompriseawrittendescriptionandstudentwork samples. Anachievementstandarddescribesthequalityoflearning(theextentofknowledge,thedepthofunderstanding,andthe sophisticationofskills)thatwouldindicatethestudentiswellplacedtocommencethelearningrequiredatthenextlevelof achievement. ThesequenceofachievementstandardsacrossFoundationtoLevel10describesprogressinthelearningarea.This sequenceprovidesteacherswithaframeworkofgrowthanddevelopmentinthelearningarea. Studentworksamplesplayakeyroleincommunicatingexpectationsdescribedintheachievementstandards.Eachwork sampleincludestherelevantassessmenttask,thestudentsresponse,andannotationsidentifyingthequalityoflearning evidentinthestudentsresponseinrelationtorelevantpartsoftheachievementstandard.Together,thedescriptionofthe achievementstandardandtheaccompanyingsetofannotatedworksampleshelpteacherstomakejudgmentsabout whetherstudentshaveachievedthestandard.

DiversityofLearners
TheAustralianCurriculumhasbeendevelopedtoensurethatcurriculumcontentandachievementstandardsestablishhigh expectationsforallstudents.Everystudentisentitledtoenrichinglearningexperiencesacrossallareasofthecurriculum. StudentsinAustralianclassroomshavemultiple,diverseandchangingneedsthatareshapedbyindividuallearning historiesandabilitiesaswellascultural,languagebackgroundsandsocioeconomicfactors.

Specialeducationneeds
TheobjectivesoftheAustralianCurriculumarethesameforallstudents.Thecurriculumoffersflexibilityforteacherstotailor theirteachinginwaysthatproviderigorous,relevantandengaginglearningandassessmentopportunitiesforstudentswith specialeducationneeds. Moststudentswithspecialeducationneedscanengagewiththecurriculumprovidedthenecessaryadjustmentsaremade tothecomplexityofthecurriculumcontentandtothemeansthroughwhichstudentsdemonstratetheirknowledge, understandingandskills. Forsomelearners,makingadjustmentstoinstructionalprocessesandtoassessmentstrategiesenablesstudentsto achieveeducationalstandardscommensuratewiththeirpeers. Forotherstudents,teacherswillneedtomakeappropriateadjustmentstothecomplexityofthecurriculumcontent,focusing instructiononcontentdifferenttothattaughttoothersintheiragegroup.Itfollowsthatadjustmentswillalsoneedtobemade tohowthestudentsprogressismonitored,assessedandreported. Forasmallpercentageofstudents,theFoundationtoLevel10curriculumcontentandachievementstandardsmaynotbe appropriatenormeaningful,evenwithadjustments.Mostofthesestudentshaveasignificantintellectualdisability.ACARA willdevelopadditionalcurriculumcontentandachievementstandardsforthisgroupofstudentsinordertoprovidean AustralianCurriculumthatisinclusiveofeverylearner.

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The Humanities - History


Intheinterim,adviceabouthowtousethecurriculumwithstudentswithspecialeducationneedsisavailablehereand fromtheDEECD. SchoolscanalsocontinuetousetheVELSStudentswithDisabilitiesGuidelines(PDF615KB).Thesewillbe updatedduring2013.

Englishasanadditionallanguageordialect
ManystudentsinAustralianschoolsarelearnersofEnglishasanadditionallanguageordialect(EAL/D).LearnersofEAL/D arestudentswhosefirstlanguageisalanguageotherthanStandardAustralianEnglishandwhorequireadditionalsupport toassistthemtodevelopEnglishlanguageproficiency.WhilemanyEAL/Dlearnersdowellinschool,thereisasignificant groupoftheselearnerswholeaveschoolwithoutachievingtheirpotential. EAL/Dstudentscomefromdiversebackgroundsandmayinclude:
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overseasandAustralianbornchildrenwhosefirstlanguageisalanguageotherthanEnglish AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderstudentswhosefirstlanguageisanIndigenouslanguage,includingtraditional languages,creolesandrelatedvarieties,orAboriginalEnglish.

EAL/DlearnersenterAustralianschoolsatdifferentagesandatdifferentstagesofEnglishlanguagelearningandhave variouseducationalbackgroundsintheirfirstlanguages.Forsome,schoolistheonlyplacetheyuseEnglish. TheaimsoftheAustralianCurriculum:Historyareultimatelythesameforallstudents.However,EAL/Dlearnersare simultaneouslylearninganewlanguageandtheknowledge,understandingandskillsofthehistorycurriculumthroughthat newlanguage.Theyrequireadditionaltimeandsupport,alongwithinformedteachingthatexplicitlyaddressestheir languageneeds,andassessmentsthattakeintoaccounttheirdevelopinglanguageproficiency. AnationalEAL/DdocumentisbeingproducedthatsupportstheAustralianCurriculum.Itprovidesadescriptionofhow languageproficiencydevelops,andisavaluablereferenceforallteachers.Itallowshistoryteacherstoidentifythelanguage levelsoftheEAL/Dlearnersintheirclassroomsandtoaddresstheirspecificlearningrequirementswhenteaching,ensuring equityofaccesstothehistorylearningareaforall. Intheinterim,adviceabouthowtousethecurriculumwithEAL/Dstudentsisavailablehere.

Crosscurriculumpriorities
TherearethreecrosscurriculumprioritiesintheAustralianCurriculum:
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AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultures AsiaandAustraliasengagementwithAsia Sustainability.

Thecrosscurriculumprioritiesareembeddedinthecurriculumandwillhaveastrongbutvaryingpresencedependingon theirrelevancetoeachofthelearningareas.

AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultures
AboriginalandTorresStraitIslandercommunitiesarestrong,richanddiverse.AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderIdentityis centraltothispriorityandisintrinsicallylinkedtoliving,learningAboriginalandTorresStraitIslandercommunities,deep knowledgetraditionsandholisticworldview.

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The Humanities - History


AconceptualframeworkbasedonAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderPeoplesuniquesenseofIdentityhasbeen developedasastructuraltoolfortheembeddingofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultureswithinthe Australiancurriculum.ThissenseofIdentityisapproachedthroughtheinterconnectedaspectsofCountry/Place,Peopleand Culture.Embracingtheseelementsenhancesallareasofthecurriculum. TheAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpriorityprovidesopportunitiesforalllearnerstodeepentheirknowledgeofAustralia byengagingwiththeworldsoldestcontinuouslivingcultures.Thisknowledgeandunderstandingwillenrichtheirabilityto participatepositivelyintheongoingdevelopmentofAustralia. TheAustralianCurriculum:historyvaluesAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultures.ItcelebratesAboriginal andTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesaspartofthesharedhistorybelongingtoallAustralians. StudentswillexaminehistoricalperspectivesfromanAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderviewpoint.Theywilllearnabout AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderPeoplespriortocolonisationbytheBritish,theensuingcontactanditsimpacts.They willexaminekeypoliciesandpoliticalmovementsoverthelasttwocenturies.Studentswilldevelopanawarenessofthe significantrolesofAboriginalandTorresStraitislanderpeopleinAustraliansociety.

AsiaandAustraliasengagementwithAsia
IntheAustralianCurriculum:History,thepriorityofAsiaandAustraliasengagementwithAsiaprovidesrichandengaging contentandcontextsfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskills. TheAustralianCurriculum:HistoryenablesstudentstodevelopanunderstandingofhistoriesofthediversepeoplesofAsia andtheircontributionstotheregionandtheworld,andanappreciationoftheimportanceoftheregionforAustraliaandthe world.Thishappensasstudentslearnabouttheimportanceofthetraditions,beliefsandcelebrationsofpeoplesfromthe Asiaregionandthroughthestudyofancientsocieties,trade,conflicts,progressivemovementsandmigrationtoAustraliaby peoplefromAsia. Inthislearningarea,studentsrecognisethedynamicnatureofsociopoliticalrelationshipswithintheregionovertime,and therolethatindividuals,governmentsandotherorganisationsplayinshapingrelationshipsbetweenpeoplesandcountries. TheydevelopanappreciationofthehistoryofAustraliaAsiaengagementandhowthisinfluencescontemporary relationshipswithinAustraliansocietyandrelationshipsbetweenAustraliaandthecountriesofAsia.Studentsalso understandtheongoingroleplayedbyAustraliaandindividualAustralians,includingAustraliansofAsianheritage,inmajor eventsanddevelopmentsintheAsiaregion.

Sustainability
IntheAustralianCurriculum:History,thepriorityofsustainabilityprovidesacontextfordevelopingstudentshistorical knowledge,understandingandskills.Itassistsstudentsinunderstandingtheforcesthatinfluencecontinuityandchange. TheAustralianCurriculum:Historyprovidescontentthatsupportsthedevelopmentofstudentsworldviews,particularlyin relationtojudgmentsaboutpastsocialandeconomicsystems,andaccesstoanduseoftheEarthsresources.Itprovides opportunitiesforstudentstodevelopanhistoricalperspectiveonsustainability.Makingdecisionsaboutsustainabilitytohelp shapeabetterfuturerequiresanunderstandingofhowthepastrelatestothepresent,andneedstobeinformedby historicaltrendsandexperiences. Inthislearningarea,studentsdevelopunderstanding,forexample,ofthechangesinenvironmentsovertime,theroleplayed byindividualsandcommunitiesinprotectingenvironments,theemergenceoffarmingandsettledcommunities,the developmentoftheIndustrialRevolutionandthegrowthofpopulation,theoveruseofnaturalresourcesandtheriseof environmentalmovements.

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The Humanities - History

FoundationLevel
PersonalandFamilyHistories TheFoundationcurriculumprovidesastudyofpersonalandfamilyhistories.Studentslearnabouttheirownhistoryand thatoftheirfamilythismayincludestoriesfromdifferentculturesandotherpartsoftheworld.Asparticipantsintheirown history,studentsbuildontheirknowledgeandunderstandingofhowthepastisdifferentfromthepresent. Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconceptsincludingcontinuityand change,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathyandsignificance.Theseconceptsmaybeinvestigatedwithina particularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusforhistoricalinquiries. Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills. Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwaytheymaybeintegratedacrosslearningareas andinwaysthatareappropriatetospecificlocalcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogramming decisions. Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions. Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
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WhatismyhistoryandhowdoIknow? Whatstoriesdootherpeopletellaboutthepast? Howcanstoriesofthepastbetoldandshared?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding PersonalandFamilyHistories Whothepeopleintheirfamilyare,where theywerebornandraisedandhowthey arerelatedtoeachother(ACHHK001) Elaborations


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identifyingthedifferentmembersofafamily,(forexamplemother, father,caregiver,sister,brother,grandparent,aunty,uncle,cousin) andcreatingsimplefamilytreeswithpicturesorphotographs(if possibleusingICT)toshowtherelationshipbetweenfamily members namingfamilymembers,findingoutwheretheywerebornand raisedandplacingtheirphotographs,drawingsandnamesona classroomworldmap consideringarangeoffamilystructures,(forexamplenuclear families,onlychildfamilies,largefamilies,singleparentfamilies, extendedfamilies,blendedfamilies,adoptiveparentfamiliesand grandparentfamilies)aswellaskinshipgroups,tribesandvillages usingimagesandstoriestoidentifysimilaritiesanddifferences betweenstudents'familiesandthoseofotherchildren(intheirclass andinstoriesaboutchildreninotherplaces,forexamplethe countriesofAsia) exploringfamilystructuresofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander Peoples(forexamplewherechildrenbelongtoextendedfamiliesin whichtherearespecificrolesandresponsibilitiestoensuresafety andwellbeing)

Thedifferentstructuresoffamiliesand familygroupstoday,andwhattheyhavein common(ACHHK002)

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The Humanities - History


Howthey,theirfamilyandfriends commemoratepasteventsthatare importanttothem(ACHHK003)
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makingacalendarofcommemorativeeventsthatstudents,their familyandfriendscelebrate,(forexamplebirthdays,religious festivals(suchasEaster,Ramadan,Buddhaday,feastof Passover),familyreunionsandcommunitycommemorations (NAIDOCweek,andANZACday)anddiscussingwhytheyare important discussingWelcometoCountryandrecognisingthatthecountry, placeandtraditionalcustodiansofthelandorseaare acknowledgedatceremoniesandeventsasamarkofrespect engagingwiththeoraltraditions,paintingandmusicofAboriginal andTorresStraitIslanderpeoplesandrecognisingthatthepastis communicatedthroughstoriespasseddownfromgenerationto generation sharingthestoryofanobjectfromhome,describingitsimportance tothefamily(forexamplephotographs,oldtoys,statues,medals, artwork,jewellery)andcreatingaclassmuseum recognisingthatstoriesofthepastmaydifferdependingonwhois tellingthem(forexamplelisteningtostoriesaboutthesameevent relatedbytwodifferentpeoplesuchasamotherandagrandmother)

Howthestoriesoffamiliesandthepast canbecommunicated,forexample throughphotographs,artefacts,books, oralhistories,digitalmedia,and museums(ACHHK004)

HistoricalSkills Chronology,termsandconcepts Sequencefamiliarobjectsandevents (ACHHS015) Elaborations


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orderingsignificantpersonaleventsormilestonesusing photographsordrawings(suchaswalking,talking,thebirthofa sibling,movinghouse,anillness,anachievement,firstdayat school) usingsimpletermstodenotetimewhenstudentstalkabouttheir experiences(forexample'then','now','yesterday','today','tomorrow')

Distinguishbetweenthepast,presentand future(ACHHS016) Historicalquestionsandresearch Posequestionsaboutthepastusing sourcesprovided(ACHHS017)

Elaborations
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inquiringfrommembersoftheirfamilieswheretheywerebornand raised posingquestionsaboutfamilyoraboutpersonalphotographs,for exampleHowoldwasI?WherewasI?WhatwasIdoing? posingquestionsaboutartefacts,forexampleIsitoldornew? Whatwasitusedfor?

Analysisanduseofsources Explorearangeofsourcesaboutthepast (ACHHS018)

Elaborations
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identifyingrelevantfeaturesofphotographsoffamilyandfriends describinginterestingfeaturesofobjectsandphotographs connectedtothepast

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The Humanities - History


Identifyandcomparefeaturesofobjects fromthepastandpresent(ACHHS019)
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distinguishingbetweenwhatisoldandwhatisnew,usingsuch cluesastheconditionoftheobject suggestingideasaboutwhatobjectsfromthepastmayhavebeen usedfor comparingobjectsfromthepastwiththoseofthepresent,using comparativelanguagesuchas'older','newer'(forexample'Thistoy isolder''Thatcomputergameismorefunthan...')

Perspectivesandinterpretations Exploreapointofview(ACHHS020)

Elaborations
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invitingparents,grandparentsandeldersintotheclassroomto communicateabouttheirchildhoodsandcomparingtheirfavourite toyswiththoseofchildrentoday

Explanationandcommunication Developanarrativeaboutthepast (ACHHS021)

Elaborations
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retellingastoryaboutasignificanteventastudentsfamily celebratesorcommemoratessuchasbirthdays,weddings, christenings,religiousfestivals relatingastoryabouttheirownlifeordescribinganeventtheyhave experienced(orallyorthroughpicturesandphotographs) representingideasandcreatingimaginativeresponsesthrough talking,drawingandplay

Usearangeofcommunicationforms (oral,graphic,written,roleplay)anddigital technologies(ACHHS022)

FoundationLevelachievementstandard
BytheendoftheFoundationlevel,studentsidentifysimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenfamilies.Theyrecognisehow importantfamilyeventsarecommemorated. Studentssequencefamiliareventsinorder.Theyposequestionsabouttheirpast.Studentsrelateastoryabouttheirpast usingarangeoftexts.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Level1
PresentandPastFamilyLife TheLevel1curriculumprovidesastudyofpresentandpastfamilylifewithinthecontextofthestudentsownworld. Studentslearnaboutsimilaritiesanddifferencesinfamilylifebycomparingthepresentwiththepast.Theybeginto explorethelinks,andthechangesthatoccur,overtime. Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconceptsincludingcontinuityand change,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathyandsignificance.Theseconceptsmaybeinvestigatedwithina particularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusforhistoricalinquiries. Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledge,andUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills. Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwaytheymaybeintegratedacrosslearningareas andinwaysthatareappropriatetospecificlocalcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogramming decisions. Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions. Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
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Howhasfamilylifechangedorremainedthesameovertime? Howcanweshowthatthepresentisdifferentfromorsimilartothepast? Howdowedescribethesequenceoftime?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding PresentandPastFamilyLife Differencesinfamilystructuresandrolestoday,and howthesehavechangedorremainedthesameover time(ACHHK028)


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Elaborations
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comparingfamiliesinthepresentwiththosefromthe recentpast(thefamiliesofparentsandgrandparents) intermsoftheirsizeandstructure(forexamplethe differenttypesoffamilysuchasnuclear,singleparent, blended) discussingkinshipasanimportantpartofrelationships andfamilystructuresinAboriginalandTorresStrait Islandersocieties(forexampletheextentofakinship systemandthewayinwhichitinfluencespeople's relationships,obligationsandbehaviourtowardseach other) examiningandcommentingontherolesoffamily membersovertime(forexamplelisteningtostories abouttherolesofmothers,fathers,caregiversand childreninthepast)andcomparingthesewithfamily rolestoday(forexampleworkoutsidethehome, washing,cooking,cleaning,gardening,childcare)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Howthepresent,pastandfuturearesignifiedbyterms indicatingtimesuchasalongtimeago,thenand now,nowandthen,oldandnew,tomorrow,as wellasbydatesandchangesthatmayhavepersonal significance,suchasbirthdays,celebrationsand seasons(ACHHK029)
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discussing,forexample,whathappenedyesterday, whatislikelytohappentomorrow,upcomingbirthdays, celebrationsandseasons,andorderingthese referencestotimeinsequenceusingtermssuchas before,after,nextandthen discussinghowsomecultures,forexamplethe Chinese,describeachildasbeingoneleveloldonthe daytheyareborn identifyingdatesandchangesthathavepersonal significance(forexamplebirthdays,movinghouse, changingschools,religiousandschoolholidays), markingtheseonacalendarandcountingdowntime, aswellasnotingthateventsofpersonalsignificance maydifferaccordingtochildrensculturalbackgrounds examiningAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander seasonalcalendars(forexampletheGagadju(Kakadu) andtheD'harawal(Sydney)calendars,eachwithsix seasons,theArrernte(centralAustralia)withfive,the Woiwurrung(UpperYarraValley)withseven,andnorth eastTasmaniawiththree examiningandcommentingonphotographsandoral histories(forexampletalkingtoparents,grandparents andotherelders)tofindouthowdailyliveshave changed

Differencesandsimilaritiesbetweenstudents'daily livesandlifeduringtheirparentsandgrandparents childhoods,includingfamilytraditions,leisuretime andcommunications.(ACHHK030) HistoricalSkills Chronology,termsandconcepts Sequencefamiliarobjectsandevents(ACHHS031)

Elaborations
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usingvisualsequencesoftimesuchasadaysofthe weekchart,aclasstimetableoracalendarand markingsignificantdatesonthem creatingatimeline,slideshoworstoryusingphotos identifyingvocabularyofthepast(forexamplewordsfor objectsfromchildhoodgamesandleisuresuchas jacks,elastics,recordplayer,transistor)whenmaking then/nowcomparisons usingtermstodenotetime(forexamplethen,now, yesterday,today,past,present,generations)

Distinguishbetweenthepast,presentandfuture (ACHHS032)

Historicalquestionsandresearch

Elaborations

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Posequestionsaboutthepastusingsources provided(ACHHS033)
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inquiringfromparentsandmembersofolder generationsaboutpastandpresentfamilies(for examplenumberofchildren,numberofpeoplelivingin thehousehold,rolesoftheparentsandchildren) discussingwhatlifewaslikefortheirparentsand grandparentsbyexaminingeverydayobjects(for exampletelephone,radio,cookingutensils,toys), photosandstoriesfromthepast,usingWhat?How? When?Why?questions

Analysisanduseofsources Explorearangeofsourcesaboutthepast (ACHHS034)

Elaborations
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discussingwithparentsandgrandparentsaboutlifein thepast exploringstoriesfromandaboutthepast(forexample letters,diaries,radioortelevisionprograms) comparingobjectsfromthepastwiththepresentto identifysimilaritiesanddifferences(forexampletoys, whitegoods,televisions,radios)

Identifyandcomparefeaturesofobjectsfromthepast andpresent(ACHHS035)

Perspectivesandinterpretations Exploreapointofview(ACHHS036)

Elaborations
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representingsimilaritiesanddifferencesbetween studentsdailylivesandthoseoftheirparentsand grandparentsingraphicform(forexampleVenn diagram,ychart)

Explanationandcommunication Developanarrativeaboutthepast.(ACHHS037)

Elaborations
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relatingastoryaboutlifeintheirparentsor grandparentstime(orallyorthroughpicturesand photographs) describingtheirfamiliesoraneventthathaspersonal significance representingideasandcreatingimaginativeresponses throughwriting,roleplay,speaking,drawing

Usearangeofcommunicationforms(oral,graphic, written,roleplay)anddigitaltechnologies (ACHHS038)

Level1achievementstandard
BytheendofLevel1,studentsexplainhowsomeaspectsofdailylifehavechangedoverrecenttimewhileothershave remainedthesame.Theydescribepersonalandfamilyeventsthathavesignificance. Studentssequenceeventsinorder,usingeverydaytermsaboutthepassingoftime.Theyposequestionsaboutthepastand examinesources(physicalandvisual)tosuggestanswerstothesequestions.Studentsrelatestoriesaboutlifeinthepast, usingarangeoftexts.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Level2
ThePastinthePresent TheLevel2curriculumprovidesastudyoflocalhistory.Studentsexplore,recogniseandappreciatethehistoryoftheir localareabyexaminingremainsofthepastandconsideringwhytheyshouldbepreserved. Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconceptsincludingcontinuityand change,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathyandsignificance.Theseconceptsmaybeinvestigatedwithina particularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusforhistoricalinquiries. Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledge,andUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills. Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwaytheymaybeintegratedacrosslearningareas andinwaysthatareappropriatetospecificlocalcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogramming decisions. Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions. Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
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Whataspectsofthepastcanyouseetoday?Whatdotheytellus? Whatremainsofthepastareimportanttothelocalcommunity?Why? Howhavechangesintechnologyshapedourdailylife?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding ThePastinthePresent Thehistoryofasignificantperson, building,siteorpartofthenatural environmentinthelocalcommunity andwhatitrevealsaboutthepast (ACHHK044)


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Elaborations
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usingtheinternet,newspapers,communityinformationguidesandlocal knowledgetoidentifyandlistthepeopleandplacespromotedasbeingof historicinterestinthelocalcommunity suggestingreasonsforthelocationofalocallandmarkbeforesearching forresourcesthatprovideanexplanation investigatingthehistoryofachosenperson,building,siteorlandmarkin thelocalcommunityusingsources(forexamplebooks,newspapers,oral histories,audiovisualmaterial,digitalsources,letters,photographs)and relatingastorywhichtheserevealaboutthepast discussingwhyaparticularsitehasheritagesignificance/culturalvalue forpresentgenerations(forexampleitprovidesarecordofasignificant historicalevent,hasaestheticvalue,reflectsthecommunitysidentity) identifying,inconsultationwithAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander people,andvisiting(whereappropriate)localsites,placesand landscapesofsignificancetoAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeople (forexampleengravingsites,rockpaintings,naturalsitesorfeatures suchastheBirragairockshelter,creeksormountains) identifyinganddesigningalocalhistoricaltourofasite(forexampleone relatedtoaparticularculturalgroup)

Theimportancetodayofanhistorical siteofculturalorspiritual significanceforexample,a communitybuilding,alandmark,a warmemorial(ACHHK045)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Theimpactofchangingtechnology onpeopleslives(athomeandinthe waystheyworked,travelled, communicated,andplayedinthe past)(ACHHK046)
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examiningchangesintechnologyoverseveralgenerationsbycomparing pastandpresentobjectsandphotographs,anddiscussinghowthese changeshaveshapedpeopleslives(forexamplechangestoland,air andseatransportthemovefromwoodfiredstovestogas/electrical appliancestheintroductionoftelevision,transistors,FMradioanddigital technologies) identifyingwherethetechnologyusedintheirgrandparentschildhoods wasmadecomparedwiththetechnologytheyusetoday examiningthetraditionaltoysusedbyAboriginalandTorresStrait Islanderchildrentoplayandlearn(forexampleArrerntechildrenlearnto playstringgamessotheycanrememberstoriestheyhavebeentold) creatingmodelsoftoysusedbychildrenwholivedwhenelectricitywas notavailable

HistoricalSkills Chronology,termsandconcepts Sequencefamiliarobjectsand events(ACHHS047) Distinguishbetweenthepast, presentandfuture(ACHHS048)


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Elaborations
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orderingkeyeventsinthehistoryofthelocalcommunityusing photographsandannotations usingtermstodenotethepassingoftimeinspeechandwriting(for exampleinthepast,levelsago,theoldendays,inthefuture) identifyingsignsofthepastinphotographsandothervisual representationsandusingthecorrecttermforthesefeaturesfor examplewarmemorial,museum

Historicalquestionsandresearch Posequestionsaboutthepastusing sourcesprovided(ACHHS049)

Elaborations
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developinginquiryquestionsaboutasite(forexampleWhatdoesitlook likenow?Whatconditionisitin?Howmightitsusehavechanged? Whatwasitspurpose?Howwasitbuilt/created?Howwasitpaidfor? Whatisitsuseandimportanceinthepresent?) structuringquestionsusingappropriateverbtenses(forexampleinthe question:Whatgamesdidchildrenplaybeforeelectricity?,thehelping verbdidisinthepast

Analysisanduseofsources Explorearangeofsourcesaboutthe past.(ACHHS050)

Elaborations
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locatinghistoricalevidenceofthelocalcommunityincludingsignsofthe pastinthepresent(forexampleplaceandstreetnames,monuments, builtandnonbuilthistoricallandmarks) examiningsourcessuchasphotographs,newspapers,storiesandmaps tolearnaboutthepast(someofthesemaybeonlineandcanbelocated throughstateandlocallibrarywebsites)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Identifyandcomparefeaturesof objectsfromthepastandpresent (ACHHS051)
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identifyingplaceandstreetnamesinthelocalcommunityanddiscovering theiroriginandmeaning(forexamplenamesthatarelinkedtoAboriginal andTorresStraitIslanderpeople,suchasEurobodallaNationalPark historicaleventssuchasDeadmansCreek,earlysettlers,andpolitical, religiousandsocialfigures) identifyingfeaturesofasite(suchasdates,decorationsandplaqueson buildings)thatrevealitspast

Perspectivesandinterpretations Exploreapointofview(ACHHS052) Explanationandcommunication Developanarrativeaboutthepast (ACHHS053)

Elaborations
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examiningapointofviewaboutchangestothebuiltandnatural environmentandtodailylivesovertime

Elaborations
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composingstoriestocomparepastandpresentdailylife(forexampleby usingsoftwaretocreateasoundscapeofthelocalareaandadigital cameratotakephotographsofthisareainthepresentandbyusing photographstoshowimagesofthepast) describingasignificantpersonorplacefromtheircommunityspast(for exampleashortreportonabuildingofsignificancedescribingwhen, where,why,whobuiltit,andwhyitisvaluedorabiographyona significantindividual) representingideasandcreatingimaginativeresponsesthroughvisual imagesaswellaswrittenandspokendescriptionsandnarratives

Usearangeofcommunication forms(oral,graphic,written,role play)anddigitaltechnologies (ACHHS054)

Level2achievementstandard
BytheendofLevel2,studentsanalyseaspectsofdailylifetoidentifyhowsomehavechangedoverrecenttimewhileothers haveremainedthesame.Theydescribeaperson,siteoreventofsignificanceinthelocalcommunity. Studentssequenceeventsinorder,usingarangeoftermsrelatedtotime.Theyposequestionsaboutthepastanduse sourcesprovided(physical,visual,oral)toanswerthesequestions.Theycompareobjectsfromthepastandpresent. Studentsdevelopanarrativeaboutthepastusingarangeoftexts.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Level3
CommunityandRemembrance TheLevel3curriculumprovidesastudyofidentityanddiversityinbothalocalandbroadercontext.Movingfromthe heritageoftheirlocalarea,studentsexplorethehistoricalfeaturesanddiversityoftheircommunityasrepresentedin symbolsandemblemsofsignificance,andcelebrationsandcommemorations,bothlocallyandinotherplacesaround theworld. Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconceptsincludingsources, continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathyandsignificance.Theseconceptsmaybe investigatedwithinaparticularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusfor historicalinquiries. Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledge,andUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills. Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwaytheymaybeintegratedacrosslearningareas andinwaysthatareappropriatetospecificlocalcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogramming decisions. Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions. Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
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Wholivedherefirstandhowdoweknow? Howhasourcommunitychanged?Whatfeatureshavebeenlostandwhatfeatureshavebeenretained? Whatisthenatureofthecontributionmadebydifferentgroupsandindividualsinthecommunity? Howandwhydopeoplechoosetoremembersignificanteventsofthepast?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding CommunityandRemembrance TheimportanceofCountryandPlacetoAboriginal and/orTorresStraitIslanderpeopleswhobelongtoa localarea.(Thisisintendedtobealocalareastudy withafocusononeLanguagegrouphowever,if informationorsourcesarenotreadilyavailable, anotherrepresentativeareamaybestudied) (ACHHK060) ONEimportantexampleofchangeandONE importantexampleofcontinuityovertimeinthelocal community,regionorstate/territoryforexample,in relationtotheareasoftransport,work,education, naturalandbuiltenvironments,entertainment,daily life(ACHHK061)
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Elaborations
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identifyingthelanguagegroupsofAboriginalandTorres StraitIslanderpeopleswhobelongtothelocalareaand explainingtherelationshipbetweenlanguage,country, placeandspirituality listeningtoAboriginalorTorresStraitIslanderElders, grandparentsandoldercommunitymemberstellstories associatedwiththelocallanguagegroupsandtheland theybelongto

investigatingadevelopmentinthelocalcommunityfrom thetimeofEuropeansettlementtothepresentday(for examplethroughphotographs,newspapers,oral histories,diariesandletters) comparingphotographsfromboththepastandpresent ofaspecificlocationtoidentifythenatureofchangeor continuity(thatiskeysimilaritiesanddifferences)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Therolethatpeopleofdiversebackgroundshave playedinthedevelopmentandcharacterofthelocal community(ACHHK062)
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usinglocalsites,museumsandonlinecollections(for thelocalareaorstate/territory)toidentifythecultural groupswithinthelocalcommunityandtheirinfluence overtime(forexampleasreflectedinarchitecture, commercialoutletsandreligiousbuildings)and comparingthedevelopmentofthelocalcommunitywith anothercommunity identifyinganddiscussingthehistoricaloriginsofan importantAustraliancelebrationorcommemoration generatingalistoflocal,stateandnationalsymbolsand emblems(forexampleclubemblems,schoollogos, flags,floralemblems,coatofarms)anddiscussingtheir originsandsignificance examiningthesymbolismofflags(forexamplethe Australian,AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderflags) andrecognisingspecialoccasionswhentheyareflown (forexampleallthreeflagsareflownduringNAIDOC week,NationalReconciliationWeek,NationalSorryDay andMABOday) recognisingthesignificanceofotherdaysorweeks includingtheAnniversaryoftheNationalApologyto AustraliasIndigenousPeoples(2008) comparingthesignificanceofnationaldaysindifferent countries,lookingatwhytheydevelopedandelements theyhaveincommon viewingontheinternetvideosofcelebrationsof significantdays,suchasIndependenceDayinGreece investigatingtheoriginsandsignificanceofinternational celebrationsorcommemorations(forexamplethe InternationalDayofPeace)andofcelebrationsimportant toparticularculturalgroupsinAustraliaandinother countries

Daysandweekscelebratedorcommemoratedin Australia(includingAustraliaDay,ANZACDay, HarmonyWeek,NationalReconciliationWeek, NAIDOCweekandNationalSorryDay)andthe importanceofsymbolsandemblems.(ACHHK063)

Celebrationsandcommemorationsinotherplaces aroundtheworldforexample,BastilleDayinFrance, IndependenceDayintheUSA,includingthosethat areobservedinAustraliasuchasChineseNew Level,ChristmasDay,Diwali,Easter,Hanukkah,the MoonFestivalandRamadan(ACHHK064)

HistoricalSkills Chronology,termsandconcepts Sequencehistoricalpeopleandevents(ACHHS065) Elaborations


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developinganannotatedtimelineorothervisual representationofkeystagesofsettlement,which featureslocal,regionalorstateeventsandpeopleof historicalsignificance usinghistoricalterms(suchasimmigration,exploration, development,settlementandnamingdaysof commemorationandemblems)whenspeaking,writing, andillustrating usingacronyms(forexampleNAIDOC,ANZAC)and understandingtheirmeaning

Usehistoricalterms(ACHHS066)

Historicalquestionsandresearch

Elaborations

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Posearangeofquestionsaboutthepast (ACHHS067)
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posingappropriatequestionswheninvestigatingthe contributionthatindividualsandgroupshavemadeto thedevelopmentofthelocalcommunity('Who?''What?' 'When?''Where?''Why?') posingappropriatequestionswheninvestigatingthe establishmentofalocalcommunity('Howdidpeople settle?''Whowerethey?''Whydidtheycometothe area?') identifyingsourcestoinvestigatechangeinthe communityinthepast,suchasphotographs,maps,and theremainsofbuildings

Identifysources(ACHHS215)

Analysisanduseofsources Locaterelevantinformationfromsourcesprovided (ACHHS068)

Elaborations
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analysingarangeofsources(forexamplephotographs, maps,oralhistories)tolocateinformationaboutthe people,placesandeventsintheircommunityspresent andpast usinginformationtechnologiestoorganiseinformation andmakeconnections(forexamplecreatingtablesin wordprocessingsoftware,conceptmapping)

Perspectivesandinterpretations Identifydifferentpointsofview(ACHHS069)

Elaborations
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identifyingthemeaningofcelebrationsfromdifferent perspectives(forexampleAustraliaDayforAboriginal andTorresStraitIslanderpeoplescomparedwithAnglo Australians)

Explanationandcommunication Developtexts,particularlynarratives(ACHHS070)

Elaborations
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writingnarrativesaboutthecommunityspastbasedon researchedfacts,charactersandevents composinghistoricaltexts(forexampleabiographyona noteworthyindividualorgroup,areportonasignificant event) creatingandeditingapresentation(forexampleonethat includestext,imagesandsounds)torecordandexplain thepast creatinganoral,written,pictorialordigitalrepresentation toreflectthediversecharacterofthecommunitytoday

Usearangeofcommunicationforms(oral,graphic, written)anddigitaltechnologies(ACHHS071)

Level3achievementstandard
BytheendofLevel3,studentsexplainhowcommunitieschangedinthepast.Theydescribetheexperiencesofanindividual orgroup.Theyidentifyeventsandaspectsofthepastthathavesignificanceinthepresent.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Studentssequenceeventsandpeople(theirlifetime)inchronologicalorder,withreferencetokeydates.Theypose questionsaboutthepastandlocateinformationfromsources(written,physical,visual,oral)toanswerthesequestions. Studentsdeveloptexts,includingnarratives,usingtermsdenotingtime.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Level4
FirstContacts TheLevel4curriculumintroducesworldhistoryandthemovementofpeoples.BeginningwiththehistoryofAboriginal andTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,studentsexamineEuropeanexplorationandcolonisationinAustraliaandthroughout theworlduptotheearly1800s.Studentsexaminetheimpactofexplorationonothersocieties,howthesesocieties interactedwithnewcomers,andhowtheseexperiencescontributedtotheirculturaldiversity. Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconceptsincludingsources, continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathyandsignificance.Theseconceptsmaybe investigatedwithinaparticularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusfor historicalinquiries. Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills. Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwaytheymaybeintegratedacrosslearningareas andinwaysthatareappropriatetospecificlocalcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogramming decisions. Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions throughtheuseandinterpretationofsources.Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
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Whydidthegreatjourneysofexplorationoccur? WhatwaslifelikeforAboriginaland/orTorresStraitIslanderPeoplesbeforethearrivaloftheEuropeans? WhydidtheEuropeanssettleinAustralia? WhatwasthenatureandconsequenceofcontactbetweenAboriginaland/orTorresStraitIslanderPeoplesandearly traders,explorersandsettlers?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding FirstContacts ThediversityandlongevityofAustraliasfirst peoplesandthewaysAboriginaland/or TorresStraitIslanderpeoplesareconnected toCountryandPlace(land,sea,waterways andskies)andtheimplicationsfortheirdaily lives.(ACHHK077)


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Elaborations
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examiningearlyarchaeologicalsites(forexampleNauwalabila, Malakunanja,DevilsLair,LakeMungo,Preminghana)thatshow thelongevityoftheAboriginalpeople mappingthediversityofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander languagegroupsinAustralia,withparticularemphasisonthe localareaandstate/territory investigatingprecontactwaysoflifeoftheAboriginalpeople and/orTorresStraitIslanderstheirknowledgeoftheir environmentincludinglandmanagementpracticestheirsense oftheinterconnectednessofCountry/Place,People,Cultureand Identityandsomeoftheirprinciples(suchascaringforcountry, caringforeachotherandrespectingallthings) studyingtotemsinthelivesofAboriginaland/orTorresStrait IslanderPeoplesandexaminingthedifferencesbetweentheir totems

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Thejourney(s)ofATLEASTONEworld navigator,explorerortraderuptothelate eighteenthcentury,includingtheircontacts withothersocietiesandanyimpacts. (ACHHK078)
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identifyingkeyindividualsandgroupswhoestablishedcontacts withAfrica,theAmericas,AsiaandOceaniaduringtheageof discoveryexaminingthejourneyofoneormoreofthese explorers(forexampleChristopherColumbus,VascodeGama, FerdinandMagellan)usinginternetmappingtools,and examiningtheirimpactononesociety usingnavigationmapstoreconstructthejourneyofoneormore explorers investigatingnetworksofexchangebetweendifferentgroupsof people discussingreasonsfortheFirstFleetjourney,includingan examinationofthewiderangeofcrimespunishableby transportation,andlookingatthegroupswhoweretransported discussingthetreatmentofprisonersatthattime,andpastand presentviewsonthecolonisationofAustraliainvestigatingthe dailylivesandsocialstandingofthosewhotravelledtoAustralia ontheFirstFleet,includingfamilies,childrenandconvictguards investigatingcontactwithAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander peoplesbefore1788(forexampletherepulsionoftheDutchat CapeKeerweerin1606andthetradebetweentheMacassans andtheYolngupeople) comparingtheEuropeanconceptoflandownershipwiththe AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples'relationshipwith thelandandsea,andhowthisaffectedrelationsbetweenthem exploringearlycontacthistorywiththeBritish(forexample PemulwuyortheBlackWar)andtheimpactthatBritish colonisationhadonthelivesofAboriginalpeople (dispossession,dislocationandthelossoflivesthroughconflict, disease,lossoffoodsourcesandmedicines) exploringwhethertheinteractionsbetweenEuropeansand AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeopleshadpositiveor negativeeffects examiningpaintingsandaccounts(byobserverssuchasWatkin TenchandDavidCollins)todeterminetheimpactofearlyBritish colonisationonAboriginalpeoples'country

StoriesoftheFirstFleet,includingreasonsfor thejourney,whotravelledtoAustralia,and theirexperiencesfollowingarrival. (ACHHK079)

ThenatureofcontactbetweenAboriginal peopleand/orTorresStraitIslandersand others,forexample,theMacassansandthe Europeans,andtheeffectsofthese interactionson,forexamplefamiliesandthe environment(ACHHK080)

HistoricalSkills Chronology,termsandconcepts Sequencehistoricalpeopleandevents (ACHHS081) Elaborations


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placingkeyeventsandpeopleofearlycontacthistoryin chronologicalorderbycreatingtimelinesandexplainingthe sequence usinghistoricaltermswhentalkingaboutthepast(forexample penal,transportation,navigation,frontierconflict, colonisation) identifyingtheoriginsofplacenamesinAustralia(forexample thosenamedbyFrenchexplorers,Aboriginalplacenames)

Usehistoricalterms(ACHHS082)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Historicalquestionsandresearch Posearangeofquestionsaboutthepast (ACHHS083)
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Elaborations
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generatingquestionsaboutthediversityandantiguityof AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,andthenatureof contactinearlyAustralia(forexample'Who?''What?''When?' 'Where?''Why?'questions) posingquestionsaboutexplorers(forexample'Whowerethey? 'Whereweretheyfrom?''Wheredidtheygo?''Whatdidtheydo?') posingquestionsabouttheFirstFleet(forexample'Whydidthe FirstFleettraveltoAustralia?''Whowasonit?''Whatweretheir stories?''Whatwasthejourneylike?') identifyingsourcestoinvestigatethestoryoftheFirstFleetand itsarrival,suchaspaintings,maps,writtenrecords/accounts

Identifysources(ACHHS216)

Analysisanduseofsources Locaterelevantinformationfromsources provided(ACHHS084)

Elaborations
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findinghistoricalinformationtodeterminethenatureofcolonial settlement,theimpactofsignificanteventsandtheroleof individualsinshapingacolony

Perspectivesandinterpretations Identifydifferentpointsofview(ACHHS085)

Elaborations
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exploringdifferentstoriesaboutcontactexperiencesandearly penallifetodiscoverthethoughtsorfeelingsofthepeopleatthat time(forexampleconvicts,AboriginalandTorresStraitIslander people,convictguards,freesettlers)

Explanationandcommunication Developtexts,particularlynarratives (ACHHS086)

Elaborations
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listingkeyeventsandpeoplesexperiencesandlinkingthem togethertoformanarrativeaboutthepast recountingtheexperiencesofanindividualbasedonresearched facts(forexampleabiography,diaryorjournalofanavigatoror convictontheFirstFleet) creatingcharts,pictorialstories,maps,digitalandoral presentationstoexplainthepast makingapodcastthatfeaturesastoryfromtheFirstFleet

Usearangeofcommunicationforms(oral, graphic,written)anddigitaltechnologies (ACHHS087)

Level4achievementstandard
BytheendofLevel4,studentsexplainhowandwhylifechangedinthepast,andidentifyaspectsofthepastthatremained thesame.Theydescribetheexperiencesofanindividualorgroupovertime.Theyrecognisethesignificanceofeventsin bringingaboutchange. Studentssequenceeventsandpeople(theirlifetime)inchronologicalordertoidentifykeydates.Theyposearangeof questionsaboutthepast.Theyidentifysources(written,physical,visual,oral),andlocateinformationtoanswerthese questions.Theyrecognisedifferentpointsofview.Studentsdevelopandpresenttexts,includingnarratives,usinghistorical terms.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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The Humanities - History


Level5
TheAustralianColonies TheLevel5curriculumprovidesastudyofcolonialAustraliainthe1800s.StudentslookatthefoundingofBritish coloniesandthedevelopmentofacolony.Theylearnaboutwhatlifewaslikefordifferentgroupsofpeopleinthecolonial period.Theyexaminesignificanteventsandpeople,politicalandeconomicdevelopments,socialstructures,and settlementpatterns. Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconceptsincludingsources, continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathyandsignificance. Theseconceptsmaybeinvestigatedwithinaparticularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandto provideafocusforhistoricalinquiries. Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills. Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwaytheymaybeintegratedacrosslearningareas andinwaysthatareappropriatetospecificlocalcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogramming decisions. Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions throughtheuseandinterpretationofsources.Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
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WhatdoweknowaboutthelivesofpeopleinAustraliascolonialpastandhowdoweknow? HowdidanAustraliancolonydevelopovertimeandwhy? Howdidcolonialsettlementchangetheenvironment? WhatwerethesignificanteventsandwhowerethesignificantpeoplethatshapedAustraliancolonies?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding TheAustralianColonies Reasons(economic,politicalandsocial)for theestablishmentofBritishcoloniesin Australiaafter1800.(ACHHK093) Elaborations


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investigatingthereasonsfortheestablishmentofoneormore Britishcoloniessuchasapenalcolony(forexampleMoreton Bay,VanDiemensLand)oracolonythatlaterbecameastate (forexampleWesternAustralia,Victoria)

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Thenatureofconvictorcolonialpresence, includingthefactorsthatinfluencedpatternsof development,aspectsofthedailylifeofthe inhabitants(includingAboriginalPeoplesand TorresStraitIslanderPeoples)andhowthe environmentchanged.(ACHHK094)
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investigatingcoloniallifetodiscoverwhatlifewaslikeatthat timefordifferentinhabitants(forexampleaEuropeanfamilyand anAboriginalorTorresStraitIslanderLanguagegroup,a convictandafreesettler,asugarcanefarmerandan indenturedlabourer)intermsofclothing,diet,leisure,paidand unpaidwork,language,housingandchildrens'lives'. mappinglocal,regionalandstate/territoryruralandurban settlementpatternsinthe1800s,andnotingfactorssuchas geographicalfeatures,climate,waterresources,thediscovery ofgold,transportandaccesstoportfacilitiesthatshapedthese patterns investigatingtheimpactofsettlementontheenvironment(for examplecomparingthepresentandpastlandscapeandthe floraandfaunaofthelocalcommunity) investigatinganeventordevelopmentandexplainingits economic,socialandpoliticalimpactonacolony(forexample theconsequencesoffrontierconflicteventssuchastheMyall CreekMassacre,thePinjarraMassacretheimpactofSouth SeaIslandersonsugarfarmingandthetimberindustrythe impactoftheEurekaStockadeonthedevelopmentof democracy) creatingwhatifscenariosbyconstructingdifferentoutcomes forakeyevent,forexampleWhatifPeterLalorhadencouraged goldminerstopayratherthanresistlicencefees? identifyingthereasonswhypeoplemigratedtoAustraliainthe 1800s(forexampleasconvictsassistedpassengers indenturedlabourerspeopleseekingabetterlifesuchasgold minersandthosedislocatedbyeventssuchastheIndustrial Revolution,theIrishPotatoFamineandtheHighland Clearances) investigatingtheexperiencesandcontributionsofaparticular migrantgroupwithinacolony(forexampleGermansinSouth Australia,JapaneseinBroome,AfghanCameleersinthe NorthernTerritory,ChineseatPalmerRiver,PacificIslandersin theTorresStrait) connecting(whereappropriate)storiesofmigrationtostudents ownfamilyhistories investigatingthecontributionorsignificanceofanindividualor grouptotheshapingofacolonyinthe1800s(forexample groupssuchasexplorersorpastoralistsorindividualssuchas Blaxland,LawsonandWentworth,G.J.Macdonald,Elizabethand JohnMacarthur,CarolineChisholm,SaintMaryMackillop,Peter Lalor,JamesUnaipon) exploringthemotivationsandactionsofanindividualorgroup thatshapedacolony

Theimpactofasignificantdevelopmentor eventonacolonyforexample,frontierconflict, thegoldrushes,theEurekaStockade,internal exploration,theadventofrail,theexpansionof farming,drought.(ACHHK095)

ThereasonspeoplemigratedtoAustraliafrom EuropeandAsia,andtheexperiencesand contributionsofaparticularmigrantgroup withinacolony.(ACHHK096)

Therolethatasignificantindividualorgroup playedinshapingacolonyforexample, explorers,farmers,entrepreneurs,artists, writers,humanitarians,religiousandpolitical leaders,andAboriginaland/orTorresStrait Islanderpeoples.(ACHHK097) HistoricalSkills Chronology,termsandconcepts

Elaborations

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The Humanities - History


Sequencehistoricalpeopleandevents (ACHHS098)
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compilinganannotatedtimelineshowingkeystagesinthe developmentofcolonialAustraliaincludingthedateof Europeansettlementineachstate,thedatethecolonywas established,thedateofselfgovernment usinghistoricalterms(suchasthegoldera,theEureka Stockade,theMyallCreekMassacre,colony) understandingthekeyconceptsrelatedtothecontentsuchas settlement,expansion,migration,protection,development, rural,urban)

Usehistoricaltermsandconcepts (ACHHS099)

Historicalquestionsandresearch Identifyquestionstoinformanhistoricalinquiry (ACHHS100)

Elaborations
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developingkeyquestionsaboutthelocalcommunityorregion (forexample:Whywastheareasettled?Whatpeoplecameto liveinthearea?Howdidtheymaketheirliving?Howdidmen, women,andchildrenlive?) usinginternetsearchengines,museums,librarycatalogues andindexestofindmaterialrelevanttoaninquiry(forexample primarysourcessuchasstories,songs,diaries,official documents,artworks) understandingtheinternetdomainnamescom,edu,govas indicatorsoftheprovenanceofasource visitingalocalcemeteryandsurveyingthegravestofindclues aboutthepatternsofsettlement,agesandcausesofdeathin thelocalarea

Identifyandlocatearangeofrelevantsources (ACHHS101)

Analysisanduseofsources Locateinformationrelatedtoinquiryquestions inarangeofsources(ACHHS102)

Elaborations
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findingrelevanthistoricalinformationaboutcolonialAustralia fromprimaryandsecondarysources usingproformasanddatasheetstodevelopquestions,and recordinformationandsources/references examiningtwosourcesofevidencetoidentifysimilaritiesand/or differences,anddescribingwhattheyrevealaboutthepast checkingpublicationdatestoputinformationcontainedinatext inhistoricalcontext(forexamplea1965Australianhistorybook mayprovideadifferentperspectivetoonepublishedin2010)

Compareinformationfromarangeofsources (ACHHS103)

Perspectivesandinterpretations Identifypointsofviewinthepastandpresent (ACHHS104)

Elaborations
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identifyingthedifferentmotivesandexperiencesofindividuals andgroupsinthepast(forexamplethereasonspeople migratedtoAustraliaandtheirdiverseexperiences)

Explanationandcommunication

Elaborations

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The Humanities - History


Developtexts,particularlynarrativesand descriptions,whichincorporatesource materials(ACHHS105)
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usingsourcestodevelopnarratives(forexamplereasonsfor theestablishmentofcolonies,effectsofkeydevelopmentsand eventsoncolonies,theimpactofsignificantgroupsor individualsondevelopment) usingsomeofthelanguagedevicesofnarratives,evocative vocabulary,andliterarysentencestructuresbutusingreal charactersandeventstotelltheirstory creatingvisual,oralorwrittenjournalsreflectingthedailylife experiencesofdifferentinhabitantsofaconvictorcolonial settlement usingICTtocreatepresentationswhicharesuitableforthe targetaudienceandincludetext,imagesand/oraudiovisuals. usingcommunicationtechnologiestoexchangeinformation andtofosteracollaborativeresponse(forexampleawiki)

Usearangeofcommunicationforms(oral, graphic,written)anddigitaltechnologies (ACHHS106)

Level5achievementstandard
BytheendofLevel5,studentsidentifythecausesandeffectsofchangeonparticularcommunities,anddescribeaspectsof thepastthatremainedthesame.Theydescribethedifferentexperiencesofpeopleinthepast.Theydescribethe significanceofpeopleandeventsinbringingaboutchange. Studentssequenceeventsandpeople(theirlifetime)inchronologicalorder,usingtimelines.Whenresearching,students developquestionstoframeanhistoricalinquiry.Theyidentifyarangeofsourcesandlocateandrecordinformationrelatedto thisinquiry.Theyexaminesourcestoidentifypointsofview.Studentsdevelop,organiseandpresenttheirtexts,particularly narrativesanddescriptions,usinghistoricaltermsandconcepts.

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The Humanities - History


Level6
Australiaasanation TheLevel6curriculummovesfromcolonialAustraliatothedevelopmentofAustraliaasanation,particularlyafter1900. StudentsexplorethefactorsthatledtoFederationandexperiencesofdemocracyandcitizenshipovertime.Students understandthesignificanceofAustraliasBritishheritage,theWestminstersystem,andothermodelsthatinfluencedthe developmentofAustraliassystemofgovernment.StudentslearnaboutthewayoflifeofpeoplewhomigratedtoAustralia andtheircontributionstoAustraliaseconomicandsocialdevelopment. Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconceptsincludingsources, continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathyandsignificance. Theseconceptsmaybeinvestigatedwithinaparticularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandto provideafocusforhistoricalinquiries. Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills. Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwaytheymaybeintegratedacrosslearningareas andinwaysthatareappropriatetospecificlocalcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogramming decisions. Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions throughtheuseandinterpretationofsources.Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
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WhyandhowdidAustraliabecomeanation? HowdidAustraliansocietychangethroughoutthetwentiethcentury? WhowerethepeoplewhocametoAustralia?Whydidtheycome? WhatcontributionhavesignificantindividualsandgroupsmadetothedevelopmentofAustraliansociety?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding AustraliaasaNation KeyfiguresandeventsthatledtoAustralias Federation,includingBritishandAmerican influencesonAustraliassystemoflawand government.(ACHHK113)


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Elaborations
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studyingAustraliaspathtoFederationthroughanexaminationof keypeople(forexampleHenryParkes,EdmundBarton,George Reid,JohnQuick)andevents(forexampletheTenterfield Oration,theCorowaConference,thereferendumsheldinthe coloniesfrom1898to1900) comparingthemodelofAustralianfederalismwiththeoriginal modeloftheUnitedStatesofAmericatoidentifytheUSinfluence onAustraliassystemofgovernment identifyingkeyelementsofAustraliassystemoflawand governmentandtheirorigins(forexampletheMagnaCarta federalismconstitutionalmonarchytheWestminstersystem andtheseparationofpowerslegislature,executive,judiciary thehousesofparliamenthowlawsaremade)

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ExperiencesofAustraliandemocracyand citizenship,includingthestatusandrightsof Aboriginalpeopleand/orTorresStrait Islanders,migrants,women,andchildren. (ACHHK114)
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thelackofcitizenshiprightsforAboriginalPeoplesandTorres StraitIslanderPeoplesinAustralia,illustratedbytheirearly classificationasfloraandfauna,controlsonmovementand residence,theforcibleremovalofchildrenfromtheirfamilies leadingtotheStolenGenerations,andpoorpayandworking conditions describingthesignificanceofthe1962righttovotefederallyand the1967referendum investigatingthestoriesofindividualsorgroupswhoadvocated orfoughtforrightsintwentiethcenturyAustralia(forexampleJack PattenortheAboriginesProgressiveAssociation) investigatingtheexperiencesofdemocracyandcitizenshipof women(forexamplethesuffragettemovement,thebaron marriedwomenworking,equalpay,theSexDiscriminationAct 1984) investigatingtheexperiencesofdemocracyandcitizenshipof migrantgroups(forexampleinternmentcampsduringWorldWar IIassimilationpolicies,antidiscriminationlegislation, mandatorydetention,payandworkingconditions) investigatingtheexperiencesofdemocracyandcitizenshipof childrenwhowereplacedinorphanages,homesandother institutions(forexamplethenatureoftheirfoodandshelter, educationandcontactswithfamily) comparingpushandpullfactorsthathavecontributedtopeople migratingtoAustralia(forexampleeconomicmigrantsand politicalrefugees) exploringindividualnarrativesusingprimarysources(for exampleletters,documentsandhistoricalobjects)interviewing andrecordinganoralhistorydramatisingthejourneyand circumstancesofarrivalbasedonthesources describingculturalpracticesrelatedtofamilylife,beliefsand customsofnewlyarrivedmigrantgroupsandcomparingthese withthoseofthecommunitiesinwhichtheysettledwithin Australia connectingstoriesofmigrationtostudentsownfamilyhistories (whereappropriate)

Storiesofgroupsofpeoplewhomigratedto Australia(includingfromONEAsiancountry) andthereasonstheymigrated,suchas WorldWarIIandAustralianmigration programssincethewar.(ACHHK115)

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Thecontributionofindividualsandgroups, includingAboriginalpeopleand/orTorres StraitIslandersandmigrants,tothe developmentofAustraliansociety,for exampleinareassuchastheeconomy, education,science,thearts,sport. (ACHHK116)
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examiningpopulationdatathatshowtheplacesofbirthof Australiaspeopleatoneormorepointsoftimeinthepastand today,andusingdigitaltechnologiestoprocessandrecordthis data investigatingtheroleofspecificculturalgroupsinAustralias economicandsocialdevelopment(forexamplethecattle industry,theSnowyMountainsScheme,thepearlingindustry) consideringnotableindividualsinAustralianpubliclifeacrossa rangeoffields(forexamplethearts,science,sport,education), includingAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeople,arangeof culturalandsocialgroups,andwomenandmendrawnfromthe AustralianLivingTreasureslistorfromtheAustralianDictionary ofBiography)

HistoricalSkills Chronology,termsandconcepts Sequencehistoricalpeopleandevents. (ACHHS117)


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Elaborations
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placingkeyevents,ideas,movementsandpeopleofthe twentiethcenturyinchronologicalsequence usingtimelinestodescribepasteventsandchanges identifyinganddevelopingatimelineofworldunrestthat contributedtomigrationinthe1900s(forexampletheWorld Wars,theVietnamWar,thewarintheformerYugoslavia,the TiananmenSquaremassacre,thewarinSudan) usinghistoricaltermsandconceptsrelatedtothecontentsuch asdemocracy,federation,empire,immigration,heritage, diversity,enfranchisement,suffrage

Usehistoricaltermsandconcepts (ACHHS118)

Historicalquestionsandresearch Identifyquestionstoinformanhistorical inquiry(ACHHS119)

Elaborations
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developingkeyquestionsaboutthebirthofAustraliandemocracy andtheexperiencesofcitizenshipforwomen,migrantsand AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeople developingkeyquestionsaboutimmigrationsuchas:Whatwere themainreasonspeoplemigratedtoAustralia?Whomigrated? Wheredidtheycomefrom?Whatimpacthavetheyhadonthe characterofAustraliansociety? usinginternetsearchengines,museums,librarycataloguesand indexestofindmaterialrelevanttoaninquiry identifyingcommunityorfamilymemberswhomigratedto Australiaandconductinganinterviewtolearnabouttheir experiencesunderstandingthatdifferentquestionselicitdifferent kindsofanswers(forexamplethedifferencebetweenaclosed andopenquestionDidyoulikeAustraliawhenyoufirst arrived?comparedwithHowdidyoufeelaboutAustraliawhen youfirstarrived?) retrievingcensusdatatoconstructargumentsforandagainst migration

Identifyandlocatearangeofrelevant sources(ACHHS120)

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Analysisanduseofsources Locateinformationrelatedtoinquiry questionsinarangeofsources. (ACHHS121)
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Elaborations
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findingrelevanthistoricalinformationinprimaryandsecondary sources(forexamplerelatedtotherightsandstatusofwomen aswellasAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoplesandthe experiencesofmigrants) usingproformasanddatasheetstodevelopquestionsand recordinformationandsourcesaboutthemovementofpeopleto Australiainthetwentiethcenturyandtheincreasingcultural diversityofpresentdayAustralia examiningarangeofsourcesofevidencetoidentifysimilarities and/ordifferencesanddescribingwhattheyrevealaboutthepast (forexamplecomparinginformationinsourcestodetermine viewsontheeffectsofmigrationonthedevelopmentofAustralian society) checkingpublicationdatestoputinhistoricalcontextthe informationcontainedinthetext(forexamplecomparinga1965 Australianhistorybookanda2010refugeewebsitetoidentify differentperspectives)

Compareinformationfromarangeof sources.(ACHHS122)

Perspectivesandinterpretations Identifypointsofviewinthepastandpresent (ACHHS123)

Elaborations
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analysingthelanguageusedinsourcestoidentifyvaluesand attitudes(forexamplenewAustralians,boatpeople) analysingsourcestoidentifypersuasivetechniquessuchas modality(forexamplewould,could,may,might)andtheuse ofthepassivevoicetocoveralackofsources(forexampleitis claimedthatratherthantheactivevoiceTimFlanneryclaims that...)

Explanationandcommunication Developtexts,particularlynarrativesand descriptions,whichincorporatesource materials(ACHHS124)

Elaborations
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developingnarrativesbasedoninformationidentifiedfroma rangeofsources(usingsomeofthelanguagedevicesof narratives,evocativevocabulary,andliterarysentencestructures butusingrealcharactersandeventstotelltheirstory) combiningliteraryandinformationallanguage(forexample StandingonacoldwindypierinKythera,Dimitriwavedgoodbye tohiscryingmother.)evocativelanguageandcomplexnarrative structuresandfactualvocabularyandsimpleandcompound sentencestructures(forexampleItwas1956andGreecewas recoveringfromalongcivilwar.) composinghistoricaltexts(forexampleinformationreports, expositorytexts,persuasivetexts,recounts,biographies) developingcharts,graphs,tables,digitalpresentations,written andoralpresentationstoexplainthepastusingICTs. creatingadigitalstory,usingtext,imagesandaudio/visual material,torecordmigrantexperiences

Usearangeofcommunicationforms(oral, graphic,written)anddigitaltechnologies (ACHHS125)

Level6achievementstandard

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BytheendofLevel6,studentsidentifychangeandcontinuityanddescribethecausesandeffectsofchangeonsociety.They comparethedifferentexperiencesofpeopleinthepast.Theyexplainthesignificanceofanindividualandgroup. Studentssequenceeventsandpeople(theirlifetime)inchronologicalorder,andrepresenttimebycreatingtimelines.When researching,studentsdevelopquestionstoframeanhistoricalinquiry.Theyidentifyarangeofsourcesandlocateand compareinformationtoanswerinquiryquestions.Theyexaminesourcestoidentifyanddescribepointsofview.Students developtexts,particularlynarrativesanddescriptions.Indevelopingthesetextsandorganisingandpresentingtheir information,theyusehistoricaltermsandconceptsandincorporaterelevantsources.

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Level7
TheAncientWorld TheLevel7curriculumprovidesastudyofhistoryfromthetimeoftheearliesthumancommunitiestotheendofthe ancientperiod,approximately60000BC(BCE)c.650AD(CE).Itwasaperioddefinedbythedevelopmentofcultural practicesandorganisedsocieties.Thestudyoftheancientworldincludesthediscoveries(theremainsofthepastand whatweknow)andthemysteries(whatwedonotknow)aboutthisperiodofhistory,inarangeofsocietiesincluding Australia,Egypt,Greece,Rome,ChinaandIndia. Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconcepts,includingevidence, continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathy,significanceandcontestability.Theseconceptsmay beinvestigatedwithinaparticularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusfor historicalinquiries. Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills. Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwayandinwaysthatareappropriatetospecific localcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogrammingdecisions. Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions throughtheuseandinterpretationofsources.Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
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Howdoweknowabouttheancientpast? Whyandwheredidtheearliestsocietiesdevelop? Whatemergedasthedefiningcharacteristicsofancientsocieties? Whathavebeenthelegaciesofancientsocieties?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding Overview Thefollowingcontentistobetaughtaspartofanoverviewforthehistoricalperiod.Itisnotintendedtobetaughtin depth.Anoverviewwillconstituteapproximately10%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Overviewcontentidentifies importantfeaturesoftheperiod,approximately60000BC(BCE)c.650AD(CE),aspartofanexpansivechronology thathelpsstudentsunderstandbroadpatternsofhistoricalchange.Assuch,theoverviewprovidesthebroader contextfortheteachingofdepthstudycontentandcanbebuiltintovariouspartsofateachingandlearningprogram. Thismeansthatoverviewcontentcanbeusedtogivestudentsanintroductiontothehistoricalperiodtomakethe linkstoandbetweenthedepthstudiesandtoconsolidateunderstandingthroughareviewoftheperiod. Overviewcontentfortheancientworld(Egypt,Mesopotamia,Persia,Greece,Rome,India,ChinaandtheMaya) includesthefollowing: thetheorythatpeoplemovedoutofAfricaaround60000BC(BCE)andmigratedtootherpartsoftheworld,including Australia.
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usingamaptodescribethepatternofmovementofhumansoutofAfricaandacrossothercontinentsovertime, andlookingatthetypesofevidenceofthesemovements(forexamplestonetools,humanremainsandcave paintings)

theevidencefortheemergenceandestablishmentofancientsocieties(includingart,iconography,writingtoolsand pottery)

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exploringanearlyexampleofart(forexamplethe17000BCEgreatbullpaintingsfromtheLascauxCavein France)anddiscussingwhytheymayhavebeenpainted discussingtheevolvingnatureoftheevidenceinthisperiod,whichshowsincreasinglysophisticatedformsof technology(forexamplethetransitionfrommakingtoolsoutofstone,boneandwoodtometalworking) identifyingsourcesofevidencefortheemergenceoforganisedstates(forexampletheCuneiformscriptphonetic writingoftheSumeriansc.3500BCEtheancientlawcodeofHammurabiclaytabletsfromancientBabylon c.1790BCEartefactsfoundinthetombsatUrSumerc.2500BCE,whichindicatethepresenceofeitherroyalty orpriestessespotteryshardsandfragmentsdiscoveredinPalestinemadeofmudfromtheRiverNileinEgypt asevidenceoftrade

keyfeaturesofancientsocieties(farming,trade,socialclasses,religion,ruleoflaw) exploringwhytheshiftfromhuntingandforagingtocultivation(andthedomesticationofanimals)ledtothe developmentofpermanentsettlements identifyingthemajorcivilisationsoftheancientworld(namelyEgypt,Mesopotamia,Persia,Greece,Rome,India, ChinaandtheMaya)whereandwhentheyexisted,andtheevidenceforcontactbetweenthem locatingthemajorcivilisationsoftheancientworldonaworldmapandusingatimelinetoidentifythelongevityof eachancientcivilisation identifyingthemajorreligions/philosophiesthatemergedbytheendoftheperiod(Hinduism,Judaism, Buddhism,Confucianism,Christianity,Islam),andtheirkeybeliefs(throughgroupwork)

Depthstudies Therearethreedepthstudiesforthishistoricalperiod.Foreachdepthstudy,thereareuptothreeelectivesthatfocus onaparticularsociety,event,movementordevelopment.ItisexpectedthatONEelectivewillbestudiedindetail.A depthstudyelectivewillconstituteapproximately30%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Thecontentineachdepth studyelectiveisdesignedtoallowdetailedstudyofspecificaspectsofthishistoricalperiod.Aspartofateachingand learningprogram,depthstudycontentcanbeintegratedwiththeoverviewcontentand/orwithotherdepthstudy electives. 1Investigatingtheancientpast Elaborations

Studentsbuildonandconsolidatetheirunderstandingofhistoricalinquiryfrompreviouslevelsindepth,usinga rangeofsourcesforthestudyoftheancientpast. Investigatingtheancientpast Howhistoriansandarchaeologistsinvestigate history,includingexcavationandarchival research(ACDSEH001) Therangeofsourcesthatcanbeusedinan historicalinvestigation,including archaeologicalandwrittensources (ACDSEH029)
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identifyingdifferentapproachestohistoricalinvestigationsuch astheuseofexcavationandstratigraphy,oralhistoryanduse ofdataderivedfromradiocarbondating listingarangeofsources(botharchaeologicalandwritten) requiredinanhistoricalinvestigationtodeveloparesponseto thequestion(s)beingasked

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Themethodsandsourcesusedtoinvestigate atleastONEhistoricalcontroversyormystery thathaschallengedhistoriansor archaeologists,suchasintheanalysisof unidentifiedhumanremains(ACDSEH030)
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evaluatingvariousmethodsforinvestigatingtheancientpast, forexamplestratigraphytodatediscoveriesDNAtestingto identifypastindividualsfromtheirremains(suchasEgyptian mummies)aswellascommondiseases usingacrosssectionaldrawingoftheearthssurfacefroman archaeologicalexcavationtoidentifytheevidencelocatedat variouslayers(stratigraphy)andwhatitrevealsaboutchange overtime(forexampleacharcoallayercontaininghuman remainsandweaponsmayindicatethecaptureand destructionofanancientsettlementsuchasTroy) investigatingthediscoveryofMungoWomanin1969andthe useofradiocarbondatingtodrawconclusionsaboutthe longevityofhumanoccupationatLakeMungo generatingarangeofquestionstoinvestigateasource(for exampleashellmiddeninancientAustraliawhereitwas found,howlongitwasusedfor,whatitrevealsabout technologyandtheuseofenvironmentalresources) investigatingworldheritagecriteriaforthelistingofsignificant ancientsites,usinganexampleofanancientsitesuchas Pompeii explainingtheUNESCOledrescuemissiontosavethe templesofAbuSimbel

ThenatureofthesourcesforancientAustralia andwhattheyrevealaboutAustraliaspastin theancientperiod,suchastheuseof resources(ACDSEH031)

Theimportanceofconservingtheremainsof theancientpast,includingtheheritageof AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderPeoples. (ACDSEH148) 2TheMediterraneanworld

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigateONEoftheseMediterraneansocietiesindepth:EgyptorGreeceorRome. Egypt ThephysicalfeaturesofancientEgypt(suchas theRiverNile)andhowtheyinfluencedthe civilisationthatdevelopedthere(ACDSEH002) RolesofkeygroupsinancientEgyptiansociety (suchasthenobility,bureaucracy,women, slaves),includingtheinfluenceoflawand religion(ACDSEH032)


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describingtheimportanceoftheRiverNiletoEgyptiansociety (forexampleinundationandfarming,theworshipofHapi(god oftheNile),andtheuseoftheNileasameansof transportation)

creatingagraphicrepresentationofthesocialstructureof Egyptiansociety outliningtherightsofwomen(forexampleintheareasof marriage,familylife,workandeducation)andtheir responsibilities(thatis,generallylimitedtothehomeand family) investigatingsignificantbeliefsassociatedwithdeathand funerarycustoms(forexamplebeliefinanafterlife)and practices(forexampleburialintombsandtechniquesof mummification) generatingalternativeexplanationsforthebuildingofthe pyramidsatGiza

Thesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof theancientEgyptians,withaparticular emphasisonONEofthefollowingareas: everydaylife,warfare,ordeathandfunerary customs(ACDSEH033)

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Contactsandconflictswithinand/orwithother societies,resultingindevelopmentssuchas theconquestofotherlands,theexpansionof trade,andpeacetreaties(ACDSEH034) Theroleofasignificantindividualinancient EgyptianhistorysuchasHatshepsutor RamesesII(ACDSEH129) OR Greece ThephysicalfeaturesofancientGreece(such asitsmountainouslandscape)andhowthey influencedthecivilisationthatdevelopedthere (ACDSEH003) RolesofkeygroupsinAthenianand/orSpartan society(suchascitizens,women,slaves), includingtheinfluenceoflawandreligion (ACDSEH035)
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explainingthenatureofcontactwithothersocieties(for exampletradewithCyprus,CreteandGreece)andconflict(for exampletheBattleofKadeshintheNewKingdomthat concludedwithRamesesIIspeacetreatywiththeHittites)

examiningthehistoricalcontext,earlylifeandachievementsof asignificanthistoricalfigurefromancientEgypt,andhowthey wereperceivedbytheircontemporaries

describingtheimpactoftheseaandmountainrangesof AncientGreeceonthedevelopmentofselfgoverningcitystates

examiningevidenceofthesocialstructureofAthenianor Spartansociety(forexampletherolesofcitizens,women, slavesinAtheniansocietyandtherolesofSpartiates,Perioikoi andHelotsinSpartansociety) outliningtherightsofcitizensinancientAthens(forexamplethe righttovote),theirresponsibilities(forexamplemilitaryservice, attendingassemblymeetings)andtheinventionoffreedom investigatingthesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesofthe ancientGreeks(forexampletheOlympicGamesortheDelphic Oracle) investigatingsignificantbeliefsandvaluesassociatedwith warfare(forexampleheroicidealsasrevealedintheIliad)and militarypractices(forexamplearmyorganisation,thehoplite phalanxandnavalwarfare) explainingthenatureofcontactwithothersocieties(for examplethecommoditiesthatformedthetradewithEgypt, GreekcolonisationoftheMediterranean),andconflict(for examplethePersianWarsandtheBattleofSalamis,the empireofAlexandertheGreatandthereachofGreekculture) examiningthehistoricalcontext,earlylifeandachievementsof asignificanthistoricalfigurefromancientGreece,andhowthey wereperceivedbytheircontemporaries

Thesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof theancientGreeks,withaparticularemphasis onONEofthefollowingareas:everydaylife, warfare,ordeathandfunerarycustoms (ACDSEH036)

Contactsandconflictswithinand/orwithother societies,resultingindevelopmentssuchas theexpansionoftrade,colonisationandwar (suchasthePeloponnesianandPersianwars) (ACDSEH037) Theroleofasignificantindividualinancient GreekhistorysuchasLeonidasorPericles (ACDSEH130) OR Rome

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ThephysicalfeaturesofancientRome(such astheRiverTiber)andhowtheyinfluencedthe civilisationthatdevelopedthere.(ACDSEH004) RolesofkeygroupsinancientRomansociety (suchaspatricians,plebeians,women, slaves),includingtheinfluenceoflawand religion.(ACDSEH038)
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describingthemethodsusedbytheRomanstomanage resources(forexamplethewatersupplythroughaqueducts andplumbingsystems)

examiningtheevidenceofthesocialstructureofRoman society(forexampletherolesofpatricians,plebeians,women andslavesinthecityofRome)andtheideaofRepublican virtueanditshistoricalresonance describingthesignificanceofslaveryintheperiodofthe RomanEmpire(forexampletheacquisitionofslavesthrough warfare,theuseofslavesasgladiatorsandagricultural labourers,andtheriseoffreedmen) investigatingsignificantbeliefsassociatedwithdailylife(for exampletheevidenceofhouseholdreligion)andpractices(for exampletheuseofpublicamenitiessuchasbaths,andthe formsofentertainmentintheatresandamphitheatres)

Thesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof theancientRomans,withaparticular emphasisonONEofthefollowingareas: everydaylife,warfare,ordeathandfunerary customs.(ACDSEH039) Contactsandconflictswithinand/orwithother societies,resultingindevelopmentssuchas theexpansionoftrade,theriseoftheRoman empire(includingitsmaterialremains),andthe spreadofreligiousbeliefs(ACDSEH040)

describingthefurthestextentoftheRomanEmpireandthe influenceofforeigncultsonRomanreligiousbeliefsand practices(forexamplethePantheonofGods(Greece),Isis (Egypt)andMithras(Persia) readingaccountsofcontactsbetweenRomeandAsian societiesintheancientperiod(forexamplethevisitofChinese andIndianenvoystoRomeinthetimeofAugustus,as describedbytheRomanhistorianFlorus) examiningthehistoricalcontext,earlylifeandachievementsof asignificanthistoricalfigurefromancientRome,andhowthey wereperceivedbytheircontemporaries

Theroleofasignificantindividualinancient RomeshistorysuchasJuliusCaesaror Augustus(ACDSEH131) 3TheAsianworld

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigateONEoftheseAsiansocietiesindepth:ChinaorIndia India ThephysicalfeaturesofIndia(suchasfertile riverplains)andhowtheyinfluencedthe civilisationthatdevelopedthere(ACDSEH006)


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describinghowharmoniousrelationshipswiththenatural worldwerereflectedinIndianbeliefsystems(forexample Hinduism,BuddhismandJainism) creatingagraphicrepresentationoftheextentofIndiaasa politicalunitatthistime,includingforexampleitsdiverse climaticandgeographicalfeatures,typesandlocationoffood production,areasofhighandlowdensitypopulation

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RolesofkeygroupsinIndiansocietyinthis period(suchaskings,emperors,priests, merchants,peasants),includingtheinfluence oflawandreligion.(ACDSEH044) Thesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof Indiansociety,withaparticularemphasison ONEofthefollowingareas:everydaylife, warfare,ordeathandfunerarycustoms (ACDSEH045)
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creatingagraphicrepresentationofthesocialstructureof Indiansociety explainingthesocialstructureofIndia,includingtheroleof Brahminspriests,teachersKshatriyaskings,warriors Vaishyasmerchants,artisansShudraslabourers, peasants investigatingthesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof Indiansocietyassociatedwithforexample,ritesofpassagefor boysandmenritesofpassageforgirlsandwomenmarriage rites(forexample,theroleofthefamily,religiousceremonies). investigatingthesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof Indiansocietyassociatedwithdeathandfunerarycustoms(for examplecremation,theuseofprofessionalmourners,the constructionofstupas) examiningtheextentofIndiancontactwithothersocietiessuch asthePersiansunderCyrus,theMacedoniansunder AlexandertheextensivetradewiththeRomansandChinese thematerialremainsoftheMauryanEmpiresuchasthePillars ofAshokaandtheBarabarCavesthespreadofHinduismand Buddhism

Contactsandconflictswithinand/orwithother societies,resultingindevelopmentssuchas theexpansionoftrade,theriseoftheMauryan Empire(includingitsmaterialremains),and thespreadofphilosophiesandbeliefs (ACDSEH046) TheroleofasignificantindividualinIndian historysuchasChandraguptaMauryaor Ashoka(ACDSEH133) OR China ThephysicalfeaturesofChina(suchasthe YellowRiver)andhowtheyinfluencedthe civilisationthatdevelopedthere(ACDSEH005) RolesofkeygroupsinChinesesocietyinthis period(suchaskings,emperors,scholars, craftsmen,women),includingtheinfluenceof lawandreligion.(ACDSEH041) Thesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof Chinesesociety,withaparticularemphasison ONEofthefollowingareas:everydaylife, warfare,ordeathandfunerarycustoms (ACDSEH042)

examiningthehistoricalcontext,earlylifeandachievementsof asignificanthistoricalfigurefromIndiainthisperiod,andhow theywereperceivedbytheircontemporaries

describingthesignificanceoftheYellowRivertoirrigationand theimpactoffeaturessuchastheHimalayasoncontactswith othersocieties,includingtrade

creatingagraphicrepresentationofthesocialstructureof Chinesesociety outliningtherightsandresponsibilitiesofwomen(forexample intheareasofmarriage,familylife,workandeducation)

investigatingthesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof Chinesesocietyassociatedwithdailylife(forexampleirrigation andthepracticeofagriculture,theteachingsofConfucius,the evidenceofdailylifefromtheHantombs)

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Contactsandconflictswithinand/orwithother societies,resultingindevelopmentssuchas theexpansionoftrade,theriseofImperial China(includingitsmaterialremains),andthe spreadofphilosophiesandbeliefs (ACDSEH043) Theroleofasignificantindividualinancient ChinesehistorysuchasConfuciusorQinShi Huang(ACDSEH132) HistoricalSkills Chronology,termsandconcepts Sequencehistoricalevents,developments andperiods(ACHHS205) Usehistoricaltermsandconcepts (ACHHS206)
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explainingtheriseofimperialChina(forexampletheuseof chariotwarfareandtheadoptionofmassinfantryarmies,the buildingofthefirstphaseoftheGreatWallofChina,military strategiesascodifiedinSunTzusTheArtofWar)

examiningthehistoricalcontext,earlylifeandachievementsof asignificanthistoricalfigurefromChinainthisperiod,andhow theywereperceivedbytheircontemporaries

Elaborations
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identifyingtheapproximatebeginningandenddatesofancient societiesandtheperiodsoftimewhentheycoexisted definingandusingtermssuchasBC(BeforeChrist),AD(Anno Domini),BCE(BeforeCommonEra),andCE(CommonEra)prehistory (beforetheperiodoftextualrecording)andhistory(theperiodbeginning withnamedindividualsandtextualrecording) definingandusingconceptssuchasslavery,divineright,source(where ahistorianfindsinformation)andevidence(theinformationthatisused bythehistorian)

Historicalquestionsandresearch Identifyarangeofquestionsaboutthe pasttoinformanhistoricalinquiry (ACHHS207)

Elaborations
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posingakeyquestionsuchas:HowwerethepyramidsatGizabuilt? andunderstandingthattheremaynotbeadefinitiveansweridentifying relatedquestionstoinformtheinquiryincluding:Whatevidenceis there?Whattheorieshavebeendeveloped? posingquestionsofsourcessuchas:Wheredoesitcomefrom?How doweknow?Whatinformationdoesitprovide?Whatothersources mightbeneeded? identifyingstepsintheresearchprocess(forexampleidentifying informationneeded,locatingthatinformation,recordingrelevant informationfromsources) compilingalistofdifferentsources(forexamplepapyrusscrolls,coins, statues,humanremains) usingwebsearchtechniquestorefineasearchforinformation/images relatedtoahistoricsite(forexampleuseofplacenames,datesand searchwordssuchasphotogallery) identifyinginformationwithinasourcethatcanbeusedasevidenceto supportaninterpretation

Identifyandlocaterelevantsources,using ICTandothermethods(ACHHS208)

Analysisanduseofsources

Elaborations

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Identifytheoriginandpurposeofprimary andsecondarysources(ACHHS209)
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discussingthedifficultiesinidentifyingtheoriginandpurposeofsome sources(forexampletheKimberleyBradshawpaintings) respondingtoquestionsaboutphotographs,artefacts,stories, buildingsandothersourcestoexplainthepastsuchas:Who wrote/producedthis?When?Why?Whatdoesitshowaboutthe past? differentiatingbetweenprimarysources(thosefromthetimeofthe event/person/sitebeinginvestigated)andsecondarysources(those thatrepresentlaterinterpretations) creatingcategories(thatis,concepts)withwhichtoorganise informationobtainedfromsources identifyingarangeofarchaeologicalsources(forexamplethephysical remainsoftheColosseum,gladiatorialequipmentsuchashelmets, mosaicsshowinggladiatorialcombat,writtenaccountsofwhat happenedintheColosseum) recognisingthat,whileevidencemaybelimitedforaparticulargroupof people,suchevidencecanprovideusefulinsightsintothepower structuresofasociety distinguishingbetweenafact(forexamplesomegladiatorswore helmets)andanopinion(forexampleallgladiatorswerebrave) usingstrategiestodetectwhetherastatementisfactoropinion, includingwordchoicesthatmayindicateanopinionisbeingoffered(for exampletheuseofconditionals'might','could',andotherwordssuch as'believe','think','suggests')

Locate,compare,selectanduse informationfromarangeofsourcesas evidence(ACHHS210)

Drawconclusionsabouttheusefulnessof sources(ACHHS211)

Perspectivesandinterpretations Identifyanddescribepointsofview, attitudesandvaluesinprimaryand secondarysources(ACHHS212)

Elaborations
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identifyingthepossiblemeaningofimagesandsymbolsinprimary sources identifyingtheperspectiveinahistoricalsource,suchasthesayingof Confuciusthat,womenandunderlingsareespeciallydifficulttohandle anddiscussingthevaluesandattitudesofthesocietythatproducedit

Explanationandcommunication Developtexts,particularlydescriptionsand explanationsthatuseevidencefroma rangeofsourcesthatareacknowledged (ACHHS213) Usearangeofcommunicationforms (oral,graphic,written)anddigital technologies(ACHHS214)

Elaborations
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outliningthesignificanceofapastevent,providingreasonsfortheevent andreferringtorelevantevidence describingthesocialstructureoftheancientsociety,usingevidence fromsourcessuchasartworkandwrittenaccounts

creatinganaudiovisualpresentation,usingICT,torecreateandshow thespecificfeaturesofanancientbattle,temple,pyramidcomplexor burialsite

Level7achievementstandard

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BytheendofLevel7,studentssuggestreasonsforchangeandcontinuityovertime.Theydescribetheeffectsofchangeon societies,individualsandgroups.Theydescribeeventsanddevelopmentsfromtheperspectiveofdifferentpeoplewholived atthetime.Studentsexplaintheroleofgroupsandthesignificanceofparticularindividualsinsociety.Theyidentifypast eventsanddevelopmentsthathavebeeninterpretedindifferentways. Studentssequenceeventsanddevelopmentswithinachronologicalframework,usingdatingconventionstorepresentand measuretime.Whenresearching,studentsdevelopquestionstoframeanhistoricalinquiry.Theyidentifyandselectarange ofsourcesandlocate,compareanduseinformationtoanswerinquiryquestions.Theyexaminesourcestoexplainpointsof view.Wheninterpretingsources,theyidentifytheiroriginandpurpose.Studentsdeveloptexts,particularlydescriptionsand explanations.Indevelopingthesetextsandorganisingandpresentingtheirfindings,theyusehistoricaltermsandconcepts, incorporaterelevantsources,andacknowledgetheirsourcesofinformation.

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Level8
TheAncienttotheModernWorld TheLevel8curriculumprovidesstudyofhistoryfromtheendoftheancientperiodtothebeginningofthemodernperiod, c.650AD(CE)1750.Thiswaswhenmajorcivilisationsaroundtheworldcameintocontactwitheachother.Social, economic,religious,andpoliticalbeliefswereoftenchallengedandsignificantlychanged.Itwastheperiodwhenthe modernworldbegantotakeshape. Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconcepts,includingevidence, continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathy,significanceandcontestability.Theseconceptsmay beinvestigatedwithinaparticularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusfor historicalinquiries. Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills. Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwayandinwaysthatareappropriatetospecific localcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogrammingdecisions. Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions throughtheuseandinterpretationofsources.Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
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Howdidsocietieschangefromtheendoftheancientperiodtothebeginningofthemodernage? Whatkeybeliefsandvaluesemergedandhowdidtheyinfluencesocieties? Whatwerethecausesandeffectsofcontactbetweensocietiesinthisperiod? Whichsignificantpeople,groupsandideasfromthisperiodhaveinfluencedtheworldtoday?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding Overview Thefollowingcontentistaughtaspartofanoverviewforthehistoricalperiod.Itisnotintendedtobetaughtindepth. Anoverviewwillconstituteapproximately10%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Overviewcontentidentifies importantfeaturesoftheperiod,c.650AD(CE)1750,aspartofanexpansivechronologythathelpsstudents understandbroadpatternsofhistoricalchange.Assuch,theoverviewprovidesthebroadercontextfortheteachingof depthstudycontentandcanbebuiltintovariouspartsofateachingandlearningprogram.Thismeansthatoverview contentcanbeusedtogivestudentsanintroductiontothehistoricalperiodtomakethelinkstoandbetweenthe depthstudiesandtoconsolidateunderstandingthroughareviewoftheperiod. Overviewcontentfortheancienttomodernworld(Byzantine,Celtic,AngloSaxon,Viking,Ottoman,Khmer,Mongols, YuanandMingdynasties,Aztec,Inca)includesthefollowing: thetransformationoftheRomanworldandthespreadofChristianityandIslam
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recognisinghowrelationsbetweentheIslamicandWesternworldswerecharacterisedbybothpeaceful coexistence(trade)andconflictduringthisperiod(theCrusades) discussingBritainaftertheendoftheRomanoccupationtheAngloSaxonkingdomsOldEnglishandthe foundationsofmodernEnglishBeowulfandarchaeologyAngloSaxoninstitutionsandtherootsofmedieval parliament

keyfeaturesofthemedievalworld(feudalism,traderoutes,voyagesofdiscovery,contactandconflict)

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describingbeliefsabouttheworldandthevoyagesofdiscovery(EuropeanandAsian),thenatureofthevoyages andtheredrawingofthemapoftheworld locatingthemajortradingroutes(includingtheMediterraneantheSilkRoadthesearoutebetweenChina,India andtheeastcoastofAfricaandtheColumbianExchange)onamapandidentifyingthenatureofthe trade/contact(forexamplealongtheSilkRoadslaves,spices,silk,glassware,spreadofknowledgeand diseases) identifyingthemajorcivilisationsoftheperiod(Byzantine,Celtic,AngloSaxon,Viking,Ottoman,Khmer,Mongols, YuanandMingdynasties,Aztec,Inca)whereandwhentheyexistedandtheirextent(forexampletheVikings throughEurope,theMongolsacrossEurasia,andSpainintheAmericas) explainingthesignificanceoflandownershipinthepracticeoffeudalismandthenatureoffeudalisminEurope (forexampleknights)andJapan(forexamplesamurai)

theemergenceofideasabouttheworldandtheplaceofpeopleinitbytheendoftheperiod(suchasthe Renaissance,theScientificRevolutionandtheEnlightenment). discussingtheextentofknowledgeabouttheworldasindicatedthroughchangingworldmaps(forexamplethe DaMingHunYiTuworldmap(1389CE)andtheNovaTotiusTerrarumOrbisbyHendrikHondius(1630)

Depthstudies Therearethreedepthstudiesforthishistoricalperiod.Foreachdepthstudy,thereareuptofourelectivesthatfocus onaparticularsociety,event,movementordevelopment.ItisexpectedthatONEelectivewillbestudiedindetail.A depthstudywillconstituteapproximately30%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Thecontentineachdepthstudy electiveisdesignedtoallowdetailedstudyofspecificaspectsofthishistoricalperiod.Aspartofateachingand learningprogram,depthstudycontentcanbeintegratedwiththeoverviewcontentand/orwithotherdepthstudy electives. 1TheWesternandIslamicWorld Elaborations

StudentsinvestigateONEofthesesocieties/empiresfromtheWesternorIslamicworldindepth:theVikingsor MedievalEuropeortheOttomanEmpireorRenaissanceItaly. TheOttomanEmpire(c.1299c.1683) ThewayoflifeintheOttomanEmpire(social, cultural,economicandpoliticalfeatures)andthe rolesandrelationshipsofdifferentgroupsinsociety (ACDSEH009) Significantdevelopmentsand/orcultural achievementsthatreflectthepowerandinfluenceof theOttomanEmpire,suchasthefallof Constantinoplein1453AD(CE),artand architecture.(ACDSEH053) Relationshipswithsubjectpeoples,includingthe policyofreligioustolerance(ACDSEH054)
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describingthewayoflifeofpeopleintheOttomanEmpire (forexampletheroleofthecoffeehouseandbazaaror marketplace,thepowerandresponsibilityoftheSultanto ensurethatjusticewasservedwithinsociety) describingOttomanartandarchitecture(forexamplethe SelimiyeMosqueinthecityofEdirneinTurkey,andIslamic geometricdesign)

outliningthemilletsystemthatregardednonMuslim peopleassubjects,butasnotbeingsubjecttoMuslimlaw explainingthetoleranceoftheOttomanstowards ChristiansandJews

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TheroleofsignificantindividualssuchasSelimIor SuleimantheMagnificentinmaintainingthe strengthandinfluenceoftheOttomanEmpire (ACDSEH055) OR RenaissanceItaly(c.1400c.1600) ThewayoflifeinRenaissanceItaly(social,cultural, economicandpoliticalfeatures)andtherolesand relationshipsofdifferentgroupsinsociety (ACDSEH010) Significantdevelopmentsand/orcultural achievementsthatreflecttheconcentrationof wealthandpowerinthecitystates,suchasartand learning(ACDSEH056)
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investigatingtheachievementsofindividuals(forexample SelimIinestablishingtheempireandcapturing JerusalemorSuleimantheMagnificentinexpandingthe empiretoBelgradeinEurope)

describingthewayoflifeofpeopleinRenaissanceItaly(for exampletheroleofmenintendingthefieldsormerchant shops,theinfluenceofgovernmentinparticularcitystates, forexampleNaplesamonarchy,Florencearepublic) describingtheworkofLeonardoDaVinciforexamplehis artworks(theMonaLisaandTheLastSupper)and inventions(arudimentaryhelicopterandsolarpower)the workofMichelangelo(forexampletheSistineChapel paintings,David,Pieta)thethinkingofCopernicus(for exampleastronomyseeingthesunasthecentreofthe universe)andtheinventionoftheprintingpress investigatinglearningintheRenaissanceperiod(for examplehumanism,astrology,alchemy,theinfluenceof ancientGreeceandRome) explainingtheinfluenceoftheMedicifamilyinFlorenceas bankersandmerchants,andtheirpatronageofthearts

RelationshipsbetweenrulersandruledinONE ItaliancitystatesuchasFlorenceorNaples (ACDSEH057) Theroleandachievementsofsignificantindividuals suchasLucreziaBorgia,Galileo,Leonardoda Vinci,NiccoloMachiavelli(ACDSEH058) ThespreadofRenaissanceculturetotherestof Europe,anditslegacy(ACDSEH059) OR TheVikings(c.790c.1066) ThewayoflifeinVikingsociety(social,cultural, economicandpoliticalfeatures)andtherolesand relationshipsofdifferentgroupsinsociety (ACDSEH007)

investigatingtheachievementsofGalileo(forexample improvementsinthetelescopeandhisastronomical observations) outliningthespreadofRenaissanceculturetoEngland(for exampletheriseofliteraturethroughShakespeare)

locatingVikinglandsinScandinavia(Denmark,Norway andSweden) describingthewayoflifeoftheVikings(forexampleliving inacoldandharshenvironmenttheimportanceoffarming andraidsthesignificanceofhonourinVikingwarrior society)

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Significantdevelopmentsand/orcultural achievementsthatledtoVikingexpansion, includingweaponsandshipbuilding,andtheextent oftheirtrade(ACDSEH047)
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describingVikingcraftwithparticularemphasisonthe productionofweapons(forexampleswords,battleaxes andhelmets) outliningthekeyroleofgodssuchasOdin,Thor,Freyand FreyjainVikingreligionandtheadoptionofChristianity duringtheVikingperiod investigatingtheconstructionoflongboatsandtheirrolein exploration,includinginnovationsinkeelandsaildesign. describingevidenceofVikingtradebetweenRussia(Kiev) andtheeast(throughConstantinople) explainingtheattacksonmonasteries,forexample Lindisfarne(793CE)andIona(795CE)andreviewingthe writtenaccountsbymonksthatcontributedtotheVikings' reputationforpillageandviolence thesurvivalofaheroicIronAgesocietyinEarlyMedieval Ireland,asdescribedinthevernacularepics,andits transformationbythespreadofChristianitytheinfluenceof theVikingstheAngloNormanconquest investigatingtheremainsofVikingsettlements(for exampleDublin(Ireland)andJorvik(York) outliningEriktheRedsdevelopmentofVikingsettlements inEasternandWesternGreenlandin985CE comparingtheartefactsdiscoveredatLAnseaux MeadowsinNewfoundland(Canada)withVikingartefacts aspossibleevidencethattheVikingshaddiscovered America500levelsbeforeChristopherColumbus

Vikingconquestsandrelationshipswithsubject peoples,includingtheperspectivesofmonks, changesinthewayoflifeoftheEnglish,andthe Normaninvasion(ACDSEH048)

Theroleofasignificantindividualintheexpansion ofVikingsettlementandinfluence,suchasErikthe RedorLeifEricson(ACDSEH049)

OR MedievalEurope(c.590c.1500) ThewayoflifeinMedievalEurope(social,cultural, economicandpoliticalfeatures)andtherolesand relationshipsofdifferentgroupsinsociety (ACDSEH008)


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describingthestructureoffeudalsociety(forexamplethe roleandresponsibilitiesoftheking,nobles,church, knightsandpeasants)

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Significantdevelopmentsand/orcultural achievements,suchaschangingrelationsbetween IslamandtheWest(includingtheCrusades), architecture,medievalmanuscriptsandmusic (ACDSEH050)
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describingthefeaturesofcastlesandchurchesofthe period(forexampleWarwickCastleinEnglandandNotre DameCathedralinParis)asexamplesoftheChurchs powerintermsofitscontrolofwealthandlabour outlininginventionsanddevelopmentsintheIslamicworld (forexampletheastrolabe,publichospitalsandlibraries andtheirsubsequentadoptionintheWesternworld) recognisingthatthemedievalmanuscriptsofmonastic scribescontributedtothesurvivalofmanyancientGreek andRomanliterarytexts examiningthereligiousnatureofilluminatedmanuscripts andhowtheyweretheproductofacomplexandfrequently costlyprocess listeningtotheGregorianchantsofWesternChristianity andexploringhowtheyreflectthenatureandpowerofthe Churchinthisperiod investigatingdifferenttypesofcrimeandpunishment(for exampletrialbycombatasaprivilegegrantedtothe nobilitybeinghung,drawnandquarteredasapunishment forheinouscrimessuchastreason,andtheuseofthe duckingstoolasapunishmentforwomen)andinwhat waysthenatureofcrimeandpunishmentstayedthesame, orchangedovertime explainingwhyCharlemagnewasasignificantfigurein MedievalEurope,suchashisexpansionoftheFrankish kingdomandhissupportoftheChurch

ContinuityandchangeinsocietyinONEofthe followingareas:crimeandpunishmentmilitaryand defencesystemstowns,citiesandcommerce (ACDSEH051)

ThedominanceoftheCatholicChurchandtherole ofsignificantindividualssuchasCharlemagne (ACDSEH052) 2TheAsiaPacificWorld

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigateONEoftheseAsiaPacificsocietiesindepth:theAngkor/KhmerEmpireorShogunateJapanor thePolynesianexpansionacrossthePacific.N.B.Whereappropriate,thisdepthstudymayincludesomereference beyondtheendoftheperiodc.1750. Angkor/KhmerEmpire(c.802c.1431) ThewayoflifeintheKhmerEmpire,including, social,cultural,economicandpoliticalfeatures (includingtheroleoftheking).(ACDSEH011) ThereasonsforAngkorsrisetoprominence, includingwealthfromtradeandagriculture (ACDSEH060)
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describingthewayoflifeintheKhmerEmpirethrough stonecarvingsandthewritingsoftheChinese AmbassadorZhouDaguan(forexampleinrelationto fishing,tradinginmarkets,templeconstruction)

explaininghowbeingreveredasthegodkingordeva rajaenabledtheKhmerkingstoruleovertheempirewith absoluteauthority,therebyenhancingtheirabilityto mobilisemanpowertodefendtheempireaswellasto invadeneighbours

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TheculturalachievementsoftheKhmercivilisation, includingitssystemofwatermanagementandthe buildingofthetemplesofAngkor(ACDSEH061) TheoriesofthedeclineofAngkor,suchasthe overuseofwaterresources,neglectofpublicworks asaresultofongoingwar,andtheeffectsof climatechange(ACDSEH062) OR JapanundertheShoguns(c.7941867) ThewayoflifeinshogunateJapan,including social,cultural,economicandpoliticalfeatures (includingthefeudalsystemandtheincreasing poweroftheshogun)(ACDSEH012) TheroleoftheTokugawaShogunateinreimposing afeudalsystem(basedondaimyoandsamurai) andtheincreasingcontroloftheShogunover foreigntrade.(ACDSEH063) TheuseofenvironmentalresourcesinShogunate Japanandtheforestryandlandusepoliciesofthe TokugawaShogunate(ACDSEH064)
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describingthemainfeaturesofthewatermanagement systematAngkor(forexampletheextensiveuseof reservoirsandcanals)

outliningtheoriesaboutthedeclineoftheKhmer civilisation(forexamplethedevelopmentofanunstable climatesuchasdroughtandmonsoons,theriseof TheravadaBuddhismthearrivaloftheBlackDeathandthe breakdownofAngkorswatermanagementsystem)

describingthewayoflifeinfeudalJapanunderthe shoguns(forexamplebushidothechivalriccodeof conductofthesamuraithatemphasisedfrugality,loyalty, masteryofmartialarts,andhonour)

describingtherelationshipbetweentheemperor,shogun, daimyo(lords)samurai(warriors),workers(forexample farmers,artisansandtraders) explainingreasonsforJapansclosuretoforeignersunder theTokugawaShogunateandtheimpactofUS CommodorePerrysvisitin1853 investigatingthedemandforavailablelandandthe patternsoflanduseintheperiod outliningtheattemptsbytheTokugawaShogunatetocurb deforestation(forexampleimposingheavyregulationson farmersmanagingtheharvestingoftreesandusingnew, lighterandmoreefficientconstructiontechniques) describinginternalpressuresinshogunateJapan(for exampletheriseofacommercialclassattheexpenseof thesamurai,peasantuprisingssuchasOsaka1837,and famine) describingtheincreasingexposuretoWesterntechnology andideas(forexampletheestablishmentofanavalschool withDutchinstructors,thetranslationofWesternbooks) evaluatingthesignificanceoftheMeijiRestorationof1868 CEthatrestoredimperialruletoJapan

TheoriesaboutthedeclineoftheShogunate, includingmodernisationandwesternisation, throughtheadoptionofWesternarmsand technology(ACDSEH065)

OR ThePolynesianexpansionacrossthePacific(c.7001756)

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TheoriesabouttheoriginandspreadofPolynesian settlersthroughoutthePacific(ACDSEH013)
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locatingPolynesiaonamap,tracingtheexpansionof PolynesiansettlersthroughoutthePacific,andconsidering howtheymadetheirjourneys outliningdifferenttheoriesabouttheexpansion(for examplewest/eastandeast/westmovement,the expansionasaccidentalversusintentional) describingthewayoflifeofEasterIslandsociety(Rapa Nui)forexamplefishingbythemen,linksbetweenthe householdandtheextendedclanthroughtheexchangeof goods,wives,andlabourtheuseofstonetools investigatingtheconstructionofthemoai(giantstatues)on EasterIsland(RapaNui),thetechniquesusedtomake andtransportthem,andtheoriesabouttheirmeaning(for examplerepresentationsofdeadancestorsorchiefs) researchingtheextinctionofthemoainNewZealandasa resultofhuntingandhabitatdecline explainingthesignificanceofRahuiasawayofprohibiting thecollectionofresources,toensuretheirsustainability evaluatingtheevidencefortheoriesaboutthedeforestation ofEasterIsland(RapaNui)

ThewayoflifeinONEPolynesiansociety,including social,cultural,economicandpoliticalfeatures, suchastheroleofthearikiinMaoriandinRapa Nuisociety(EasterIsland)(ACDSEH066) TheculturalachievementsofONEPolynesian society,suchastheTamokoandhangiinMaori societyORthemoaiconstructedonEasterIsland (ACDSEH067) ThewayPolynesiansocietiesusedenvironmental resources(sustainablyandunsustainably), includingtheextinctionofthemoainNewZealand, theuseofreligious/supernaturalthreatsto conserveresources,andtheexploitationofEaster Islandspalmtrees(ACDSEH068) 3Expandingcontacts

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigateONEofthefollowinghistoricaldevelopmentsindepthtoexploretheinteractionofsocietiesin thisperiod:theMongolexpansionortheBlackDeathinAfrica,AsiaandEuropeortheSpanishconquestoftheAztecs andIncas. MongolExpansion(c.1206c.1368) ThenomadiclifestyleoftheMongolsandtheriseof Temujin(GenghisKhan)(ACDSEH014) TheorganisationoftheMongolarmyunder GenghisKhanandthetreatmentofconquered peoples,suchasthecodificationoflawsand exemptionofteachers,lawyersandartistsfrom taxes(ACDSEH077) TheextentoftheMongolexpansionasoneofthe largestlandempiresinhistory,includinglifein Chinabefore,duringandaftertheMongolconquest (ACDSEH078)
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describingthenomadicnatureofMongollifeandtheriseof Temujin(GenghisKhan)whounitedallMongoltribesin 1206CE outliningGenghisKhansuseofdecimalorganisationin hisarmyandhispoliciesforgoverninghisempire(for examplecodifyinglaws,banningthekillingofanimalsin thebreedingseason,supportingreligiousfreedom,and expandingtrade)

mappingtheexpansionoftheMongolempireacrossAsia andEurope describingthewayoflifeinMongoliaanditsincorporation intoChineselife(forexampleagriculturedomestication ofanimalssuchashorses,camelsandcattlefooddried meatandyoghurtandhousingyurts)

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TheconsequencesoftheMongolexpansion, includingcontributionstoEuropeanknowledgeand traderoutes(ACDSEH079) OR TheBlackDeathinAsia,EuropeandAfrica(14thcenturyplague) Livingconditionsandreligiousbeliefsinthe14th century,includinglifeexpectancy,medical knowledgeandbeliefsaboutthepowerofGod (ACDSEH015)
l l

explainingtheroleoftheMongolsinforgingconnections betweenEuropeandAsiathroughconquest,settlement andtrade(forexampletheuseofpapermoneyand coinagethegrowingnumberofEuropeanmerchants travellingtoChina)

investigatinglivingconditionsinLondoninthefourteenth century(forexamplethelackofsanitation,crowded housing)theextentofmedicalknowledge(forexample basedonHippocratestheory)andbeliefsaboutthepower ofGod(forexamplethatdiseaseswereapunishmentof God) mappingthespreadoftheBlackDeath(Asia,Africa, Europe)inthefourteenthcenturyCE

TheroleofexpandingtradebetweenEuropeand AsiaintheBlackDeath,includingtheoriginand spreadofthedisease(ACDSEH069) ThecausesandsymptomsoftheBlackDeathand theresponsesofdifferentgroupsinsocietytothe spreadofthedisease,suchastheflagellantsand monasteries(ACDSEH070) TheeffectsoftheBlackDeathonAsian,European andAfricanpopulations,andconflictingtheories abouttheimpactoftheplague(ACDSEH071) OtherimmediateandlongtermeffectsoftheBlack Death,includinglabourshortages,peasant uprisings,theweakeningoffeudalstructures,and increasedsocialmobility(ACDSEH072) OR

explainingreactionstotheBlackDeath,forexamplethe emergenceofflagellants(thosewhowouldwhip themselvestobefreeofsin)andthepersecutionofJewish people

usingstudiesofchurchrecordsfromtheperiodtoidentify theeffectoftheBlackDeathonhumanpopulationsandto considerthereliabilityofthesestatistics

categorisingtheeffectsoftheBlackDeath,aseithershort termorlongtermanddrawingconclusionsaboutthe severityoftheBlackDeath

TheSpanishConquestoftheAmericas(c.1492c.1572) PreColumbianlifeintheAmericas,includingsocial organisation,citylifeandbeliefs.(ACDSEH016)


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describingthesocialorganisationoftheAztecs(for examplenobility,slaves)theirbeliefs(forexampleworship ofanumberofgodsandtheneedtomakehuman sacrificestoappeasethesegods)lifeinthecapitalcity Tenochtitlan

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When,howandwhytheSpanisharrivedinthe Americas,andwheretheywent,includingthe varioussocietiesandgeographicalfeaturesthey encountered(ACDSEH073)
l

explainingthearrivalofSpanishconquistadoresinMexico andPerufrom1510CE(Balboa)to1531(Pizarro),and theirreasons(forexampleseekingwealth,claimingland fortheirking,convertingthelocalpopulationsto Christianity,senseofadventure) describingencountersbetweenHernanCortesandthe Aztecs,aswellasthesiegeofTenochtitlan

ThenatureoftheinteractionbetweentheSpanish andtheindigenouspopulations,withaparticular focusoneithertheAztecsORIncas(ACDSEH074) TheimpactoftheconquestontheAztecsORIncas aswellasonthewiderworld,suchasthe introductionofnewdiseases,horsesand gunpowderintheAmericas,andnewfoodsand increasedwealthinEurope(ACDSEH075) Thelongertermeffectsofcolonisation,including slavery,populationchangesandlackofcontrolover resources(ACDSEH076) HistoricalSkills Chronology,termsandconcepts Sequencehistoricalevents,developments andperiods(ACHHS148)

outliningtheimpactofSpanishconquestontheAmericas (forexamplethespreadofdiseaseduetothelackof immunitytheintroductionofcropssuchasmaize,beans, potatoes,tobaccoandchocolatefromtheAmericasto Europe) explainingthelongertermeffectsofconquestand colonisationontheindigenouspopulationsofthe Americas(forexampletheunequaldistributionoflandand wealth,andpoliticalinequality)

Elaborations
l

placinghistoricaleventsinsequenceinordertoidentifybroader patternsofcontinuityandchange(forexamplethePolynesian expansionacrossthePacificthestabilityoftheAngkor/KhmerEmpire overmanycenturies) understandingthedifferentmeaningsofparticulartermsand conceptswhenviewedintheirhistoricalcontext,suchasfeudalismin medievalEuropeandJapan

Usehistoricaltermsandconcepts (ACHHS149) Historicalquestionsandresearch Identifyarangeofquestionsaboutthepast toinformanhistoricalinquiry

Elaborations
l

experimentingwithdifferentwords/phrases/historicalconcepts,when draftingaquestion,todeveloparesearchfocus posingakeyquestionsuchas:WhydidEasterisland(RapaNui) societydecline?andidentifyingrelatedquestionstoinformtheinquiry (forexampleWhatevidenceisthere?Whattheorieshavebeen developed?) compilingalistofdifferentsourcesneededinaninquiryandtheir possiblelocations

(ACHHS150)

Identifyandlocaterelevantsources,using ICTandothermethods(ACHHS151) Analysisanduseofsources

Elaborations

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Identifytheoriginandpurposeofprimary andsecondarysources(ACHHS152)
l

explaininghowclueswithinasourcecanbeusedtoidentifywhereit wasmadeorwhoitwasmadeby(forexampletheplacewhereitwas found,thematerialsused,theconditionoftheobject,decorative features) creatingcategoriestoorganisetheinformationobtainedfromsources designingatabletolistsourcesandtheaspectsofthepastabout whichtheyprovideinformation(forexamplesocialstructure,economy, governance) recognisingthat,whileevidencemaybelimitedforaparticulargroup ofpeople,suchevidencecanprovideusefulinsightsintothepower structuresofasociety distinguishingbetweenfact(forexampleTheMoaiwereconstructed onEasterIsland(RapaNui))andopinionorinterpretation(for example.TheMoaionEasterIsland(RapaNui)arerepresentations ofgods')

Locate,compare,selectanduse informationfromarangeofsourcesas evidence(ACHHS153)

l l

Drawconclusionsabouttheusefulnessof sources(ACHHS154)

Perspectivesandinterpretations Identifyanddescribepointsofview, attitudesandvaluesinprimaryand secondarysources(ACHHS155) Explanationandcommunication Developtexts,particularlydescriptionsand explanationsthatuseevidencefromarange ofsourcesthatareacknowledged (ACHHS156) Usearangeofcommunicationforms(oral, graphic,written)anddigitaltechnologies (ACHHS157)

Elaborations
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describingthevaluesandattitudesrevealedbyasource(suchasan individualaccount)andusingadditionalsourcestoshowhowtheyare broadlyrepresentativeofthevaluesandattitudesofthesociety

Elaborations
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usingscaffoldsillustratingthestructuralandlanguagefeaturesof particulartexttypes(forexampledescriptionsandexplanations)in ordertocreateatextthatcommunicatesspecificfindingsaboutthe past creatinganoralpresentation,supportedbyaudiovisualmaterial,to recountthelifeofTemujin(GenghisKhan)andtoexplainhis contributiontotheMongolworld

Level8achievementstandard
BytheendofLevel8,studentsrecogniseandexplainpatternsofchangeandcontinuityovertime.Theyexplainthecauses andeffectsofeventsanddevelopments.Theyidentifythemotivesandactionsofpeopleatthetime.Studentsexplainthe significanceofindividualsandgroupsandhowtheywereinfluencedbythebeliefsandvaluesoftheirsociety.Theydescribe differentinterpretationsofthepast. Studentssequenceeventsanddevelopmentswithinachronologicalframeworkwithreferencetoperiodsoftime.When researching,studentsdevelopquestionstoframeanhistoricalinquiry.Theyanalyse,selectandorganiseinformationfrom primaryandsecondarysourcesanduseitasevidencetoanswerinquiryquestions.Studentsidentifyandexplaindifferent pointsofviewinsources.Wheninterpretingsources,theyidentifytheiroriginandpurpose,anddistinguishbetweenfactand opinion.Studentsdeveloptexts,particularlydescriptionsandexplanations,incorporatinganalysis.Indevelopingthesetexts, andorganisingandpresentingtheirfindings,theyusehistoricaltermsandconcepts,evidenceidentifiedinsources,and acknowledgetheirsourcesofinformation.

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Level9
TheMakingoftheModernWorld TheLevel9curriculumprovidesastudyofthehistoryofthemakingofthemodernworldfrom1750to1918.Itwasa periodofindustrialisationandrapidchangeinthewayspeoplelived,workedandthought.Itwasaneraofnationalism andimperialism,andthecolonisationofAustraliawaspartoftheexpansionofEuropeanpower.Theperiodculminated inWorldWarI19141918,thewartoendallwars. Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconcepts,includingevidence, continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathy,significanceandcontestability.Theseconceptsmay beinvestigatedwithinaparticularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusfor historicalinquiries. Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills. Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwayandinwaysthatareappropriatetospecific localcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogrammingdecisions. Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions throughtheuseandinterpretationofsources.Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
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Whatwerethechangingfeaturesofthemovementsofpeoplefrom1750to1918? Howdidnewideasandtechnologicaldevelopmentscontributetochangeinthisperiod? Whatwastheorigin,development,significanceandlongtermimpactofimperialisminthisperiod? WhatwasthesignificanceofWorldWarI?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding Overview Thefollowingcontentistaughtaspartofanoverviewforthehistoricalperiod.Itisnotintendedtobetaughtindepth. Anoverviewwillconstituteapproximately10%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Overviewcontentidentifies importantfeaturesoftheperiod(17501918)aspartofanexpansivechronologythathelpsstudentsunderstand broadpatternsofhistoricalchange.Assuch,theoverviewprovidesthebroadercontextfortheteachingofdepthstudy contentandcanbebuiltintovariouspartsofateachingandlearningprogram.Thismeansthatoverviewcontentcan beusedtogivestudentsanintroductiontothehistoricalperiodtomakethelinkstoandbetweenthedepthstudies, andtoconsolidateunderstandingthroughareviewoftheperiod. Overviewcontentforthemakingofthemodernworldincludesthefollowing: thenatureandsignificanceoftheIndustrialRevolutionandhowitaffectedlivingandworkingconditions,including withinAustralia
l l

comparingtheusefulnessofartworksdepictinglifeintheperiodwiththefirstphotographs investigatingthechangingnatureofthesourcesthatprovidearecordoflifeinthisperiod,suchaspaintings, travellersjournalsandthedevelopmentofphotographyandfilmby1918

thenatureandextentofthemovementofpeoplesintheperiod(slaves,convictsandsettlers)
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identifyingthenumberofslavestransportedandthenations/placesinvolved(forexamplePortugal,Britain, France,Spain,NorthAmerica)

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theextentofEuropeanimperialexpansionanddifferentresponses,includingintheAsianregion outliningthetechnologiesofmassproductionthatcontributedtotheIndustrialRevolutionandthechangesin Australianlifethatoccurredasaresultofthesetechnologies recognisinghowAsiansocietiesrespondedtoEuropeanimperialism,theextenttowhichtheywerechangedand theinfluencetheyexercisedontherestoftheworld identifyingAsiansocietiesthatwerecolonisedbytheEuropeans(suchasIndonesiabytheDutch),andthose thatremainedindependent.

theemergenceandnatureofsignificanteconomic,socialandpoliticalideasintheperiod,includingnationalism
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outliningthefeaturesthatreflecttheemergenceofabeliefinsocialandpoliticalequality,includingtherightto vote,egalitarianismanduniversaleducationinAustralia recognisinghoweventssuchastheFrenchRevolutionandAmericanindependencecontributedtoideasof equality theroleofClassicalmodelsandtheoriesontheinventionofdemocraticvalues

Depthstudies Therearethreedepthstudiesforthishistoricalperiod.Foreachdepthstudy,thereareuptothreeelectivesthatfocus onaparticularsociety,event,movementordevelopment.ItisexpectedthatONEelectivewillbestudiedindetail.A depthstudywillconstituteapproximately30%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Thecontentineachdepthstudy electiveisdesignedtoallowdetailedstudyofspecificaspectsofthishistoricalperiod.Aspartofateachingand learningprogram,depthstudycontentcanbeintegratedwithoverviewcontentand/orwithotherdepthstudyelectives. 1MakingaBetterWorld? Elaborations

StudentsinvestigatehowlifechangedintheperiodindepththroughthestudyofONEofthesemajordevelopments: theIndustrialRevolutionorMovementofpeoplesorProgressiveideasandmovements.Thestudyincludesthe causesandeffectsofthedevelopment,andtheAustralianexperience. TheIndustrialRevolution(17501914) ThetechnologicalinnovationsthatledtotheIndustrial Revolution,andotherconditionsthatinfluencedthe industrialisationofBritain(theagriculturalrevolution, accesstorawmaterials,wealthymiddleclass,cheap labour,transportsystem,andexpandingempire)and ofAustralia(ACDSEH017)
l l l

mappingtheBritishEmpirec.1800CEandtheraw materialsitobtainedfromcolonies(forexamplesugar fromJamaica,woolfromAustralia,andcottonfrom India) explainingchangesintechnology(forexamplesteam drivenspinningmills,railwaysandsteamships)which ledtofactoriesandcities identifyingthespreadofinnovationssuchassteam powerironandsteelproductiontransportand chemicalsinEurope,USAandJapan describingthegrowthofcitiesasmen,womenand childrenmovedtothecitiestofindemployment investigatingchangestothecitiesandlandscapein EuropeancountriesandAustraliaastheIndustrial Revolutioncontinuedtodevelop,usingphotos(for examplethosethatweretakenastheEiffeltowerwas beingconstructedusingiron)

Thepopulationmovementsandchangingsettlement patternsduringthisperiod(ACDSEH080)

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Theexperiencesofmen,womenandchildrenduring theIndustrialRevolution,andtheirchangingwayoflife (ACDSEH081)
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describingtheimpactofsteam,gasandelectricityon peopleswayoflifeduringtheIndustrialRevolution investigatingthechangesinworkingconditions(for examplelongerworkinghoursforlowpayandtheuse ofchildrenasacheapsourceoflabour) describingtheimpactoffactories,minesandcitieson theenvironment,andonpopulationgrowthand distribution outliningthegrowthoftradeunionsasaresponseto theimpactsoftheIndustrialRevolution

TheshortandlongtermimpactsoftheIndustrial Revolution,includingglobalchangesinlandscapes, transportandcommunication(ACDSEH082)

OR Progressiveideasandmovements(17501918) Theemergenceandnatureofkeyideasintheperiod, withaparticularfocusonONEofthefollowing: capitalism,socialism,egalitarianism,nationalism, imperialism,Darwinism,Chartism(ACDSEH019) ThereasonswhyONEkeyideaemergedand/or developedafollowing,suchastheinfluenceofthe IndustrialRevolutiononsocialism(ACDSEH086) Theroleofanindividualorgroupinthepromotionof ONEofthesekeyideas,andtheresponsestoitfrom, forexample,workers,entrepreneurs,landowners, religiousgroups(ACDSEH087) TheshortandlongtermimpactsofONEofthese ideasonAustraliaandtheworld(ACDSEH088) OR Movementofpeoples(17501901) TheinfluenceoftheIndustrialRevolutiononthe movementofpeoplesthroughouttheworld,including thetransatlanticslavetradeandconvicttransportation (ACDSEH018) Theexperiencesofslaves,convictsandfreesettlers upondeparture,theirjourneyabroad,andtheir reactionsonarrival,includingtheAustralian experience(ACDSEH083)
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explainingwhyanideaemergedandthebasisofthat idea(forexampleegalitarianismbeingjudgedon meritratherthanbybirthorpastdeeds)

investigatingthesupportforChartismamongthepoorer classesasaresponsetodeterioratinglivingand workingconditions explaininghowreligiousgroupsrespondedtotheideas inCharlesDarwins1859bookOntheOriginofSpecies

discussingtheriseofnationalistsentimentinAustralia inthemidtolatenineteenthcentury

mappingthemovementofpeoplesinthetransatlantic slavetradeorinconvicttransportationtoAustralia explainingtheroleoftheIndustrialRevolutionin creatingagrowingneedforlabourandtransportation investigatingsourcesthatrecordthereactionsofnew arrivalstoothercountriesinthisperiod(forexample responsestothenaturalenvironmentandclimate)

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Changesinthewayoflifeofagroup(s)ofpeoplewho movedtoAustraliainthisperiod,suchasfreesettlers onthefrontierinAustralia(ACDSEH084)
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investigatingtheexperiencesofaspecificgroupof arrivalstoAustralia(forexampleconvictsinSydney, Hobart,BrisbaneorfreesettlersinMelbourne, Adelaide,PerthorDarwin) describingtheimpactofthisgroupontheAboriginal andTorresStraitIslanderpeoplesoftheregion evaluatingtheeffectsofthemovementofpeoplesonthe indigenousandimmigrantpopulations

Theshortandlongtermimpactsofthemovementof peoplesduringthisperiod(ACDSEH085) 2AustraliaandAsia

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigatethehistoryofAustraliaORanAsiansocietyintheperiod17501918indepth. Asiaandtheworld Thekeyfeatures(social,cultural,economic,political) ofONEAsiansociety(suchasChina,Japan,India, DutchEastIndies,India)atthestartoftheperiod (ACDSEH093) ChangeandcontinuityintheAsiansocietyduringthis period,includinganyeffectsofcontact(intendedand unintended)withEuropeanpower(s)(ACDSEH094) ThepositionoftheAsiansocietyinrelationtoother nationsintheworldaroundtheturnofthetwentieth century(thatis1900),includingtheinfluenceofkey ideassuchasnationalism(ACDSEH142) ThesignificanceofONEkeyeventthatinvolvedthe AsiansocietyandEuropeanpower(s),including differentperspectivesoftheeventatthetime (ACDSEH141) Makinganation
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identifyingtheterritorialextentofQingChina,therole andinfluenceoftheEmperor,andthenatureof literature,artandarchitectureatthetime

describingtheBritishRajandtheformsofBritish influenceinIndia(forexamplethebuildingofroads,an extensiverailwaynetwork,schoolsandChristian missions)

investigatingtheconfrontationbetweenJapanand Westernpowers(forexampletheRussoJapanesewar) andtheemergenceofJapanasamajorworldpower

describingtheactivitiesofChristianmissionariesin ChinaandtheoutcomesoftheBoxerRebellion

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Theextensionofsettlement,includingtheeffectsof contact(intendedandunintended)betweenEuropean settlersinAustraliaandAboriginalandTorresStrait Islanderpeoples(ACDSEH020)
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explainingtheeffectsofcontact(forexamplethe massacresofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander peopletheirkillingofsheepthespreadofEuropean diseases)andcategorisingtheseeffectsaseither intendedorunintended investigatingtheforcibleremovalofchildrenfrom AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderfamiliesinthelate nineteenthcentury/earlytwentiethcentury(leadingtothe StolenGenerations),suchasthemotivationsforthe removalofchildren,thepracticesandlawsthatwerein place,andexperiencesofseparation. outliningthemigrationofChinesetothegoldfieldsin Australiainthenineteenthcenturyandattitudestowards theChineseasrevealedincartoons(forexamplethe MongolianOctopus)

TheexperiencesofnonEuropeansinAustraliapriorto the1900s(suchastheJapanese,Chinese,South SeaIslanders,Afghans)(ACDSEH089) LivingandworkingconditionsinAustraliaaroundthe turnofthetwentiethcentury(thatis1900) (ACDSEH090)

identifyingthemainfeaturesofhousing,sanitation, transport,educationandindustrythatinfluencedliving andworkingconditionsinAustralia describingtheimpactofthegoldrushes(hinterland)on thedevelopmentofMarvellousMelbourne explainingthefactorsthatcontributedtofederationand thedevelopmentofdemocracyinAustralia,including defenceconcerns,the1890sdepression,nationalist ideals,egalitarianism,theWestminstersystem investigatinghowthemajorsociallegislationofthenew FederalGovernmentaffectedlivingandworking conditionsinAustralia,forexampleinvalidandoldage pensionsandthematernityallowancescheme

KeyeventsandideasinthedevelopmentofAustralian selfgovernmentanddemocracy,includingwomen's votingrights(ACDSEH091)

Legislation19011914,includingtheHarvester Judgment,pensions,andtheImmigrationRestriction Act(ACDSEH092)

3WorldWarI

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigatekeyaspectsofWorldWarIandtheAustralianexperienceofthewar,includingthenatureand significanceofthewarinworldandAustralianhistory. WorldWarI(19141918) AnoverviewofthecausesofWorldWarIandthe reasonswhymenenlistedtofightinthewar (ACDSEH021)


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investigatingtheriseofnationalistsentimentaswellas thevaluesandattitudestowardswarintheperiod1750 1918(forexampleidealisticnotionsofwarsenseof adventure)

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TheplaceswhereAustraliansfoughtandthenatureof warfareduringWorldWarI,includingtheGallipoli campaign(ACDSEH095)
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identifyingtheplaceswhereAustraliansfought, includingFromelles,theSomme,Gallipoli,Sinaiand Palestine usingsourcestoinvestigatethefightingatGallipoli,the difficultiesoftrenchwarfare,andtheuseoftanks, aeroplanesandchemicalweapons(gas) exploringtheexperiencesofAboriginalandTorresStrait Islanderpeoplesduringthewar graphingtheproportionofAustralianservicemenwho diedduringWorldWarI,comparedtothatofother countriesinvolvedinthewar investigatingexamplesofthewarsimpacton Australiaseconomyandsociety(forexamplethe developmentofthesteelindustryinNewcastleandthe implementationoftheWarPrecautionsAct) identifyingthegroupswhoopposedconscription(for exampletradeunionists,IrishCatholics)andthe groundsfortheirobjections studyingthefirstandsecondreferendaonconscription, includingthedivisionwithintheLaborPartyoverthis issue explainingthetreatmentofpeopleofGermandescent duringthewar(forexampletheirclassificationas enemyaliensandplacementininternmentcamps,as wellastheirdepictioningovernmentpropaganda) investigatingtheidealsassociatedwiththeAnzac traditionandhowandwhyWorldWarIis commemoratedwithinAustraliansociety

TheimpactofWorldWarI,withaparticularemphasis onAustralia(suchastheuseofpropagandato influencethecivilianpopulation,thechangingroleof women,theconscriptiondebate)(ACDSEH096)

ThecommemorationofWorldWarI,includingdebates aboutthenatureandsignificanceoftheAnzaclegend (ACDSEH097) HistoricalSkills Chronology,termsandconcepts Usechronologicalsequencingto demonstratetherelationshipbetween eventsanddevelopmentsindifferent periodsandplaces(ACHHS164)


l

Elaborations
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representingtherelationshipbetweeneventsindifferenttimesand placesusinginteractivetimelines placingkeyeventsinsequence(forexampletheBoerWar,18991902 WorldWarI,19141918),andidentifyingpartsoftheworldthatwere involvedin,oraffectedby,thoseevents discussingthecontestabilityofparticularhistoricaltermssuchas 'settlement','invasion'and'colonisation'inthecontextofAustralias history definingandusingconceptssuchasimperialism,nationalism, evolution,evidence

Usehistoricaltermsandconcepts (ACHHS165)

Historicalquestionsandresearch

Elaborations

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Identifyandselectdifferentkindsof questionsaboutthepasttoinformhistorical inquiry(ACHHS166)
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developingquestionsaboutaspectsofthepastthatrequirehistorical argument assembling,aspartoftheplanningprocess,arangeofsourcesthat wouldbeusefulforresearchingthecausesofWorldWarI developinganinquiryquestionsuchas:Whatweretheeffectsofthe IndustrialRevolution?andrefiningitasfurtherfactorsareintroduced intotheresearchprocess locatinghistoricalsourcesfromarchives,museumsandonline collections

Evaluateandenhancethesequestions (ACHHS167)

Identifyandlocaterelevantsources,using ICTandothermethods(ACHHS168) Analysisanduseofsources Identifytheorigin,purposeandcontextof primaryandsecondarysources (ACHHS169) Processandsynthesiseinformationfroma rangeofsourcesforuseasevidenceinan historicalargument(ACHHS170)

Elaborations
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explainingthecontextualsignificanceofasource,suchasFrank HurleysWorldWarIphotos,andidentifyingthepurposeofHurleys creationofcompositephotos graphinghistoricaldatatoidentifypasttrendsandtodrawconclusions abouttheirsignificance(forexampletheproportionofAustralian servicemenwhoreturnedfromWorldWarI,andthelostgenerations inthelevelsafterthewar) understandingthatthereliabilityandusefulnessofasourcedepends onthequestionsaskedofit(forexampleanaccountmaybeone sided,howeveritmaystillbeusefulinrevealingpastprevailing attitudes)

Evaluatethereliabilityandusefulnessof primaryandsecondarysources (ACHHS171)

Perspectivesandinterpretations Identifyandanalysetheperspectivesof peoplefromthepast(ACHHS172)

Elaborations
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investigatingtheroleofhumanagencyinhistoricaleventsand developments analysingtheaccountsofpoetssuchasWilliamBlake(darkSatanic mills)andnovelistssuchasCharlesDickens(OliverTwist,Bleak House)assourcesofinformationonlivingconditionsinEngland duringtheIndustrialRevolution recognisingthathistoricalinterpretationsmaybeprovisional examiningdifferentaccountsofeighteenthcenturyjourneytoAustralia (forexampleshipslogs,diaries,recordedtestimoniesofconvictsand officers,bothmaleandfemale),andexplainingthevariationsin perspectivewhichcanleadtodifferenthistoricalinterpretations

Identifyandanalysedifferenthistorical interpretations(includingtheirown) (ACHHS173)

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Explanationandcommunication Developtexts,particularlydescriptionsand discussionsthatuseevidencefromarange ofsourcesthatarereferenced(ACHHS174)

Elaborations
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developinganhistoricalargumentthatidentifiesdifferentpossibilities ininterpretationandarguesaparticularpointofviewwithconsistent referencetotheevidenceavailable

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Selectandusearangeofcommunication forms(oral,graphic,written)anddigital technologies(ACHHS175)
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usingonlineconferencingandotherformsofICTtodiscusshistorical questionsandissues creatingatravelbrochure(incorporatingwrittentextandgraphics)to advertisetheachievementsandopportunitiesavailabletoan immigranttonineteenthcenturyBrisbane

Level9achievementstandard
BytheendofLevel9,studentsrefertokeyeventsandtheactionsofindividualsandgroupstoexplainpatternsofchangeand continuityovertime.Theyanalysethecausesandeffectsofeventsanddevelopmentsandmakejudgmentsabouttheir importance.Theyexplainthemotivesandactionsofpeopleatthetime.Studentsexplainthesignificanceoftheseeventsand developmentsovertheshortandlongterm.Theyexplaindifferentinterpretationsofthepast. Studentssequenceeventsanddevelopmentswithinachronologicalframework,withreferencetoperiodsoftimeandtheir duration.Whenresearching,studentsdevelopdifferentkindsofquestionstoframeanhistoricalinquiry.Theyinterpret, process,analyseandorganiseinformationfromarangeofprimaryandsecondarysourcesanduseitasevidencetoanswer inquiryquestions.Studentsexaminesourcestocomparedifferentpointsofview.Whenevaluatingthesesources,they analyseoriginandpurpose,anddrawconclusionsabouttheirusefulness.Theydeveloptheirowninterpretationsaboutthe past.Studentsdeveloptexts,particularlyexplanationsanddiscussions,incorporatinghistoricalinterpretations.Indeveloping thesetexts,andorganisingandpresentingtheirconclusions,theyusehistoricaltermsandconcepts,evidenceidentifiedin sources,andtheyreferencethesesources.

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The Humanities - History


Level10
TheModernWorldandAustralia TheLevel10curriculumprovidesastudyofthehistoryofthemodernworldandAustraliafrom1918tothepresent,with anemphasisonAustraliainitsglobalcontext.ThetwentiethcenturybecameacriticalperiodinAustraliassocial, cultural,economicandpoliticaldevelopment.Thetransformationofthemodernworldduringatimeofpoliticalturmoil, globalconflictandinternationalcooperationprovidesanecessarycontextforunderstandingAustraliasdevelopment,its placewithintheAsiaPacificregion,anditsglobalstanding. Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconcepts,includingevidence, continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathy,significanceandcontestability.Theseconceptsmay beinvestigatedwithinaparticularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusfor historicalinquiries. Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills. Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedway,andinwaysthatareappropriatetospecific localcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogrammingdecisions. Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions throughtheuseandinterpretationofsources.Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
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Howdidthenatureofglobalconflictchangeduringthetwentiethcentury? WhatweretheconsequencesofWorldWarII?Howdidtheseconsequencesshapethemodernworld? HowwasAustraliansocietyaffectedbyothersignificantglobaleventsandchangesinthisperiod?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding Overview Thefollowingcontentistaughtaspartofanoverviewforthehistoricalperiod.Itisnotintendedtobetaughtindepth. Anoverviewwillconstituteapproximately10%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Overviewcontentidentifies importantfeaturesoftheperiod(1918tothepresent)aspartofanexpansivechronologythathelpsstudents understandbroadpatternsofhistoricalchange.Assuch,theoverviewprovidesthebroadercontextfortheteachingof depthstudycontentandcanbebuiltintovariouspartsofateachingandlearningprogram.Thismeansthatoverview contentcanbeusedtogivestudentsanintroductiontothehistoricalperiodtomakethelinkstoandbetweenthe depthstudies,andtoconsolidateunderstandingthroughareviewoftheperiod. OverviewcontentfortheModernWorldandAustraliaincludesthefollowing: theinterwarlevelsbetweenWorldWarIandWorldWarII,includingtheTreatyofVersailles,theRoaringTwenties andtheGreatDepression
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recognisingthemainfeaturesoftheTreatyofVersailles,forexampleterritorialconcessionsrequiredbyGermany andtheimpositionofwarreparations outliningkeyfeaturesoftheinterwarlevels(forexamplemassproductioninthe1920s,suchasthemanufacture ofvehiclesintheUStheflappergenerationandtheJazzAgetheCrashof1929andtheconsequencesofthe GreatDepression

continuingeffortspostWorldWarIItoachievelastingpeaceandsecurityintheworld,includingAustralias involvementinUNpeacekeeping

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creatingachronologicalaccountofconflictsinwhichAustraliahasbeeninvolvedandtheresources(forexample soldiers,equipment,intelligence)thatAustraliacommittedtoeachconflict outliningthepurposeoftheUnitedNationsandthekeyplaceswhereAustraliahasbeeninvolvedinUN peacekeeping,suchasEastTimor(TimorLeste).

themajormovementsforrightsandfreedomintheworldandtheachievementofindependencebyformercolonies
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identifyingthemajormovementsforrightsandfreedomintheworld(includingtheUSCivilRightsmovement, AboriginalandTorresStraitIslandermovements,womensmovements) recognisingthecontinuingnatureofcivilrightsmovementsinthetwentiethcentury,suchasthestrugglefor democracyinBurma

thenatureoftheColdWarandAustraliasinvolvementinColdWarandpostColdWarconflicts(Korea,Vietnam,The GulfWars,Afghanistan),includingtherisinginfluenceofAsiannationssincetheendoftheColdWar identifyingtheColdWarsuperpowersaswellasthesignificanceoftheCubanMissileCrisisandthefallofthe BerlinWall outliningthecompetingideologiesofcapitalismandcommunism,theUSastheworldslastremaining superpower,andtherisinginfluenceofChinaandIndia(economicandpolitical)

developmentsintechnology,publichealth,longevityandstandardoflivingduringthetwentiethcentury,andconcern fortheenvironmentandsustainability brainstormingformsoftechnologythathaveaffectedwhatpeopleseeandhear,wheretheygo,andhowtheylive tracingkeydevelopmentsintechnologysince1918thathavechangedtheworldinthefollowingareas:the household(radio,television,appliances),travelandtrade(shipping,passengerjets),communications(invention ofthemicrochip,satellites,digitaltechnologies) recognisingthegrowthintheworldspopulationduringthetwentiethcentury,lifeexpectancychangesindifferent partsoftheworld,andthedepletionofnaturalresources

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Depthstudies Therearethreedepthstudiesforthishistoricalperiod.Foreachdepthstudy,thereareuptothreeelectivesthatfocus onaparticularsociety,event,movementordevelopment.ItisexpectedthatONEelectivewillbestudiedindetail.A depthstudywillconstituteapproximately30%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Thecontentineachdepthstudy electiveisdesignedtoallowdetailedstudyofspecificaspectsofthishistoricalperiod.Aspartofateachingand learningprogram,depthstudycontentcanbeintegratedwithoverviewcontentand/orintegratedwithotherdepth studyelectives. 1WorldWarII Elaborations

StudentsinvestigatewartimeexperiencesthroughastudyofWorldWarIIindepth.Thisincludesastudyofthe causes,events,outcomeandbroaderimpactoftheconflictasanepisodeinworldhistory,andthenatureof Australiasinvolvement. WorldWarII(193945)

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AnoverviewofthecausesandcourseofWorldWar II(ACDSEH024)
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outliningthecontributingfactorsofWorldWarII(for exampletheoutcomesoftheTreatyofVersaillesandthe LeagueofNationstheriseofHitlerandJapansimperial ambitions) identifyingkeyeventsintheEuropeantheatreofwar(for exampleGermanysinvasionofPolandin1939the Holocaustfrom194245theRussiansreachingBerlinin 1945 identifyingkeyeventsintheAsiaPacifictheatreofwar(for exampletheJapaneseattackonPearlHarbourin1941 thefallofSingaporein1942theAmericanvictoryatthe BattleofMidwayin1942) investigatingthescaleandsignificanceoftheHolocaust, usingprimarysources explainingtheracetobuildtheatomicbomb(byGermany, Japan,theUS)andwhytheatomicbombsweredropped onHiroshimaandNagasaki explainingthesignificanceofKokodaasthebattlethat haltedtheJapaneseadvanceonPortMoresbyandhelped fostertheAnzaclegend

AnexaminationofsignificanteventsofWorldWarII, includingtheHolocaustanduseoftheatomic bomb(ACDSEH107)

TheexperiencesofAustraliansduringWorldWarII (suchasPrisonersofWar(POWs),theBattleof Britain,Kokoda,theFallofSingapore) (ACDSEH108) TheimpactofWorldWarII,withaparticular emphasisontheAustralianhomefront,including thechangingrolesofwomenanduseofwartime governmentcontrols(conscription,manpower controls,rationingandcensorship)(ACDSEH109) ThesignificanceofWorldWarIItoAustralias internationalrelationshipsinthetwentiethcentury, withparticularreferencetotheUnitedNations, Britain,theUSAandAsia(ACDSEH110) 2Rightsandfreedoms

investigatingtheimpactofWorldWarIIatalocaland nationallevel(forexamplesignificanteventssuchasthe bombingofDarwintheJapanesesubmarineattackon SydneyandthesinkingofshipsofftheAustraliancoastthe BattleofBrisbanetheCowrabreakoutandtheBrisbane Line)

evaluatingtheimpactofWorldWarIIontheemergenceof theUnitedStatesasamajorworldpowerandon AustraliasalliancewiththeUS(forexamplethethreatof Japan)

Elaborations

Studentsinvestigatestrugglesforhumanrightsindepth.Thiswillincludehowrightsandfreedomshavebeen ignored,demandedorachievedinAustraliaandinthebroaderworldcontext. Rightsandfreedoms(1945thepresent) TheoriginsandsignificanceoftheUniversal DeclarationofHumanRights,includingAustralias involvementinthedevelopmentofthedeclaration (ACDSEH023)


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describingthedraftingoftheUniversalDeclarationof HumanRightsandthecontributionofAustraliasH.V.Evatt

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BackgroundtothestruggleofAboriginalandTorres StraitIslanderpeoplesforrightsandfreedoms before1965,includingthe1938DayofMourning andtheStolenGenerations(ACDSEH104) TheUScivilrightsmovementanditsinfluenceon Australia(ACDSEH105) Thesignificanceofthefollowingforthecivilrightsof AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples:1962 righttovotefederally1967Referendum ReconciliationMabodecisionBringingThem HomeReport(theStolenGenerations),theApology (ACDSEH106) Methodsusedbycivilrightsactiviststoachieve changeforAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander peoples,andtheroleofONEindividualorgroupin thestruggle(ACDSEH134) Thecontinuingnatureofeffortstosecurecivilrights andfreedomsinAustraliaandthroughouttheworld, suchastheDeclarationontheRightsof IndigenousPeoples(2007)(ACDSEH143)
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describingaccountsofthepastexperiencesofAboriginal andTorresStraitIslanderpeopleswhowereforcibly removedfromtheirfamilies

outliningtheFreedomRidesintheUS,howtheyinspired civilrightscampaignersinAustralia,andhowtheybecame aturningpointintheAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander peoplesstruggleforrightsandfreedoms describingtheaims,tacticsandoutcomesofaparticular eventintheAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples struggleforrightsandfreedoms

investigatingtheroleofCharlesPerkinsintheFreedom Rideof1965andtheefficacyoftelevisioninbringingthe struggleforrightsandfreedomstonationalattention

identifyingareas(forexampleeducation,health,work)that arethefocusforcontinuedcivilrightsactionforAboriginal andTorresStraitIslanderpeoples investigatingthelegacyofchildrensexperiencesin care(theirplacementinorphanages,ChildrensHomes, fostercareandotherformsofoutofhomecare),andthe significanceoftheUnitedNationsConventiononthe RightsoftheChild(1990)

3Theglobalisingworld

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigateonemajorglobalinfluencethathasshapedAustraliansocietyindepth,includingthe developmentoftheglobalinfluenceduringthetwentiethcentury.StudentsstudyONEoftheseelectives:Popular cultureorTheenvironmentmovementorMigrationexperiences. Popularculture(1945present) ThenatureofpopularcultureinAustraliaattheend ofWorldWarII,includingmusic,filmandsport (ACDSEH027)


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identifyingsportsthatwerepopularinAustraliasuchas football,horseracing,cricket

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Developmentsinpopularcultureinpostwar Australiaandtheirimpactonsociety,includingthe introductionoftelevisionandrocknroll (ACDSEH121)
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investigatingAmericasculturalinfluence,asseeninthe arrivaloftelevisionfortheMelbourneOlympics(1956)and BillHaleysAustraliantour(1957) comparingandcontrastingviewsonthevaluesandbeliefs ofrocknroll,filmandtelevisionacrosstime,ageand gender(forexampleissuesofconservatismandrebellion, thechallengetoestablishedideasandnationalidentity) identifyingAmericanandAsianinfluencesonAustralian popularculturesinceWorldWarII(forexamplethrough mainstreamandHollywoodandBollywoodfilms)

Thechangingnatureofthemusic,filmand televisionindustryinAustraliaduringthepostwar period,includingtheinfluenceofoverseas developments(suchasHollywood,Bollywoodand theanimationfilmindustryinChinaandJapan) (ACDSEH122) Australiascontributiontointernationalpopular culture(music,film,television,sport). (ACDSEH123)

investigatingthechangingcontributionoftheAustralian rocknroll,filmandtelevisionindustriestoAustralian cultureandidentitythroughthedevelopmentandexportof music,filmandtelevision,forexampletheEasybeatsfrom SydneyandGoBetweensfromBrisbane,Crocodile Dundee(1986) describingsignificantexamplesofcontinuityandchangein beliefsandvalues,suchasdemocraticideals,religious beliefs,egalitarianism

Continuityandchangeinbeliefsandvaluesthat haveinfluencedtheAustralianwayoflife (ACDSEH149) OR Migrationexperiences(1945present) ThewavesofpostWorldWarIImigrationto Australia,includingtheinfluenceofsignificantworld events(ACDSEH144) Theimpactofchanginggovernmentpolicieson Australiasmigrationpatterns,includingabolitionof theWhiteAustraliaPolicy,Populateor Perish(ACDSEH145)

investigatingthenatureofthewavesofmigrationsuchas thecountriesthatwerethesourceofmigrants,the numbersofmigrantsfromthosecountries,andtrendsin migrationsinceWorldWarIIsuchasincreasingmigration fromtheAsianregiontoAustralia describingthemainfeaturesofagovernmentpolicythat affectedmigrationtoAustralia,suchastheImmigration RestrictionAct1901anduseofthedictationtesttorestrict theimmigrationofnonEuropeans explainingthereasonsforchangesingovernmentpolicy, forexampletheinfluenceofWhiteAustraliaideologyatthe timeoftheintroductionoftheImmigrationRestrictionAct 1901theDisplacedPersonsSchemeintheaftermathof WorldWarII

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TheimpactofatleastONEworldeventor developmentanditssignificanceforAustralia,such astheVietnamWarandIndochineserefugees (ACDSEH146) ThecontributionofmigrationtoAustralias changingidentityasanationandtoitsinternational relationships(ACDSEH147)
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describingtheimpactoftheVietnamwaronVietnamand howthecommunistvictoryinVietnam(1975)resultedin thearrivalofrefugeesintoAustralia

investigatingpoliciesofmulticulturalismsincethe1970s andtheconceptsofculturalheritageandassimilation analysingpostWorldWarIIpopulationgrowthandthe developmentofAustraliasculturallydiversesocietyusing differenttypesofgraphs

OR Theenvironmentmovement(1960spresent) Thebackgroundtoenvironmentalawareness, includingthenineteenthcenturyNationalParks movementinAmericaandAustralia(ACDSEH028)


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outliningtheemergenceofconcernsaboutthe preservationofnaturalareasforfuturegenerations(for exampleasreflectedintheestablishmentofNational ParksintheUnitedStates(YellowstoneNationalParkin 1872),Australia(RoyalNationalParkin1879),Canada (RockyMountainsNationalParkin1885)andNewZealand (TongariroNationalParkin1887) investigatingtheimpactofearlytextsthatwarnedabout environmentalchange(forexampleSilentSpringbyRachel Carson,1962,DontItMakeYouWantToGoHomebyJoe South,1970,MotherEarthNewsmagazinein1970,Mercy MercyMe(TheEcology)lyricsbyMarvinGaye,1971)

Theintensificationofenvironmentaleffectsinthe twentiethcenturyasaresultofpopulationincrease, urbanisation,increasingindustrialproductionand trade(ACDSEH125) Thegrowthandinfluenceoftheenvironment movementwithinAustraliaandoverseas,and developmentsinideasabouttheenvironment (notionofGaia,limitstogrowth,conceptof sustainability,conceptofrightsofnature) (ACDSEH126)

recognisingthehistoricimpactofthepicturesofEarth takenduringtheApollo8missionandhowtheyinfluenced peoplesviewoftheworld explainingthesignificanceofideasabouttheenvironment (forexampleGaiatheinteractionofEarthandits biospherelimitsofgrowththatunlimitedgrowthis unsustainablesustainabilitythatbiologicalsystems needtoremaindiverseandproductiveovertimeandrights ofnaturerecognitionthathumansandtheirnatural environmentarecloselyinterrelated) investigatingarangeofenvironmentalimpacts(for examplethefloodingofLakePedderinTasmania, deforestationinIndonesia,thedeclineoftheAralSea,the ExxonValdezoilspill,thewhalingindustry) explainingthestruggleoverFrenchnuclearweapontesting inthePacificfrom19661996(forexamplethesinkingof theship,theRainbowWarrior,in1985)

Significanteventsandcampaignsthatcontributed topopularawarenessofenvironmentalissues, suchasthecampaigntopreventthedammingof AustraliasGordonRiver,thenuclearaccidentat ChernobylandtheJabilukaminecontroversyin 1998(ACDSEH127)

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Responsesofgovernments,includingthe Australiangovernment,andinternational organisationstoenvironmentalthreatssincethe 1960s(includingdeforestationandclimate change).(ACDSEH128)
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explainingtheresponsesofgovernmentsand organisationstoenvironmentalthreats(forexampleNew Zealandsantinuclearpolicy,theUnitedStates ComprehensiveEnvironmentalResponse,Compensation andLiabilityAct1980(CERCLA),AustraliasGreatBarrier ReefOutlookReport(2009) evaluatingtheeffectivenessofinternationalprotocolsand treatiessuchasKyoto(1997),theUnitedNations FrameworkConventiononClimateChange(since1992) andtheWashingtonDeclaration(2007)

HistoricalSkills Chronology,termsandconcepts Usechronologicalsequencingto demonstratetherelationshipbetween eventsanddevelopmentsindifferent periodsandplaces(ACHHS182) Usehistoricaltermsandconcepts (ACHHS183) Historicalquestionsandresearch Identifyandselectdifferentkindsof questionsaboutthepasttoinform historicalinquiry(ACHHS184)
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Elaborations
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placinginsequencethemaineventsoftheFreedomRidescampaignsin theUnitedStatesandAustraliaandexplainingthelinksbetweenthetwo campaigns usinginteractivetimelinestoexplorethevariousmanifestationsoreffects ofaneventindifferentgeographicallocations definingandusingtermsandconceptssuchasliberation,humanrights, popularcultureandcontestability

Elaborations
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changingakeyquestionorrelatedquestionsinaninquirydependingon thesuitabilityofthesourcesavailable developingquestionsaboutaspectsofthepastthatrequirehistorical argument identifying,planningandinvestigating(individuallyandaspartofateam) specifichistoricalquestionsorissues changingakeyquestionorrelatedquestionsinaninquirydependingon thesuitabilityofthesourcesavailable locatingsourcesforrecordingoralhistories(forexampleVietnamWar veterans,recentmigrants) recognisingtheroleofICTinprovidingaccesstosourcesandtheneedto askrelevantquestionsofthosesources(forexampleaGooglesearchfor significanceofKokoda)

Evaluateandenhancethesequestions (ACHHS185) Identifyandlocaterelevantsources, usingICTandothermethods (ACHHS186)

Analysisanduseofsources Identifytheorigin,purposeandcontext ofprimaryandsecondarysources (ACHHS187)

Elaborations
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usingdatafromimmigrationrecordsandprocessingitusingICTtoidentify historicaltrendsovertime explainingthecontextofasourcesuchastheBringingThemHomeReport (1997)andthesignificanceofthatcontextinunderstandingresponsesto thereport(withvaryingperspectives)

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Processandsynthesiseinformation fromarangeofsourcesforuseas evidenceinanhistoricalargument (ACHHS188) Evaluatethereliabilityandusefulness ofprimaryandsecondarysources (ACHHS189)
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combininghistoricaldatafromarangeofsourcestoidentifyandexplain theimpactofWorldWarII

understandingthatthereliabilityandusefulnessofasourcedependson thequestionsaskedofit(forexampleanaccountmaybeonesidedand thereforeofuseinrevealingpastprevailingattitudes) discussingthereliabilityandusefulnessofMartinLutherKings1963I HaveADreamspeechasasourcetoassistinunderstandingtheaims andmotivationsoftheUSCivilRightsmovement

Perspectivesandinterpretations Identifyandanalysetheperspectivesof peoplefromthepast(ACHHS190)

Elaborations
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analysingtheviewsofbothmenandwomenatdifferenttimesregarding genderequalityinAustraliaandexplaininghowtheseviewsmightreflect changingvaluesandattitudes examiningdifferentaccountsofthefirst1957rocknrolltoursofAustralia andidentifyingthedifferentperspectivesbasedonage explainingtheenthusiasmofyoungpeopleforthetoursandtheopposition ofoldergenerations,asreflectedinthesources

Identifyandanalysedifferenthistorical interpretations(includingtheirown) (ACHHS191)

Explanationandcommunication Developtexts,particularlydescriptions anddiscussionsthatuseevidence fromarangeofsourcesthatare referenced(ACHHS192)

Elaborations
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developinganhistoricalargumentthatidentifiesdifferentpossibilitiesin interpretationandarguesaparticularpointofview,withconsistentand specificreferencetotheevidenceavailable

explainingthesignificanceofthefallofSingapore(1942)inthechangesin AustraliasmilitaryalliancesanduseoftroopsduringWorldWarII,usinga rangeofsources(forexampleaccountsofprisonersofwar,commanders suchasGeneralGordonBennett,politicianssuchasPrimeMinisterJohn Curtin,andJapaneseandBritishsources) designingaposterthatoutlinesthemainargumentsagainstFrench nucleartestinginthePacificandexplainingthenatureandreliabilityofthe sourcesusedtoconstructtheposter

Selectandusearangeof communicationforms(oral,graphic, written)anddigitaltechnologies (ACHHS193)

Level10achievementstandard
BytheendofLevel10,studentsrefertokeyevents,theactionsofindividualsandgroups,andbeliefsandvaluestoexplain patternsofchangeandcontinuityovertime.Theyanalysethecausesandeffectsofeventsanddevelopmentsandexplain theirrelativeimportance.Theyexplainthecontextforpeoplesactionsinthepast.Studentsexplainthesignificanceofevents anddevelopmentsfromarangeofperspectives.Theyexplaindifferentinterpretationsofthepastandrecognisetheevidence usedtosupporttheseinterpretations.

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Studentssequenceeventsanddevelopmentswithinachronologicalframework,andidentifyrelationshipsbetweenevents acrossdifferentplacesandperiodsoftime.Whenresearching,studentsdevelop,evaluateandmodifyquestionstoframean historicalinquiry.Theyprocess,analyseandsynthesiseinformationfromarangeofprimaryandsecondarysourcesanduse itasevidencetoanswerinquiryquestions.Studentsanalysesourcestoidentifymotivations,valuesandattitudes.When evaluatingthesesources,theyanalyseanddrawconclusionsabouttheirusefulness,takingintoaccounttheirorigin, purpose,andcontext.Theydevelopandjustifytheirowninterpretationsaboutthepast.Studentsdeveloptexts,particularly explanationsanddiscussions,incorporatinghistoricalargument.Indevelopingthesetextsandorganisingandpresenting theirarguments,theyusehistoricaltermsandconcepts,evidenceidentifiedinsources,andtheyreferencethesesources.

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Information and Communications Technology


TableofContents Overview Introduction Domainstructure Stagesoflearning CurriculumF10 Foundationlevel Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level5 Level6 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10

2 2 2 4 6 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 21 23

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Information and Communications Technology

IntroductiontoInformationandCommunicationsTechnology
Informationandcommunicationstechnology(ICT)isthehardwareandsoftwarethatenablesdatatobedigitallyprocessed, storedandcommunicated.ICTcanbeusedtoaccess,process,manageandpresentinformationmodelandcontrolevents constructnewunderstandingandcommunicatewithothers. ICT,aninterdisciplinarydomain,focusesonprovidingstudentswiththetoolstotransformtheirlearningandtoenrichtheir learningenvironment.Theknowledge,skillsandbehavioursidentifiedforthisdomainenablestudentsto:
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developnewthinkingandlearningskillsthatproducecreativeandinnovativeinsights developmoreproductivewaysofworkingandsolvingproblemsindividuallyandcollaboratively createinformationproductsthatdemonstratetheirunderstandingofconcepts,issues,relationshipsandprocesses expressthemselvesincontemporaryandsociallyrelevantways communicatelocallyandgloballytosolveproblemsandtoshareknowledge understandtheimplicationsoftheuseofICTandtheirsocialandethicalresponsibilitiesasusersofICT.

Learninginthisdomainenablesstudentstofocusonthetasktobeaccomplishedratherthanonthetechnologytheyare usingtodothework.Throughtheselectionandapplicationofappropriateequipment,techniquesandprocedures,they processdataandinformationskilfullytocreateinformationproductsinformsthataremeaningfulforthemselvesandtheir audience.Theseproductseffectivelydemonstratetheirknowledgeandunderstandingoftheconcepts,issues,relationships andprocessesthatarethesubjectofthetask. Studentsareprovidedwithtoolsandstrategiestomonitorlearningpatternsandproblemsolvingstrategies.Thisprovidesa soundfoundationfortransformingpersonallearning.TheygainanunderstandingofInternetprotocolsandstrategiesfor exchanginginformation,whichenablesthemtoshareandchallengetheirownandotherpeoplesideasandsolutionswitha globalaudience.

StructureoftheInformationandCommunicationsTechnologyDomain
TheInformationandCommunicationsTechnologydomaininAusVELSusesanelevenlevelstructuretobothreflectthe designofthenewAustralianCurriculumandtoprovideaconsistentstructureacrossalltheAusVELSdomains(formore details,pleaseseeOverview). Eachlevelincludesalearningfocusstatementand,whereapplicable,asetofstandardsorganisedbydimension.A glossaryisincludedwhichprovidesdefinitionsofunderlinedterms.

Learningfocus
Learningfocusstatementsarewrittenforeachlevel.Theseoutlinethelearningthatstudentsneedtofocusoniftheyareto progressinthedomainandachievethestandardsatthelevelswheretheyapply.Theysuggestappropriatelearning experiencesfromwhichteacherscandrawtodeveloprelevantteachingandlearningactivities.

Standards
Standardsdefinewhatstudentsshouldknowandbeabletodoatdifferentlevelsandarewrittenforeachdimension.In InformationandCommunicationsTechnology,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementapplyfrom Level2.StandardsareorganisedbydimensionsfromLevel4.

Dimensions

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Information and Communications Technology


StandardsintheInformationandCommunicationsTechnologydomainareorganisedinthreedimensions.
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ICTforvisualisingthinking ICTforcreating ICTforcommunicating.

ICTforvisualisingthinking
IntheICTforvisualisingthinkingdimensionstudentsuseICTtoolstoassisttheirthinkingprocessesandreflectonthe thinkingstrategiestheyusetodevelopunderstanding. ICTprovidesarichandflexiblelearnercentredenvironmentinwhichstudentscanexperimentandtakeriskswhen developingnewunderstanding.Itsextensivecapabilitiesallowstudents,byvisuallycodingandrepresentingtheirthinking,to clarifythoughts,andtoidentifypatternsandformrelationshipsbetweennewandexistingknowledge. ICTtoolsthatfacilitatevisualthinkingareonesthatallowideasandinformationinallareasofthecurriculumtobeeasilyand quicklydrafted,filtered,reorganised,refinedandsystematicallyassessedinordertomakemeaningforstudents. Studentsuselinguisticandnonlinguisticrepresentations,suchasgraphicorganisers,ICTgeneratedsimulationsand modelsandICTcontrolledmodelstohelpstructuretheirthinkingprocessesandassistinconstructingknowledge. UsingICT,studentsrecordtheirdecisionsandactionswhensolvingproblemsandclarifyingthoughts.Theymonitorthe changesintheirthinkingandevaluatetheirownandothersthinkingstrategies.Studentsreviewtheserecordstoassess theirsuitabilityfornewsituations.

ICTforcreating
TheICTforcreatingdimensionfocusesonstudentsusingICTtoolsforcreatingsolutionstoproblemsandforcreating informationproducts.Throughtheselectionandapplicationofappropriateequipment,techniquesandprocedures,students learnto:
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processdataandinformationtocreatesolutionstoproblemsandinformationproductsthatdemonstratetheir knowledgeandunderstandingsoftheconcepts,issues,relationshipsandprocessesrelatedtoallareasofthe curriculum managetheirfilestosecuretheircontentsandenableefficientretrieval planandmonitortheprogressofextendedtasks.

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StudentslearntouseICTefficientlytocapture,validateandmanipulatedataforrequiredpurposes.Inordertoimprovethe appearanceandfunctionalityofinformationproductsandsolutions,theyapplycommonlyacceptedconventions.They examinetheethicalandlegalimplicationsofusingICTinarangeofsettingssuchasthehome,schoolandtheworkplace. StudentsevaluatetheusefulnessofICTforsolvingdifferenttypesofproblemsandreflectontheeffectivenessoftheirown useofICT.

ICTforcommunicating
TheICTforcommunicatingdimensionfocusesonstudentsusingICTto:
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presentideasandunderstandingstoaudiences communicatewithknownandunknownaudiences supportknowledgebuildingamongteams.

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Information and Communications Technology


StudentsuseICTtosupportoralpresentationstolivelocalaudiencesandtopresentideasandunderstandingstounknown, remoteaudiences.TheyuseICTtocommunicatewithothers,bothknownandunknown,withthepurposeofseekingand discussingalternativeviews,acquiringexpertopinions,sharingknowledgeandexpressingideas.Studentsalsolocate informationfromarangeofonlineandmultimediaresourcestosupporttheirownlearning. ICTsupportsknowledgebuildingamongteamsandenablesteammemberstocollaborate,enquire,interactandintegrate priorknowledgewithnewunderstanding. Protocolsforreceiving,transferringandpublishingideasandinformationareneededtopromotecommunicationthat respectsintendedaudiences.

StagesofLearninginInformationandCommunicationsTechnology
AusVELStakesaccountofthedevelopmentalstagesoflearningyoungpeopleexperienceatschool.Whilestudentlearning isacontinuumanddifferentstudentsdevelopatdifferentrates,theybroadlyprogressthroughthreestagesoflearning. Thefollowingstatementsdescribewaysinwhichthesecharacteristicsrelatetolearningexperiencesandstandardsineach ofthethreestagesoflearningintheInformationandCommunicationsTechnology(ICT)domain. StudentsbeginusingICTtocreatesimpleinformationproductsandtoaccesslearningtools.ByapplyingICTinarangeof contexts,studentsdevelopknowledge,skillsandbehavioursfortheeffectiveuseofICTforlearninginalldomains.They becomecriticalusersofICTforlearningandcommunicating,andcreatinginformationproducts.TheylearntouseICTtools tovisualisetheirthinkingandrecordtheirthinkingstrategiesforuseinfutureproblemsolvingactivities.Theyprogressto maintainingadigitalrecordofevidenceoftheirlearninginalldomainsthatenablesthemtoreflectonlearninghowtolearn. Electroniccommunicationtoolsareintroducedinstudentsfirstlevelsatschoolandmorecomplex,contemporary communicationtoolsaregraduallyintroduceduntilstudentsbecomeconfidentusersofthetechnologyforcommunicating withexpertsandparticipatinginonlineforumsasbothcontributorsandbeneficiariesofknowledge. FoundationtoLevel4Layingthefoundations Earlyinthisstagestudentsbecomefamiliarwiththemaincomponentsofacomputeranddeveloptheirhandeye coordinationbyusingamousetocontrolthecursor/pointeronthescreen.Studentsenterandmanipulatedatatocreate simpleinformationproducts. StudentsprogressbyusingICTtoorganise,reviseandclassifyideastoassisttheirthinkingprocesses.Theyaccess publishedmultimediaresourcesandareencouragedtothinkcriticallyabouthowtheseresourcessupporttheirlearning. LaterinthisstagestudentsuseICTtosolveproblems,expressideasandpresentinformationtodifferentaudiences.They applysimpleformattingandeditingtechniquesinordertoimprovetheappearanceandaccuracyofinformationtheycreate foraudiences.TheyexperimentwithsimpleICTtoolsandstrategiestomakevisualtheirthinkingprocessesandbeginto considerhowthesetoolscanbeusedforsolvingnewproblems.Theylocateandaccessinformationfromonlinesources andtheyexchangeelectronicmessageswithotherpeople.Theybegintoapplystrategiestofacilitateeasyretrievaloftheir files. Levels5to8Buildingbreadthanddepth EarlyinthisstagestudentsbecomemoreproficientintheuseofICTforthepurposesofsharingknowledgeandacquiring information.TheyuseICTtovisualisetheirthinkinginordertomakesenseofideas,conceptsandissuesfromalldomains, andtoreflectontheirlearning.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Information and Communications Technology


Studentsprogressbydevisingplannedapproachestoproblemsolving.Thisinvolvesdocumentingtheorderof,andtime allocationfor,individualtaskswithinextendedprojects.StudentsuseawiderrangeofICTtools,techniquesandfunctionsto supporttheirthinkingprocesses,tomodelsystems,tosolveproblemsandtocreateinformationproductsforavarietyof purposes.Theyusetheequipmentsoperatingsystemandsoftwarefunctionstomanagetheirfiles. Laterinthisstage,studentsbecomemoreproficientintheuseofInternetresearchtoolstolocateanddownloadinformation fromarangeofsources,andtheyjudgethequalityofinformation,basedonsetcriteria.Theyconformtoacceptedcodesof practicewhenusingICT,anddiscusstheconsequencesofICTuseinarangeofenvironmentsandcontextsinthe community.Studentscreateandmaintaindigitalevidenceoftheirlearninginalldomains,theevidenceexemplifyingthe progressmadeinapplyingICTknowledgeandskills. Levels9to10Developingpathways IntheselevelsstudentsuseICTtomanageindividualandcollaborativeprojects.Theyinitiateandengageinrealandvirtual teamsandcollaborativeproblemsolvinginlocalandglobalenvironments.TheyuseICTtoolstorecord,organiseand expresstheirthoughtsandcommunicatewithothers. StudentsusearangeofICTtoolsandtechniquestoassistinmonitoring,reflectingonandrefiningtheirthinkingstrategies whenaddressingcomplexissuesandsolvingcomplexproblems. StudentsselectappropriateICTtoolsforresearch,modelling,publishing,decisionmakingandproblemsolving,andassess thevalidityandappropriatenessofthesetools.Theymakejudgmentsaboutthequalityoftheirownandothersworkandact onthem. StudentsunderstandtheneedtoprotectdataandtheyuseICTtoolstoprotecttheirfilesandcontrolaccesstothem.They shareideaswithothersthrougharangeofelectronicmedia.Theydemonstrateanddiscussappropriateethicalandsocial behavioursforusersofICTandanalysetheimpactofICTinsociety.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Information and Communications Technology

Foundationlevel
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel2standardsinInformationandCommunicationsTechnology(ICT), theylearnthesafeuseofICTtools,includingleavingelectricalconnectionsalone,sittinguprightinfrontofacomputer, andhandlingstoragedevicessuchasdisksandmemorystickscarefully.TheylearnthecorrecttermstonameICT equipmentand,throughuse,becomefamiliarwithcommoniconsonthecomputerdesktop.Theydevelophandeye coordinationthroughusingamousetocontrolthepointeronthescreen. Withassistance,studentsworkwithdifferenttypesofdata,suchastext,numbersandimages,tocreatesimple informationproductsandsharetheirideas.Theydeveloptheirnavigationskillsbyrespondingtostimulusinmultimedia resourcesthatdevelopliteracyandnumeracyskills.TheyfindandcompareexamplesofICTequipmentathomeand investigatethepurposeofICTsymbolsandicons.

Standards
IntheInformationandCommunicationsTechnologydomain,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudent achievementareintroducedatLevel1.ThelearningfocusstatementforFoundationprovidesadviceaboutlearning experiencesthatwillassiststudentstoworktowardstheachievementofthestandardsatLevel2.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Information and Communications Technology


Level1
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel2standardsinInformationandCommunicationsTechnology(ICT), theyuseICTtoacquirenewknowledgeandskillsinallareasofthecurriculumandtocreateandpresentinformationin meaningfulways.Forexample,studentsaccessawebsitetoparticipateinafoodpyramidgame,andthenpresenttheir understandingoffoodgroupsinaslideshowthatcontainsanimageofalunchboxfilledwiththeappropriatefooditems. Whenusingmultimediaresources,studentsbegintothinkcriticallyabouttheseresourcesandhowtheyhelplearning. Intheirlearningofnewmaterial,studentsexperimentwithsomesimpleICTtoolsandtechniquesforvisualisingtheir thinking.Theylearntoorganiseandclassifyinformationandideas,andpresenttheminamannerthatismeaningfulto them.Thismayentailcuttingandpasting,droppinganddragging,andcolourcodinginordertogroupsimilaritems,to sequenceeventsandtoidentifyexamplesthatillustratekeyideas. Toimprovethepresentationoftextandimages,studentsbegintoapplysimpletechniques,suchasbolding,centring andchangingcase.Theyexplorearangeofdifferentinformationproductsandidentifyintendedaudiences.Students displaytheirowninformationproductsinawaythatsuitsdifferentaudiences. Studentsdevelopanunderstandingoftheimportanceofcheckingtheaccuracyoffactsthataregoingtobeprocessed thisbeingnecessaryforproducingaccurateoutput.Studentscollectfirsthanddataand,withassistance,enteritintotheir spreadsheetfilesandmanipulateit.Forexample,aftercollectingtheheightsoffellowstudentsorthenumberof classmateswithparticulareyecolours,studentsmanipulatethedatabysummingorcolourcodingcells,andthen presenttheprocesseddataasachart.Individually,andasaclass,theymakesummarystatementsaboutthe characteristicsoftheprocesseddata. Workinginanetworkedenvironment,studentsdevelopthepracticeofusingafilenamingsystemthatisbothmeaningful tothestudents,andavoidsconfusionoverwhoownsparticularfiles. Studentsbegintoexplorecontemporarywaysofcommunicatingideasandinformationbycomposingandsending simpleelectronicmessagessuchasemails.

Standards
AtLevel1,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel2standards(seebelow).

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Information and Communications Technology


Level2
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel2standardsinInformationandCommunicationsTechnology(ICT), theyuseICTtoacquirenewknowledgeandskillsinallareasofthecurriculumandtocreateandpresentinformationin meaningfulways.Forexample,studentsaccessawebsitetoparticipateinafoodpyramidgame,andthenpresenttheir understandingoffoodgroupsinaslideshowthatcontainsanimageofalunchboxfilledwiththeappropriatefooditems. Whenusingmultimediaresources,studentsbegintothinkcriticallyabouttheseresourcesandhowtheyhelplearning. Intheirlearningofnewmaterial,studentsexperimentwithsomesimpleICTtoolsandtechniquesforvisualisingtheir thinking.Theylearntoorganiseandclassifyinformationandideas,andpresenttheminamannerthatismeaningfulto them.Thismayentailcuttingandpasting,droppinganddragging,andcolourcodinginordertogroupsimilaritems,to sequenceeventsandtoidentifyexamplesthatillustratekeyideas. Toimprovethepresentationoftextandimages,studentsbegintoapplysimpletechniques,suchasbolding,centring andchangingcase.Theyexplorearangeofdifferentinformationproductsandidentifyintendedaudiences.Students displaytheirowninformationproductsinawaythatsuitsdifferentaudiences. Studentsdevelopanunderstandingoftheimportanceofcheckingtheaccuracyoffactsthataregoingtobeprocessed thisbeingnecessaryforproducingaccurateoutput.Studentscollectfirsthanddataand,withassistance,enteritintotheir spreadsheetfilesandmanipulateit.Forexample,aftercollectingtheheightsoffellowstudentsorthenumberof classmateswithparticulareyecolours,studentsmanipulatethedatabysummingorcolourcodingcells,andthen presenttheprocesseddataasachart.Individually,andasaclass,theymakesummarystatementsaboutthe characteristicsoftheprocesseddata. Workinginanetworkedenvironment,studentsdevelopthepracticeofusingafilenamingsystemthatisbothmeaningful tothestudents,andavoidsconfusionoverwhoownsparticularfiles. Studentsbegintoexplorecontemporarywaysofcommunicatingideasandinformationbycomposingandsending simpleelectronicmessagessuchasemails.

Standards
Atthislevelstandardsarenotorganisedbydimensions. InformationandCommunicationsTechnology

AtLevel2,studentsmanipulatetext,imagesandnumericdatatocreatesimpleinformationproductsforspecific audiences.Theymakesimplechangestoimprovetheappearanceoftheirinformationproducts.Theyretrievefilesand savenewfilesusinganamingsystemthatismeaningfultothem.Theycomposesimpleelectronicmessagestoknown recipientsandsendthemsuccessfully.Withsomeassistance,studentsuseICTtolocateandretrieverelevant informationfromavarietyofsources.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Information and Communications Technology


Level3
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinInformationandCommunicationsTechnology(ICT), theydevelopskillsinusingICTforproblemsolving,expressingideas,andpresentinginformationtodifferentaudiences. Workinginallareasofthecurriculum,studentsexplorearangeofICTtools(forexample,basiceditingtoolssuchas wordprocessing)andsimpletechniquesforvisualisingthinking.Theyalsousesimplegraphicorganiserssuchas conceptmapsandsequencechartstoprovideaframeworkforvisualisingthinking.Inparticulartheyusetoolsthatassist insequencing,andinidentifyingrelationshipsbetween,ideas,factsandconcepts.Studentssavetheirvisualising thinkingfilestofoldersandwhennewbutsimilarlearningsituationsarise,theyretrievethemandusethemasastarting pointforthesesituations.Studentsreflectontheusefulnessofsuchtoolsandstrategiesinnewcircumstances. Studentscomparethepurposesandstructuresofinformationpresentedindifferentmedia,suchasprint,onscreen,or asanactionforexample,amovingrobot.Individually,studentslearntoprocessdataintheformoftext,imagesand soundtocreateplannedinformationproducts,suchasinvitations,shortstories,presentationfiles(forexample,a MicrosoftPowerPointfile),animationsandtitlepagesforbooks.Studentsbegintousemanual(forexample, proofreading)andelectronic(forexample,spellchecker)techniquestoidentifytypographicalerrorsandmakeappropriate corrections.Theyusecriteria,suchastheaccuracyandattractivenessoftheirinformationproducts,tomakejudgments abouthowwelltheymeettheirpurposes.Studentsusesoftwaretoolstoassistwithproblemsolving.Forexample, studentscreateaquestionnaireusingwordprocessingsoftwaretocollectdataabouttheagesandethnicityofresidents intheirlocalareaaspartoftheirHumanitiesstudy.Theirunderstandingofthisdataisthendemonstratedina presentationfile.StudentsworkcollaborativelytodeveloptheirICTskills. WhenusingICTtoassistwithproblemsolvingandforproducinginformationproducts,studentsinvestigateandapply somepracticesthatareergonomicallysound,suchasadjustingtheheightofchairstoensurethatelbowsareatan appropriateangleandusingkeyingtechniquesthatminimisewristharmandmaximisetheefficiencyofdataentry. Studentsbegintomanagetheirfilesusingsimplewaysoforganisingthemforeasyretrievalforexample,creating foldersbasedontopicsorformssuchasstories,images,andprojects.Theycomparetheirsystemswiththoseofother studentsandacknowledgeandacceptdifferentapproachesthatworkfortheuser.Studentsareintroducedtothesimple securitystrategyofusingpasswordstoprotectaccesstotheirfileswhenworkingonanetwork. StudentscontinuetodeveloptheirskillsinusingICTtocommunicateknowledgebyexchangingemailmessageswith others.Whenseekingnewinformationontopicsofimportanceorinterestinallareasofthecurriculum,studentsapplya setofprocedures(suchassimplekeywords)forlocatinginformationontheintranetandtheInternet,andtheydetermine thevalueoftheseresourcesbydevelopingandapplyingsimplecriteria(forexample,consideringtheageoftheintended audience).Theytransferthisknowledgewhentheyevaluatetheirownproducts.

Standards
AtLevel3,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel4standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Information and Communications Technology


Level4
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinInformationandCommunicationsTechnology(ICT), theydevelopskillsinusingICTforproblemsolving,expressingideas,andpresentinginformationtodifferentaudiences. Workinginallareasofthecurriculum,studentsexplorearangeofICTtools(forexample,basiceditingtoolssuchas wordprocessing)andsimpletechniquesforvisualisingthinking.Theyalsousesimplegraphicorganiserssuchas conceptmapsandsequencechartstoprovideaframeworkforvisualisingthinking.Inparticulartheyusetoolsthatassist insequencing,andinidentifyingrelationshipsbetween,ideas,factsandconcepts.Studentssavetheirvisualising thinkingfilestofoldersandwhennewbutsimilarlearningsituationsarise,theyretrievethemandusethemasastarting pointforthesesituations.Studentsreflectontheusefulnessofsuchtoolsandstrategiesinnewcircumstances. Studentscomparethepurposesandstructuresofinformationpresentedindifferentmedia,suchasprint,onscreen,or asanactionforexample,amovingrobot.Individually,studentslearntoprocessdataintheformoftext,imagesand soundtocreateplannedinformationproducts,suchasinvitations,shortstories,presentationfiles(forexample,a MicrosoftPowerPointfile),animationsandtitlepagesforbooks.Studentsbegintousemanual(forexample, proofreading)andelectronic(forexample,spellchecker)techniquestoidentifytypographicalerrorsandmakeappropriate corrections.Theyusecriteria,suchastheaccuracyandattractivenessoftheirinformationproducts,tomakejudgments abouthowwelltheymeettheirpurposes.Studentsusesoftwaretoolstoassistwithproblemsolving.Forexample, studentscreateaquestionnaireusingwordprocessingsoftwaretocollectdataabouttheagesandethnicityofresidents intheirlocalareaaspartoftheirHumanitiesstudy.Theirunderstandingofthisdataisthendemonstratedina presentationfile.StudentsworkcollaborativelytodeveloptheirICTskills. WhenusingICTtoassistwithproblemsolvingandforproducinginformationproducts,studentsinvestigateandapply somepracticesthatareergonomicallysound,suchasadjustingtheheightofchairstoensurethatelbowsareatan appropriateangleandusingkeyingtechniquesthatminimisewristharmandmaximisetheefficiencyofdataentry. Studentsbegintomanagetheirfilesusingsimplewaysoforganisingthemforeasyretrievalforexample,creating foldersbasedontopicsorformssuchasstories,images,andprojects.Theycomparetheirsystemswiththoseofother studentsandacknowledgeandacceptdifferentapproachesthatworkfortheuser.Studentsareintroducedtothesimple securitystrategyofusingpasswordstoprotectaccesstotheirfileswhenworkingonanetwork. StudentscontinuetodeveloptheirskillsinusingICTtocommunicateknowledgebyexchangingemailmessageswith others.Whenseekingnewinformationontopicsofimportanceorinterestinallareasofthecurriculum,studentsapplya setofprocedures(suchassimplekeywords)forlocatinginformationontheintranetandtheInternet,andtheydetermine thevalueoftheseresourcesbydevelopingandapplyingsimplecriteria(forexample,consideringtheageoftheintended audience).Theytransferthisknowledgewhentheyevaluatetheirownproducts.

Standards
ICTforvisualisingthinking

AtLevel4,studentsuseICTtoolstolistideas,orderthemintologicalsequences,andidentifyrelationshipsbetween them.Studentsretrievetheirsavedvisualisingthinkingstrategiesandeditthemforuseinnew,butsimilarsituations. Theyexplainhowthesestrategiescanbeusedfordifferentproblemsorsituations. ICTforcreating

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Information and Communications Technology


AtLevel4,studentsorganisetheirfilesintofoldersclassifiedinawaythatismeaningfultothem.Studentsexplainthe purposeofpasswordsforaccessingfilesstoredonnetworks.Theyfollowsimpleplansandusetoolsandarangeof datatypestocreateinformationproductsdesignedtoinform,persuade,entertainoreducateparticularaudiences.They createinformationproductstoassistinproblemsolvinginallareasofthecurriculum.Withminimalassistance,students useICTtoolstocaptureandsaveimages.Theyusesimpleeditingfunctionstomanipulatetheimagesforuseintheir products. Theymakeongoingmodificationstotheirworktocorrectthespellingoffrequentlyusedwordsandtorectifysimple formattingerrors.Theyevaluatethefinalinformationproductanddescribehowwellitmeetsitspurpose.Studentsmake adjustmentstotheirequipmentandapplytechniquesthatareergonomicallysound. ICTforcommunicating

AtLevel4,studentsinitiateandcomposeemailmessagestoknownandunknownaudiencesand,whereappropriate, sendreplies.Studentscreatefoldersintheirmailboxtoorganisethestorageofemailmessagestheywishtokeep.They locateinformationonanintranet,andusearecommendedsearchengineandlimitedkeywordstolocateinformation fromwebsites.Theydevelopandapplysimplecriteriatoevaluatethevalueofthelocatedinformation.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Information and Communications Technology


Level5
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinInformationandCommunicationsTechnology(ICT), theyapplyknownICTtoolsforvisualisingthinkinginnewwaystomakelinksbetweenexistingandnewknowledge.They begintousenewtools,suchasictcontrolledmodels,aprogramminglanguageorsimulationsoftware,suchas microworlds,spreadsheetsanddomainspecificmodellingsoftware,torepresentandexploreprocesses,patterns,and causeandeffectrelationships.Theylearntousetools,suchasdatabasesoftwareandgraphicorganisers,toorganise andanalysedataandinformation.Forexample,afterinterviewingpeopleofAsianculturalbackgrounds,studentsmight identifysimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenAustralianandAsiancustomsbyusingadoublecelldiagram,whichforms avisualstructuretoaidthinking. StudentsreflectontheirexperienceinusingsuchICTtools,comparinghowtheylearnedwiththesetoolswithhowthey mightlearnfrombooks,andcomparingthevirtualworldscreatedthroughthesemodelswithreallife. StudentsuseICTtoolstoproduceinformationproductsthatdemonstratetheirknowledgeandskillsforallareasofthe curriculum.Forexample,basedontheinferencesdrawnbyusingadoublecelldiagramtoanalysethesimilaritiesand differencesbetweenAustralianandAsiancustoms,studentscouldpresenttheirnewunderstandinginmultimediaform (aninformationproduct). StudentsdeveloptheiruseofICTtoassistwithproblemsolving.Forexample,whencreatingamodelsolarpowered boatthatmeetsspecifiedcriteria,studentssupporttheirproblemsolvingstrategiesbyusingsoftwaretocreatealternative twodimensionaldesigns. Studentsexplorenewsoftwarefunctionsthatpromoteefficiencyandeffectiveness.Forexample,studentsusethefind andreplacefunctiontolocateandchangerepeatedwordsorformats(efficiency)andtheyuseborderstoseparate differentsetsofinformation(effectiveness).Theydevelopskillsinusingthreedimensionalmultimediatoolsforproblem solving,discusshowthethreedimensionalfunctionsimprovetheeffectivenessofsolutions,andbrainstormsituationsin whichthesetoolscanbeused.StudentsdevelopskillsinusingICTsystemsforcontrollingeventsinapredetermined waybywritingprogramsthat,forexample,controlaturtleorrobot,manipulateobjectsinagameorthreedimensional virtualenvironment,orrespondtoenvironmentalchangescapturedbysensors. Studentsusedesigntools,suchaslayoutdiagrams,annotateddrawingsandstoryboards,todocumentsolutionsand thelayoutofinformationproducts.Theybegintouseictpresentationconventions,incorporatingthemintotheirsolutions andinformationproductswhereappropriate.TheytesttheirproductsagainstcommonlyacceptedICTevaluationcriteria and,withassistance,refinetheirworktomeetboththecriteriaandaudienceneeds.Theydevelopandmaintainadigital bankofevidence(forexample,anelectronicportfolio),thatdemonstratestheirlearning.Thisrequiresstudents evaluating,selectingandorganisingfilesthatshowcasetheirlearningandthatareuptodateandstructuredinanorderly way.Studentsapplyfilemanagementproceduresthatassistinsecuringtheirfiles(forexample,backinguponstorage mediasuchasdisksormemorysticks),andinallowingtheeasyretrievaloffilesbyusingnamingconventionsthatare meaningful.Studentscontinuetouseergonomicpracticesthatassistinminimisingphysicalharm,suchasdoing exercisetoreduceinjuryduetorepetitiveactions.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Information and Communications Technology


Studentsbegintoworkinacollaborativeglobalenvironment.Theysharetheirdevelopingknowledgewiththeirpeers throughemail,andseekadvicefromothersthroughfrequentlyaskedquestions(FAQs),websitesorbydirectlyemailing experts.Studentsconsiderthesemethodsofsharinginformationwithawideraudience,anddevelopknowledgeof protocolsforsendingandreceivingelectronicinformationthroughtheInternetbycreatingandsendingemailswith attachmentsanduploadingfilestoprotectedpublicplacesonintranetsortheInternet. Whenproblemsolving,studentsuserecommendedsearchenginesandbegintorefinesearchquestionstolocate informationquicklyontheInternet.Thisinvolvesapplyingcriteriaforassessingtheintegrityofinformation,suchasthe reliabilityofthewebhostandtheaccuracyoftheinformation.

Standards
AtLevel5,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel6standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Information and Communications Technology


Level6
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinInformationandCommunicationsTechnology(ICT), theyapplyknownICTtoolsforvisualisingthinkinginnewwaystomakelinksbetweenexistingandnewknowledge.They begintousenewtools,suchasictcontrolledmodels,aprogramminglanguageorsimulationsoftware,suchas microworlds,spreadsheetsanddomainspecificmodellingsoftware,torepresentandexploreprocesses,patterns,and causeandeffectrelationships.Theylearntousetools,suchasdatabasesoftwareandgraphicorganisers,toorganise andanalysedataandinformation.Forexample,afterinterviewingpeopleofAsianculturalbackgrounds,studentsmight identifysimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenAustralianandAsiancustomsbyusingadoublecelldiagram,whichforms avisualstructuretoaidthinking. StudentsreflectontheirexperienceinusingsuchICTtools,comparinghowtheylearnedwiththesetoolswithhowthey mightlearnfrombooks,andcomparingthevirtualworldscreatedthroughthesemodelswithreallife. StudentsuseICTtoolstoproduceinformationproductsthatdemonstratetheirknowledgeandskillsforallareasofthe curriculum.Forexample,basedontheinferencesdrawnbyusingadoublecelldiagramtoanalysethesimilaritiesand differencesbetweenAustralianandAsiancustoms,studentscouldpresenttheirnewunderstandinginmultimediaform (aninformationproduct). StudentsdeveloptheiruseofICTtoassistwithproblemsolving.Forexample,whencreatingamodelsolarpowered boatthatmeetsspecifiedcriteria,studentssupporttheirproblemsolvingstrategiesbyusingsoftwaretocreatealternative twodimensionaldesigns. Studentsexplorenewsoftwarefunctionsthatpromoteefficiencyandeffectiveness.Forexample,studentsusethefind andreplacefunctiontolocateandchangerepeatedwordsorformats(efficiency)andtheyuseborderstoseparate differentsetsofinformation(effectiveness).Theydevelopskillsinusingthreedimensionalmultimediatoolsforproblem solving,discusshowthethreedimensionalfunctionsimprovetheeffectivenessofsolutions,andbrainstormsituationsin whichthesetoolscanbeused.StudentsdevelopskillsinusingICTsystemsforcontrollingeventsinapredetermined waybywritingprogramsthat,forexample,controlaturtleorrobot,manipulateobjectsinagameorthreedimensional virtualenvironment,orrespondtoenvironmentalchangescapturedbysensors. Studentsusedesigntools,suchaslayoutdiagrams,annotateddrawingsandstoryboards,todocumentsolutionsand thelayoutofinformationproducts.Theybegintouseictpresentationconventions,incorporatingthemintotheirsolutions andinformationproductswhereappropriate.TheytesttheirproductsagainstcommonlyacceptedICTevaluationcriteria and,withassistance,refinetheirworktomeetboththecriteriaandaudienceneeds.Theydevelopandmaintainadigital bankofevidence(forexample,anelectronicportfolio),thatdemonstratestheirlearning.Thisrequiresstudents evaluating,selectingandorganisingfilesthatshowcasetheirlearningandthatareuptodateandstructuredinanorderly way.Studentsapplyfilemanagementproceduresthatassistinsecuringtheirfiles(forexample,backinguponstorage mediasuchasdisksormemorysticks),andinallowingtheeasyretrievaloffilesbyusingnamingconventionsthatare meaningful.Studentscontinuetouseergonomicpracticesthatassistinminimisingphysicalharm,suchasdoing exercisetoreduceinjuryduetorepetitiveactions.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Information and Communications Technology


Studentsbegintoworkinacollaborativeglobalenvironment.Theysharetheirdevelopingknowledgewiththeirpeers throughemail,andseekadvicefromothersthroughfrequentlyaskedquestions(FAQs),websitesorbydirectlyemailing experts.Studentsconsiderthesemethodsofsharinginformationwithawideraudience,anddevelopknowledgeof protocolsforsendingandreceivingelectronicinformationthroughtheInternetbycreatingandsendingemailswith attachmentsanduploadingfilestoprotectedpublicplacesonintranetsortheInternet. Whenproblemsolving,studentsuserecommendedsearchenginesandbegintorefinesearchquestionstolocate informationquicklyontheInternet.Thisinvolvesapplyingcriteriaforassessingtheintegrityofinformation,suchasthe reliabilityofthewebhostandtheaccuracyoftheinformation.

Standards
ICTforvisualisingthinking

AtLevel6,studentsapplyICTtoolsandtechniquestorepresentandexploreprocesses,patternsandcauseandeffect relationships.StudentsuseICTtoolsandtechniquesthatsupporttheorganisationandanalysisofconcepts,issuesand ideasandthatallowrelationshipstobeidentifiedandinferencesdrawnfromthem. Studentsreviewtheirstoredthinkingstrategiesinordertoidentifysimilaritiesanddifferencesintheirthinkingpatterns. Theydocumentintheirbankofdigitalevidencehowthesevisualisingthinkingstrategieshelpthemtounderstand conceptsandrelationships. ICTforcreating

AtLevel6,studentssafelyandindependentlyusearangeofskills,procedures,equipmentandfunctionstoprocess differentdatatypesandproduceaccurateandsuitablyformattedproductstosuitdifferentpurposesandaudiences.They usedesigntoolstorepresenthowsolutionswillbeproducedandthelayoutofinformationproducts.Studentsselect relevanttechniquesforminimisingthetimetakentoprocessdata,andapplyconventionsandtechniquesthatimprove theappearanceofthefinishedproduct.Studentsmodifyproductsonanongoingbasisinordertoimprovemeaningand judgetheirproductsagainstagreedcriteria. Studentscreateandmaintainanuptodate,logicallystructuredbankofdigitalevidenceoftheirlearning.Theypassword protectandbackupimportantfilesandusefilenamingconventionsthatalloweasyretrieval. ICTforcommunicating

AtLevel6,studentsuseemail,websitesandfrequentlyaskedquestionfacilitiestoacquirefrom,orshareinformation with,peersandknownandunknownexperts.Whenemailing,theysuccessfullyattachfilesandtheyapplyprotocolsfor sendingandreceivingelectronicinformation.Theysuccessfullyuploadtheirworktoaprotectedpubliconlinespace. Usingrecommendedsearchengines,studentsrefinetheirsearchstrategiestolocateinformationquickly.Theyevaluate theintegrityofthelocatedinformationbasedonitsaccuracyandthereliabilityofthewebhost.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Information and Communications Technology


Level7
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinInformationandCommunicationsTechnology,they learntouseavarietyofICTtoolsandtechniquestoassistwithfiltering,classifying,representing,describingand organisingideas,conceptsandissues.Forexample,agraphic/visualorganiserssuchasaninteractionoutlinercanbe usedtohelpstructurethinkingabouttheactions,reactionsandoutcomesoftwogroupsassociatedwithanissueand ruleusingsoftwaresuchasdatabasesandspreadsheetsenablethefilteringandclassifyingofdataandinformationin ordertomakemoreinformeddecisions.StudentsbegintouseICTtoolsandperipherals,suchasdataloggers,to supporttheinputofdataforsensing,monitoring,measuringorcontrollingsequencesandevents.Throughpractice, studentsbecomeskilledinjudgingthecapabilitiesandlimitationsofthesetoolsandtechniquesasaidstolearning. Inaddition,studentsuseICTtoolstoretracethedecisionsmadeandactionstakenwhenlearningandproblemsolving forexample,byusingarangeofsymbols,charts,images,soundandtext,studentscancreateaflowchartthatmaps theirthinkingprocessesandactions.Studentsreflectontheeffectivenessofthesesavedthinkingprocessmapsand retrieverelevantonestoguidefutureapplications. StudentsbecomeefficientusersofICTforplanningcollaborativeprojectsthatinvolvecreatinginformationproductsand solvingproblems.Usingsoftwaresuchaswordprocessorsandspreadsheets,andusingtechniquessuchastables andshading,theydevelopprojectplansthatsequencetasks,estimatetimelinesandrecordtaskresponsibilitieswhere teamsareinvolved.Teammembersrecordandmonitorprogressthroughsharedelectronicfiles.Studentsusethe operatingsystemfacilitiestomanagetheirdesktopworkspaceandorganisetheirfilesinawaythatassiststheir personallearningstyle.Theylearntosaveandretrievecompressedfilesanddevelopanunderstandingofthe characteristicsofdifferentfileformats,suchas.jpeg,.gifand.avi. Studentsdeveloptheirknowledgeaboutthecharacteristicsofdatabymanipulatingvariousdatatypes,suchastext, sound,numbersandimages(stillandmoving),tocreateformattedinformationproductsforexample,essaysand reports,animatedslideshows,andwebsites,brochuresandcartoons.Theyplanthedesignofproducts,influencedby generallyacceptedictpresentationconventions,anddevelopcriteriaforevaluatingtheeffectivenessofeachpresentation style.Theseincludemeetingaudience/userneedsandcommunicatingamessageeffectively.Studentsmakeongoing modificationstotheirproductstoimprovetheirefficiencyandeffectiveness,suchastestingthefunctionalityofpartsofa solution,correctingtypographicalerrorsandeditingtoclarifythemeaningofthemessage. Studentsapplytheirknowledgeofdatacharacteristicstosolvingproblemsforexample,whencalculatingthetimeit takestotraveltoadistantplanetusingvariousfuels,theyelecttousespreadsheetsoftwarebecauseitisdesignedto manipulatenumericdata,unlikewordprocessingsoftware,whichisdesignedtoformattext. StudentsexplorethedistinctionbetweenlegalandillegalusesofICTandcreateinformationproductsthatcomplywith ICTintellectualpropertylaw.Thisparticularlyrelatestocopyright. Studentsdevelopandmanagetheirdigitalbankofevidence,developing,forexample,anelectronicportfolioforarangeof audiences,includingteachers,parentsandpotentialemployers,andusethistodemonstrateandmonitortheirlearning progressinallareasofthecurriculum.

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Information and Communications Technology


Theyselectappropriatesearchenginesandusecomplexsearchstrategies(forexample,Boolean)tolocateinformation fromtheInternetandothersources,andtheyevaluatethecredibility,accuracy,reliabilityandcomprehensivenessofthis information.Theyorganiseandstoregatheredinformationtoenableeasyretrieval.Theyaccessonlineinteractivee learningtoolstohelpthemtodevelopknowledgeinallareasofthecurriculum. Studentsuseemailsoftwarefunctionstoorganisetheiremailmailbox.Forexample,theycleanup,archiveandsortemail toallowtheefficientandsecurestorageandretrievalofrelevantmessagesand/orattachments.Theyaccessappropriate websitesandonlineforumssuchasblogsandchatsites,tolocateinformationandtoshareideas,applyingprotocols thatrespectotherusersandthatprotectthepersonalsafetyofstudents.TheypublishtheirworkontheInternetafterithas beentestedandevaluated.

Standards
AtLevel7,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel8standards.

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Information and Communications Technology


Level8
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinInformationandCommunicationsTechnology,they learntouseavarietyofICTtoolsandtechniquestoassistwithfiltering,classifying,representing,describingand organisingideas,conceptsandissues.Forexample,agraphic/visualorganiserssuchasaninteractionoutlinercanbe usedtohelpstructurethinkingabouttheactions,reactionsandoutcomesoftwogroupsassociatedwithanissueand ruleusingsoftwaresuchasdatabasesandspreadsheetsenablethefilteringandclassifyingofdataandinformationin ordertomakemoreinformeddecisions.StudentsbegintouseICTtoolsandperipherals,suchasdataloggers,to supporttheinputofdataforsensing,monitoring,measuringorcontrollingsequencesandevents.Throughpractice, studentsbecomeskilledinjudgingthecapabilitiesandlimitationsofthesetoolsandtechniquesasaidstolearning. Inaddition,studentsuseICTtoolstoretracethedecisionsmadeandactionstakenwhenlearningandproblemsolving forexample,byusingarangeofsymbols,charts,images,soundandtext,studentscancreateaflowchartthatmaps theirthinkingprocessesandactions.Studentsreflectontheeffectivenessofthesesavedthinkingprocessmapsand retrieverelevantonestoguidefutureapplications. StudentsbecomeefficientusersofICTforplanningcollaborativeprojectsthatinvolvecreatinginformationproductsand solvingproblems.Usingsoftwaresuchaswordprocessorsandspreadsheets,andusingtechniquessuchastables andshading,theydevelopprojectplansthatsequencetasks,estimatetimelinesandrecordtaskresponsibilitieswhere teamsareinvolved.Teammembersrecordandmonitorprogressthroughsharedelectronicfiles.Studentsusethe operatingsystemfacilitiestomanagetheirdesktopworkspaceandorganisetheirfilesinawaythatassiststheir personallearningstyle.Theylearntosaveandretrievecompressedfilesanddevelopanunderstandingofthe characteristicsofdifferentfileformats,suchas.jpeg,.gifand.avi. Studentsdeveloptheirknowledgeaboutthecharacteristicsofdatabymanipulatingvariousdatatypes,suchastext, sound,numbersandimages(stillandmoving),tocreateformattedinformationproductsforexample,essaysand reports,animatedslideshows,andwebsites,brochuresandcartoons.Theyplanthedesignofproducts,influencedby generallyacceptedictpresentationconventions,anddevelopcriteriaforevaluatingtheeffectivenessofeachpresentation style.Theseincludemeetingaudience/userneedsandcommunicatingamessageeffectively.Studentsmakeongoing modificationstotheirproductstoimprovetheirefficiencyandeffectiveness,suchastestingthefunctionalityofpartsofa solution,correctingtypographicalerrorsandeditingtoclarifythemeaningofthemessage. Studentsapplytheirknowledgeofdatacharacteristicstosolvingproblemsforexample,whencalculatingthetimeit takestotraveltoadistantplanetusingvariousfuels,theyelecttousespreadsheetsoftwarebecauseitisdesignedto manipulatenumericdata,unlikewordprocessingsoftware,whichisdesignedtoformattext. StudentsexplorethedistinctionbetweenlegalandillegalusesofICTandcreateinformationproductsthatcomplywith ICTintellectualpropertylaw.Thisparticularlyrelatestocopyright. Studentsdevelopandmanagetheirdigitalbankofevidence,developing,forexample,anelectronicportfolioforarangeof audiences,includingteachers,parentsandpotentialemployers,andusethistodemonstrateandmonitortheirlearning progressinallareasofthecurriculum.

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Information and Communications Technology


Theyselectappropriatesearchenginesandusecomplexsearchstrategies(forexample,Boolean)tolocateinformation fromtheInternetandothersources,andtheyevaluatethecredibility,accuracy,reliabilityandcomprehensivenessofthis information.Theyorganiseandstoregatheredinformationtoenableeasyretrieval.Theyaccessonlineinteractivee learningtoolstohelpthemtodevelopknowledgeinallareasofthecurriculum. Studentsuseemailsoftwarefunctionstoorganisetheiremailmailbox.Forexample,theycleanup,archiveandsortemail toallowtheefficientandsecurestorageandretrievalofrelevantmessagesand/orattachments.Theyaccessappropriate websitesandonlineforumssuchasblogsandchatsites,tolocateinformationandtoshareideas,applyingprotocols thatrespectotherusersandthatprotectthepersonalsafetyofstudents.TheypublishtheirworkontheInternetafterithas beentestedandevaluated.

Standards
ICTforvisualisingthinking

AtLevel8,studentsselectandapplyICTtoolsandeditingfunctionsthatsupportthefiltering,classifying,representing, describingandorganisingofconcepts,issuesandideas.Theyuseruleusingsoftwaretoassistwithproblemsolving anddecisionmaking. Studentsretrieveandmodifysuccessfulapproachestovisualisingthinkingforuseinnewsituations.Theyexplainwhat featuresofthenewsituationsinfluencedtheirdecisionstouseparticularICTtoolsandtechniques. Studentsusearangeofdatatypes,includingsoundandstillandmovingimages,torecordthedecisionsmadeand actionstakenwhendevelopingnewunderstandingandproblemsolving.Theyevaluatethestrengthsandweaknessesof theirdecisionsandactionsinthegivensituations. ICTforcreating

AtLevel8,studentsindependentlyusetheoperatingsystemtomanagetheirdesktopworkspace.Theyorganisetheir folderslogically,appropriatelynameandlocatefilesforsharingwithothersandapplytechniquestofacilitatetheeasy handlingoflargefiles. Whencreatinginformationproducts,studentspreparedesignsthatidentifythestructureandlayoutoftheproducts,the evaluationcriteria,andtheplansformanagingcollaborativeprojects.Studentsindependentlyapplyarangeof processingskills,functionsandequipmenttosolveproblemsandcreateproductswhichcontainminimalfunctional, typographical,formattingandreadabilityerrors.Duringtheprocessingstageofcollaborativework,studentsmonitor projectplansandrecordreasonsforadjustingthem.Theyapplycriteriatoevaluatetheextenttowhichtheirinformation productsmeetuserneedsandcomplywithintellectualpropertylaws.TheyuseICTinasafe,efficientandeffective manner. Studentskeeptheirbankofdigitalevidenceuptodate,andensureitiseasytonavigate,complieswithICTpresentation conventionsanddemonstratesadiversityofICTskillsandknowledge. ICTforcommunicating

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Information and Communications Technology


AtLevel8,studentsselectthemostappropriatesearchenginestolocateinformationonwebsites.Theyusecomplex searchstrategiestorefinetheirsearches.Theyjudgetheintegrityofthelocatedinformationbasedonitscredibility, accuracy,reliabilityandcomprehensiveness. Studentssharetheirideasthroughtheirblog,websiteorotherpublicforums,whicharecorrectlyformatted,complywith ICTconventionsanddemonstrateanawarenessofthecharacteristicsthatcontributetoproductsmeetingtheirpurpose. Studentsorganisetheiremailmailboxintoalogicalstructureandmaintainit.Theyevaluatethemeritsofcontemporary communicationtools,takingintoaccounttheirsecurity,easeofuse,speedofcommunicationandimpactonindividuals.

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Information and Communications Technology


Level9
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinInformationandCommunicationsTechnology,they usecomplexICTtoolsandtechniquestovisuallyrepresent,model,reframeandrefinetheirthinkingtoassistin developingnewunderstanding.Forexample,theycanrepresentcausalreasoningbyusinggraphicorganiserssuchas causeandeffectdiagrams,influencediagramsandexploreandrepresenttheinterdependencebetweendifferent componentsofasituationbyusingexpertsystems,spreadsheetsandmicroworlds.Bychangingthevaluesofsome variablecomponents,studentscanvisualisetheeffectoftheseontheconstantcomponentstoassisttheir understanding. Inadditiontorecordingandevaluatingthedecisionsandactionstakenwhendevelopingnewunderstandingandsolving problems,studentslearntoassesstheirsuitabilityfornewsituationsandmakeadaptationswherenecessary. Workinginrealandvirtualteams,studentscollaborativelydevelopconventionsforstoringandpresentinginformation (suchasstyleguides,filenames,filestructure,fileaccessrights)tocreateinformationproductsandsolveproblemsset inrealworldcontextsinallareasofthecurriculum.Theyinvestigatethreatstodatasecurity,suchasaccidentalloss (failuretofollowfilemanagementprocedures),stealing(filesfromanetwork),anddatacorruptionbyvirusesand hackers.Thisinvestigationcouldfocusonthepreventativeactionstakenbybusinesseswithinthelocalcommunityto protecttheirdataandinformation.TheyapplyICTtechniquesandprivacylawprinciplestoprotectindividualandteam filesfromunauthorisedaccessandaccidentaldamage. Students,individuallyandinteams,useICTtomakedetailedprojectplansthatsequencetaskstobedone,resources neededandtimelinesforcompletion.Theyannotatetheseplanstoexplainchangesmadeduringtheexecutionoftasks. Whenselectinghardwareandsoftwareforeachtask,studentsconsiderthecapabilitiesandlimitationsofthesetools andrecognisethattheirchoiceisinfluencedbythecharacteristicsofthedatatobemanipulated.Studentsconsidernew oremergingICTusedinworkplaces,andhowtheirnewcapabilitieswouldchangethewaystudentsprocessdataand informationwhendevelopinginformationproducts. Studentsconsistentlyapplycommonlyacceptedictpresentationconventionsanduseefficientproceduresand techniquestosolveproblems,andcreatequalityinformationproductsthatfulfiltheirpurpose.Forexample,templates, macrosandkeyboardshortcutsreducethetimetakentoprocessdataandincreasetheaccuracyofcreatingsolutions andproducts.Also,usingchecklistshelpsconfirmthecompletenessofproductsandproofreadingassistsindetecting typographicalandreadabilityerrors. StudentsacceptandrespectdifferencesinothersapproachestousingICTforsolvingproblemsanddesigning products,andrespectculturaldiversityamongusersofICTforexample,usingiconsonawebsitetoindicatefunctions suchasprintandmail,whichareuniversallyrecognised,andusingsymbolsthatarenotoffensivetodifferentcultures. StudentsuseICTtechniquestomaketheirinformationproductsaccessibletoawideaudience,takingintoaccount specialneeds.Forexample,providingoptionstoviewawebsiteindifferentfontsizesassistsvisuallyimpairedpeople, andtranscriptsofaudiomaterialassistthehearingimpaired. Studentsdevelopcriteriatoevaluatetheirownandothersworkandusethemtoassessqualityandtheextenttowhich thepurposeisfulfilled.Forexample,studentscomparethequalityoftheirwebsitewithacommercialone,takinginto accounttheknowledgeandskillstypicalofprofessionalwebsitedesigners.

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Information and Communications Technology


Studentsbuildonskillsdevelopedinpreviouslevelstoshareideaswiththeteacherandothersthrougharangeof electroniccommunicationmeanssuchasemail,contributingtoforums,SMSmessaging,andinteractingwithwebsites suchasWikipedia(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page),whichallowviewerstomakemodificationstothecontent. Studentsexpandtheirskillsinlocatinginformationonwebsitesbyusinggeneralandspecialiseddirectories.Theyrefine theirsearchingtechniquestogetmorepreciseresultsbyusingwithinsuitablesearchengines,proximityoperators, whichspecifywhereoneterminadocumentmustappearinrelationtoanotherterm.Theydevelopknowledgeand understandingabouttheethicaluseofICTthroughpracticalexperience,observationoftheirownandothersbehaviour, andbyresearchingstrategiesforprotectingvulnerableusersfromaccessingorreceivingunwantedinformationfromthe Internet.

Standards
AtLevel9,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel10standards.

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Information and Communications Technology


Level10
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinInformationandCommunicationsTechnology,they usecomplexICTtoolsandtechniquestovisuallyrepresent,model,reframeandrefinetheirthinkingtoassistin developingnewunderstanding.Forexample,theycanrepresentcausalreasoningbyusinggraphicorganiserssuchas causeandeffectdiagrams,influencediagramsandexploreandrepresenttheinterdependencebetweendifferent componentsofasituationbyusingexpertsystems,spreadsheetsandmicroworlds.Bychangingthevaluesofsome variablecomponents,studentscanvisualisetheeffectoftheseontheconstantcomponentstoassisttheir understanding. Inadditiontorecordingandevaluatingthedecisionsandactionstakenwhendevelopingnewunderstandingandsolving problems,studentslearntoassesstheirsuitabilityfornewsituationsandmakeadaptationswherenecessary. Workinginrealandvirtualteams,studentscollaborativelydevelopconventionsforstoringandpresentinginformation (suchasstyleguides,filenames,filestructure,fileaccessrights)tocreateinformationproductsandsolveproblemsset inrealworldcontextsinallareasofthecurriculum.Theyinvestigatethreatstodatasecurity,suchasaccidentalloss (failuretofollowfilemanagementprocedures),stealing(filesfromanetwork),anddatacorruptionbyvirusesand hackers.Thisinvestigationcouldfocusonthepreventativeactionstakenbybusinesseswithinthelocalcommunityto protecttheirdataandinformation.TheyapplyICTtechniquesandprivacylawprinciplestoprotectindividualandteam filesfromunauthorisedaccessandaccidentaldamage. Students,individuallyandinteams,useICTtomakedetailedprojectplansthatsequencetaskstobedone,resources neededandtimelinesforcompletion.Theyannotatetheseplanstoexplainchangesmadeduringtheexecutionoftasks. Whenselectinghardwareandsoftwareforeachtask,studentsconsiderthecapabilitiesandlimitationsofthesetools andrecognisethattheirchoiceisinfluencedbythecharacteristicsofthedatatobemanipulated.Studentsconsidernew oremergingICTusedinworkplaces,andhowtheirnewcapabilitieswouldchangethewaystudentsprocessdataand informationwhendevelopinginformationproducts. Studentsconsistentlyapplycommonlyacceptedictpresentationconventionsanduseefficientproceduresand techniquestosolveproblems,andcreatequalityinformationproductsthatfulfiltheirpurpose.Forexample,templates, macrosandkeyboardshortcutsreducethetimetakentoprocessdataandincreasetheaccuracyofcreatingsolutions andproducts.Also,usingchecklistshelpsconfirmthecompletenessofproductsandproofreadingassistsindetecting typographicalandreadabilityerrors. StudentsacceptandrespectdifferencesinothersapproachestousingICTforsolvingproblemsanddesigning products,andrespectculturaldiversityamongusersofICTforexample,usingiconsonawebsitetoindicatefunctions suchasprintandmail,whichareuniversallyrecognised,andusingsymbolsthatarenotoffensivetodifferentcultures. StudentsuseICTtechniquestomaketheirinformationproductsaccessibletoawideaudience,takingintoaccount specialneeds.Forexample,providingoptionstoviewawebsiteindifferentfontsizesassistsvisuallyimpairedpeople, andtranscriptsofaudiomaterialassistthehearingimpaired. Studentsdevelopcriteriatoevaluatetheirownandothersworkandusethemtoassessqualityandtheextenttowhich thepurposeisfulfilled.Forexample,studentscomparethequalityoftheirwebsitewithacommercialone,takinginto accounttheknowledgeandskillstypicalofprofessionalwebsitedesigners.

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Information and Communications Technology


Studentsbuildonskillsdevelopedinpreviouslevelstoshareideaswiththeteacherandothersthrougharangeof electroniccommunicationmeanssuchasemail,contributingtoforums,SMSmessaging,andinteractingwithwebsites suchasWikipedia(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page),whichallowviewerstomakemodificationstothecontent. Studentsexpandtheirskillsinlocatinginformationonwebsitesbyusinggeneralandspecialiseddirectories.Theyrefine theirsearchingtechniquestogetmorepreciseresultsbyusingwithinsuitablesearchengines,proximityoperators, whichspecifywhereoneterminadocumentmustappearinrelationtoanotherterm.Theydevelopknowledgeand understandingabouttheethicaluseofICTthroughpracticalexperience,observationoftheirownandothersbehaviour, andbyresearchingstrategiesforprotectingvulnerableusersfromaccessingorreceivingunwantedinformationfromthe Internet.

Standards
ICTforvisualisingthinking

AtLevel10,studentsusearangeofICTtoolsanddatatypestovisualisetheirthinkingstrategieswhensolvingproblems anddevelopingnewunderstanding.TheyusevisualisingthinkingtoolsandapplyICTtechniquestosupportcausal reasoningandtomodelanddescribethedynamicrelationshipbetweenvariableandconstantdatavaluestotest hypotheses. StudentsareefficientandeffectiveintheiruseofappropriateICTtoolsandeditingtechniquesforassistinginvisualising thinking.Whensolvingproblems,studentsdiscriminatebetweensuchtoolsandstrategiesbasedontheirsuitabilityfor problemsolvinginnewsituations. ICTforcreating

AtLevel10,studentsappraisedifferentstrategiesfororganisingandmanagingresourcesinvolvedinproblemsolving andcreatinginformationproducts.TheyuseICTtodevisedetailedplansthatsequencetaskstobedone,resources needed,andtimelinesforcompletion.Theyannotatetheirplanstoexplainchangesmadeduringtheproject. Individually,andasteammembers,studentsapplyarangeoftechniques,equipmentandproceduresthatminimisethe cost,effortandtimeofprocessingICTsolutionsandmaximisetheaccuracy,clarityandcompletenessoftheinformation. Theyapplystrategiesthatprotecttheirfilesfrombeingcorrupted,stolenoraccidentallylost.Theirproductsdemonstratea clearsenseofpurposeandrespectfortheaudience.Studentsapplyprocessingpracticesthattakeintoaccounttheir legalobligationsandethicalconsiderations.Theycomparetheirownsolutionswithothersandjustifysuggestionsto improvequality. ICTforcommunicating

AtLevel10,studentsexchangeideasandconsideredopinionswithothersthroughonlineforumsandwebsites. Studentsapplytechniquestolocatemorepreciseinformationfromwebsites,includingsearchinggeneraland specialiseddirectories,andapplyingproximityoperators.Theyuseacceptedprotocolstocommunicateregularlyonline withpeers,experts,andothers,expressingtheirmessagesinlanguageappropriatetotheselectedformof communication,anddemonstratingrespectforculturaldifferences.

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Interpersonal Development
TableofContents Overview Introduction Domainstructure Stagesoflearning CurriculumF10 Foundationlevel Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level5 Level6 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10

2 2 2 3 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

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Interpersonal Development

IntroductiontoInterpersonalDevelopment
LearningintheInterpersonalDevelopmentdomainsupportsstudentstoinitiate,maintainandmanagepositivesocial relationshipswitharangeofpeopleinarangeofcontexts.Itisthroughthedevelopmentofpositivesocialrelationshipsthat individualsbecomelinkedtosociety,developasenseofbelongingandlearntoliveandworkwithothers.Inapluralistic, multiculturalsocietysuchasAustralia,withvaryinginterests,valuesandbeliefs,itisessentialthatindividualslearnto participateingroupswhosemembersarefromdiversebackgrounds.Inthisdomainthereisaparticularfocusondeveloping studentscapacitytoworkcooperativelyaspartofateamasthisiswidelyacknowledgedasbeingacorerequirementfor successintheworkplaceandinthecommunity. Buildingeffectivesocialrelationshipsandrelatingwelltoothersrequiresindividualstobeempathetic,andtobeabletodeal effectivelywiththeirownemotionsandinnermoods.Italsorequiresthemtobeawareofthesocialconventionsand responsibilitiesthatunderpintheformationofeffectiverelationships.Allsocialrelationshipshavethepotentialtocreate conflict.Studentsneedtodeveloptheskillsandstrategiestomanageandresolveconflictinasensible,fairandeffective mannerandnotseeitassomethingtoavoidoreliminate. Workingcooperativelyaspartofateamrequirestheskillsoutlinedabove.Inaddition,itrequiresindividualstobeableto balancecommitmenttothegroupanditsnormswiththeirownneeds.Thisrequirescompetenceinpresentingtheirown ideasandlisteningtothoseofothers,approachingtopicsfromdifferentviewpoints,andunderstandingtheirspecificroleand responsibilitiesinrelationtothoseofothersandtheoverallteamgoal. Relationshipswithpeersandadultsattheschoolprovidestudentswithopportunitiesforreflectionandgrowth.Adultsatthe schoolcanreinforcethislearningbyprovidingpositiverolemodels.Interactionsshouldbepositive,fair,respectfuland friendlyandbesupportedbyaclassroomculturewhichisopen,honestandaccepting. TheInterpersonalDevelopmentdomainprovidesstudentswithlearningopportunitiesandexperiencesthatwillsupporttheir learningacrossthecurriculum,particularlyinrelationtoworkinginteamswherecollaborationandcooperation,sharing resourcesandcompletingagreedtasksontimearehighlighted.Learningrelatedtobuildingsocialrelationships encouragesstudentstomaintainpositivelearningenvironmentsacrosstheirlearningprograms.

StructureoftheInterpersonalDevelopmentDomain
TheInterpersonalDevelopmentdomainusesanelevenlevelstructuretobothreflectthedesignofthenewAustralian CurriculumandtoprovideaconsistentstructureacrossalltheAusVELSdomains(formoredetails,pleaseseeOverview). Eachlevelincludesalearningfocusstatementandasetofstandards.

Learningfocus
Learningfocusstatementsarewrittenforeachlevel.Theseoutlinethelearningthatstudentsneedtofocusoniftheyareto progressinthedomainandachievethestandardsatthelevelswheretheyapply.Theysuggestappropriatelearning experiencesfromwhichteacherscandrawtodeveloprelevantteachingandlearningactivities.

Standards
Standardsdefinewhatstudentsshouldknowandbeabletodoatdifferentlevelsandarewrittenforeachdimension.In InterpersonalDevelopment,standardsforassessingandreportingonstudentachievementapplyfromFoundation,although atthisleveltheyarenotorganisedbydimension.

Dimensions

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Interpersonal Development
StandardsintheInterpersonalDevelopmentdomainareorganisedintwodimensions:
l l

Buildingsocialrelationships Workinginteams.

Buildingsocialrelationships
LearningintheBuildingsocialrelationshipsdimensionsupportsstudentstoinitiate,maintainandmanagepositivesocial relationshipswithadiverserangeofpeopleinarangeofcontexts.Studentslearnaboutandpractisethesocialconventions whichunderpinrelationshipsandlearnhowtoactinsociallyresponsibleways.Strategiesforunderstanding,managingand resolvingconflictarealsoanimportantfocus.

Workinginteams
IntheWorkinginteamsdimensionstudentsdeveloptheknowledge,skillsandbehaviourstocooperatewithothersto contributetotheachievementofgroupgoals.Thefocusisnotonlytaskachievement,butalsooncontributingto,and reflectingon,thelearningwhichoccursthroughbeingpartofateam.

StagesofLearninginInterpersonalDevelopment
AusVELStakesaccountofthedevelopmentalstagesoflearningyoungpeopleexperienceatschool.Whilestudentlearning isacontinuumanddifferentstudentsdevelopatdifferentrates,theybroadlyprogressthroughthreestagesoflearning. Thefollowingstatementsdescribewaysinwhichthesecharacteristicsrelatetolearningexperiencesandstandardsineach ofthethreestagesoflearningintheInterpersonalDevelopmentdomain. ThefollowingdescriptionidentifiessomekeydevelopmentalissuesforteachersandstudentsintheInterpersonal Developmentdomain.Linksaremadebetweenphysicaldevelopment(includingthebrain),educationaltheory,andsocial, cognitiveandemotionaldevelopment. FoundationtoLevel4Layingthefoundations Thefirstchallengeforchildrenatschoolistosocialiseandconnectwithteachersandotherstudents,andsuchengagement behavioural,emotionalandcognitiveremainscriticaltosuccessthroughoutschooling.Behavinginawaythatis cooperativeandconsiderateofothers,demonstratesaminimallevelofengagementthatallowsstudentstofunction effectivelytogetherandwiththeirteachers. Socialengagementencouragesstudentstobehaveasgroupmembersandtofeelapositiveemotionalconnectiontoother people,groupsandtheschool.Emotionalengagementmaybedefinedintermsofgeneralwellbeingatschool,as evidencedby,forexample,feelingsofhappiness,safety,calmnessandempowerment,asopposedtosadness,worry, helplessnessandstress. Emotionalengagementmaybedefinedintermsofidentificationwiththeschool.Asenseofbelongingatschoolcomesfrom experiencingsafetyandsecurityunderstandingthesocialvaluesandnormsthatinformtherulesandpracticesofthe classroombeingprovidedwithopportunitiestoparticipateinameaningfulwayhavingopportunitiesthatarerealistic(given astudentslevelofdevelopment)andbeinggivenrecognitionforeffort.

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Interpersonal Development
Studentswhounderstandthevaluesandpracticesoftheclassroom,andwhodeveloptheknowledge,behaviourandskills tolearningroups,aremorelikelytodevelopselfworthandconfidence.Thosewhoareemotionallyengagedarelikelyto complywithschoolrulesandexpectations,todevelophabitsofconfidenceandoptimism,tobemotivated,todeveloppro socialbehaviours,andtodevelopemotionalskills.Emotionalskillsthatarefundamentaltodevelopingmoresophisticated groupbehavioursareselfawareness,selfregulation,motivation,persistenceandempathy. InLevels3and4,studentsbegintoshifttheirfocusfromtheirinnertotheirsocialworld.Throughtheirrelationshipsthey expandtheirsocialworldandlearnhowtorecognisetheneedsofothers.Theyrespectandsupporteachother,offering assistanceandgivingappropriatefeedbackwhenappropriate. Friendshipprovidesopportunitiesforsocialgrowth.Studentsformattachments,makeemotionalinvestmentsandform bondsoutsidethefamily.Theybecomeawareofcommoninterestsandunderstandings,valuessuchasloyaltyandtrust, andhowthesecontributetojoyandfun.Learningandplayingingroups,theybecomemoreawareofdiverserulesand customs,developsocialskillssuchasnegotiation,conflictmanagement,groupdecisionmaking,toleranceandsocial problemsolving.Aswellasjoyandsatisfaction,studentsexperienceconflictanddisappointment.Learningthatencourages inclusive,ratherthanexclusivesocialbehaviours(suchasbullying),isfundamentalatthisstageofinterpersonal development. Withthisswitchinfocus,studentsalsobecomemoreawareoftheirownvaluesystemsandthoseofothers.Thisisatimeof moraldevelopmentwherechildrenbeginmovingfromanelementarystagepreoccupiedwiththeirownneedstowards somerecognitionoftheneedsofothersandadegreeofreciprocity.Valueseducationthatinformssocialskillsdevelopment isimportantatthisstageofschooling. Levels5to8Buildingbreadthanddepth DuringLevels5to8moststudentsexperiencethemovefromprimarytosecondaryschool.Theselevelsofschoolingtendto covertwodistinctphasesLevels5and6,andLevels7and8.Duringtheformer,somestudentswillexperiencetheonset ofadolescence(beginpuberty),whileotherswillremaininlatechildhood.Differencesinemotional,behaviouraland cognitivedevelopmentamongstudentsmaybevast.Theymayexperiencedramaticphysicalandemotionalchangesthat are,attimes,allconsuming. Youngpeoplewillincreasinglydifferentiatethemselvesintermsoftheirpeers,physicalattributesandcompetence,and begintorecognisesimilaritiesanddifferencesinthevaluesandbeliefsofothers. Theshiftfromchildhoodtoadolescenceisaccompaniedbytheshiftfromprimarytosecondaryschooling.Manyyoung peoplefindthisshiftexcitingandchallenging,aswellasstressfulandconfronting.Studentsareoftensubjectedtomore competitivestandardsandinstitutionalisedformsofemotionalandbehaviouralmanagement.Stressmayimpedethe developmentoftheadolescentbrain.Thereisalsoevidencetoindicatethatstresshasamorenegativeeffectonthebrain developmentoffemalesthanmales,especiallyforperiodsofprolongedstress.Asupportivesocialcontextis,then,as importantasatanyotherlevelsofschooling. Asupportivesocialcontextincludesrelationshipsandteamexperiencesthathelpadolescentstomaintainpositiveoutlooks andattitudes.Encouragingyoungpeopletosupportandcomplementeachother,tobuildtrust,toappreciatesimilaritiesand difference,toreflectonmotivesandpossibilitiesaresomeofthebehavioursthatbuildasupportivesocialcontext. Developingtheskillsforconnectingwithsupportiveadultsandprosocialpeergroupsisvitalduringthisphaseof development.Studentswhocommunicateeffectively,developpositivethinkinghabitsandcopingskills,workcooperatively, haveselfcontrol,andareabletoresolveconflictsthoughtfullywithoutresortingtoavoidanceoraggression,aremostlikelyto developtheskillsandbehaviourstoworkwithothersinteams.Theytakeresponsibilityandsupportothers.

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Interpersonal Development
Theadolescentbrainisnotfullymaturefromaround12to18levelsofageheavilyusedpartsofthebraindevelop,and unusedpartsofthebrainarepruned.Thisprocessismostpredominantintheprefrontalcortex,anareaofthebraincritical foranticipatingconsequences,controllingimpulsesandmoodmodulation. Areducedcapacitytomodulatemoodsmakesyoungpeoplevulnerabletonegativethoughtswhenreflectingonselfand others.Consequently,thecapacityofadolescentstoemploypositivecopingstrategieswhenmanagingconflictandstress maybediminished.Thismayoccuratatimewhenadditionalpressuresandexpectationsareoccurringintheirlives.Many adolescentsalsohaveareducedcapacitytoreadsocialsituationsoreventheemotionsofothers.Structuredtasksmayhelp studentstorecognisepeerinfluenceontheirbehaviour. Tocompensatefortheunderdevelopmentoftheprefrontalcortex,theadolescentbrainreliesheavilyonotheremotional centresinthebrain,creatingatendencytoreactoninstincts.Learninghowtomanageemotions,predictconsequences, developoptimisticthinkinghabitsandsetgoalsarebehavioursandskillsthatwillhelpyoungpeopletoworkcollaboratively. Levels9to10Developingpathways BythetimestudentsreachLevel9theyarewellintoadolescenceandbeginningtoseetheirfutureasadults.Theyare:
l l l l l l l l l

acceptingtheirphysiqueandtheirgenderidentity developingmoresupportiverelationshipswiththeirpeers gainingindependencefromtheirparentsandteachers seekingeconomicindependence thinkingaboutanoccupation developingintellectualskillsandconceptsnecessaryforciviccompetence desiringandachievingsociallyresponsiblebehaviour imaginingthesortoflifetowhichtheyaspire buildingconsciousvaluescongruentwithanadequatescientificworldpicture.

Inshort,itisatimeofincreasingresponsibilityandexpectation.Youngpeoplereconsiderwhathasbeeninculcatedinthem, andacquireapersonalpointofviewandapersonalplaceintheworld.Somemayreachanawarenessofuniversalvalues andethicalprinciples. Parentsandteachersoftenbecomelessimportantmodels,especiallywithregardtoissuesthatareofimmediateconcern. Incontrast,peersbecomemoreimportantasmodels.Programsthatencouragepositivepeerinfluence,andlinkyouthswith adultswillhavepositiveoutcomesintermsofresilienceandcopingstyles. Thegreatestshiftincopingoccursbetween14and16levels,whichmakeittheoptimumtimeforstudentstoreflectontheir copingbehavioursanddevelopparticularstrategies. Copingskillsareoftenseeninthecontextofabroadersetofskills,attitudesandbeliefsrelatedtoresilience.Resilientyoung people:
l l l l l

formattachmentstoprosocialgroupsatschoolandinthecommunity formrelationshipswithadiverserangeofpeopleincludingsignificantadults haveapositiveattitude,protectivecopingskillsandasenseofoptimism aredevelopingasenseofpurposeinlife havestabledomesticorlivingarrangements.

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Interpersonal Development
Acommonfactorineachoftheaboveisthesenseofbelongingandinvolvementthatcomesfrombeingameaningfuland usefulcontributortothegroup,whetherthisbepeer,work,familyorcommunity. Youngpeoplearemoremotivatedwhentheyseethelinkbetweentasks,theirviewofthemselvesandtheirfuture.Students whohavetheknowledge,skillsandbehaviourstodothiswillbecapableofgivingandseekingthesupportthatwillassist themtobecomevaluablecontributorstotheirfamilies,communitiesandworkplaces.Theywillalsobemorelikelytocreate theconditionsnecessaryforgivingandreceivingthesocial,emotionalandintellectualsupportneededtoachievefull potentialinhigherlevelsofschoolingandbeyond.

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Interpersonal Development

Foundationlevel
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofFoundationstandardsinInterpersonalDevelopment,theyinteractwiththeir peers,teachersandotheradultsinarangeofcontexts.Theylearntoplayconstructivelytogetherandareencouragedto developfriendshipswithpeers. Studentslearntomanagetheirimpulsesbydevelopinghabitsandroutinesthathelpthemtobeacooperativeclass member.Theydevelopavocabularytodescribetheemotionstheyexperiencewheninteractingwithothers. Withteachersupport,studentsbegintoidentifyanddeveloptheskillsrequiredtoworktogetherinagroup,including takingturns,andsharingandcaringforequipmentandresources.Throughsupportedreflectionontheirown experiencesofworkingwithapartner,insmallgroupandwholeclasssituations,studentssharetheirthoughtsongroup collaborationandlearntodescribeandpractiseskillsthatcontributetotheformationofpositiverelationships,and explainwhytheseskillsaredesirable. Whileplayinggamesandparticipatinginclassroomactivities,studentspractiselisteningtoothersandrecordingor retellingwhatothershavesaid.Withteachersupport,theypractiseusingtheseskillswiththeirpeersinavarietyof contextsandbegintoidentifywhenitwouldbeusefultoapplytheseskillsinothersituations. Studentsaresupportedtodevelopappropriatelanguagetoexplainwhathappensandhowtheyfeelwhenexperiencing conflictand/orbullying.Theybegintounderstandhowtheiractionsaffectothers.Studentslearnthatsomepeoplehave specialneedsandtorespecttherights,feelingsandeffortsofothers.

Standards
Atthislevelstandardsarenotorganisedbydimensions. InterpersonalDevelopment

AtFoundation,studentsidentifythequalitiesofafriendanddemonstratecareforotherstudents.Theycontributetothe developmentofpositivesocialrelationshipsinarangeofcontexts.Theyuseappropriatelanguageandactionswhen dealingwithconflict.Studentsdescribebasicskillsrequiredtoworkcooperativelyingroups.

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Interpersonal Development
Level1
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel2standardsinInterpersonalDevelopment,theyinteractwiththeir peers,olderandyoungerstudentsandadults,inarangeofcontexts.Withteachersupport,studentsreflectonpersonal qualitieswhichcontributetothedevelopmentandmaintenanceoffriendships.Theybegintodevelopandexhibit appropriatebehavioursformaintainingpositivesocialrelationships. Throughactivitiessuchasreading,discussionandroleplay,studentslearntorecogniseanddescribethefeelingsand emotionalresponsesofothers.Theycomparethesewiththeirownemotionalresponsesandadjusttheirbehaviourin response. Studentslearntorecognisethattheiractionshaveconsequencesforboththemselvesandothersinsocialcontexts.They begintothinkintermsofotherpeoplesfeelingsandneeds,especiallywhenresolvingconflictordealingwithbullyingfor example,bysayingsorryortakinganotherpersonspointofviewintoconsideration. Studentslearntoworkinteamstocompletestructuredactivitieswithinasettimeframe(theteachermayselecttheteams andallocaterolesandresponsibilities).Studentslearntostayontaskandshareresourcesfairly.Inresponseto questionsandprompts,theylearntoreflectontheteamschallengesandsuccessesandtheircontributiontotheteams effectiveness.

Standards
AtLevel1,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel2standards.

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Interpersonal Development
Level2
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel2standardsinInterpersonalDevelopment,theyinteractwiththeir peers,olderandyoungerstudentsandadults,inarangeofcontexts.Withteachersupport,studentsreflectonpersonal qualitieswhichcontributetothedevelopmentandmaintenanceoffriendships.Theybegintodevelopandexhibit appropriatebehavioursformaintainingpositivesocialrelationships. Throughactivitiessuchasreading,discussionandroleplay,studentslearntorecogniseanddescribethefeelingsand emotionalresponsesofothers.Theycomparethesewiththeirownemotionalresponsesandadjusttheirbehaviourin response. Studentslearntorecognisethattheiractionshaveconsequencesforboththemselvesandothersinsocialcontexts.They begintothinkintermsofotherpeoplesfeelingsandneeds,especiallywhenresolvingconflictordealingwithbullyingfor example,bysayingsorryortakinganotherpersonspointofviewintoconsideration. Studentslearntoworkinteamstocompletestructuredactivitieswithinasettimeframe(theteachermayselecttheteams andallocaterolesandresponsibilities).Studentslearntostayontaskandshareresourcesfairly.Inresponseto questionsandprompts,theylearntoreflectontheteamschallengesandsuccessesandtheircontributiontotheteams effectiveness.

Standards
Buildingsocialrelationships

AtLevel2,studentsbehaveappropriatelyinarangeofsocialsituations.Theyidentifythefeelingsandneedsofother people.Studentsidentifyandacceptthatthereareconsequencesfortheiractions.Theytakeappropriatestepstoresolve simpleconflicts. Workinginteams

AtLevel2,studentsworkinteamsinassignedroles,stayontaskandcompletestructuredactivitieswithinset timeframes.Theyshareresourcesfairly.Withteachersupport,theydescribetheircontributiontotheactivitiesoftheteam.

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Interpersonal Development
Level3
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinInterpersonalDevelopment,theyinteractwiththeir peers,olderandyoungerstudents,andadultsinbothinformalandformalcontexts.Theydeveloptheirskillsand strategiesforgettingtoknowandunderstandotherswithinincreasinglycomplexsituations.Withteachersupport,they identifydifferenttypesoffriendshipsandrelationships.Theydiscusstheexpectationstheyhaveoffriendshipand relationshipgroupsandacknowledgetheexpectationsthatothershaveofthem.Theyrecognisethatrelationships changeandthatpositiverelationshipsdonotdependonalwaysagreeingwithoneanother. Studentsareencouragedtothinkabouttheirvaluesandhowtheseaffecttheirfeelingsandbehaviour.Theyare supportedtodeveloprelationshipsbasedonrespectandthevaluingofindividualdifferencesforexample,speaking respectfullyaboutothers,listeningandrespondingappropriatelyandencouragingotherscontributions.Theylearnto respectotherstudentsbelongingsand,whenappropriate,tosharetheirown. Studentsbegintoexplorethelinkbetweentheirfeelingsandtheirbehaviour.Theylearnaboutempathyandusethisto begintorespondtotheneedsofothers.Usingpromptsandquestions,theydevelopskillsingivingandaccepting constructivefeedbackforexample,praisingormakingsuggestionsforimprovement. Studentsareintroducedtoavarietyofstrategiesfordealingwithconflictandbullying.Byarticulatingtheconflicttobe resolved,theydiscussoptionsandoutcomesandworkwithotherstodevelopplansandprocedurestoreducethe possibilityofconflict,avoidorresolveconflict. Inteams,studentsworktowardstheachievementofagreedgoalswithinasettimeframe.Withteacherassistance,they developawarenessoftheirroleintheteamandresponsibilitiesinvarioussituations,andinteractwithothers accordingly.Studentsbegintobeawarethatdifferentpointsofviewmaybevalid.Usingprovidedcriteria,theyreflecton theeffectivenessoftheteamsinwhichtheyparticipate.

Standards
AtLevel3,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel4standards.

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Interpersonal Development
Level4
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel4standardsinInterpersonalDevelopment,theyinteractwiththeir peers,olderandyoungerstudents,andadultsinbothinformalandformalcontexts.Theydeveloptheirskillsand strategiesforgettingtoknowandunderstandotherswithinincreasinglycomplexsituations.Withteachersupport,they identifydifferenttypesoffriendshipsandrelationships.Theydiscusstheexpectationstheyhaveoffriendshipand relationshipgroupsandacknowledgetheexpectationsthatothershaveofthem.Theyrecognisethatrelationships changeandthatpositiverelationshipsdonotdependonalwaysagreeingwithoneanother. Studentsareencouragedtothinkabouttheirvaluesandhowtheseaffecttheirfeelingsandbehaviour.Theyare supportedtodeveloprelationshipsbasedonrespectandthevaluingofindividualdifferencesforexample,speaking respectfullyaboutothers,listeningandrespondingappropriatelyandencouragingotherscontributions.Theylearnto respectotherstudentsbelongingsand,whenappropriate,tosharetheirown. Studentsbegintoexplorethelinkbetweentheirfeelingsandtheirbehaviour.Theylearnaboutempathyandusethisto begintorespondtotheneedsofothers.Usingpromptsandquestions,theydevelopskillsingivingandaccepting constructivefeedbackforexample,praisingormakingsuggestionsforimprovement. Studentsareintroducedtoavarietyofstrategiesfordealingwithconflictandbullying.Byarticulatingtheconflicttobe resolved,theydiscussoptionsandoutcomesandworkwithotherstodevelopplansandprocedurestoreducethe possibilityofconflict,avoidorresolveconflict. Inteams,studentsworktowardstheachievementofagreedgoalswithinasettimeframe.Withteacherassistance,they developawarenessoftheirroleintheteamandresponsibilitiesinvarioussituations,andinteractwithothers accordingly.Studentsbegintobeawarethatdifferentpointsofviewmaybevalid.Usingprovidedcriteria,theyreflecton theeffectivenessoftheteamsinwhichtheyparticipate.

Standards
Buildingsocialrelationships

AtLevel4,studentsdemonstraterespectforothersandexhibitappropriatebehaviourformaintainingfriendshipswith otherpeople.Theysupporteachotherbysharingideasandmaterials,offeringassistance,givingappropriatefeedback andacknowledgingindividualdifferences.Theyworkwithotherstoreduce,avoidandresolveconflict. Workinginteams

AtLevel4,studentscooperatewithothersinteamsforagreedpurposes,takingrolesandfollowingguidelines establishedwithinthetask.Theydescribeandevaluatetheirowncontributionandtheteamsprogresstowardsthe achievementofagreedgoals.

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Interpersonal Development
Level5
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinInterpersonalDevelopment,theydevelopskillsand behavioursforconnectingwithavarietyofgroups,includingpeerandcommunitygroups.Studentsparticipateinarange ofclassroomactivitieswheretheyexplorethesimilaritiesanddifferencesinthevaluesandbeliefsofarangeof individualsandgroups.Theybegintoreflectonwhatthismaymeanforthemselveswhenbuildingandmaintaining relationshipswithadiverserangeofpeople.Theyexploreanddiscussbehaviourswhichdemonstratesensitivityto culturaldifferencesintheirinteractionswithothers. Studentscomparetheirbeliefsandvalueswithothers,andconsiderhowtheseinfluencefeelingsandbehaviour. Throughdiscussionandactivitiessuchasroleplay,theyreflectoninclusion,belongingandtolerance.Theyconsider howitfeelstobeexcludedfromagroup.Theyidentifyexamplesofbullyinginarangeofcontexts.Theyexploretheimpact ofbullyingonpeoplessenseofselfworthandareassistedtoidentify,discussandusedifferentstrategiestoreduce, avoidandresolvebullying. Studentsbegintorecogniseanddiscusstheinfluencethatpeerscanhaveontheirbehaviourandconsiderresponse options. Studentsexplorearangeofcontexts,bothwithinandbeyondschool,inwhichindividualsarerequiredtoworkeffectively aspartofateam.Theydiscussappropriateknowledge,skillsandbehavioursinthesecontextsandtheimportanceof developingthese. Workingindifferentteams,studentsareprovidedwithopportunitiestocompletetasksofvaryinglengthandcomplexity.In doingso,theylearntoidentifythecharacteristicsofmembersineffectiveteamsandtodevelopdescriptionsforparticular rolessuchasleader,recorderandparticipant.Studentscontributetothedevelopmentofandusecriteriaforevaluating theirownandtheteamseffectivenessinteamwork.

Standards
AtLevel5,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel6standards.

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Interpersonal Development
Level6
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel6standardsinInterpersonalDevelopment,theydevelopskillsand behavioursforconnectingwithavarietyofgroups,includingpeerandcommunitygroups.Studentsparticipateinarange ofclassroomactivitieswheretheyexplorethesimilaritiesanddifferencesinthevaluesandbeliefsofarangeof individualsandgroups.Theybegintoreflectonwhatthismaymeanforthemselveswhenbuildingandmaintaining relationshipswithadiverserangeofpeople.Theyexploreanddiscussbehaviourswhichdemonstratesensitivityto culturaldifferencesintheirinteractionswithothers. Studentscomparetheirbeliefsandvalueswithothers,andconsiderhowtheseinfluencefeelingsandbehaviour. Throughdiscussionandactivitiessuchasroleplay,theyreflectoninclusion,belongingandtolerance.Theyconsider howitfeelstobeexcludedfromagroup.Theyidentifyexamplesofbullyinginarangeofcontexts.Theyexploretheimpact ofbullyingonpeoplessenseofselfworthandareassistedtoidentify,discussandusedifferentstrategiestoreduce, avoidandresolvebullying. Studentsbegintorecogniseanddiscusstheinfluencethatpeerscanhaveontheirbehaviourandconsiderresponse options. Studentsexplorearangeofcontexts,bothwithinandbeyondschool,inwhichindividualsarerequiredtoworkeffectively aspartofateam.Theydiscussappropriateknowledge,skillsandbehavioursinthesecontextsandtheimportanceof developingthese. Workingindifferentteams,studentsareprovidedwithopportunitiestocompletetasksofvaryinglengthandcomplexity.In doingso,theylearntoidentifythecharacteristicsofmembersineffectiveteamsandtodevelopdescriptionsforparticular rolessuchasleader,recorderandparticipant.Studentscontributetothedevelopmentofandusecriteriaforevaluating theirownandtheteamseffectivenessinteamwork.

Standards
Buildingsocialrelationships

AtLevel6,studentsdemonstrate,throughtheirinteractionsinsocialsituations,respectforadiverserangeofpeopleand groups.Studentsdescribetheimpactofbullying.Theyacceptanddisplayempathyforthepointsofviewandfeelingsof theirpeersandothers.Theyidentifyanduseavarietyofstrategiestomanageandresolveconflict. Workinginteams

AtLevel6,studentsworkeffectivelyindifferentteamsandtakeonavarietyofrolestocompletetasksofvaryinglengthand complexity.Theyworkcooperativelytoallocatetasksanddeveloptimelines.Studentsacceptresponsibilityfortheirrole andtasks.Theyexplainthebenefitsofworkinginateam.Theyprovidefeedbacktoothersandevaluatetheirownandthe teamsperformance.

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Interpersonal Development
Level7
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinInterpersonalDevelopment,theydeveloppositive relationshipsthroughunderstandingandrespectingothers.Theyparticipateinactivitieswhichenablethemtoidentifythe differingvaluesandbeliefsheldbyindividualsinlocal,nationalandglobalcontexts,andreflectontheimpactthesemay haveonrelationships. Theylearnhowtomanagetheiremotionsandbehaviourintheirrelationships,especiallywithpeers.Theyconsiderthe needsofothersandwaysofrespondingwithappropriatesensitivity,learningtoadapttheirbehaviourandlanguageto suitdifferentsettings.Exploringappropriatescenarios,studentslearnthatwhiletheyneedtovaluefriendshipand respectconfidentiality,incertaincircumstancesconfidentialitymayneedtobebreached.Theymanagetheirimpulsesto encourageharmoniouscollaborationsandrelationships. Inavarietyofforums,studentsinvestigatevariousformsofbullyingandtheconsequencesforthebullyandthevictim. Theyalsoexploreotherformsofconflictinbothlocalandbroadercontexts.Throughexperienceandreflection,students cometounderstandtheneedforempathyforothers.Theydevelopandpractiseappropriateskillsinconflictresolution. Studentsexplorehowpeersmayinfluencethewaytheyrespondtoothers.Theycontinuetoidentifystrategiestobuild andmaintainpositivesocialrelationshipsforexample,byacknowledgingandcelebratingthediversityofindividuals, recognisingpeerinfluenceontheirownbehaviour,showingsensitivitytoculturaldiversity,recognisingand accommodatingothersstrengthsandweaknessesandacknowledgingtheexistenceandpossibleimplicationsof differentvaluesandbeliefs. Studentsworkinteacherandstudentselectedteamstocompleteshortandlongtermtasksofvaryingcomplexity. Whenselectingteammembers,theyareencouragedtorecognisedifferingcapabilitiesandareincreasinglyableto selectateamwhichacknowledgestheadvantageofincludingstudentswithavarietyoflearningandthinkingstyles. Intheirteams,studentsgainexperienceinavarietyofdifferentrolesandreflectonthoseroleswhichtheyprefer.They participateintaskswhichrequirethemtobuildknowledgecooperativelytoachieveasharedpurpose,andreflectonthe contributiontheyhavemadeandhowitcouldbeimproved.Theyalsoconsiderhowtheeffectivenessoftheteamcouldbe improved.

Standards
AtLevel7,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel8standards.

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Interpersonal Development
Level8
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel8standardsinInterpersonalDevelopment,theydeveloppositive relationshipsthroughunderstandingandrespectingothers.Theyparticipateinactivitieswhichenablethemtoidentifythe differingvaluesandbeliefsheldbyindividualsinlocal,nationalandglobalcontexts,andreflectontheimpactthesemay haveonrelationships. Theylearnhowtomanagetheiremotionsandbehaviourintheirrelationships,especiallywithpeers.Theyconsiderthe needsofothersandwaysofrespondingwithappropriatesensitivity,learningtoadapttheirbehaviourandlanguageto suitdifferentsettings.Exploringappropriatescenarios,studentslearnthatwhiletheyneedtovaluefriendshipand respectconfidentiality,incertaincircumstancesconfidentialitymayneedtobebreached.Theymanagetheirimpulsesto encourageharmoniouscollaborationsandrelationships. Inavarietyofforums,studentsinvestigatevariousformsofbullyingandtheconsequencesforthebullyandthevictim. Theyalsoexploreotherformsofconflictinbothlocalandbroadercontexts.Throughexperienceandreflection,students cometounderstandtheneedforempathyforothers.Theydevelopandpractiseappropriateskillsinconflictresolution. Studentsexplorehowpeersmayinfluencethewaytheyrespondtoothers.Theycontinuetoidentifystrategiestobuild andmaintainpositivesocialrelationshipsforexample,byacknowledgingandcelebratingthediversityofindividuals, recognisingpeerinfluenceontheirownbehaviour,showingsensitivitytoculturaldiversity,recognisingand accommodatingothersstrengthsandweaknessesandacknowledgingtheexistenceandpossibleimplicationsof differentvaluesandbeliefs. Studentsworkinteacherandstudentselectedteamstocompleteshortandlongtermtasksofvaryingcomplexity.When selectingteammembers,theyareencouragedtorecognisedifferingcapabilitiesandareincreasinglyabletoselecta teamwhichacknowledgestheadvantageofincludingstudentswithavarietyoflearningandthinkingstyles. Intheirteams,studentsgainexperienceinavarietyofdifferentrolesandreflectonthoseroleswhichtheyprefer.They participateintaskswhichrequirethemtobuildknowledgecooperativelytoachieveasharedpurpose,andreflectonthe contributiontheyhavemadeandhowitcouldbeimproved.Theyalsoconsiderhowtheeffectivenessoftheteamcouldbe improved.

Standards
Buildingsocialrelationships

AtLevel8,studentsdemonstraterespectfortheindividualityofothersandempathisewithothersinlocal,nationaland globalcontexts,acknowledgingthediversityofindividuals.Theyrecogniseanddescribepeerinfluenceontheir behaviour.Studentsselectanduseappropriatestrategiestoeffectivelymanageindividualconflictandassistothersin resolutionprocesses. Workinginteams

AtLevel8,studentsacceptresponsibilityasateammemberandsupportothermemberstoshareinformation,explore theideasofothers,andworkcooperativelytoachieveasharedpurposewithinarealistictimeframe.Theyreflecton individualandteamoutcomesandacttoimprovetheirownandtheteamsperformance.

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Interpersonal Development
Level9
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinInterpersonalDevelopment,theydeveloptheir knowledgeoflocalandglobalvaluesandbeliefsandconsidertheideaofvaluesassocialconstructsandprinciples. Theyexplorebarrierstoachievingpositiverelationships,especiallybetweengroupswithdifferingvaluesandbeliefs,and discusstheimportanceofempathy.Theyexplorestrategiesthattheyandotherscouldusetoovercomethesebarriers, andpractiseusingsuchstrategiesandreflectingontheireffectiveness. Theylearntoconsiderfeelingsandbehaviourinabroadercontextthatisinfluencedbysocialconventionsandcultures. Theyunderstandindividualandgroupbehaviourinthecontextofmotivatingfactorswhenstudentsparticipateinactivities, includingroleplays,whichallowthemtoexploretheimpactofpeersonrelationships.Theyexplorestrategiestomanage peerinfluenceandtodeveloppositiverelationshipswithawiderangeofpeers,gainingconfidenceinstatingclearlytheir ownviewsandopinions,andtherationaleforthese.Theydevelopspecificskillsandavarietyofstrategiestopreventor resolveconflict,andexplorethenatureofconflictresolutioninarangeofcontexts.Theylearntorecognisewhenconflict, includingconflictinworkplaces,islikelytooccur,andlearntobeproactiveininitiatingstrategiestoavoidand/orresolveit. Studentstakeopportunitiestoworkindiverseteamswithinandbeyondschool,includingtheworkplace,tocomplete taskswithseveralinterrelatedcomponents.Someofthesetasksaremanagedbytheteam,withlimitedteacherinput. Thisallowsstudentstotakeresponsibilityforselectingateamthatislikelytofunctioneffectively,allocatingtasks, assigningandtakingleadershiproles,determiningtimelinesandactionplans,andmonitoringandevaluatingtask achievement.Whererequired,studentsinitiatestrategiestodealwithanyproblemstheyencounter.Theyassesstheir owncontributiontotheteamandprovideusefulfeedbacktopeers.Studentsalsoreflectonthesuccessofteam managementandlearninginachievingagreedgoals. Studentsmaybeinvolvedinactingaspeermediatorsforyoungerstudentswithminimalguidanceonceinitialtrainingis completed.

Standards
AtLevel9,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel10standards.

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Interpersonal Development
Level10
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofLevel10standardsinInterpersonalDevelopment,theydeveloptheir knowledgeoflocalandglobalvaluesandbeliefsandconsidertheideaofvaluesassocialconstructsandprinciples. Theyexplorebarrierstoachievingpositiverelationships,especiallybetweengroupswithdifferingvaluesandbeliefs,and discusstheimportanceofempathy.Theyexplorestrategiesthattheyandotherscouldusetoovercomethesebarriers, andpractiseusingsuchstrategiesandreflectingontheireffectiveness. Theylearntoconsiderfeelingsandbehaviourinabroadercontextthatisinfluencedbysocialconventionsandcultures. Theyunderstandindividualandgroupbehaviourinthecontextofmotivatingfactorswhenstudentsparticipateinactivities, includingroleplays,whichallowthemtoexploretheimpactofpeersonrelationships.Theyexplorestrategiestomanage peerinfluenceandtodeveloppositiverelationshipswithawiderangeofpeers,gainingconfidenceinstatingclearlytheir ownviewsandopinions,andtherationaleforthese.Theydevelopspecificskillsandavarietyofstrategiestopreventor resolveconflict,andexplorethenatureofconflictresolutioninarangeofcontexts.Theylearntorecognisewhenconflict, includingconflictinworkplaces,islikelytooccur,andlearntobeproactiveininitiatingstrategiestoavoidand/orresolveit. Studentstakeopportunitiestoworkindiverseteamswithinandbeyondschool,includingtheworkplace,tocomplete taskswithseveralinterrelatedcomponents.Someofthesetasksaremanagedbytheteam,withlimitedteacherinput. Thisallowsstudentstotakeresponsibilityforselectingateamthatislikelytofunctioneffectively,allocatingtasks, assigningandtakingleadershiproles,determiningtimelinesandactionplans,andmonitoringandevaluatingtask achievement.Whererequired,studentsinitiatestrategiestodealwithanyproblemstheyencounter.Theyassesstheir owncontributiontotheteamandprovideusefulfeedbacktopeers.Studentsalsoreflectonthesuccessofteam managementandlearninginachievingagreedgoals. Studentsmaybeinvolvedinactingaspeermediatorsforyoungerstudentswithminimalguidanceonceinitialtrainingis completed.

Standards
Buildingsocialrelationships

AtLevel10,studentsdemonstrateawarenessofcomplexsocialconventions,behavingappropriatelywheninteracting withothers.Theydescribehowlocalandglobalvaluesandbeliefsdeterminetheirownandotherssocialrelationships. Theyevaluatetheirownbehaviourinrelationships,identifypotentialconflictandemploystrategiestoavoidand/orresolve it. Workinginteams

AtLevel10,studentsworkcollaboratively,negotiaterolesanddelegatetaskstocompletecomplextasksinteams. Workingwiththestrengthsofateamtheyachieveagreedgoalswithinsettimeframes.Studentsdescribehowthey respectandbuildontheideasandopinionsofteammembersandclearlyarticulateorrecordtheirreflectionsonthe effectivenessoflearninginateam.Theydevelopandimplementstrategiesforimprovingtheircontributionstoachieving theteamgoals.

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Languages
TableofContents Overview Introduction Domainstructure Stagesoflearning PhasesofLearning(formerlyprogressionmeasures) CurriculumF10 Foundationlevel Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level5 Level6 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10 Level7 Level8 Level9 Level10

2 2 2 4 7 11 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 21 22 24 25 28 30 33 34

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Languages

IntroductiontoLanguages
Languagescontributemateriallytotheuniversalpurposesofschoolingandtothedevelopmentofskillsinthinkingand reflection.Theysupportthemoral,socialandeconomicinitiationofyoungpeopleintothecultureandwidercivilisationthat surroundsthem.Learningalanguagenurturesreflective,deepandcreativethinkinginspecificways,cultivatesculturally distinctivefieldsofknowledge,andstimulatesawarenessofintellectualfunctioning.Inuniqueways,languagesrequire learnerstoengageinselfreflectionbecauseeffectivecommunicationinanewlanguagerequiresthelearnertomove outsidethenorms,practicesandacquiredbehavioursoftheirfirstlanguage. Languagesinfusetheentirecurriculumwithbothtaughtandincidentalinsightsintohowknowledgeisorganisedbydifferent socioculturalcommunities,andintroduceawarenessofimportantdistinctionsinmeaning,sound,andsoundpatterns, socialarrangements,orderandsequencingofinformation,categoriesandrelations.Theseskillscandirectlyenhancethe generalintellectualdevelopmentofyoungpeople. Inlearningalanguage,studentsdevelopcommunicationskillsandknowledgeandcometounderstandsocial,historical, familialrelationshipsandotheraspectsofthespecificlanguageandcultureofthespeakersofthelanguagetheyare studying.Learnersarealsoprovidedwiththetools,throughcomparisonandreflection,tounderstandlanguage,cultureand humanityinabroadsense.Inthisway,languagelearningcontributestothedevelopmentofinterculturallyawarecitizens,of increasingimportanceatatimeofrapidanddeepglobalisation.

StructureoftheLanguagesDomain
TheLanguages(formerlycalledLOTE)domainisorganisedintotwopathways,thefirstconsistingofelevenlevels(F10) andthesecondoffourlevels(710).Eachlevelincludesalearningfocusstatementand,fromLevel6onwards,asetof standardsorganisedbydimension. TheLanguagesdomaininAusVELSusesanelevenlevelstructuretobothreflectthedesignofthenewAustralian CurriculumandtoprovideaconsistentstructureacrossalltheAusVELSdomains(formoredetails,pleaseseethe

Overview).

Pathways
AsstudentsmaybegintheirLanguagesstudiesatdifferentstages,learningfocusstatementsandstandardsareofferedfor twopathwayswhichrecognisethestudentspointofentryintothestudy: Pathway1:forstudentswhobeginlearningalanguageinprimaryschoolandcontinuetostudythesamelanguagetoLevel 10. Pathway2:forstudentswhobeginlearningalanguageinYear7.

Learningfocus
Learningfocusstatementsarewrittenforeachlevel.Theseoutlinethelearningthatstudentsneedtofocusoniftheyareto progressinthedomainandachievethestandardsatthelevelswheretheyapply.Theysuggestappropriatelearning experiencesfromwhichteacherscandrawtodeveloprelevantteachingandlearningactivities.

Standards
Standardsdefinewhatstudentsshouldknowandbeabletodoatdifferentlevelsandarewrittenforeachdimension.

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Languages
InLanguagesstandardsareintroducedforassessmentandreportingatLevel5.Whileitisclearthatstudentsgainmost benefitfromthestudyofanotherlanguagewhentheybeginthisstudyintheearlylevels,itisacknowledgedthatsome schoolschoosetomaximisetheeffectoftheirresourcesbyintroducingLanguagesprogramsatdifferentlevelswith appropriatetimeallocations.Inrecognitionofthecumulativenatureoflanguagelearning,theLanguagesdomainincludes 'phasesoflearning'(formerlyprogressionmeasures)whichprovideatypicalsequenceofsecondlanguagedevelopment leadingtoLevel5.RegardlessofthelevelatwhichthestudyofalanguageotherthanEnglishisintroduced,studentswill needtodeveloptheknowledgeandskillsdescribedinthephasesoflearningbeforetheyattemptthelearningassociated withtheLevel6standards.ThesephasesoflearningalsoassistschoolsthatprovideLanguagesprogramspriortoLevels5 and6,toassessandreporteffectivelyonstudentachievement. Standardsrelevanttoeachofthelanguagecategoriesappearbesideanicon(seelanguagecategoriesbelow)fromLevel6 onwards.

Languagecategories
Forthepurposesoforganisingthelearningdemandsonstudents,languagescanbebroadlygroupedintosixcategories: Romanalphabeticallanguages NonRomanalphabeticallanguages Characterlanguages Signlanguage Classicallanguages AboriginalLanguages StandardsintheCommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglishdimensionincludeaninitialsectioncommontoall languagecategoriesandadditionalstandardsspecifictothelanguagecategories.FromLevel6,thestandardsinthe languagecategoriesfocusonreadingandwritingskills.ForClassicallanguages,thecompletestandardisprovidedinthe languagecategorydescription.

Romanalphabeticallanguageslanguageswhosewritingsystem,ormeansofbeingvisuallyrecorded,isRoman alphabetic,andwhosereadingdemandsonlearnersaresimilartothoseofEnglish(examplesinclude:Australian Indigenouslanguages,French,German,Indonesian,Italian,Spanish,Vietnamese).

NonRomanalphabeticallanguageslanguageswhosewritingsystemisalphabeticbutnonRoman,andforwhicha learnerneedstoacquireanewalphabet(examplesinclude:Arabic,Greek,HebrewandRussian). Characterlanguageslanguageswhosewritingsystemiseithersyllabic,ideographic,oracombinationofsyllablesand ideograms,involvingdifferentreadingprocessesfromalphabetreading,andthelearningofthenewscript(examples include:Chinese,Japanese).

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Languages

SignlanguageAustralianSignLanguage,orAuslan.FormostlearnersthiswillalsoinvolvereadinginEnglish.

Classicallanguagesancientlanguagesnotusedasameansofeverydaycommunicationbyacontemporarycommunity. ConsistingofRomanalphabeticallanguages(forexample,Latin)andnonRomanalphabeticallanguages(forexample, ClassicalGreek).StandardsinthiscategoryapplyonlyinPathway2Levels8and10.

AboriginalLanguagesVictorianAboriginalLanguageswhichinvolvestheprocessofreclamationandthestudyofculture. SchoolsshouldfollowtheprocessesoutlinedintheAboriginalLanguages,culturesandreclamationinVictorianschools:

standardsP10andprotocolsbookletpriortoincorporatingthislanguagecategoryintheirteachingprogramswith
resourcesavailableatAboriginalLanguagesandCulturesVictoria.

Dimensions
Thisdomainhastwodimensions:
l l

CommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglish Interculturalknowledgeandlanguageawareness.

ThetwodimensionsoftheLanguagesdomainareintimatelylinked.CommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglish allowslearnerstoreflectonlanguageasasystemandgainculturalinsight.Inturn,Interculturalknowledgeandlanguage awarenesscanprovideculturalguidelinesforeffectivecommunication.

CommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglish
IntheCommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglishdimension,studentslearntheknowledge,skillsandbehaviours relevanttothespecificlanguagebeingstudied.Theskillsofthisdimensionincludelistening,speaking,reading,viewing, writing,andtheuseofbodylanguage,visualcuesandsigns.Theapplicationoftheseskillsrequiresknowledgeoflinguistic elements,includingvocabularyandgrammar.Thisdimensionrequiresfamiliaritywithawidevarietyoftextsandgenresin printandelectronicform.

Interculturalknowledgeandlanguageawareness
CommunicationskillsinalanguageotherthanEnglishfosterinterculturalknowledgeandawarenessoflanguageasa system.TheInterculturalknowledgeandlanguageawarenessdimensiondevelopsstudentsknowledgeofthe connectionsbetweenlanguageandculture,andhowcultureisembeddedthroughoutthecommunicationsystem.Progress throughthisdimensionisdemonstratedthroughperformanceinthelanguagebeingstudied.Theunderstandingsare universalandaregainedbycomparinglanguages,includingEnglish. Studentsgainanawarenessoftheinfluenceofcultureinthelearnersownlifeandfirstlanguage.Differentlanguagesand languagecommunitiesorganisesocialrelationsandinformationindifferentwaysandvaluesdifferfromonecommunityto another.Throughculturalselfawareness,theabilitytorationallydiscussandcompareculturaldifferencesisdeveloped.This dimensioninvolvesdevelopingcuriosityaboutandopennesstoavarietyofvaluesandpractices,aswellasacquiringin depthknowledgeofthediverseculturaltraditionsofthesourcesocieties.

StagesofLearninginLanguages

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Languages
AusVELStakesaccountofthedevelopmentalstagesoflearningyoungpeopleexperienceatschool.Whilestudentlearning isacontinuumanddifferentstudentsdevelopatdifferentrates,theybroadlyprogressthroughthreestagesoflearning. Thefollowingstatementsdescribewaysinwhichthesecharacteristicsrelatetolearningexperiencesandstandardsineach ofthethreestagesoflearningintheLanguagesdomain. Althoughsomeoftheprocessesthatweusetolearnourfirstlanguage,ormothertongue,areinvolvedinlearningasecond language,therearealsoconsiderabledifferences.Formostchildren,themothertongueislearnedwithinafamily,where manypeopleareinvolvedinmakingcleartheconnectionbetweensoundsandactions,messagesandbasicneeds.Fora childsfirstlanguage,theinputiscontinuousandfulltime,muchofitisadjustedtothechildsneeds,andthechildsefforts atcommunicatingareacknowledged,guidedandaccepted. Asecondlanguagelearneralreadyknowstheessentialfunctionsofvoiceorsignedcommunication,andhowlanguageis involved,whenengaginginmeaningfulactivities.Thelearningusuallyoccursatschoolwithfarfewerprovidersofferinginput, forfarlesstime,andsharedbymanymorelearners.Theproviderstendtobeadultsratherthanpeopleofallages,the learnerstendtobeofsimilarages,therelationshipsareprofessionalratherthanintimate,andtheinputisrestrictedintime, quantity,meaning,andpersonalsignificanceforthelearners.

FoundationtoLevel4Layingthefoundations
Intheearliestlevelsoflearningasecondlanguage,someprocessesandsequencesaresimilartothoseinvolvedinfirst languageacquisition.Languageisadaptedtostudentsdirectneeds.Ideally,studentsareimmersedincommunication tasksthatareengaging,relevant,welldesignedanddirectlylinkedtotheirgenerallearningexperiences. Asecondlanguagemakesitsownspecificcognitive,behaviouralandemotionaldemandson,andcontributionsto,the developmentofthelearner.Studentsdetachfromtheintimacyoffamilyandconnectwithteachersandfellowstudents.The newsocialworldofthesecondlanguageclassroomrequiresstudentstoadaptfromselfexpressioninthemothertongueto thenewnormsandpracticesofthetargetlanguage.Thecognitivedemandsonthelearneraresignificant.Learnersneedto transfertoanewcommunicationcodetheironlyrecentlyacquiredskillsassocialbeingsandarerequiredtolearnthe distinctiverulesandconventionsofthetargetlanguage. Studentswillnoticeacontrastbetweenthetwolanguagesystems.Theywillnoticevariousculturallyspecificwaysinwhich meaningisconstructedandconveyedinthetargetlanguage.Asspeakingandlisteningcomebeforereadingandwriting,the foundationalprocessesoflearningasecondlanguagewillideallyimmersestudentsinconcreteoralcommunication activities.Thefocusofthesetasksshouldbeongettingthingsdoneinmusic,drama,dance,drawingandpainting, physicalactivityandearlyscienceornumberexperimentationratherthanlanguage.Continualimmersioninthetarget languageforactivitiesinwhichnaturalisticcommunicationprevailsminimisesthechancethatstudentswillcontinually translate.However,whileteacherswilluseonlythetargetlanguageforactivities,theywillacceptallformsofcommunication fromstudentscommunicationinEnglish,codemixingbetweenthetargetlanguageandEnglish,andtheuseofother languages,mime,gestureandsoon.Bymodellingonlycorrectformsofthetargetlanguage,theteacherslanguage becomesthekeysourceofinputforstudentsgrowingabilitytodiscernandusethetargetlanguageforclassroom communication.Studentsneedtogainprocedurallanguageearlysothattheyandtheteacherwillshareacommunication codeforallclassroomactivities. ForstudentsofalanguagewithcloseconnectionstoEnglish,andasimilaralphabeticwritingsystem,theselevelsalso makebridgesbetweenstudentsevolvingliteracyinEnglishandtheirgrowingfamiliaritywiththewritingsystemofthetarget language.Forstudentsoftargetlanguagesthatarefamiliarfromthehome,theconnectionbetweenthesoundsand symbolsofthetargetlanguageisavaluableresource.Forlearnersofalanguagewhosewritingsystemisunlikethatof English,thisfoundationalstageoflearningneedstobuildonnoticingdifferencesbetweenthetwowritingsystems.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Languages
InFoundationtoLevel4,allareasofthecurriculumcansupportthelearningofasecondlanguageotherthanEnglishsuch studyreinforces,extendsandenrichesallotherlearning.Allteacherscanmakeadirectandpowerfulconnection establishingconfidentearlyliteracypracticesbetweenEnglishandthelanguageotherthanEnglish.Becomingliteratehelps studentsrealisethatlanguagehasformandstructureaswellasmeaning.Thestudyofasecondlanguageatschool bolstersthisimportantinsightandhelpsstudentstoextendanddeepentheiroverallliteracy.Learningasecondlanguage canshowstudentsthattheconventionsofwritingandspeakinginanylanguagearearbitrarytheresultofchoicesthathave beenmade. Throughcommunication,studentsbegintorecognisearangeofexpressions,greetings,andotherformulaiclanguagefor routineinteractionswithpeople,andnoticethatthesevaryaccordingtotheparticipants.Muchofthiscommunicationis scaffoldedandpromptedbytheteacher,andrelatedtoconcreteexperiencesintheclassroom. Inallthepracticesdescribedabove,thetwodimensionsofthedomainCommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglish andInterculturalknowledgeandlanguageawarenessareintegratedwiththeentirerangeoflearningexperiencesof studentsbetweenFoundationandLevel4.

Levels5to8Buildingbreadthanddepth
Levels5to8encompassthetransitionfromchildhoodtoadolescence.Thisisacriticalandchallengingperiodforstudents andteachers.Emotionally,itcanbeadifficulttimeforstudentsanditcanhaveparticulareffectsandchallengesforsecond languagestudy.InLanguages,thisstageoflearningcomprisestwodistinctphasesandcontainsthetraditionalperiodof secondlanguageteachinginourschoolsystem. Inthefirstphase(Levels5and6)essentiallyanextensionofthefirststageoflearningstudentsextendindepthand breadththewords,expressions,texts,ideas,relationshipsandactivitiestheyknowofthesecondlanguage. Inthesecondphase(Levels7and8),althoughthenatureandlevelofteacherscaffoldingandpromptingisreducedand studentsarenowencouragedtointeract,directlyorthroughvariousmedia,witharangeofspeakersofthetargetlanguage, theessentialprocessissimilar.However,thissecondphaseisqualitativelydifferent.Theonsetofpubertyaffectsstudents emotionallives,andthematurationalandphysicalchangesinvolvedoftenhavedeepconsequencesforidentity, relationships,motivation,behaviourandcognitivedevelopment.Suchchanges,stressfulbutexciting,coincidewithmore overtstandardsbeingexpectedofstudents,anunfamiliarsubjectdivisioninthecurriculum,andasignificantchangeinthe institutionaloperatingarrangementsofschooling. Levels7and8arealsoachallengeforteachersandschools,andspecificplanningandcollaborationacrossschoolsto ensurethatPathway1andPathway2studentsarecateredfor.Pathway1studentsthosewhoarecontinuingwith languagesstudiedatprimaryschoolneedtohavetheirpriorstudyacknowledgedandrecognisedPathway2studentsare thosewhotakeuplanguagesforthefirsttimeatLevel7,orwhochangefromthelanguagetheystudiedatprimaryschool. ThemanychangesthatcharacteriseLevels5to8haveanimpactonteachingtooactivitiesthatyoungerstudentsfind enjoyable,suchasplayingwiththesoundsandcommunicationstyleofanewlanguage,mightrepresentaproblemfor thoseexperiencingdifficultiesintheprocessoftransitiontoadolescence. Primaryandsecondaryschoolsshouldcollaboratecloselytoeasethetransitionbetweenprimaryandsecondarylanguage study.Studentsshouldbeabletoseecontinuityintheoutlinesoftheprogramsandwhatistaught,andseehowtheir demonstratedachievementofthestandardsatonelevelarticulateswiththeteachingandlearningpracticesatanotherlevel.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Languages
Atthisstage,studentsbegintoinitiatecommunicationandfollowpersonalinterestsandideas.Communicationactivities thatacknowledgethesharpeningindividualityofstudents,andthemoresubjectdividedbasisofthecurriculum,become moreimportantinsecondlanguageteaching,asdoconnectionstootherdomains,accesstoawiderrangeofinterlocutors (suchasnativespeakersandotherstudentsofsimilarage),anddirectorvirtualcommunication.

Levels9to10Developingpathways
Duringthisstage,studentsbegintoexploretheimplicationsandpossibilitiesoflanguagesotherthanEnglishforfurther study,careerandcitizenship.Thisgrowthinpersonalresponsibilityisreflectedintheincreasedstakesinvolvedandthe choicesthattheymake,impactinimportantwaysonthestudyoflanguages. Asmorecognitivelymaturelearners,studentsincreasinglymakeexplicitchoiceswithlongertermconsequences,and teachersandschoolsarecalledontoconnectthestudyoflanguagesotherthanEnglishtoallfieldsofrelevanceforthem theirfuturepathwaysofstudy,theirlikelyorpossiblecareers,andtheirengagementintheworldofciviclifeand responsibility. Makingsuchlinkstothesefields,requiresanexpliciteffortbystudentstounderstandthemulticulturalandmultilingualnature ofAustraliansociety,andaworldthatisglobalisingandhighlymobile.Teacherscananticipatetheserequirementsby selectingtexts,activitiesanddomainsthatdrawonthecontextsinwhichlanguagesotherthanEnglishareusedinAustralian society,includingthemanystudyandoccupationalfieldsinwhichasecondlanguageisuseful,locallyandglobally. Interculturalcompetencecanbeseenasausefulpracticalskill,aswellashavingvalueinopeningupknowledgeofother humansocietiesandnationaltraditions.

LanguagesPathway1PhasesofLearning
(formerlyprogressionmeasures)
Inrecognitionofthecumulativenatureoflanguagelearning,thefollowingphasesoflearninghavebeenprovidedtoassist studentsdeveloptheknowledgeandskillsrequiredbeforetheyattemptthelearningassociatedwiththestandardsthatare introducedfromLevel5onwards.EachphaseisorganisedintothetwodimensionsCommunicatinginalanguageother thanEnglishandInterculturalknowledgeandlanguageawareness. ForAboriginalLanguages,pleaseclickhere.

Phaseoflearning:1
ThefirstphaseoflearningintroducesstudentstostudiesofLanguages.

CommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglish
Oncompletionofthefirstphaseoflearningstudentsshouldtypicallybeableto:
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repeatteachermodelleduseofthelanguage participateinchoraluseofthelanguage identifythenamesofvisibleobjectsanditemsfromaural/visualcues introducethemselves,greetandfarewelltheteacher followsimpleclassroomdirections recognisesomeculturallyspecificgesturesandbodylanguage,anddemonstratehowtheseareused observetheprocessofinterpretingandperformsomeofitssimplefeaturesusingsinglewordsorphrases.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Languages
StudentsofRomanalphabeticallanguagesshouldbeableto:
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recognisethedifferentsoundsofsimilarletters,anddemonstratedifferencesforkeysounds identifylettersoundrelationshipsandcopyandtracelettersandletterclustersandmatchthemtosoundsandwords.

StudentsofNonRomanalphabeticallanguagesshouldbeableto:
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noticeanddiscussthedifferentwritingsystem,andpractisewritingindividuallettersandothersymbols distinguishselectedlettersoundsfromEnglish,matchsoundsandletters,identifywordsforconcreteitemsfromcues, etc. copyortraceselectedlettersandmatchthemtosoundsandwords.

StudentsofCharacterlanguagesshouldbeableto:
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noticeanddiscussthedifferentwritingsystem,andpractisewritingselectedletters,charactersorothersymbols recognisecharactersassociatedwithspecificconcreteitemsandtheirdifferentsounds,matchingsymbolsto meaningsandforms traceorcopyselectedcharacters.

StudentsofSignlanguageshouldbeableto:
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noticeanddiscussthevisualnatureofcommunication demonstratesinglesignsandsimplesignedsequences recognisesignsandsimplesignedsequencesemphasisingnonmanualfeatures producesimplemanualsignsandnonmanualsignstoparticipateingamesandactivities.

Interculturalknowledgeandlanguageawareness
Oncompletionofthefirstphaseoflearningstudentsshouldtypicallybeableto:
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demonstrateanunderstandingofsomeofthedifferencesinhowpeopleeatanddress,signandgesture,writeand saythings identifysomeoftherelationshipsbetweenselectedletters,soundsortonesinthelanguagecomparedtoEnglishor otherfamiliarlanguages identifyaculturalicon,geographicfeature,famousbuildingorculturalpracticeandmakeasimplestatementaboutitin thelanguage displayanawarenessofdifferentwaysofdoingthingsinparticularsituations expresstheirownpreferencesinthelanguage,orbyrespondingtocuesgiveninthelanguage.

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Phaseoflearning:2
ThesecondphaseoflearningbuildsontheintroductiontothestudiesofLanguagesknowledgeandskillssetoutinPhase 1.

CommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglish
Oncompletionofthesecondphaseoflearningstudentsshouldtypicallybeableto:
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generatesimpleoriginalsentences(includingexpressinglikesanddislikes) introducethemselves,greetandfarewelltheteacher,andexpressthanksandapologies respondtosimplequestionsaboutshortsongs,storiesandrhymes extrapolatefromfamiliarsounds,tonemarkers,signs,andsoon,tospellnewwords

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Languages
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writewords/lettersincontextandinmodelledsentences recognisesomeculturallyspecificgesturesandbodylanguageandintegratethemintotheirownoralcommunications demonstratethegeneralcharacteristicsofinterpretingandtranslatinginspecificactivities recognisevariationsinhowpeoplerespondindailysituationsanddescribethevaluesunderpinningtheseresponses recognisetheuseofthelanguageinseveralmediaandinformationandcommunicationstechnologies,andproduce simplemultimediatextsinthelanguage demonstrateanunderstandingofvariationinlanguageuse,dependingontheaudienceandcontext.

StudentsofRomanalphabeticallanguagesshouldbeableto:
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pronouncethesoundsattributedtolettersincontextbyreadingaloudorrepeatingpronunciationassociatedwith writtenwords independentlyproducewordsinwritingandproduceoriginalvariationsonmodelledwrittensentences recogniseanduseaccentsandpunctuationsuitedtothelanguage,whereapplicable.

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StudentsofNonRomanalphabeticallanguagesshouldbeableto:
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identifylettersoundrelationshipsandpractisepronunciation writewordsincontextandinmodelledsentences,includingrelevantaccentsandpunctuation.

StudentsofCharacterlanguagesshouldbeableto:
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practisewritingcharactersandothersymbolsanddeveloplinksbetweenvisualcues,soundsandmeaning recognisefundamentaldifferencesbetweentheuseofanalphabet,asinEnglish,andadifferentwritingsystem readaloudandformeaning writespecificcharactersassociatedwithparticularwordsorsounds identifyandcompareelementsofpunctuationincontextinmorethanonelanguage.

StudentsofSignlanguageshouldbeableto:
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developcomprehensionthroughnonverbalmeansandbyusingsignlanguageinsimpleconversations obtainmeaningfromnonverbalcommunicationtofollowinstructionsortousetheinformationforapurpose participateinrealorsimulatedconversationsandeverydaytransactionsbyimitatingandadaptingmodels.

Interculturalknowledgeandlanguageawareness
Oncompletionofthesecondphaseoflearningstudentsshouldtypicallybeableto:
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expresstheirownpreferencesorviewsandcommunicatemeaningfortheirownpurposesinthelanguage namesomecolours,shapes,objects,placesandpeopleassociatedwithacountrywherethelanguageisspoken identifytwoormoreplaces,features,famousbuildings,landmarksorculturalpracticesinanothersociety,and describesomeaspectoftheseinsimplesentencesinthelanguage recognisevariationsinhowpeoplerespondindailysituationsanddescribethevaluesunderpinningtheseresponses participateinthecreationandmaintenanceofthelanguageandculturalambienceintheclassroom recognisethesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenlanguagesforexample,insentencestructures.

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Phaseoflearning:3

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

Languages
Thethirdphaseoflearningbuildsfurtherontheknowledgeandskillsstudentshaveacquiredinphases1and2and preparesthemtoundertakethelearningassociatedwiththestandardsthatareintroducedfromLevel5onward.

CommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglish
Oncompletionofthethirdphaseoflearningstudentsshouldtypicallybeableto:
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writesimplesentencesbasedonmodelledexamples listentoshort,simpletextsandshowunderstanding useadictionaryinguidedsituationstofindthemeaningofsimplewordsandtoexpandtheirvocabularyresources usesubstitutionstrategiestogeneratechangedmeaning understandnewwordsintroducedintofamiliarwrittentexts,predictingfromclues usebasicstructuresinresponsetosimplequestions constructquestionsthemselvesusinginformationfromtheanswerstheyreceiveinstructuredsituations appropriatelyintegratemanyculturallyspecificgesturesintotheiroralcommunication usesimplesoftwareapplicationstodemonstrateunderstandingofknownvocabularyandstructures participateeffectivelyinverysimpleinterpretingandtranslatingroutines.

StudentsofRomanalphabeticallanguagesshouldbeableto:
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readandrespondtosimpleandfamiliartexts writeinthelanguageusingmodelledtextsandgeneratingoriginalmaterialswithteacherguidance.

StudentsofNonRomanalphabeticallanguagesshouldbeableto:
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readsentencesonfamiliartopics practisewritingbycopying,usingmodelledtextandgeneratingsentencesoforiginaltext.

StudentsofCharacterlanguagesshouldbeableto:
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readandwriteknowncharactersandothersymbolsandalsoexpandtheirrepertoireofknowncharacters begintounderstandthatthenumberofcharactersthattheycanreadisgreaterthanthosetheycanwrite,andtoreflect onwhy.

StudentsofSignlanguageshouldbeableto:
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developtheircomprehensionofsimplesignedtextsbyidentifyingspecificitemsofinformationwhenmakingchoices, answeringquestionsandrelayinginformationtootherparticipantsinasignedexchange engageinexchangestoprovideandobtaininformationabouteverydayactivities.

Interculturalknowledgeandlanguageawareness
Oncompletionofthethirdphaseoflearningstudentsshouldtypicallybeableto:
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demonstrateanunderstandingofculturallyappropriatevalues,responsesandpatternsofbehaviourinparticular situationsrelatedtothetopicsbeingstudied identifyandusekeyfeaturesofthelanguage,suchasgrammaticalgender,tones,formalandinformalmodesof address compareandcontrastlikeeventsincultureswhichusedifferentlanguages exploreatopicofinterestthroughthelanguage developrevisionmaterialsforlanguagerulesandapplicationstosharewithotherstudents.

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VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages

Foundationlevel
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsatPathway1Level6,theydevelopanunderstandingofthe speakersofthelanguageotherthanEnglishandthecountries,regionsandcommunitieswherethelanguageisspoken. InpreparationforLevel6standards,studentsneedtodeveloptheknowledgeandskillsdescribedintheprogression measures. Studentsaregivenopportunitiestolearnaboutthespeakersofthelanguagethroughtheintroductionofculturallyrelevant andageappropriatestimulusmaterials,suchasCDROMsandvariousdigitalmedia,videos,storiesandguest speakers. Theyunderstandthatthelanguageisusedforcommunication,andthatpeopleoutsidetheirclassroomalsospeakthe language.TheybegintounderstandthattherearedifferencesbetweenthelanguageandEnglish.Theybecomeaware thattherearevariouswaysofdoingthingsandthatthingsareimportantfordifferentreasonsforexample,thereare variousspecialfestivalsatdifferenttimesoftheyear,andthattheseareaffectedbygeographyandclimate. Studentsbegintouseandrespondtothelanguageintheclassroom,relatingthelanguagetowhattheysee,hearand touch,andtotopicsrelatedtoself,home,familyandtootherclassroomactivities. Throughgreetings,introductions,songsandothersimpleroutines,studentsbecomefamiliarwiththesoundsofthe languageandclustersofwords,andpractiseusingthelanguage.Fromthebeginning,theyhearwords,phrasesand basicsentencesinuse.Studentsareintroducedtoconcretelanguagewithrepetitivepatterns,anddevelopstrategiesfor memorisationandcomprehension.Theystarttointerpretgestureandfacialexpressions,andusesomeofthenon verbalbehaviourthatispartofthelanguage.Asfaraspossible,studentsareimmersedinhearingthelanguage,whose meaningismadeclearby:
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gestures(forexample,indicating,touching) dramatisation(forexample,roleplaying,costumewearing,puppets,scenarios,imitatingcharacters) singing(forexample,actedparts,participationrhymes,choralpractice) activities(forexample,painting,Internetormultimediagames,digitallearningobjects,interculturalawarenessgames) conversing(forexample,repeatingteachermodels,askingandansweringscaffoldedquestions,identifyingobjects andtheircharacteristics,usinghereandnowcues,labellingclassroomandhomeobjects) viewing(forexample,video,graphic,visualandotherstimulusmaterial) dance.

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Studentsparticipateincooking,physicaleducation,rolegames,painting,drawing,fingerpainting,puppetmakingand similaractivitieswhichlocatethelanguageinrealcommunicationcontexts,hearingextendedbutsimplestretchesofthe languageandgraduallyusingitthemselves.

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Languages
Studentsundertakethedevelopmentofwritingskillsappropriatetothelanguagebeingstudiedandcommunicateusing explicitmodelswithongoingteachersupportandscaffolding.

Standards
InLanguagesPathway1,standardsforassessingandreportingachievementareintroducedatLevel5.Schoolsthat providelanguageprogramspriortoLevel5shouldrefertotheLanguagesphasesoflearning(formerlyprogression measures)whichprovideatypicalsequenceofsecondlanguagedevelopment.TheFoundationtoLevel4learningfocus statementsprovideadviceforteachersaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentstoworktowardsthe achievementofthestandardsatLevel6.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages
Level1
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsinLanguagesatPathway1Level6,theylearnaboutculturein contextfromstimulusmaterials.Theylearnthattherearedifferentwaysofdoingthingsandtoidentifywhatisfamiliarand whatisdifferentintheirownandothercultures.InpreparationforLevel6standards,studentsneedtodevelopthe knowledgeandskillsdescribedintheprogressionmeasures. StudentsstarttounderstandandusethelanguageotherthanEnglishinstructuredsituationsandactivitiesrelatedto theirlocalenvironment:self,family,home,classroomandcommunity.Todevelopcomprehensiontheyrespondnon verballyorbyusingkeywordsorshortphrases.Theybegintousesetsofwordsandsentencesthatareencountered frequentlyintheclassroom,andtoinsertwordsintosimplesentences.Studentslearntorecognisetheprintedformof familiarwordsthattheyhavememorised.Theybegintoidentifypatternsandcommonelementsinthelanguage,and experimentwiththelanguagetoexpressthemselves. Asfaraspossible,studentsareimmersedinhearingthelanguage,whosemeaningismadeclearbygestures, dramatisation,singing,doingactivities,conversing,viewing,etc.Studentsexperimentwiththelanguageusingwords, phrasesandbasicsentencestoexpressthemselves.Theybegintodemonstrateunderstandingforexample,byusing pictures,bodylanguageorgesture,performingactionsorwritinginthelanguage.Studentsidentifysomecommon elementsinthelanguagethatdifferfrom,oraresimilarto,Englishandotherlanguageswithwhichtheymaybefamiliar. Stimulusmaterialssuchasstoriesandreadings,activitiesandgames,multimediaresources,visualandgraphic displaysandInternetsites,encouragestudentstounderstandthatthelanguageisusednormallyforcommunicationin thesesettings.Studentsaregivenopportunitiestoobservedifferencesinthewaythelanguagesoundswhenusedby differentspeakers,orindifferentcontexts.Theyalsoidentifyfeaturesofcommunication,andwhererelevant,differences indress,eating,greetingroutines,waysofbeingpoliteandobviousculturalpractices.Theyobservetheprocessesof interpretingandtranslating. Studentscontinuetocommunicatebydrawingonexplicitmodelsandwithongoingteachersupportandscaffolding.They experimentwithwrittenorsignedlanguageandexpressthemselvesbyapproximatingmeaning.

Standards
InLanguagesPathway1,standardsforassessingandreportingachievementareintroducedatLevel5.Schoolsthat providelanguageprogramspriortoLevel4shouldrefertotheLanguagesphasesoflearning(formerlyprogression measures)whichprovideatypicalsequenceofsecondlanguagedevelopment.TheFoundationtoLevel4learningfocus statementsprovideadviceforteachersaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentstoworktowardsthe achievementofthestandardsatLevel6.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages
Level2
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsinLanguagesatPathway1Level6,theylearnaboutculturein contextfromstimulusmaterials.Theylearnthattherearedifferentwaysofdoingthingsandtoidentifywhatisfamiliarand whatisdifferentintheirownandothercultures.InpreparationforLevel6standards,studentsneedtodevelopthe knowledgeandskillsdescribedintheprogressionmeasures. StudentsstarttounderstandandusethelanguageotherthanEnglishinstructuredsituationsandactivitiesrelatedto theirlocalenvironment:self,family,home,classroomandcommunity.Todevelopcomprehensiontheyrespondnon verballyorbyusingkeywordsorshortphrases.Theybegintousesetsofwordsandsentencesthatareencountered frequentlyintheclassroom,andtoinsertwordsintosimplesentences.Studentslearntorecognisetheprintedformof familiarwordsthattheyhavememorised.Theybegintoidentifypatternsandcommonelementsinthelanguage,and experimentwiththelanguagetoexpressthemselves. Asfaraspossible,studentsareimmersedinhearingthelanguage,whosemeaningismadeclearbygestures, dramatisation,singing,doingactivities,conversing,viewing,etc.Studentsexperimentwiththelanguageusingwords, phrasesandbasicsentencestoexpressthemselves.Theybegintodemonstrateunderstandingforexample,byusing pictures,bodylanguageorgesture,performingactionsorwritinginthelanguage.Studentsidentifysomecommon elementsinthelanguagethatdifferfrom,oraresimilarto,Englishandotherlanguageswithwhichtheymaybefamiliar. Stimulusmaterialssuchasstoriesandreadings,activitiesandgames,multimediaresources,visualandgraphic displaysandInternetsites,encouragestudentstounderstandthatthelanguageisusednormallyforcommunicationin thesesettings.Studentsaregivenopportunitiestoobservedifferencesinthewaythelanguagesoundswhenusedby differentspeakers,orindifferentcontexts.Theyalsoidentifyfeaturesofcommunication,andwhererelevant,differences indress,eating,greetingroutines,waysofbeingpoliteandobviousculturalpractices.Theyobservetheprocessesof interpretingandtranslating. Studentscontinuetocommunicatebydrawingonexplicitmodelsandwithongoingteachersupportandscaffolding.They experimentwithwrittenorsignedlanguageandexpressthemselvesbyapproximatingmeaning.

Standards
InLanguagesPathway1,standardsforassessingandreportingachievementareintroducedatLevel5.Schoolsthat providelanguageprogramspriortoLevel5shouldrefertotheLanguagesphasesoflearning(formerlyprogression measures)whichprovideatypicalsequenceofsecondlanguagedevelopment.TheFoundationtoLevel4learningfocus statementsprovideadviceforteachersaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentstoworktowardsthe achievementofthestandardsatLevel6.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages
Level3
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsinLanguagesatPathway1Level6,theybegintounderstand andusethelanguageotherthanEnglishinrelationtotheirpersonalworld,countrieswherethelanguageisspoken(for example,itsgeography,history,aspectsofshopping)andtheworldoftheimagination.Theybegintocollectinformation inthelanguage(forexample,fromtheInternetorfrommodifiedtexts).Theystarttoexplorethebeliefsandlifestylesof peoplefromothercountrieswhonowliveinAustralia.InpreparationforLevel6standards,studentsneedtodevelopthe knowledgeandskillsdescribedintheprogressionmeasures. Studentsconsolidatepreviouslylearntlanguageandextendtheirpersonalvocabularyandknowledgeoflanguage structures.Theyreadshorttexts,talkaboutdailylifeandadaptlanguagethattheyknowtonewcontexts. TheydiscernpatternsandmakeconnectionsbetweenthelanguageandEnglish(andpossiblyotherlanguages)and understandthattherearerules,someofwhicharecommonacrosslanguagesandsomethatarenot. Studentsexperienceawiderangeofvoicesandsettingswherethelanguageisused,includingextendedpassagesin bothoralandwrittenformforexample,simplestories,legends,songsandrhymes.Theycollectinformationaboutthe settings,countriesandregionswherethelanguageisspoken.Throughthisandotherstimulusmaterial,studentsare encouragedtoreflectonlifeinthesecountries,aswellastheirown. Studentsareencouragedtoidentifyarangeofnaturalcontextsfortheuseofthelanguage,andthespecificfeaturesof communicationinthesecontexts.Theyrecognisetheuseofthelanguageininformationandcommunicationstechnology applicationsandexperienceitinmultimediacomputertexts. Theymakelinksbetweenknowledgeaboutrelevantgeographyandhistory,orwaysofthinkingaboutspecific topics/issues(forexample,numbersystems,bargainingorhagglingwhenshopping,theinfluenceofsocial relationships)andtheirunderstandingofthelanguageanditsuse. Theyusesimplesoftwareapplicationstodemonstrateunderstandingofknownvocabularyandstructures.They participateinverysimpleinterpretingandtranslatingroutines. Studentscommunicaterelyingonmodelsandwithongoingteachersupportandscaffolding.Theyexperimentwith languageandexpressthemselvesbyapproximatingmeaning.

Standards
InLanguagesPathway1,standardsforassessingandreportingachievementareintroducedatLevel5.Schoolsthat providelanguageprogramspriortoLevel5shouldrefertotheLanguagesphasesoflearning(formerlyprogression measures)whichprovideatypicalsequenceofsecondlanguagedevelopment.TheFoundationtoLevel4learningfocus statementsprovideadviceforteachersaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentstoworktowardsthe achievementofthestandardsatLevel6.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages
Level4
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsinLanguagesatPathway1Level6,theybegintounderstand andusethelanguageotherthanEnglishinrelationtotheirpersonalworld,countrieswherethelanguageisspoken(for example,itsgeography,history,aspectsofshopping)andtheworldoftheimagination.Theybegintocollectinformation inthelanguage(forexample,fromtheInternetorfrommodifiedtexts).Theystarttoexplorethebeliefsandlifestylesof peoplefromothercountrieswhonowliveinAustralia.InpreparationforLevel6standards,studentsneedtodevelopthe knowledgeandskillsdescribedintheprogressionmeasures. Studentsconsolidatepreviouslylearntlanguageandextendtheirpersonalvocabularyandknowledgeoflanguage structures.Theyreadshorttexts,talkaboutdailylifeandadaptlanguagethattheyknowtonewcontexts. TheydiscernpatternsandmakeconnectionsbetweenthelanguageandEnglish(andpossiblyotherlanguages)and understandthattherearerules,someofwhicharecommonacrosslanguagesandsomethatarenot. Studentsexperienceawiderangeofvoicesandsettingswherethelanguageisused,includingextendedpassagesin bothoralandwrittenformforexample,simplestories,legends,songsandrhymes.Theycollectinformationaboutthe settings,countriesandregionswherethelanguageisspoken.Throughthisandotherstimulusmaterial,studentsare encouragedtoreflectonlifeinthesecountries,aswellastheirown. Studentsareencouragedtoidentifyarangeofnaturalcontextsfortheuseofthelanguage,andthespecificfeaturesof communicationinthesecontexts.Theyrecognisetheuseofthelanguageininformationandcommunicationstechnology applicationsandexperienceitinmultimediacomputertexts. Theymakelinksbetweenknowledgeaboutrelevantgeographyandhistory,orwaysofthinkingaboutspecific topics/issues(forexample,numbersystems,bargainingorhagglingwhenshopping,theinfluenceofsocial relationships)andtheirunderstandingofthelanguageanditsuse. Theyusesimplesoftwareapplicationstodemonstrateunderstandingofknownvocabularyandstructures.They participateinverysimpleinterpretingandtranslatingroutines. Studentscommunicaterelyingonmodelsandwithongoingteachersupportandscaffolding.Theyexperimentwith languageandexpressthemselvesbyapproximatingmeaning.

Standards
InLanguagesPathway1,standardsforassessingandreportingachievementareintroducedatLevel5.Schoolsthat providelanguageprogramspriortoLevel5shouldrefertotheLanguagesphasesoflearning(formerlyprogression measures)whichprovideatypicalsequenceofsecondlanguagedevelopment.TheFoundationtoLevel4learningfocus statementsprovideadviceforteachersaboutlearningexperiencesthatwillassiststudentstoworktowardsthe achievementofthestandardsatLevel6.

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Languages
Level5
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsatPathway1Level6,theylearnaboutculturaldifferences associatedwiththelanguageotherthanEnglish.TheyunderstandthatAustralianlifeandcultureareinfluencedbythese differentwaysoflife.Theylearnwhytherearesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenlanguages,andhowtheseare related. Studentsbegintounderstandandusethelanguagewithintheworldoftheirownexperienceandimagination,withsome topicsdrawnfromotherdomains,includingexchangingsimplepersonalinformationandopinions,andcreatingand performingshortskitsinthelanguage.Theystarttoreadandlocateitemsofinformationinshorttextsandtowriteshort paragraphs. Studentsmakelogicalattemptstodeciphermeaningfromwrittenandspokenmaterialandbegintouseresourcessuch asdictionaries.Theylearnstrategiesforretaininglanguageinformationforlateruseinnewapplicationsanddevelopan understandingofhowpartsofthelanguagesystemwork.Theyapproachlanguagelearningasaproblemsolvingactivity astheyconsciouslyconsideraspectsofgrammar. Activitiesmayincludeguidedroleplayscrossculturalsimulationsuseofmultimedia(suchasforguidedInternet searching,research,explorationorcollaboration,realtimeinterviews,surveysandemails)performingskitscommunity informationgatheringafamilylanguagerecordkeepingapersonaljournalandproducingbrochures,guidebooks, chartsandcaptions.Activitiesdesignedcollaborativelywithteachersinotherdomainscanbeextendedthrough translation,culturaladaptationorinterpreting,oraspectsofthethemeortopiccanbepresented,complementedor extendedthroughthelanguage. Studentslearntocommunicatebyreferringtoarangeofimplicitandexplicitmodelsandbyrespondingtoteacher prompting.Theybegintofunctioninopenendedsituations,allowingvariationandextensionoflanguageapplications. Theylearntospeakandwriteeffectivelyforarangeofpurposesandaudiences,approximatingmeaningandauthentic languageusewithindefinedtopics.Examplescouldincludewritinganemailorsimplestory,andorderinginacafor askingfordirections.

Standards
AtLevel5,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel6standards.

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Languages
Level6
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsatPathway1Level6,theylearnaboutculturaldifferences associatedwiththelanguageotherthanEnglish.TheyunderstandthatAustralianlifeandcultureareinfluencedbythese differentwaysoflife.Theylearnwhytherearesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenlanguages,andhowtheseare related. Studentsbegintounderstandandusethelanguagewithintheworldoftheirownexperienceandimagination,withsome topicsdrawnfromotherdomains,includingexchangingsimplepersonalinformationandopinions,andcreatingand performingshortskitsinthelanguage.Theystarttoreadandlocateitemsofinformationinshorttextsandtowriteshort paragraphs. Studentsmakelogicalattemptstodeciphermeaningfromwrittenandspokenmaterialandbegintouseresourcessuch asdictionaries.Theylearnstrategiesforretaininglanguageinformationforlateruseinnewapplicationsanddevelopan understandingofhowpartsofthelanguagesystemwork.Theyapproachlanguagelearningasaproblemsolvingactivity astheyconsciouslyconsideraspectsofgrammar. Activitiesmayincludeguidedroleplayscrossculturalsimulationsuseofmultimedia(suchasforguidedInternet searching,research,explorationorcollaboration,realtimeinterviews,surveysandemails)performingskitscommunity informationgatheringafamilylanguagerecordkeepingapersonaljournalandproducingbrochures,guidebooks, chartsandcaptions.Activitiesdesignedcollaborativelywithteachersinotherdomainscanbeextendedthrough translation,culturaladaptationorinterpreting,oraspectsofthethemeortopiccanbepresented,complementedor extendedthroughthelanguage. Studentslearntocommunicatebyreferringtoarangeofimplicitandexplicitmodelsandbyrespondingtoteacher prompting.Theybegintofunctioninopenendedsituations,allowingvariationandextensionoflanguageapplications. Theylearntospeakandwriteeffectivelyforarangeofpurposesandaudiences,approximatingmeaningandauthentic languageusewithindefinedtopics.Examplescouldincludewritinganemailorsimplestory,andorderinginacafor askingfordirections.

Standards
CommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglish

AtPathway1Level6,studentsparticipateinoralinteractionstoconveyandreceiveinformation.Studentsdemonstrate sounddiscriminationeffectively.Intonelanguages,studentsdiscerntonepatternsinslowedspeech. Studentsshowawarenessofthelanguageandculturalrequirementsrelatedtoagiventopictheyadaptlanguageand gestureappropriatelyfortherole,audienceandpurposeofthediscourse.Theyacquireandusenewinformationand language,andrecyclepreviouslylearntlanguageskillsandknowledgeinnewcontexts.Theyinitiateandlead communicationandrespondtocommunicationinitiatedbyothers. Studentsapplytheirknowledgeofwordmeanings,wordassociationsandcognatestotheirownwork.

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Languages
Studentsorganiseandapplygrammaticalinformationandknowledgeofwords,conductdictionaryresearch,andwork independentlyondefinedprojectsusingthelanguage.

Romanalphabeticallanguages
l

Studentsreadawiderangeofshortand/ormodifiedtextsformeaningandforuseasmodelsintheirownwriting.They readaloudeffectivelyandapplyknowledgeofpronunciation,punctuation,toneandlettersoundvariationsinparticular contexts.Writinginparagraphs,theyexpressthemselvesinarangeofcontextsandaresensitivetotheaudienceand purposeofthewriting.Usingprintandelectronicresources,theydraft,selfcorrect,accessdictionaries,scriptcheck andpresentwrittenproducts.

NonRomanalphabeticallanguages
l

Studentsreadshortpassagesformeaning.Theyreadaloudeffectively,andapplyknowledgeofarangeofaccents, tonemarkersandpunctuationinavarietyofcontexts.Theyexpressthemselvesthroughwritingbygeneratingoriginal sentencesinthelanguage,usingmodelledexampleswhichmaybelinkedtoformparagraphs.Usingprintand electronicresources,theydraft,selfcorrect,accessdictionaries,scriptcheckandpresentwrittenproducts.

Characterlanguages
l

Studentsreadshort,modifiedtextsformeaning.Theyreadaloudeffectively,andapplyknowledgeoffamiliarcharacters andpunctuationinarangeofcontexts.Theywritecharacters,payingattentiontoshape,strokeorderandproportion. Theycategorisethecharacterstheyhavelearntintogroupsbasedonsimilaritiesinmeaning,appearance, pronunciationorfunction,andintroducenewlylearntcharactersintotheseschemata.Theywritesentencesusing appropriatecharactersandformparagraphsbyfollowingmodelledexamples.Theyusepinyin/rmajiforbasicword processing.Theyexplaindistinctiverulesrelatingtowritinginthelanguage,andapplystrategies,usingprintand electronicresources,forcheckingandselfcorrectingtheircharacteruse.Theyidentifytraditionaltechniquesforwriting.

Signlanguage
l

Studentsusesimplesignedtextsandidentifyspecificitemsofinformation,makechoices,answerquestionsandrelay informationtootherparticipantsinasignedexchange.Theyconveypersonalorfactualinformationinshort,linked sequences.Theyengageeffectivelyinexchangestoprovideandobtaininformationabouteverydayactivities.Theyuse variousinformationandcommunicationstechnologyapplicationsforrecordingandconveyingsignedmeaning.

Interculturalknowledgeandlanguageawareness

Studentsdemonstrateskillsandknowledgeinthisdimensionbythechoicestheymakeinformulatingtheir responseto,oruseof,thelanguage. AtPathway1Level6,studentsapplyrelevantconversationalrulesandexpectationsforexample,thoserelatedto politeness.Theydemonstrateunderstandingofculturaldifferencesinwritingconventionsforspecificdiscourseformsby producingequivalentitemsinanotherlanguage. Studentsdemonstrateeffectivereflectionontheirlanguagelearningbysharingalearningstrategytheyusesuccessfully, orbyevaluatingandimprovingastrategytheyhavetried.Theyinteractwithmembersofthelanguagecommunityin Australiaasameansofextendingtheirunderstandingofperspectivesonthethemesandtopicsstudiedinthe classroom.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages
StudentsidentifywaysinwhichthelanguageandculturehasimpactedonAustraliaandpresentinformationinwrittenor oralformsinthelanguage.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages
Level7
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsinLanguagesatPathway1Level8,theydeveloptheir understandingthatculturaldiversityexistsandthatcustomsandtraditionsvarywithincountriesandovertime.They investigatetheimportantelementsthatmakeupalanguagesystemandtheparticularfunctionsofgrammatical concepts,andlearnthatwordsmaynothaveadirectequivalentinanotherlanguage. TheybegintounderstandandusethelanguageotherthanEnglishwithintheworldofteenageexperience,ontopics relatedtogeneralinterest,topicsdrawnfromotherdomainsandtheworldoflearning.Theystarttoexchangepersonal information,opinions,ideas,feelingsandplansorallyandthroughcorrespondence.Theycontinuetoadaptthelanguage theyusetosuitthecommunicationcontext,andpractisemanagingshiftsoftopicandspeaker.Theyexplorethestructure oftextsanddistinguishbetweenmajorpointsanddetail.Usingvariousprintandelectronicresourcessuchas dictionaries,referencebooks,CDROMSandwebsites,theylocateandinterpretinformation.Theygaininsightintothe processofindependentlanguagelearning. Studentsreflectoncultureandlanguage,andtheskillsthatcanbeacquiredininterculturalunderstandingandlanguage awareness.Theybegintogeneraliseandreflectontherelationshipbetweenlanguagesandculturesbeyondboth Englishandthelanguagebeingstudied.Theyconsiderdeeperculturalknowledgethroughthemediumofthelanguage, includingconceptssuchastheculturalgroupsownnamesforitsculturalandcommunicativepractices. Activitiesincludeawiderangeoflistening,speaking,readingandwritingtasksaswellastasksthatintegratethese macroskillswithinterculturalunderstandingsandlanguageawareness.Studentsconsidertheaudience,purposeand appropriatelanguageforeachcommunicationtask. Studentscommunicatebyreferringtomodelsandrespondingtoprompting.Theyextendtheirknowledgeoflanguage andculturalunderstandingsandusethisknowledgetoinformselfexpressioninoralandwrittencommunication.They experimentwithlanguageandapproximateaccurateapplicationsinnewcontextsandinopenendedsituations.They explorearangeofcommunicativetoolsandtechnologyintheirownresearchanddevelopmentoforiginallanguage.

Standards
AtLevel7,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel8standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages
Level8
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsinLanguagesatPathway1Level8,theydeveloptheir understandingthatculturaldiversityexistsandthatcustomsandtraditionsvarywithincountriesandovertime.They investigatetheimportantelementsthatmakeupalanguagesystemandtheparticularfunctionsofgrammatical concepts,andlearnthatwordsmaynothaveadirectequivalentinanotherlanguage. TheybegintounderstandandusethelanguageotherthanEnglishwithintheworldofteenageexperience,ontopics relatedtogeneralinterest,topicsdrawnfromotherdomainsandtheworldoflearning.Theystarttoexchangepersonal information,opinions,ideas,feelingsandplansorallyandthroughcorrespondence.Theycontinuetoadaptthelanguage theyusetosuitthecommunicationcontext,andpractisemanagingshiftsoftopicandspeaker.Theyexplorethestructure oftextsanddistinguishbetweenmajorpointsanddetail.Usingvariousprintandelectronicresourcessuchas dictionaries,referencebooks,CDROMSandwebsites,theylocateandinterpretinformation.Theygaininsightintothe processofindependentlanguagelearning. Studentsreflectoncultureandlanguage,andtheskillsthatcanbeacquiredininterculturalunderstandingandlanguage awareness.Theybegintogeneraliseandreflectontherelationshipbetweenlanguagesandculturesbeyondboth Englishandthelanguagebeingstudied.Theyconsiderdeeperculturalknowledgethroughthemediumofthelanguage, includingconceptssuchastheculturalgroupsownnamesforitsculturalandcommunicativepractices. Activitiesincludeawiderangeoflistening,speaking,readingandwritingtasksaswellastasksthatintegratethese macroskillswithinterculturalunderstandingsandlanguageawareness.Studentsconsidertheaudience,purposeand appropriatelanguageforeachcommunicationtask. Studentscommunicatebyreferringtomodelsandrespondingtoprompting.Theyextendtheirknowledgeoflanguage andculturalunderstandingsandusethisknowledgetoinformselfexpressioninoralandwrittencommunication.They experimentwithlanguageandapproximateaccurateapplicationsinnewcontextsandinopenendedsituations.They explorearangeofcommunicativetoolsandtechnologyintheirownresearchanddevelopmentoforiginallanguage.

Standards
CommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglish

AtPathway1Level8,studentsrecallmostofthemainideas,objectsanddetailspresentedwithatopicinthelanguage. Theyusearangeofstrategiestoassistinlisteningcomprehension. Studentsadaptlanguageandgestureappropriatelyfortherole,audienceandpurposeoftheinteraction,demonstrating awarenessoftheculturalandlanguagerequirementsofarangeofsituationsassociatedwiththetopicsbeingstudied. Studentsparticipateeffectivelyininteractionssuchasroleplaysandconversationsonsimpletopics.Theycreatesimple originaltextforspecificaudiencesandpurposesinprintandelectronicform.Theywriteparagraphsandlinked sequences,usingappropriatescriptandlanguagerelatedtothetopic.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages
Studentscriticallyreviewtheirownwriting.Theydrafttheirwritinganduseavarietyofwritingtechniquesandtoolsto presentinformationinarangeoftexttypes.Theylocateanddownloadinformationinthelanguagefromavarietyofprint andelectronicresourcesincludingdictionariesandreferencematerials.

Romanalphabeticallanguages
l

Studentsreadsilentlyandaloudtoextractand/orcommunicateinformation.Theywriteandedittheirownworkinthe languageandidentifyareaswheretheyneedfurtherassistance.Theyuseaccents,tonemarkersandpunctuation whereappropriateforthetopicandcontextofthewriting.Theywriteinlinkedparagraphsforspecificpurposes.

NonRomanalphabeticallanguages
l

Studentsreadshortpassagessilentlyandaloudtoextractand/orcommunicateinformation.Theyapplytheir knowledgeofarangeofaccentmarkersandpunctuationinreadingandwritingfamiliarandunfamiliartexts.Theywrite inlinkedsentencesandparagraphsonatopic.

Characterlanguages
l

Studentsreadshort,modifiedtextsrelatedtothetopicsbeingstudied,silentlyandaloud.Theyapplyknowledgeof charactersandpunctuationinnewcontextsandextendtheirrangeoffamiliarcharacters.Theywriteparagraphsby followingmodelledexamples.Theyusestrategiesforcheckingandselfcorrectingtheircharacteruse,including informationandcommunicationstechnologyapplications.

Signlanguage
l

Studentsdemonstrateunderstandingofauthenticandmodifiedsignedtexts,includingdiscussions,presentationsand conversationsemphasisingcommunicationbetweentwoormoreparticipants.Theypresentandrequestinformation andopinionsoncurriculumtopicsandtopicsofinterestinclassdiscussions,presentationsandconversations,and justifydecisions,expresspersonalviewsandprovideadvice.Theyeffectivelyuseinformationandcommunications technologyapplicationsforrecordingandcommunicatinginsignedlanguage.

Interculturalknowledgeandlanguageawareness

Studentsdemonstrateskillsandknowledgeinthisdimensionbythechoicestheymakeinformulatingtheir responseto,oruseof,thelanguage. AtPathway1Level8,studentsactivelyparticipateinthecreationandmaintenanceofthelanguageandculturalambience intheclassroom.Theyselect,interpretandpresentknowledgeaboutthelanguage,itsspeakers,andcountrieswhereit isspoken. Studentsdemonstrateunderstandingofaspectsofinterpretationandtranslationbyusingappropriatelanguageand levelsofrespectindifferentcircumstances,thusreflectingtherelationshipbetweenthespeakersofthelanguage.They interactwithavarietyofspeakersofthelanguagefromdifferentcountriesandcommunities,includingAustralia,togain understandingofdiverseviewsandbeliefswithinandbetweenthesecommunities. Studentsexpresstheirownviewsandvaluesinrelationtosimplescenariosorpropositions.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages
Level9
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsinLanguagesatPathway1Level10,theycompareandcontrast aspectsoflifeinnonEnglishspeakingcountrieswiththoseinmulticulturalAustralia,andtheimpactofsomeofthese aspectsonthewaypeoplebehaveanduselanguage. Theyexploretheextentandlimitationsofthelanguagethattheyhavelearnt.Theydevelopstrategiesformaximisingand extendingtheskillsandknowledgeandculturalunderstandingtheyhaveacquired.Theyunderstandthatlanguageisa complexsystemwithrules,anddifferencesfromEnglish.Theyrealisethatwordsandconceptsmaynothaveadirect equivalentinanotherlanguage. Studentsextendtheirinteractionstoexchangeinformationandopinionsontopicssuchasleisure,relationships,study, careersandthemedia,andissuesofconcerntoyoungpeoplesuchasenvironmentalissues,theimpactoftechnology, andglobalisation.Theyemploystrategiesforbroadeningtheirlanguageawareness,andrepertoireofscript,structures andvocabulary,fromreadingmaterials.Theydrawonknowledgeandskillsfromotherdomainstoinformwaysof applyinglanguageinnewcontexts. Theypractiseusinglanguageinanincreasingrangeofcontextsforexample,inthecommunity,andbegintomanipulate languagetoexpresstheirownpersonalmeanings.Theyunderstandarangeofspokenandwrittenconventionsinthe language,andtheyinitiateandparticipateinclassandchatroomdiscussion,conductresearchusingprintandelectronic resources,andreorganiseinformationtoproduceeffectiveextendedspokenandwrittendiscoursesinarangeofforms. Studentsbecomeincreasinglyawareofthedistinctivecultural,socialandlinguisticnatureofthestudyofalanguageand acknowledgetheneedtoextendandreinforcetheirownlearninginasequentialandsystematicway.Theycontributeto decisionsaboutthecontextforlearningandthesequencingoftopicsaccordingtotheirinterestsandneeds,including futurestudiesandcareergoals. Activitiesincludeawiderangeoflistening,speaking,readingandwritingtasksaswellastasksthatintegratethese macroskillswithinterculturalunderstandingsandlanguageawareness. Studentscommunicate,referringtoimplicitandsomeexplicitlanguagemodellingandinresponsetoprompting.They learntomanageopenendedcommunicationswitheffectiveapproximationsofaccuratelanguageforthecontext.They usearangeofstrategiesforvaryingandextendinglanguageapplications,expressingopinionandorganising informationwithcarefulconsiderationofaudience,purposeandappropriatelanguageforeachcommunicationtask.

Standards
AtLevel9,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel10standards.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages
Level10
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsinLanguagesatPathway1Level10,theycompareandcontrast aspectsoflifeinnonEnglishspeakingcountrieswiththoseinmulticulturalAustralia,andtheimpactofsomeofthese aspectsonthewaypeoplebehaveanduselanguage. Theyexploretheextentandlimitationsofthelanguagethattheyhavelearnt.Theydevelopstrategiesformaximisingand extendingtheskillsandknowledgeandculturalunderstandingtheyhaveacquired.Theyunderstandthatlanguageisa complexsystemwithrules,anddifferencesfromEnglish.Theyrealisethatwordsandconceptsmaynothaveadirect equivalentinanotherlanguage. Studentsextendtheirinteractionstoexchangeinformationandopinionsontopicssuchasleisure,relationships,study, careersandthemedia,andissuesofconcerntoyoungpeoplesuchasenvironmentalissues,theimpactoftechnology, andglobalisation.Theyemploystrategiesforbroadeningtheirlanguageawareness,andrepertoireofscript,structures andvocabulary,fromreadingmaterials.Theydrawonknowledgeandskillsfromotherdomainstoinformwaysof applyinglanguageinnewcontexts. Theypractiseusinglanguageinanincreasingrangeofcontextsforexample,inthecommunity,andbegintomanipulate languagetoexpresstheirownpersonalmeanings.Theyunderstandarangeofspokenandwrittenconventionsinthe language,andtheyinitiateandparticipateinclassandchatroomdiscussion,conductresearchusingprintandelectronic resources,andreorganiseinformationtoproduceeffectiveextendedspokenandwrittendiscoursesinarangeofforms. Studentsbecomeincreasinglyawareofthedistinctivecultural,socialandlinguisticnatureofthestudyofalanguageand acknowledgetheneedtoextendandreinforcetheirownlearninginasequentialandsystematicway.Theycontributeto decisionsaboutthecontextforlearningandthesequencingoftopicsaccordingtotheirinterestsandneeds,including futurestudiesandcareergoals. Activitiesincludeawiderangeoflistening,speaking,readingandwritingtasksaswellastasksthatintegratethese macroskillswithinterculturalunderstandingsandlanguageawareness. Studentscommunicate,referringtoimplicitandsomeexplicitlanguagemodellingandinresponsetoprompting.They learntomanageopenendedcommunicationswitheffectiveapproximationsofaccuratelanguageforthecontext.They usearangeofstrategiesforvaryingandextendinglanguageapplications,expressingopinionandorganising informationwithcarefulconsiderationofaudience,purposeandappropriatelanguageforeachcommunicationtask.

Standards
CommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglish

AtPathway1Level10,studentsidentifyrelevantinformationandideasfromspokentexts.Theyspontaneouslyparticipate ininteractionsrelatedtoaspecifictopic,andemployinsightsfrompreviouslanguagelearninginoralinteractions. Studentseffectivelydiscriminateandusepronunciation,tone,intonationandmetre.Theyinitiateandmaintain interactionstogiveandreceiveinformationandimpressions.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages
Studentsreproducethemainfeaturesofgrammarinthelanguage,andidentifydifferencesbetweenEnglishandother languages.Theyidentifywaysinwhichintentionsandideasareexpresseddifferentlyindifferentlanguages.They communicateinformationintranslationandinterpretationactivities,demonstratingcarefulconsiderationoftheneedsof thelistenerorreader,andsensitivitytoculturalsimilarityanddifferencesinmeaningandintent. Studentsdeducerelationships,mood,attitudesandsocialcontextfromvisualstimuli.Theyidentifycharacteristicsinthe individualstyleofwritersofthelanguageinrelationtotheaudiencesandpurposesforaparticulartext. Studentsreadtextsandeffectivelyextractmainideasanddetailedinformationforuseinnewcontexts.

Romanalphabeticallanguages
l

Studentsreadselectedtextswithfluency.Theyreadformeaningandtocommunicateinformation.Theyexpress themselvesthroughextendedwritinginthelanguageinprintandelectronicform.Theyrecogniseandusethe conventionsofarangeoftexttypes.

NonRomanalphabeticallanguages
l

Studentsreadselectedpassageswithfluency.Theyreadformeaningandtocommunicateinformation.Theyapply theirknowledgeofaccentsandpunctuationinbothreadingandwriting.Theyexpressthemselvesinextended passagesandlinkedparagraphsinprintandelectronicform.

Characterlanguages
l

Studentsreadmodifiedtextswithfluency.Theyreadformeaningandunderstandwaysofusingideographiccuesto extendunderstanding.Theyapplyknowledgeofcharactersandpunctuationinnewcontextsandextendtheirrangeof familiarcharacters.Theyusearangeoftechniquesforrememberingandacquiringnewcharacterknowledge.They writelinkedparagraphsandsomeextendedpassagesinprintandelectronicform.Theyusestrategiesforchecking andselfcorrectingtheircharacteruse,includingusinginformationandcommunicationstechnologyapplications.

Signlanguage
l

Studentsidentifyopinions,events,rolesandthemesindescriptiveandinformativesignedtexts,andpresentthemin anotherformatinordertoprovidepersonalreflection,asolutionoracomparison.Theysynthesiseandpresent informationontopicsofsocialandculturalimportanceinnarratives,discussionsandconversationsinorderto persuadeanaudienceofapointofview.Theyuseinformationandcommunicationstechnologyapplicationsfor researchandrecordingandcommunicatinginsignedlanguage.

Interculturalknowledgeandlanguageawareness

Studentsdemonstrateskillsandknowledgeinthisdimensionbythechoicestheymakeinformulatingtheir responseto,oruseof,thelanguage. AtPathway1Level10,studentsdemonstrateanawarenessoftheextentandlimitationsofthelanguagethroughcreation ofrealisticapplicationsofknowledgeandskillsinarangeofsituations.Theydemonstrateknowledgeoftheeffectof wordorderandcontextonmeaning.

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Languages
Throughaccurateandcontextsensitivelanguageuse,studentsdemonstrateunderstandingofculturalinfluencesonthe wayspeoplebehaveanduselanguage.Theyuseillustrativeexamplesinthelanguagetoexplainthedifferencesand similaritiesbetweenlanguages. Theydemonstrateunderstandingoflanguageasacomplexsystemthroughstrategiessuchasreflection,drafting, questioninglinguisticrelationships,observingandhypothesising.Theytestthevalidityoftheirunderstandingbyreferring tootherspeakersofthelanguage,researchand/orobservation. Studentscontributetodiscussionsaboutthegeneralconceptofculture,andtherelationshipsbetweencultures, includingtheeffectsofmigrationandtravel,bypresentingillustrativeexamples.Theyidentifygeneralculturalpatternsthat flowacrossspecificsettingsandtimes.Theyrecognisenuancesinmeaninganddemonstrateanawarenessofthe dynamicnatureoflanguagethroughthelanguageandmannerismstheyuseininteractionsinarangeofcultural settings.Theydemonstrateanunderstandingofvariationsinculturalperspectivesbetweenspeakersofthelanguagein differentsettings,byeffectivelyinteractingwithmembersofthelanguagecommunityinAustralia. Inthelanguage,studentsdescribesomeoftheirpresentpersonalvaluesandopinions,andcomparethemwith previouslyheldviews.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Thursday, 14 February 2013

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Languages
Level7
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsinLanguagesatPathway2Level7,theydeveloptheir understandingthatculturaldiversityexistsandthatcustomsandtraditionsvarywithincountriesandovertime.They understandthattheseinfluenceAustralianlifeandculture.Theyalsolearnaboutthebasicgeographyandhistoryofthe countryorcountrieswherethelanguageotherthanEnglishisusedandmakecomparisonswithAustraliaandother countriesassociatedwiththelanguagestheyhavepreviouslystudied. Studentslearnwhytherearesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenlanguages,andhowthesearerelated.Theybeginto haveagraspofthehistoryofthelanguagetheyarestudyinganditslinkswithotherlanguages. Studentsbegintounderstandandusethelanguagewithintheworldoftheirownexperience,includingtheworldof learning,withsometopicsdrawnfromotherdomains.Theyparticipateinactivitieswheretheypractiseexchanging simplepersonalinformationontopicssuchasself,friends,family,time,school,likes,dislikes,foods,dailyroutinesand pastimes.Theytalkaboutthemselvesinresponsetoquestions,andlearntoaskquestions. Theybegintowriteshortparagraphs,initiallybasedonmodelsandonmemorisedsequences,eventuallydeveloping independence.Theyapplybasicwordprocessingskillsusingthelanguage. Studentsareincreasinglyawarethattherearetechnicaltermsforpartsofsentences,andthattheyneedtoreflecton words,andtheirfunctionandplaceinasentence.Theylearntodifferentiatebetween,andpronounce,soundsandto makeuseofcognatesbetweenlanguages.Theyconsciouslyconsideraspectsofgrammarandapproachlanguage learningasaproblemsolvingactivity. Theymakelogicalattemptstodeciphermeaningfromwrittenandspokeninput,anduseprintandelectronicresources suchasdictionariesandCDROMs.Theylearnstrategiesforretaininglanguageinformationforlateruseinnew applications,andunderstandhowpartsofthelanguagesystemwork.Greetings,introductions,songsandothersimple routinesareusedtointroducethesoundsofthelanguageandtoencouragestudentstousethelanguage.Fromthe beginning,studentsareexposedtowords,phrasesandbasicsentencesinthelanguage.Asfaraspossible,students areimmersedinhearingthelanguage,whosemeaningismadeclearby:
l l l l l

gestures(forexample,indicating,touching) dramatisation(forexample,roleplaying,costumewearing,dollmaking,scenarios,imitatingcharacters) singing(forexample,actedparts,participationrhymes,choralpractice) activities(forexample,painting,Internetormultimediagames,digitallearningobjects,interculturalawarenessgames) conversing(forexample,repeatingteachermodels,askingandansweringscaffoldedquestions,identifyingobjects andtheircharacteristics,usinghereandnowcues,labellingclassroomandhomeobjects) viewing(forexample,video,graphic,visualandotherstimulusmaterial) dance readingaloud(forexampleancienttextswhichdevelopaknowledgeofpronunciationanddeliveryinordertogainafull appreciationoftheliteraryqualitiesofthesetexts)etc.

l l l

Studentsparticipateinarangeofactivitiesincludingcooking,physicaleducation,games,drawingandpuppetmaking whichlocatethelanguageinrealcommunicationcontexts,hearingextendedbutsimplestretchesofthelanguageand graduallyusingitthemselves.

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Languages
Studentscommunicatebyreferringtoarangeofmodelsandrespondingtoteacherprompting.Theybegintoperformin openendedsituations,allowingvariationandextensionoflanguageapplications.Theyspeakandwriteeffectively, approximatingmeaningandauthenticlanguageusewithindefinedtopicsandcontexts.

Standards
AtPathway2Level7,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel8standards.

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Languages
Level8
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsinLanguagesatPathway2Level8,theydeveloptheir understandingthatculturaldiversityexistsandthatcustomsandtraditionsvarywithincountriesandovertime.They understandthattheseinfluenceAustralianlifeandculture.Theyalsolearnaboutthebasicgeographyandhistoryofthe countryorcountrieswherethelanguageotherthanEnglishisusedandmakecomparisonswithAustraliaandother countriesassociatedwiththelanguagestheyhavepreviouslystudied. Studentslearnwhytherearesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenlanguages,andhowthesearerelated.Theybeginto haveagraspofthehistoryofthelanguagetheyarestudyinganditslinkswithotherlanguages. Studentsbegintounderstandandusethelanguagewithintheworldoftheirownexperience,includingtheworldof learning,withsometopicsdrawnfromotherdomains.Theyparticipateinactivitieswheretheypractiseexchanging simplepersonalinformationontopicssuchasself,friends,family,time,school,likes,dislikes,foods,dailyroutinesand pastimes.Theytalkaboutthemselvesinresponsetoquestions,andlearntoaskquestions. Theybegintowriteshortparagraphs,initiallybasedonmodelsandonmemorisedsequences,eventuallydeveloping independence.Theyapplybasicwordprocessingskillsusingthelanguage. Studentsareincreasinglyawarethattherearetechnicaltermsforpartsofsentences,andthattheyneedtoreflecton words,andtheirfunctionandplaceinasentence.Theylearntodifferentiatebetween,andpronounce,soundsandto makeuseofcognatesbetweenlanguages.Theyconsciouslyconsideraspectsofgrammarandapproachlanguage learningasaproblemsolvingactivity. Theymakelogicalattemptstodeciphermeaningfromwrittenandspokeninput,anduseprintandelectronicresources suchasdictionariesandCDROMs.Theylearnstrategiesforretaininglanguageinformationforlateruseinnew applications,andunderstandhowpartsofthelanguagesystemwork.Greetings,introductions,songsandothersimple routinesareusedtointroducethesoundsofthelanguageandtoencouragestudentstousethelanguage.Fromthe beginning,studentsareexposedtowords,phrasesandbasicsentencesinthelanguage.Asfaraspossible,students areimmersedinhearingthelanguage,whosemeaningismadeclearby:
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gestures(forexample,indicating,touching) dramatisation(forexample,roleplaying,costumewearing,dollmaking,scenarios,imitatingcharacters) singing(forexample,actedparts,participationrhymes,choralpractice) activities(forexample,painting,Internetormultimediagames,digitallearningobjects,interculturalawarenessgames) conversing(forexample,repeatingteachermodels,askingandansweringscaffoldedquestions,identifyingobjects andtheircharacteristics,usinghereandnowcues,labellingclassroomandhomeobjects) viewing(forexample,video,graphic,visualandotherstimulusmaterial) dance readingaloud(forexampleancienttextswhichdevelopaknowledgeofpronunciationanddeliveryinordertogainafull appreciationoftheliteraryqualitiesofthesetexts)etc.

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Studentsparticipateinarangeofactivitiesincludingcooking,physicaleducation,games,drawingandpuppetmaking whichlocatethelanguageinrealcommunicationcontexts,hearingextendedbutsimplestretchesofthelanguageand graduallyusingitthemselves.

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Languages
Studentscommunicatebyreferringtoarangeofmodelsandrespondingtoteacherprompting.Theybegintoperformin openendedsituations,allowingvariationandextensionoflanguageapplications.Theyspeakandwriteeffectively, approximatingmeaningandauthenticlanguageusewithindefinedtopicsandcontexts.

Standards
CommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglish

AtPathway2Level8,studentsintroducethemselves,greetandfarewellothersusingtheappropriateregisterand reproducemodelleduseoflanguage.Theyexchangesimpleinformationontopicssuchasdailyroutinesandaspectsof theirworld.Theytalkaboutthemselvesinresponsetoquestions,andaskquestionsinresponse.Studentsmanipulate modelledlanguage.Theyreadorlistentopassagesandextractbasicfactualinformationondefinedtopics. Studentsdemonstrateeffectivesounddiscrimination.Intonelanguages,studentsdiscernallthetonepatternsinslowed speech. Studentsdescribeanduseculturallyspecificgesturesandbodylanguage.Theyshowawarenessofthelanguage requirementsofarangeofspecificsituationsrelatedtoagiventopic,andadaptlanguageandgestureappropriatelyfor therole,audienceandpurposeofthediscourse.Theyacquireandusenewinformationandlanguage,andrecycle previouslylearntlanguageskillsandknowledgeinnewcontexts. Studentsexplorewordmeanings,wordassociations,cognates,andsoon,andapplythisknowledgetotheirownwork.

Romanalphabeticallanguages
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Studentsidentifysimilarlettersthatsounddifferentinthelanguage.Theyreadarangeofshort,andsometimes modified,textsformeaning.Theyreadaloudandattempttoapplyknowledgeofpronunciation,punctuation,toneand lettersoundvariationsinparticularcontexts.Theyexpressthemselvesthroughwritinginsentencesandparagraphsin printandelectronicform.

NonRomanalphabeticallanguages
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Studentsdescribethedifferentwritingsystemandwriteletters,wordsandshortsentences.Theyreadshortpassages formeaning.Theypractisereadingaloudandattempttoapplyknowledgeofarangeofaccentmarkersand punctuationinavarietyofcontexts.Theyexpressthemselvesthroughwriting,inprintandelectronicform,bygenerating originalsentenceswhichmaybelinkedtoformparagraphs.

Characterlanguages
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Studentsdiscussthedifferencesbetweenwritingsystemsacrosslanguages.Theyreadshort,modifiedtextsfor meaning.Theyreadaloudeffectively,applyingknowledgeoffamiliarcharactersandpunctuationinarangeofcontexts. Theywritecharactersusingappropriateconventionsforproducingthem(forexample,withaccurateshapeandstroke order)andfortheorganisationofextendedwriting.Theyusepinyin/rmajiforbasicwordprocessing.Theyuse strategiesincludinginformationandcommunicationstechnologyapplications,forcheckingandselfcorrectingtheir characteruse.

Signlanguage

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Languages
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Studentsinterpretinformationbycomparing,discussingoptionsanddrawingconclusions.Theycreatesimplesigned sequencestoprovidefactualinformationandmanipulateformulaiclanguagetoexpresspersonalmeaningsinliveand simulatedsituations.Theyuseinformationandcommunicationstechnologyapplicationsforrecordingandconveying signedmeaning.

ClassicallanguagesForClassicallanguages,thecompletestandardisprovidedbelow:
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Studentsreadandinterpretarangeofsignificantlymodifiedtextsformeaningandextractbasicfactualinformationon definedtopics.Studentsbegintowritesimplesentencesusingmodifiedtextsasaguide.Theydemonstratean understandingofwordmeanings,wordassociations,cognatesandderivativesandapplythisknowledgetotheirown work.Theymanipulatemodelledlanguageatthelevelofsimplesentences.andidentify,describeanddiscusssimple linguisticandgrammaticalstructuresofthelanguage.Studentsshowanunderstandingofmorphologicalfeatures suchascase,gender,number,person,tense,moodandtheimportanceofgrammaticalagreement.They demonstrateeffectivesounddiscrimination. ForLatin,studentsidentifysimilarlettersthatsounddifferentinthelanguage,andreadaloud,attemptingtoapply knowledgeofpronunciation. ForClassicallanguageswithanonRomanalphabet,suchasClassicalGreek,studentsdescribethedifferentwriting systemandwriteletters,wordsandshortsentences.Theydescribeanddiscussadditionalelementarylinguistic structures,suchasparticlesandaspect.

Interculturalknowledgeandlanguageawareness

Studentsdemonstrateskillsandknowledgeinthisdimensionbythechoicestheymakeinformulatingtheir responseto,oruseof,thelanguage. AtPathway2Level8,studentsactivelycontributetotheestablishmentofaphysicalandlanguageenvironmentinthe classroomthatreflectsthelanguageandculture.Theyselect,interpretandpresentknowledgeaboutthelanguage,its speakers,andcountrieswhereitisspoken. Studentsdemonstrateunderstandingofaspectsofinterpretationandtranslationbyusingappropriatelanguageand levelsofrespectindifferentcircumstances,thusreflectingtherelationshipbetweenthespeakersofthelanguage. Theyinteractwithavarietyofspeakersofthelanguage,possiblyfromdifferentcountriesandcommunities,including Australia,togainunderstandingofdiverseviewsandbeliefswithinandbetweenthesecommunities.Studentsofa classicallanguagedemonstrateanunderstandingofthetargetculturefromanhistoricalperspectiveleadingtoan appreciationofancientlife,historyandcultureassociatedwiththelanguage. Studentsexpresstheirownviewsandvaluesinrelationtosimplescenariosorpropositions.

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Languages
Level9
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsinLanguagesatPathway2Level9,theycompareandcontrast aspectsoflifeinnonEnglishspeakingcountrieswiththoseinmulticulturalAustralia,andidentifysimilaritiesand differences. Studentslearntorecognisetheextentandlimitationsoftheirlanguageproficiencyanddevelopstrategiesformaximising andextendingtheirlanguageskills,knowledgeandculturalunderstanding.Theyunderstandthatlanguageisacomplex systemwithrules,andthattherearesubtledifferencesbetweenlanguages.Theyappreciatethatdirecttransposition fromEnglishcannotoccur.Theyreflectontheirownlearningstylesandstrategies. Studentsinteracttoexchangeinformationandopinionsontopicsrelatedtotheworldofadolescenceincludingleisure, relationships,study,careersandthemedia,andissuesofgeneralinteresttoyoungpeople.Theydrawonknowledge andskillsfromotherareasofthecurriculumtoinformtheirapplicationofthelanguageinnewcontexts.They communicatetheirownpersonalmeaningsthroughthelanguage.Theyadapttheirlanguagetothetaskandreduce abstractideastothepersonalandconcrete. Byinitiatingandparticipatinginclassandchatroomdiscussionandwritingtasks,studentsexpandtheirknowledgeof spokenandwrittenconventions.Theyconductresearchandreorganiseinformationtopresenttoothersinarangeof spokenandwrittenforms. Studentsunderstandthecumulativenatureoflanguagelearning,andcontributetodecisionsaboutthesequencingof topicsaccordingtotheirinterestsandneeds.Theyareawareofthedistinctivecultural,socialandlinguisticnatureofthe studyofalanguage.Theyacknowledgetheneedtoextendandreinforcetheirownlearninginasequentialand systematicway.Theycontributetodecisionsaboutthecontextforlearningandthesequencingoftopicsaccordingtotheir interestsandneeds,includingfuturestudiesandcareergoals. Studentsconsidertheaudience,purposeandappropriatelanguageforarangeoflistening,speaking,readingand writingtasks,therebygaininglanguageawarenessandinterculturalunderstanding.Theyusearangeofcommunicative toolsandinformationandcommunicationstechnologyapplicationsintheirownresearchanddevelopmentoforiginal language. Studentscommunicate,referringtoimplicitandsomeexplicitlanguagemodellingandinresponsetoprompting.They extendtheirknowledgeoflanguageandculturalunderstandingandusethisknowledgeforselfexpressioninoraland writtencommunication.Theyexperimentwithlanguageandapproximateaccurateapplicationsinnewcontextsandin openendedsituations.Theyuseavarietyofstrategiesforvaryingandextendinglanguageapplications,expressing opinionandorganisinginformation.

Standards
AtPathway2Level9,studentsareworkingtowardtheLevel10standards.

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Languages
Level10
LearningFocus
AsstudentsworktowardstheachievementofstandardsinLanguagesatPathway2Level10,theycompareandcontrast aspectsoflifeinnonEnglishspeakingcountrieswiththoseinmulticulturalAustralia,andidentifysimilaritiesand differences. Studentslearntorecognisetheextentandlimitationsoftheirlanguageproficiencyanddevelopstrategiesformaximising andextendingtheirlanguageskills,knowledgeandculturalunderstanding.Theyunderstandthatlanguageisacomplex systemwithrules,andthattherearesubtledifferencesbetweenlanguages.Theyappreciatethatdirecttransposition fromEnglishcannotoccur.Theyreflectontheirownlearningstylesandstrategies. Studentsinteracttoexchangeinformationandopinionsontopicsrelatedtotheworldofadolescenceincludingleisure, relationships,study,careersandthemedia,andissuesofgeneralinteresttoyoungpeople.Theydrawonknowledge andskillsfromotherareasofthecurriculumtoinformtheirapplicationofthelanguageinnewcontexts.They communicatetheirownpersonalmeaningsthroughthelanguage.Theyadapttheirlanguagetothetaskandreduce abstractideastothepersonalandconcrete. Byinitiatingandparticipatinginclassandchatroomdiscussionandwritingtasks,studentsexpandtheirknowledgeof spokenandwrittenconventions.Theyconductresearchandreorganiseinformationtopresenttoothersinarangeof spokenandwrittenforms. Studentsunderstandthecumulativenatureoflanguagelearning,andcontributetodecisionsaboutthesequencingof topicsaccordingtotheirinterestsandneeds.Theyareawareofthedistinctivecultural,socialandlinguisticnatureofthe studyofalanguage.Theyacknowledgetheneedtoextendandreinforcetheirownlearninginasequentialand systematicway.Theycontributetodecisionsaboutthecontextforlearningandthesequencingoftopicsaccordingtotheir interestsandneeds,includingfuturestudiesandcareergoals. Studentsconsidertheaudience,purposeandappropriatelanguageforarangeoflistening,speaking,readingand writingtasks,therebygaininglanguageawarenessandinterculturalunderstanding.Theyusearangeofcommunicative toolsandinformationandcommunicationstechnologyapplicationsintheirownresearchanddevelopmentoforiginal language. Studentscommunicate,referringtoimplicitandsomeexplicitlanguagemodellingandinresponsetoprompting.They extendtheirknowledgeoflanguageandculturalunderstandingandusethisknowledgeforselfexpressioninoraland writtencommunication.Theyexperimentwithlanguageandapproximateaccurateapplicationsinnewcontextsandin openendedsituations.Theyuseavarietyofstrategiesforvaryingandextendinglanguageapplications,expressing opinionandorganisinginformation.

Standards
CommunicatinginalanguageotherthanEnglish

AtPathway2Level10,studentsrecallmostofthemainideas,objectsanddetailspresentedinatopic.Theyreproduce themainfeaturesofgrammarinthelanguageandidentifydifferenceswithEnglishandotherlanguages.Theyidentify waysinwhichintentionsandideasareexpressedindifferentlanguages.

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Languages
Studentsidentifyrelevantinformationandideasfromspokentexts.Theydiscriminateanduseappropriatepronunciation, tone,intonationandmetre.Studentsusearangeofstrategiestoassistinlisteningcomprehension.Theyparticipatein interactionsrelatedtoaspecifictopicandrecyclelanguagetoexpressinformationandimpressionseffectivelyinoral interactions. Studentsdemonstrateawarenessofthelanguagerequirementsofarangeofsituationsassociatedwiththetopicsbeing studied,andadaptlanguageandgestureappropriatelyfortherole,audienceandpurposeoftheinteraction.Students communicateinformationintranslationandinterpretationactivities,demonstratingcarefulconsiderationoftheneedsof thelistenerorreader,andsensitivitytoculturalaspects(similarityanddifferencesinmeaningandintent). Studentsreadtextsandidentifyandextractmainideasanddetailedinformationforuseinnewcontexts.Foraparticular text,theyidentifycharacteristicsofthewritingstyleinrelationtotheaudience/sandpurpose/s. Studentscreatesimpleoriginaltextforspecificaudiencesandpurposes.Theyuseappropriatescriptandaccurate languagerelatedtothetopic.Theycreatedraftmaterialsinwritingandlocateinformationinthelanguagefromavarietyof sources.

Romanalphabeticallanguages
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Studentsreadselectedtextswithfluency,bothsilentlyandaloud.Theywriteandeditinthelanguageinprintand electronicform.Theyidentifyanduseappropriateaccentmarkersandpunctuation.Theywriteinlinkedparagraphsand produceextendedtext.

NonRomanalphabeticallanguages
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Studentsreadshortpassagesformeaning,silentlyandaloud.Theyreadshortselectedpassageswithfluency.They applytheirknowledgeofarangeofaccentmarkersandpunctuationinbothreadingandwriting.Theyexpress themselvesinextendedpassagesandlinkedparagraphsrelatedtospecifictexttypesinprintandelectronicform.

Characterlanguages
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Studentsreadshort,modifiedtextsrelatedtoatopic,silentlyandaloud,withfluency.Theyapplyknowledgeof charactersandpunctuationinnewcontexts,andextendtheirrangeoffamiliarcharacters.Theyusearangeof techniquesforrememberingandacquiringnewcharacterknowledge.Theywritelinkedparagraphsandshort passagesinspecificcontexts.Theyusestrategiesforcheckingandselfcorrectingtheircharacteruse,includingusing informatinandcommunicationstechnologyapplications.Theyemploystrategiesforbroadeningtheirlanguage awarenessandrepertoireofscript,structuresandvocabularyfromreadingmaterials.Theyreadformeaningandshow anunderstandingofwaysofusingideographiccuestoextendunderstanding.

Signlanguage
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Studentsidentifyideas,opinionsandthemesinsignedtextsfromotherdomainsbyoutlining,summarisingand classifyingtheinformationpresented.Theyengageinconversationand/ornegotiationinordertomakechoices, resolveaproblem,plananevent,ormakearrangementswithothers.Theyuseinformationandcommunications technologyapplicationsforrecordingandcommunicatinginsignedlanguage.

ClassicallanguagesForClassicallanguages,thecompletestandardisprovidedbelow:

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Languages
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Studentsreadandinterpretmodifiedtextsformeaningandidentifycomplexlinguisticstructures,languageuse,content andcontext.Theyanalysemodifiedseenandunseentexts,identifyingandextractingmainideasanddetailedlinguistic information(usingresourcesincludinginformationandcommunicationstechnology).Foraparticulartext,theyidentify characteristicsofthewritingstyleinrelationtoaudienceandpurpose. Studentsmanipulatemodelledlanguageatthelevelofcomplexsentences.Theydemonstrateanunderstandingof grammarthroughanalysisofsyntaxandmanipulationofmorphology. Theydemonstrateanunderstandingoftheuseofmoodinbothmainandsubordinateclauses.Theyidentifyparticular casedependentstructuressuchastheablativeabsoluteinLatinandthegenitiveabsoluteinClassicalGreek.