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Design of Combined Footings
Summary of combined footing design is shown in the following steps.
1- Select a trial footing depth.
2- Establish the required base area of the footing:
Uniform soil pressure is achieved by making the resultant of the service column loads coincide
with the centroid of the footing base.
3- Evaluate the net factored soil pressure.
4- Check footing thickness for punching shear.
5- Draw S.F.D and B.M.D for footing:
The shear force and bending moment diagrams for the footing are to be drawn, considering the
footing as an inverted beam subjected to distributed load. Column loads may be considered as
concentrated loads to simplify the analysis.
6- Check footing thickness for beam shear.
Beam shear capacity is checked against critical factored shear evaluated from S.F.D. Depth of
footing may be increased to satisfy beam shear requirement.
7- Compute the area of flexural reinforcement:
Flexural reinforcement required in the longitudinal direction is evaluated.
Furthermore, the areas of flexural reinforcement under columns in the transverse direction are
computed. In computing this reinforcement, it will be assumed that each column load is
uniformly distributed over a band centered on the column and having a width extending a
distance d/2 from its faces. This area of reinforcement is to be uniformly distributed across the
band width (C
2
+d), and the rest of the footing is to be provided with shrinkage and temperature
reinforcement.
8- Check bearing strength of column and footing concrete.
9- Check for anchorage of the reinforcement.
10- Prepare neat design drawings showing footing dimensions and provided
reinforcement.
Example (11.4):
Design an appropriate footing/footings to support two columns A and B spaced at distance 2.1 m
center-to-center, as shown in Figure 11.13.a is 20 cm 30 cm and carries a dead load of 20 tons
and a live load of 10 tons. Column B is 20 cm 40 cm in cross section but carries a dead load of
30 tons and a live load of 15 tons. Width of footing is not to exceed 1.0 m, and there is no
property line restriction.


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Use
2
/ 300 cm kg f
c
,
2
/ 4200 cm kg f
y
, ( )
2
/ 0 . 2 cm kg gross q
all
,
3
/ 7 . 1 m t
soil
, and
m D
f
0 . 2 .

Figure 11.13.a: Footing dimensions
Solution:
1- Select a trial footing depth:
Assume that the footing is 50 cm thick.
2- Establish the required base area of the footing:
( ) ( ) ( )
2
/ 2 . 16 5 . 2 5 . 0 7 . 1 5 . 1 20 m t net q
all

If isolated footings are to be used,
( )
2
1
85 . 1
2 . 16
30
m
net q
P
A
all
A
req

B =1 m, and L = 1.85 m.
( )
2
2
78 . 2
2 . 16
45
m
net q
P
A
all
B
req

B =1 m, and L = 2.80 m.
Overlapping of the two footings occurs, ruling out isolated footings as appropriate of footing
types. A combined footing will be used instead.
( ) net q
P P
A
all
B A
req
+

2
63 . 4
2 . 16
15 30 10 20
m A
req

+ + +

To locate the resultant of the column forces, replace the column load system with a resultant force
system, or


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( ) ( )
1
1 . 2 x R P
B
, or ( ) ( )( )
1
45 30 1 . 2 45 x + and m x 26 . 1
1

m x 84 . 0 26 . 1 1 . 2
2

2 2 1 1
x l x l + + , or
m x x l l 42 . 0
2 1 1 2
(a)
Let B = 1 m, length of footing m L 63 . 4
0 . 1
63 . 4
, taken as 4.65 m
m l l 65 . 4 1 . 2
2 1
+ + and
m l l 55 . 2
2 1
+ (b)
Adding (a) and (b) gives, m l 485 . 1
2
and m l 065 . 1
1

3- Evaluate the net factored soil pressure:
( ) ( ) tons 40 10 60 . 1 20 20 . 1 P
Au
+
( ) ( ) tons 60 15 60 . 1 30 20 . 1 P
Bu
+
( )
( )
2 Bu Au
u
m / t 51 . 21
0 . 1 65 . 4
60 40
B L
P P
net q
+

+

4- Check footing thickness for punching shear:
Column B:
Effective depth d = 50 7.5 0.80 = 41.7 cm (lower layer)
The factored shear force
( )( )( ) tons 16 . 49 617 . 0 817 . 0 51 . 21 60 V
u

( ) cm 8 . 286 7 . 61 7 . 81 2 b +
o

c
V is the smallest of:
d b
2
1 ' f 53 . 0 V
c c o

,
_

+

=
( ) ( )( ) tons 68 . 164 1000 / 7 . 41 8 . 286
20 / 40
2
1 300 75 . 0 53 . 0
,
_

+

d b ' f V
c c o

= ( ) ( ) tons 36 . 155 1000 / 7 . 41 8 . 286 300 75 . 0
d b ' f 2
b
d
27 . 0 V
c
s
c o
o

,
_

+

= ( )
( )
( ) ( ) tons 85 . 327 1000 / 7 . 41 8 . 286 300 2
8 . 286
7 . 41 40
75 . 0 27 . 0
,
_

+


30
30
tons 16 . 49 tons 36 . 155 V
c
>
Column A:
The factored shear force
( )( )( ) tons 48 . 30 617 . 0 717 . 0 51 . 21 40 V
u

( ) cm 8 . 266 7 . 61 7 . 71 2 b +
o

c
V is the smallest of:
d b
2
1 ' f 53 . 0 V
c c o

,
_

+

=
( ) ( )( ) tons 73 . 178 1000 / 7 . 41 8 . 266
20 / 30
2
1 300 75 . 0 53 . 0
,
_

+

d b ' f V
c c o


= ( ) ( ) tons 53 . 144 1000 / 7 . 41 8 . 266 300 75 . 0
d b ' f 2
b
d
27 . 0 V
c
s
c o
o

,
_

+

=
( )
( )
( ) ( ) tons 322 1000 / 7 . 41 8 . 266 300 2
8 . 266
7 . 41 40
75 . 0 27 . 0
,
_

+

tons 48 . 30 tons 53 . 144 V
c
>
5- Draw S.F.D and B.M.D for footing:
S.F.D and B.M.D are shown in Figures 11.13.d and 11.13.e.


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(e)
Figure 11.13: (continued); (b) Footing dimensions; (c) factored soil
pressure; (d) shearing force diagram; (e) bending moment diagram
6- Check footing thickness for beam shear:
( ) ( )( ) tons 71 . 28 1000 / 7 . 41 100 300 53 . 0 75 . 0 V
c

Maximum factored shear force
u
V is located at distance d from the exterior face of column B,
tons 71 . 28 tons 66 . 18 V
u
< O.K.
7- Compute the area of flexural reinforcement:
a. Bottom longitudinal reinforcement:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
0037 . 0
300 7 . 41 100 9 . 0
72 . 23 10 353 . 2
1 1
4200
300 85 . 0
2
5

1
1
]
1



( )( )
2
s
cm 43 . 15 7 . 41 100 0037 . 0 A , use mm 16 8
b. Transverse reinforcement:
Effective depth d = 50 7.5 1.6 - 0.80 = 40.1 cm (upper layer)
(b)
(c)
(d)


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Figure 11.13.f: Transverse reinforcement (width of strips)
Under Column A:
( )( )
( )
m . t 2 . 3
2
2 . 0 1
2
701 . 0
0 . 1 701 . 0
40
M
2
uA

,
_


( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
00076 . 0
300 1 . 40 1 . 70 9 . 0
2 . 3 10 353 . 2
1 1
4200
300 85 . 0
2
5

1
1
]
1



so use 0018 . 0
min

( )( )
2
31 . 6 50 1 . 70 0018 . 0 cm A
s
, use mm 14 5
Under Column B:
( )( )
( )
m . t 80 . 4
2
2 . 0 1
2
801 . 0
0 . 1 801 . 0
60
M
2
uB

,
_



( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
0010 . 0
300 1 . 40 1 . 80 9 . 0
8 . 4 10 353 . 2
1 1
4200
300 85 . 0
2
5

1
1
]
1



so use 0018 . 0
min

( )( )
2
21 . 7 50 1 . 80 0018 . 0 cm A
s
, use mm 14 5
Shrinkage Reinforcement in the short direction (bottom side):
( )( )
2
33 . 28 50 1 . 70 1 . 80 465 0018 . 0 cm A
s
, use mm 12 26
8- Check bearing strength of column and footing concrete:
( )( )( )( ) tons 40 tons 45 . 199 1000 / 30 20 300 85 . 0 65 . 0 P
An
>
Use minimum dowel reinforcement, ( )( )
2
0 . 3 30 20 005 . 0 cm A
s

( )( )( )( ) tons 60 tons 6 . 132 1000 / 40 20 300 85 . 0 65 . 0 P
Bn
>
Use minimum dowel reinforcement, ( )( )
2
0 . 4 40 20 005 . 0 cm A
s

9- Check for anchorage of the reinforcement:
Bottom longitudinal reinforcement ( mm 16 )::
1
e t
and 8 . 0
s



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b
c is the smaller of:
, 3 . 8 8 . 0 5 . 7 cm + or
( )
cm 21 . 5
2 8
6 . 1 15 100


, i.e.,
b
c = 5.21 cm
, 5 . 2 26 . 3
6 . 1
0 21 . 5
d
K c
b
tr b
>
+

+
take it equal to 2.5
( )( )
( )
cm 47 . 35
300 5 . 2 5 . 3
4200 8 . 0 6 . 1
l
d

Available length = 106.5 !7.5 = 99 cm > 35.47 cm
Similarly, bottom transverse reinforcement is to be checked for anchorage, and will be found
satisfactory.
10- Prepare neat design drawings showing footing dimensions and provided
reinforcement:
Detailed design drawings are shown in Figure 11.13.g.

Figure 11.13.g: Design drawings



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Example (11.5):
Design a combined footing, to support two columns A and B spaced at distance 6.0 m center-to-
center as shown in Figure 11.14.a. Column A is 40 cm 40 cm and carries a dead load of 50 tons
and a live load of 30 tons. Column B is also 40 cm 40 cm in cross section but carries a dead
load of 70 tons and a live load of 50 tons.
Use
2
/ 250 cm kg f
c
,
2
/ 4200 cm kg f
y
, and ( )
2
/ 50 . 1 cm kg net q
all
.

Figure 11.14.a: Footing dimensions
Solution:
1- Select a trial footing depth:
Let footing thickness h = 80 cm
2- Establish the required base area of the footing:
( ) net q
P P
A
all
B A
req
+

2
33 . 13
0 . 15
50 70 30 50
m A
req

+ + +

To locate the resultant of the column forces,
( ) ( ) x R P
B
6 , or ( ) ( )( ) x 120 80 6 120 + and m x 60 . 3
Length of footing ( ) m L 60 . 7 20 . 0 60 . 3 2 +
Width of footing m B 75 . 1
60 . 7
33 . 13
, taken as 1.80 m.
3- Evaluate the net factored soil pressure:
( ) ( ) tons 108 30 60 . 1 50 20 . 1 P
Au
+


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35
( ) ( ) tons 164 50 60 . 1 70 20 . 1 P
Bu
+
( )
( )
2 Bu Au
u
m / t 88 . 19
80 . 1 60 . 7
164 108
B L
P P
net q
+

+

4- Check footing thickness for punching shear:
Effective depth d = 80 7.5 0.90 = 71.60 cm (lower layer)

Figure 11.14.b: Critical sections for punching shear
Column A:
The factored shear force ( )( )( ) tons 18 . 91 758 . 0 116 . 1 88 . 19 108 V
u

( ) cm 2 . 263 6 . 71 40 8 . 35 40 2 b + + +
o

c
V is the smallest of:
d b
2
1 ' f 53 . 0 V
c c o

,
_

+

=
( ) ( )( ) tons 33 . 355 1000 / 6 . 71 2 . 263
40 / 40
2
1 250 75 . 0 53 . 0
,
_

+

d b ' f V
c c o


= ( ) ( ) tons 48 . 223 1000 / 6 . 71 2 . 263 250 75 . 0
d b ' f 2
b
d
27 . 0 V
c
s
c o
o

,
_

+

=
( )
( )
( ) ( ) tons 10 . 613 1000 / 6 . 71 2 . 263 250 2
2 . 263
6 . 71 30
75 . 0 27 . 0
,
_

+

tons 18 . 91 tons 48 . 223 V
c
>
Column B:
The factored shear force ( )( ) tons 24 . 139 116 . 1 88 . 19 164 V
2
u

( ) cm 4 . 446 6 . 71 40 4 b +
o

c
V is the smallest of:


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d b
2
1 ' f 53 . 0 V
c c o

,
_

+

=
( ) ( )( ) tons 65 . 602 1000 / 6 . 71 4 . 446
40 / 40
2
1 250 75 . 0 53 . 0
,
_

+

d b ' f V
c c o


= ( ) ( ) tons 02 . 379 1000 / 6 . 71 4 . 446 250 75 . 0
d b ' f 2
b
d
27 . 0 V
c
s
c o
o

,
_

+

=
( )
( )
( ) ( ) tons 24 . 861 1000 / 6 . 71 4 . 446 250 2
4 . 446
6 . 71 40
75 . 0 27 . 0
,
_

+

tons 24 . 139 tons 02 . 379 V
c
>
5- Draw S.F.D and B.M.D for footing:
S.F.D and B.M.D are shown in Figures 11.14.e and 11.14.f.

Figure 11.14: (continued); (c) Factored soil pressure; (d) shearing force
diagram (not to scale); (e) bending moment diagram (not to scale)
6- Check footing thickness for beam shear:
Effective depth d = 80 7.5 0.90 = 71.60 cm (lower layer)
( ) ( )( ) tons 0 . 81 1000 / 60 . 71 180 250 53 . 0 75 . 0 V
c

(c)
(d)
(e)


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Maximum factored shear force
u
V is located at distance d from the left face of column B,
tons 0 . 81 tons 06 . 81 V
u

7- Compute the areas of flexural reinforcement:
a- Top longitudinal reinforcement:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
00423 . 0
250 6 . 71 180 9 . 0
47 . 141 10 353 . 2
1 1
4200
250 85 . 0
2
5

1
1
]
1



( )( )
2
s
cm 52 . 54 6 . 71 180 00423 . 0 A , use mm 20 18
b- Bottom longitudinal reinforcement:
min
0010 . 0 < , so use 0018 . 0
min

( )( )
2
92 . 25 80 180 0018 . 0 cm A
s
, use mm 16 13
c- Short direction:
Under Column A:
Effective depth d = 80 ! 7.5 ! 1.6 ! 0.8 = 70.10 cm (upper layer)

Figure 11.14.f: Transverse reinforcement (width of strip)
( )( )
( )
m . t 70 . 14
2
4 . 0 8 . 1
2
7505 . 0
80 . 1 7505 . 0
108
M
2
Au

,
_


( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0011 . 0
250 1 . 70 9 . 0 05 . 75
70 . 14 10 353 . 2
1 1
4200
250 85 . 0
2
5

1
1
]
1



Use 0018 . 0
min

( )( )
2
81 . 10 80 05 . 75 0018 . 0 cm A
s
, use mm 16 6
Under Column B:
( )( )
( )
m . t 32 . 22
2
4 . 0 8 . 1
2
101 . 1
80 . 1 101 . 1
164
M
2
Bu

,
_




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( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
0011 . 0
250 1 . 70 1 . 110 9 . 0
32 . 22 10 353 . 2
1 1
4200
250 85 . 0
2
5

1
1
]
1



min
0012 . 0 < , so use 0018 . 0
min

( )( )
2
85 . 15 80 1 . 110 0018 . 0 cm A
s
, use mm 16 8
Shrinkage Reinforcement in the short direction (bottom side):
( )( )
2
78 . 82 80 05 . 75 1 . 110 760 0018 . 0 cm A
s
, use mm 16 42
Shrinkage Reinforcement in the short direction (top side):
( )( )
2
44 . 109 80 760 0018 . 0 cm A
s
, use mm 16 55
8- Check bearing strength of column and footing concrete:
( )( )( )( ) tons 164 tons 221 1000 / 40 40 250 85 . 0 65 . 0 P
n
>
i.e. use minimum dowel reinforcement, ( )( )
2
0 . 8 40 40 005 . 0 cm A
s

9- Check for anchorage of the reinforcement:
a- Top reinforcement ( mm 20 ):
3 . 1
t
since more than 30 cm of fresh concrete is cast below the reinforcement, 1
e
and
8 . 0
s

b
c is the smaller of:
, 5 . 8 1 5 . 7 cm + or
( )
cm 29 . 4
2 19
2 5 . 7 5 . 7 180


, i.e.,
b
c = 4.29 cm
145 . 2
0 . 2
0 29 . 4
d
K c
b
tr b

+

+

( )( ) ( )
( )
cm 59 . 73
250 5 . 3 145 . 2
4200 3 . 1 8 . 0 0 . 2
l
d


Available development length = 262.5 + 40 !7.5 = 295.0 cm > 73.59 cm
b- Bottom reinforcement( mm 16 ):
1
e t
and 8 . 0
s

b
c is the smaller of:
, 3 . 8 8 . 0 5 . 7 cm + or
( )
cm 81 . 6
2 12
6 . 1 5 . 7 5 . 7 180


, i.e.,
b
c = 6.81 cm
, 5 . 2 26 . 4
6 . 1
0 81 . 6
d
K c
b
tr b
>
+

+
take it equal to 2.5
( )( )
( )
cm 86 . 38
250 5 . 3 5 . 2
4200 8 . 0 6 . 1
l
d




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Available length = 120 + 11.5 !7.5 = 124 cm > 38.86 cm
10- Prepare neat design drawings showing footing dimensions and provided
reinforcement:
Detailed design drawing is shown in Figure 11.14.g.

Figure 11.14.g: Design drawing