1

Annex 1.

ARCHITECTURE TO THE “DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENAVIGATION STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION PLAN”

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ABBREVIATIONS
AIS AToN BRM COLREGs COMSAR CG EC ECDIS EGNOS ENC ETA ETD GMDSS IALA IAMSAR IBS ICT IEC IFMSA IHO IMDG IMSBC IMO ISM INS ISO ISPS LRIT MARNIS MARPOL MEPC MRCC MSC MSI NAS NAV NAVTEX NI OPRC PAN S-MODE SOLAS SRS TOS Automatic Identification System Aids To Navigation Bridge Resource Management Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, Sub-Committee on Radiocommunications and Search and Rescue Coordination Group European Commission Electronic Chart Display and Information System European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service Electronic Navigation Chart Estimated Time of Arrival Estimated Time of Departure Global Maritime Distress Safety System International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities International Aeronautical and Maritime Search And Rescue manual Integrated Bridge System Information and Communication Technology International Electrotechnical Commission International Federation of Shipmasters´Associations International Hydrographic Organization International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code and Supplement International Maritime Organization International Safety Management Code Integrated Navigation System Information Service (in the context of VTS) International Organization for Standardization International Ship and Port Facility Security Code Long Range Identification and Tracking (Project) Maritime Navigation Information Services International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships Marine Environment Protection Committee Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee Maritime Safety Information Navigation Assistance Services IMO’s sub-committee on Safety of Navigation Navigation Telex Nautical Institute International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation Possible Assistance Needed A function to bring navigation displays into standard format Safety Of Life At Sea Ship Reporting Systems Traffic Organisation Service

3 STCW VDR VOS VTM VTS WMO WMU WWRNS Standard of Training, Certification and Watch-keeping for seafarers Voyage Data Recorder Voluntary Observing Ship Vessel Traffic Management Vessel Traffic Services World Meteorological Organisation World Maritime University World Wide Radio Navigations Systems

.................. Responsibilities………………………………………………………………….................. 14 A1...............................................................................................................................................................2 Use Nautical Publication Service .................................................................5 Check that Navigation Equipment is Operational ....... ..................... 17 A8 Observe and Analyse Available Information ........................ Support and Control of Navigation ................. ..............................3...........4 Table of Content 1......................... 18 A9........... 15 A5 Coordinate Pilot...........................................7 Check that Engine is Operational ......................................................3...........3 Check Availability and Quality of Voyage Plan ...............1 Take Manoeuvring Decisions ... 14 A2...................................................... A11 Management of Information ................................................................ User requirements ............... ............................................................ 17 A7...........5 Manage Alarms ......2 Detect Objects Critical to Navigation ....................................... 14 A2............................................................................................... 14 A2 Use Shore Based Information Services .........1 Use Nautical Charts Provision Service ..............................6 Check that Steering Gear is Checked and Tested ..................................... 18 A10 Conduct Ship Manoeuvring .................. 14 A2............................4 Check that Cargo is Safely Loaded........................................................................ 18 A9................. 18 3......... 17 A6..................................3 Use Maritime Safety Information (MSI) Service .... 12 3...................................................................................................................8 Determine Under Keel Clearance ....................................................................................................................................2 Assess Navigation Safety Issues in Voyage Plan........4 Assess Voyage Plan .............. Stowed and Secured ..................................................................... 17 A6................ 17 A6..................... 17 A7.............................................................. 9 2................................. 14 A2.....................................................8 Use Ice Information Service ......4 Use Routeing Information Service ................................................................... 17 A6........................................................................................................... 14 A1........................................... 17 A9 Decide on Actions .................................. 14 A1.............................................................................................................................................10 Check that Nautical Charts and Nautical Publications are up to Date ......1........................................................................................................................... Tugs and Shore Services . 7 1............................................................................................................................. 17 A7 Assess Navigation Risk ................................................................. 19 Manage Information from On-board Systems and Sensors ................. 16 A6......... 17 A6.......................................... 14 A3 Elaborate and Update Voyage Plan ............5 Use Port Authority Instruction ..............3 Assess Collision Risk...............................................7 Use Hydrographic Information Service ........................1...1......................................4 Assess Grounding Risk .... 17 A6...................................................................................................................... 17 A7...............................................1 Assess Watchfulness of Navigator ............................. The architecture specification process ..........11 Take Actions Based on Seaworthiness Assessment ......1........................................... 14 A2............................2 Use of Support and Control Function Decisions ................................ 17 A7.................................5 Assess Ship’s Course and Speed .... 14 A1...................................... 14 A1...............6 Assess Traffic Situation ................. 13 A1 Ensure seaworthiness.1....................... 17 A7................2 Check Validity of Ship Certificates .... 14 A1............. Functions carried out onboard ship ..........................1.......................................9 Check that crew is properly instructed about assigned emergency duties............................................................. Background ............... 14 A1......6 Use Meteorological Information Service and Warnings ..........................7 Define Ship Position ......... 16 A6 Establish and Maintain Situation Awareness ............. 19 .................1 Check that Navigation Equipment and Systems Conforms with Requirements for Passage through Intended Sea Areas ....... 16 A6.................... 18 A9................................................. 14 A2.................................................................................................... 14 A2........................................... 14 A1..............................12 3.....................................................8 Check the availability of fire control plans and training manuals..........................................................................................3 Assess Information Provided by Nautical Chart ........................................................ 14 A1... Safe Navigation ................................................................................2.................................. 14 A1............... 15 3............................... 14 A1............ 18 A9............Master’s formal responsibilities ...........1 Assess Navigation Conditions: ......................................3 Decide on Voyage Plan Update .............................. 14 A2........................................................ 8 1..4 Decide on Passage Plan Updates in Cooperation with Pilot ......................... 15 A4 Elaborate Passage Plan in Cooperation with Pilot ...........2...........................................................................................................

.......................................3 Support Accident Avoidance ............ by means of VDR) ..................................... Functions related to pilotage ...............................4 Conduct Search and Rescue (SAR)..........................................................................Pilot’s responsibilities .................... 25 3.............................................. 21 A19 Support Incident Handling and Emergency Management on Own Ship .................................... 21 A19.................................................................................................... Functions carried out on-shore ......3 Follow Instructions from On-Scene-Coordinator ......................................................2 Acquire Real-time Information on Conditions for the Passage......................... 22 A19........... Fairway Utilisation Planning........................................ 20 A15 Manage Library of Certificates .......... 24 3.....3 Exchange Relevant Information with Master............... 23 A26 Conduct Pilotage ................ 25 Establish Ships’ Routeing Regulations ................................................................. 23 A25............1 Exchange Information with MRCC and Receive Instructions from Same .........................................................................................................................................................................................1 Manage Dangerous Goods Information ................................................................4.............................................5.............................. 24 A26...................................................................... 22 3.............................................................................3 Draft Passage Plan ........ A21 A22 A23 A24 Support Maritime Security ......................2 Manage Waste Information .........................................................................................................................4..........2 Report Situation to MRCC of Respective Search and Rescue Region.....5 Agree with Master on Passage Plan ................................................................................................... 22 A20 Support Investigation ...........................................................................7 Refuse Pilotage due to Danger to the Safety of Navigation or the Environment .................................................................................5 Handle Emergency .......................................................2....................... 19 A12 Manage Crew Information ......................................................................................................1............... 21 A18 Handle Emergency on Other Ship ........................................................................1 Collect Ship Position Data ............ 21 A18...............................................................2 Act as On-Scene-Coordinator after Appointment from MRCC or by own Decision ...................................................................2............................................... 22 3................................................................................................................ 19 A11............................................ 24 A26.... 24 A26..................................................... 24 A26..1 Assess Situation and Decide Actions ...... 20 A16.........................................5 A11..........................1 Agree with Master on Content of Pilot Card........................... 19 A13 Manage Cargo Information ....... 22 Detect Security Threat ....6 Support Safe Navigation ....... 24 A26.....................1........ 22 A20..............................1 Acquire Request for Pilotage .............4 Collect Engine Status Information ......2 Acquire Information about Ship .................................... 20 A16...................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Collect Cargo Stowage Status Information .... 25 3.............1 Manage Mandatory Reporting ............................ 21 A18........................... 23 A25............ 24 3.............................................................. Functions related to tug services ......2 Collect Safety and Security Related Sensor Data ......................................................................4 Support Automated Actions ..................................................................................................................... 19 A11..g.. 26 ...........................................................................................3 Manage Information Exchange on Safe Loading and Unloading ................................................................... 23 A26............................... Monitor High Seas ................................................................................. 21 A18..................................................................... 20 A14 Manage Ship Construction Information.......... 19 A11............... Support Incident and Emergency Management .. 23 A26........................... 21 A18.........1.................................. 26 3.................................. 21 A19.....4. 22 Establish Security Level ................................................................................ 23 A25 Prepare Pilotage ...... 20 A16... Vessel Traffic Management ...............4 Acquire Situational Information from Master .................................... 25 Establish Rules for Mandatory Pilotage .......... 26 A30 Identify Flag State Ships .............. 20 A17 Make Information from Shore Based Information Services Available to Relevant Functions 20 3..............4................................................................................................. 22 A19.......3..................................... 23 A25...................... 22 Submit Security Alert ..2 Manage Voluntary Reporting.... 20 A16 Manage Ship Reporting .........................4..........................5 Provide Information to Relevant Functions ............................. 19 A11............................ 23 A26.......................8 Report Incidents or Accidents to Authorities ................................................................................... 21 A19....................................................................... 19 A13...1 Record Voyage Data (e...................................................................... 25 A27 A28 A29 Establish VTM Policy Areas .............................. 22 Establish Ship Security Plan ..............................2......................................................................................................... 20 A13.................................1......................................................

..................................... 28 A33..... 26 3........................................................................6 A31 A32 Identify Ships Bound for Port State ............ 29 A36........3 Manage Hazardous Goods Emergency ........ 28 A34............................... 28 A34..... 27 A33 Monitor Traffic Situation .......................................................3 Assess Environmental Conditions .................................... 31 A39.................... Fulfilment of the tasks is part of ensuring safe navigation and protection of marine environment in ports and locks......................................................6 Provide Aids To Navigation Information ...................................2...................................................................................2 Assess Incident ........................................................................................3..................2......... 30 3................ 31 ......................................................................................................................4...................................................................... 29 A37 Manage Incident .......................... 30 3....................... 28 A34 Provide Information Services (INS) .............................................2................ 28 A33...................................................................................................... 31 A39.............2 Provide Navigation Instructions...................................................................................................3 Handle Incident .......................................8 Provide Meteorological Warnings ................3 Decide on Priority ...................1 Manage Search and Rescue Management (SAR) .2 Provide Navigation Information ......................................... 27 A33.....................................................................................................................................1 Provide Navigation Advise Services ...........................................6.......................1 Detect and Verify Incident ...........................5......... 28 A34.............. 28 A34...................................... 26 Identify Ships in Coastal Responsibility Area .................................. These tasks are about the support to and coordination of the ship’s port operations...................... Emergency Management ................................ Manage Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) .................... Exchange Information with Relevant Authorities .......................................................................................................................... 29 A36 Provide Navigation Assistance Services (NAS) ..5 Assess Traffic Situation ... 3....... 29 A35................... 28 A35 Provide Traffic Organisation Services (TOS)..4.. 28 A33...............2 Plan Traffic Flow ............................... Exchange Information on Emergency ......... 28 A33. 28 A34............................................................................................................................. 31 A39 Manage Emergency Response ................................4 Provide Route Information...............................................2 Manage Information about Conditions .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 3......7 Provide Meteorological Information ...............4..................................................................................................................1 Plan Traffic Organisation Criteria.. 28 A34....5 Provide Hydrographical Information ...... 28 A34.......................................4...............................................3.....4............................................................................................................4..................... 28 A34...................................... 29 A36.................................4 Monitor Traffic ................................................................................ A38 Manage Tracking Information .................2............................1 Provide Navigation Warnings ..............................4.................................. 29 3................................... 29 A37...............................................3 Provide Traffic Information ..................1 Acquire Information about Conditions ....... 29 A37.. 31 A39..................................................................................... 30 Manage Information Transfer to Authorities .2 Manage Pollution Response Management ....... Port Operation Support ..............................................4........................................ 29 A37.....4..2........................................................ 30 3............ 29 A35............2......... 30 Operate Ship Reporting System........................ 29 A35..

o Provide an overall understanding of the e-navigation concept (responsibilities. roles. The work of breaking it down into detail should be guided by an architecture. that those results that have already been achieved will be integrated in the continued work.6. etc. Architecture will safeguard that work is conducted in a systematic manner. Human Element. NAV 54/13 confirms the need for an architecture stating that …“Key strategy elements for e-navigation include: Architecture. functions. that work will be oriented towards tangible results. particularly in terms of process description. communications technology and regulations. ENCs.” In the same document e-navigation is defined in the following way: “E-navigation is the harmonized collection. the objective of e-navigation was formulated as follows: “E-navigation is intended to meet present and future user’s needs through harmonization of marine navigation systems and supporting shore services. new and simplified procedures can be enabled by means of new technology and new systems.1. i. and eventually. o Define non-technical requirements to the realisation o Specify technical realisation . exchange. integration. e. Equipment and Standardization and Scalability”… The document further states “The overall conceptual. Position Fixing. flows of information. The architecture shall: o Assist in defining e-navigation concepts and terminology o Assist in making analyses that provides consistent and firmly based solutions. information systems. Background Brought forward by IALA.7 1.) o Assist in finding new needs for new solutions. needs that are not captured by the current user requirements o Assist in finding new and improved solutions. Introduction 1.e. adopted by NAV 53/13 and further developed by NAV 54/WP. data structures. functional and technical architecture will need to be developed and maintained. presentation and analysis of marine information onboard and ashore by electronic means to enhance berth to berth navigation and related services for safety and security at sea and protection of the marine environment” To become workable the definition of e-navigation needs to be given a more concrete form.” Architecture is thus the framework within which the Correspondence Group should work. Convention and Standards.g. that processing of information will be continuously kept at the centre of the work. Communication and Information Systems.

Annex 4) are of specific interest. In NAV 55/INF. proposes a methodology for development of user needs as well as the table “Preliminary User Requirements”. MSC/85/26 Add. It also contains a questionnaire based on high-level user needs as specified in NAV 54/25. e.8 The first step is to assess User Needs/User Requirements. (NAV 55. Based on these.g. The European Commission agreed to provide the correspondence group with the outcome of the EU/MarNIS project relating to Maritime Information . It further states that a structured approach will be required to capture evolving user needs. E-NAV and COMSAR. Annex 1) NAV 55/WP. MarNIS and MEH. Much work has already been done by IALA. no prioritization of these needs should be assumed.. Annex 21 of the same describes the “Framework for the implementation process for the e-navigation strategy”. In an annex to this document. Due to the ad hoc method of capturing these user needs. the required functions and flows of information related to e-navigation should be identified. The boundaries of e-navigation need to be defined.K. U. NAV 55/INF. 1. The IALA documents on User Needs/User Requirements. Eventually NAV 55/WP. This paper is a first outline of the architecture that will assist in achieving the objective of e-navigation. should be taken into account during the further development of the user needs. The survey focuses primarily on onboard user needs. NAV 55/WP. IFSMA presents a table of ship-board user needs. Shipboard/Shore-based “User Needs” MSC 86/23/4 states that the identification of user needs should be “the first step in the implementation process” of the e-navigation implementation plan. to incorporate ensuing changes into the strategy and implementation plan.5 developed the “Preliminary Detailed Shipboard User Needs and Priorities”.1 lists in annex 2 a number of “potential ship borne and shore-based users”. User requirements The work to develop e-navigation starts by studying the navigators´ requirements for new harmonised technology applications that may significantly facilitate processing and presentation of navigation information.8.5/4.5 also recognized that the results of relevant maritime projects. It is understood that much work still remains to be done. At this stage it constitutes a major source of input to Architecture. WP5. IFSMA and the Nautical Institute (NI) were involved with addressing the issue of User Needs from the point of view of mariners of all ranks. The ship and more specifically the navigation bridge are at the centre. and the wide diversity of mariners and ship types.2.9 describes the results of a worldwide survey conducted by Germany to determine detailed e-navigation user needs. making use of the existing agreed methodology. specifically the “IALA Enavigation User Needs Capture Methodology Template” (NAV 54-13.

and the figure is explained in the following.3.9 Management which could be used as a background document for the development of shore-based user needs and architecture. standardization of information exchange and automation. roles. New functions as well as procedures will need to be integrated with existing ones. Attention to a proper education. . NAV 55/WP. training and familiarization for all operators involved is paramount. functions as well procedures are compatible with the existing ones during the overall transition process. Care must be taken that new components. The architecture specification process dfd Architecture elaboration process Define scope of e-naviigation Elaborate responsibilities related to e-nav igation New responsibility Identify required functions for each role Specify processes involving interactions between roles [Yes] [No] Activity missing? Specify processes and inteactions betw een the functions in the processes Roles and responsibilities A Overall user needs Define required functions Functions realted to roles Capture and assess user needs 1 2 Define information exchange interfaces supporting the required interactions Processses with required functions and interactions Information elements Define interfaces for information exchange User needs Assess user needs Define and harmonize all required information elements Processses with required functions and interactions User needs related to information Define information elements New user needs 3 Elaborate detailed service requirements Open interfaces Processses with required functions and interactions User needs related to functionality Specify end-user serv ices and other serv ices Elaborate technical architecture Specify technical realisation of interactions and relev ant system components 4 Open interfaces Detailed requirements B Figure 1 The architecture elaboration process 5 6 Figure 1 illustrates the architecture specification process.5 confirms that user needs are of paramount importance and the driving force for the e-navigation concept and that it is necessary to verify and update the user requirements as and when necessary during the implementation process of the Organization’s e-navigation strategy. 1. The introduction of e-navigation will require interoperability of technical components.

New technology may for example be utilised to simplify procedures.g.10 The scope and content of e-navigation (area A and B): Area A and B in the figure addresses the premises for the architectural work: • The scope of e-navigation is defined by means of the responsibilities that are considered as a part of e-navigation (area A) • User needs are captured and assessed (area B) As indicated by the red events in the figure.g. Information elements (area 3) The required information elements are identified and specified based on the functions that are to be carried out and the required interactions. the naming of the information elements and the specification of the information content should me harmonized across the whole e-navigation concept. . The specifications of the processes are important for more reasons: • The required interactions are identified. Note that additional user needs may emerge leading to the identification of new information needs. Processes (area 2) The functions identified in area 1 may require input and they may also generate output. in the same way. as indicated in the figure). Functions (area 1) Area A will as mentioned above define responsibilities. harmonization of interactions Should be considered (to reduce the number of different interfaces). functions belonging to other roles included. A stakeholder (a person or an organisation) may have several different responsibilities (roles). needs detected during the work on the architecture or provided by other sources). and a stakeholder with a role accounts for functions (or activities) contributing to the fulfilment of the responsibilities of the role. • In case of reengineering. due to policy decisions or due to a more mature definition of enavigation) and. Thus. • Missing functions and insufficient function descriptions can be detected (feedback must be provided to area 1. and a role represents a unique and generic set of such responsibilities. Thus. The input and the output will be provided from or delivered to other functions. In area 1 the functions of the roles related to e-navigation are identified. reengineering of the processes. if required. and there may be interactions between functions belonging to different roles. Several roles may be involved in a process. the functions belong to processes. the specification is an iterative process. The user needs (from area B) may also address information needs. • The process descriptions may expose cumbersome procedures and facilitate assessments and. The same information elements may be required by many functions and in many interactions. New responsibilities may at any time be defined to be a part of the e-navigation concept (e. new user needs may emerge (e.

stakeholders have various responsibilities. etc. A role represents a unique and generic set of such responsibilities. while others will continue to be carried out through interactions between persons and systems. but technology independent way. i. A technical assessment process is necessary to select the best choice of technical realisation. Information elements are combined into specifications of the content of the information that is exchanged (i. Different options could exist for technical realisation of interactions and relevant system components. user interface. A.g. single window services). Information should be made useful in a context of decision .g. The stakeholder should within the role account for functions (or activities) contributing to the fulfilment of the responsibilities of the role. Functions As mentioned above. e. or a combination of both. between on-board and onshore systems. . the systems. In the following. This includes both end-user services and services provided to other systems (e. need for redundancy. The functions to fulfil the responsibilities may be carried out by person(s) or system(s). communication requirements (use of the interfaces from area 4). In e-navigation the level of automation will increase. For each role the generic functions related to e-navigation are described in the Tables below. Thus. etc. 2. must be specified.e. Service requirements (area 5) The process description from area 2 (functions and interactions) and the information exchange interfaces from area 4 (how to interact) are together with user needs from area B the basis for the specification of ICT services (i.e. In this way the interactions are defined in a precise. A stakeholder (a person or an organisation) may have several different responsibilities (roles).e. 3. the system components. Refer § §10 and 11 of the Report. Technical architecture (area 6) The technical architecture will specify the implementation of the ICT services (see area 5). Some functions may be automated. the functionality of the ICT solutions). the information exchange interfaces). e. Responsibilities (the roles of stakeholders) The e-navigation concept defined by means of roles. Seamless information flows and improved access to electronic information will arrange for automated processing and assessments across different information sources. the communication.g.11 Information exchange interfaces (area 4) The interactions between the functions identified in the process descriptions (see area 2) are defined by means of the information elements (see area 3). Information validation and processing.

3.g.: SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of life at sea. BRM) MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. the formal responsibility remains with him.Master’s formal responsibilities The Master role is formally responsible for all functions carried out onboard a vessel. Functions carried out onboard ship . 1974. Figure 2 The overall on-board functions that are under the formal responsibility of the Master Information processing functions conducted on the ship’s navigation bridge were decomposed into sub-functions: • Support and Control of Safe Navigation • Safe Navigation • Management of Information • Support to Incident Handling and Emergency Management • Support Maritime Security Several conventions. Although the Master delegates tasks to crew members.g. regulations and practices define the rules and premises for the functions. to the bridge team. e. 1973. as amended ISM International Safety Management code ISPS International Ship and Port Facility Security Code COLREG Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. 1978. e. e.12 support by increasing situation awareness and should lead the decision maker to rational decisions and actions. as amended IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code . bridge team. as amended (including Bridge Resource Management. Certification and Watch-keeping for Seafarers. 1972 STCW Standards of Training.1.g. This paper does not address delegation of tasks by the Master.

13 3.1. .2) . Support and Control of Navigation Figure 3 Decomposition of Support and Control of Navigation These functions shall support and control the Safe Navigation function (see 3.1.1.

Regulation 5 A2.8: SOLAS.8 SOLAS. Regulation 34 and ISM Code A1. paragraph 2. Chapter III.2 Use Nautical Publication Service (e. • Consider transition from old to new format • Task-oriented presentation based on INS-tasks MSC. berth.10 Check that Nautical Charts and Nautical Publications are up to Date A1.741 (18). Stowed and Secured A1. A1.6 SOLAS.9:4 A1. .2 SOLAS.3 Check Availability and Quality of Voyage Plan A1.5 Check that Navigation Equipment is Operational (back up systems included). • Note the need for traceability and ability to audit • Possible re-formatting of NAVTEX data and continuing with transmitting data on same frequencies.14 Functional decomposition A1 Ensure seaworthiness This function is carried out in connection with the ships departure from port/anchorage for the sea.4: SOLAS. It includes: A1. Chapter IV. Chapter I. Regulation 14 and ISM Code A1.5 According to local bye-laws A2.11 Take Actions Based on Seaworthiness Assessment A2 Use Shore Based Information Services Information required for navigation in the areas of the voyage plan is captured either by automatic transmission (MSI).g.9 Check that crew is properly instructed about assigned emergency duties. Chapter V. Chapter V. Chapter IV. “Ice Patrol” service) References to existing requirements A1 Resolution A. Chapter V.2: SOLAS.4 Use Routeing Information Service A2. Chapter V.6: SOLAS. Regulation 15 A1. time slot) A2. A2. Regulations 15. Regulation 27 A2. Regulations 24. Regulation 10 A2. “Preliminary Shipboard User Needs and Priorities”: • Mariners expressed a desire for documents such as Charts and voyage planning publications to be automatically updated with minimal shipboard intervention. sailing directions) A2. Annex 1. 16 and 19 SOLAS. the execution of the tasks themselves may not be within the scope enavigation.5 Use Port Authority Instruction (e. Regulation 19 A1. Regulation 27 A2. Navigation Equipment A1.6 Use Meteorological Information Service and Warnings A2.7 Use Hydrographic Information Service A2. • Give consideration to a proper electronic format for the data rather than digital copies of existing documents.4 Check that Cargo is Safely Loaded. Radio communications A2. Chapters VI – VIII A1.3 SOLAS.g.3 Use Maritime Safety Information (MSI) Service A2.6 Check that Steering Gear is Checked and Tested A1. Chapter V.g. Part E.9: SOLAS. Regulation 27 A2. Fulfilment of the tasks listed below is part of ensuring safe navigation. A1.7 SOLAS.2 Check Validity of Ship Certificates A1.3: SOLAS. Chapter V. ISM Code A1.1SOLAS. A1.7 Check that Engine is Operational A1. 26 A1. 25.5: SOLAS. Radio communications Proposal: DE53/18/2 (“Polar Code”).252(83). Chapter V.1 Use Nautical Charts Provision Service A2.5. by specific information requests or purchase/subscription of publications. Regulation 19.10: SOLAS.1 SOLAS. Chapter V. Chapter V. Chapter V. Part B. Chapter V. Chapter II-2.8 Use Ice Information Service (e.4 SOLAS.8 Check the availability of fire control plans and training manuals. Chapter 12. Regulation 6 Nav 55/WP. However. Regulation 9 A2.1 Check that Navigation Equipment and Systems Conforms with Requirements for Passage through Intended Sea Areas A1.

pilot boarding location and boarding time). SOLAS. Chapter V. A5 Coordinate Pilot. etc) as well as coordination of the actual function (e. mooring.960. Tugs and Shore Services Coordination of pilots. Annex II. Paragraph 4 . tugs and port services (e.15 A3 Elaborate and Update Voyage Plan The voyage plan is elaborated before the ship’s departure from port/anchorage. Regulation 34 A4 Resolution 893 (21) and Resolution A.960. Error! Reference source not found.g. It is continuously updated during the voyage. Coordination includes ordering of services (pilot. A4 Elaborate Passage Plan in Cooperation with Pilot Carried out when appropriate. tugs.g. mooring). Annex II. Paragraph 5 A5 Resolution A.

other ships) and/or by References to existing requirements A6 STCW Section B-VIII/2. Assessment includes: A6.960 Annex ll.1.1c) Resolution A. Safe Navigation Figure 4 Decomposition of Safe Navigation Functional decomposition A6 Establish and Maintain Situation Awareness Based on available information (observations.1 Assess Navigation Conditions: a) Meteorological and Hydrographical Observations done by the Vessel itself (e. Paragraph 5.). current. wind.16 3. Regulation 34 A6. forecasts. the current and expected navigation situation is assessed. Annex 1.1 SOLAS. draft. Chapter V.1 Nav 55/WP. Bridge Resource Management (BRM) A6. “Preliminary Shipboard User Needs and Priorities”: • More effective guard zones to detect hazards pertaining to collisions and groundings . tide.g.2.5. etc.

7 Define Ship Position A6.3 Assess Collision Risk. by data and information input from navigation systems safety of navigation is achieved.1.2 Detect Objects Critical to Navigation (e. c) Release Alarm A8 Observe and Analyse Available Information Supported by the functions mentioned in 3.g.17 information received from external sources. 19. floating objects.6 Assess Traffic Situation (Traffic Image) A6. e.5.4 Assess Voyage Plan (includes among others follow-up on adherence to plan. assessment of the quality of the plan.3 Assess Information Provided by Nautical Chart A6.3 COLREG. 3. b) Detect Targets (e.878 & MEPC/Circ.960. a) Define Guard Zones.) b) Assess Alarm Situation.1 Nav 55/WP. 22. “Preliminary Shipboard User Needs and Priorities”: • Bridge layout should take expanded bridge teams and the pilot into account .Under Keel Clearance Compatibility b) Assess Air Draft c) Assess Compliance with Master's Standing Orders A7. • • • Investigate technologies to assist with better detection of targets and risk of collision High resolution X-band NT radar has potential benefit in this area.1. AIS hearing and sight) c) Monitor Ship's Position Related to targets d) Detect Collision Risk A7.1. and calculation of ETA) A6. 24. by radar. 25. Paragraph 5. and land) A6. other ships. prioritisation criteria. 3.5 Assess Ship’s Course and Speed A6.1. Training syllabus should include the use of such Guard Zones A7 MSC/Circ. Rule 5 A8 SOLAS. 27 & A8 COLREG Rule 5 & Resolution A.5.4 and 3. BRM Procedures A8 Resolution A. a) Assess Draft . containers/growlers/icebergs. and by knowledge and experience based observation and analysis by bridge team.3. Annex 1. Chapter V.1 Assess Watchfulness of Navigator A7.8 Determine Under Keel Clearance A7 Assess Navigation Risk A7.960 Annex ll.2 Assess Navigation Safety Issues in Voyage Plan. b) Meteorological and Hydrographical Forecasts Received from Shore c) Information Provided by the Pilot d) Other Information that may Affect Sailing Conditions A6. Regulations 15.g.5 Manage Alarms a) Configure Alarms (alarm trigger levels.g.1. etc.4 Assess Grounding Risk A7.346 (Interim Guidelines for the application of human Element analysing process (HEAP) to the IMO rulemaking process) A7.

4 Resolution A. Paragraph 5.2 Use of Support and Control Function Decisions (e. Regulation 24 & COLREG Part B Rules 5-19 A9.960 Annex ll. orders to tugs).4 Decide on Passage Plan Updates in Cooperation with Pilot A10 Conduct Ship Manoeuvring The actual manoeuvring actions are ordered and executed by navigator by means of the bridge equipment (engine orders. • Avoid risk of information overload by using user-selectable filters. • Greater standardization of functionality for bridge displays (humans/machine interface • Ergonomics and user friendliness should be included in bridge design • Design specification for current equipment • Bridge layout should take expanded bridge teams and the pilot into account • S-Mode function proposed at NAV 54 should be considered • Maintain balance between standardization and innovation A9 SOLAS.g. course orders. A10 COLREG Part B Rules 5-19 A10 Resolution A.1) A9.960 Annex ll.252(83).1 A9 Decide on Actions Based on the awareness established by the observations and analyses. Chapter V.3 Decide on Voyage Plan Update A9. the navigator undertakes A9. decision to collect and analyse further data/ information .1 Take Manoeuvring Decisions A9.1. • Task-oriented presentation based on INS-tasks MSC. Paragraph 5.see 3.18 • Access to information at one place (multifunctional workplaces) • Availability of information in real-time with possible presentation on navigation displays.1 . rudder orders.

Voyage data recording. Part C.1Chapter IV. humidity.) A11. lashings) A11. fire.1 IMDG Code and IMSBC Code .g.4 Collect Engine Status Information A11.4 Chapter II-2.3.3 Chapter IV. security violations. paragraph 4 and Regulation 16 A12 SOLAS. by global navigation satellite systems) A11.5 Chapter II-2. oxygen/gas.2 Collect Safety and Security Related Sensor Data (e. Regulation 14 and 16 A11.1 Collect Ship Position Data (Various position-fixing systems: Lat/long by bearings to land. Regulation 5 A11. Management of Information Figure 5 Decomposition of Management of Information Functional decomposition A11 Manage Information from On-board Systems and Sensors A11. Regulation 16. Regulation 20 A11.19 3.g.1. Regulation 18 A11.3 Collect Cargo Stowage Status Information (e. Chapter XI-2. Regulation 5 A13.2 Chapter V. etc.5 Provide Information to Relevant Functions A12 Manage Crew Information A13 Manage Cargo Information References to existing requirements A11.

2 Manage Waste Information A14 Manage Ship Construction Information (ship particulars included) A15 Manage Library of Certificates A16 Manage Ship Reporting A16. “Certificates” & SOLAS. A17 Make Information from Shore Based Information Services Available to Relevant Functions (information acquired in A2 is made available for on-board systems) .) d) Send Danger Messages e) Report to “Ship Reporting System” f) Report Incident Report A16.5. Part 1.1 Manage Mandatory Reporting a) Report Tracking Information b) Report Failure of Aids to Navigation (AToN) c) Report to Authorities (ISPS. Regulation 3-7 A15 SOLAS.g. Appendix. Annex 1.1 SOLAS. etc. Chapter V “Safety of Navigation”. IMDG. Regulation 11 A16. Chapter II-1.20 A13.1 d) SOLAS Chapter V. “Structure of Ships”.1 e) SOLAS Chapter V. Regulation 11 “Ship reporting systems”. Regulation 31 A16.1 Manage Dangerous Goods Information A13. For EC ports: Directive 2002/59 A16. Part 2.3 b) MARPOL Annex V Nav 55/WP.1 a) MSC 85 A16.2 MARPOL Annex V SOLAS. ECDIS) • Electronic documents should be printable or be additionally provided as paper version • Electronic documents should be traceable and possible to audit • Mariners express a desire for globally standardized reporting procedures and forms to avoid repetition of reporting and to reduce workload. Annex 1.3 Manage Information Exchange on Safe Loading and Unloading a) Report BLU (Bulk Loading and Unloading) Code b) Report Waste A13.1 f) MARPOL Article 8 A16.2 Manage Voluntary Reporting a) Report from Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) A16.2a) World Meteorological Organisation VOS Scheme A16.3 a) IMO Assembly Resolution 862 A16. “Certificates and documents to be carried on board ships” A16. “Preliminary Shipboard User Needs and Priorities”: • Investigate the best way to harmonize and present maritime documentation in an electronic format to improve efficiency and reduce administrative burden• To reduce reporting burden electronic documents should support • Easy localization of information • Automatic updates • Integration of information from multiple sources • Integration of information in other bridge systems (e. Part A_1.1 IBC Code and IGC Code A13. Regulations for mandatory ship reporting systems vary between coastal states/ports.

1 SOLAS. Chapter V.g.2 SOLAS. Regulation 51& SOLAS.1 Assess Situation and Decide Actions a) Assess Alarms (configured in 2. Chapter II-1. Regulation 8 .4.1. Regulation 6 A19. Chapter V. a) Report Technical Status of Ship (e.4 SOLAS.1. Regulation 21 (IAMSAR Manual) A19. Regulation 33 A19.2 Report Situation to MRCC of Respective Search and Rescue Region. Chapter II-1. Regulation 34-1 and Chapter XI-2.3 Follow Instructions from On-Scene-Coordinator (if another vessel acts as On-scene-coordinator) A18.4 Conduct Search and Rescue (SAR) A19 Support Incident Handling and Emergency Management on Own Ship A19. Chapter V. engine) References to existing requirements A18 SOLAS. Chapter x-2.5 SOLAS.21 3. Regulation 52 A19.1 Exchange Information with MRCC and Receive Instructions from Same A18. Support Incident and Emergency Management Figure 6 Decomposition of Support Incident and Emergency Management Functional decomposition A18 Handle Emergency on Other Ship A18. Chapter V. Regulation 21 (IAMSAR Manual) A19.1 above) b) Assess Incident Information c) Assess Probable Development of Incident A19.3 SOLAS.2 Act as On-Scene-Coordinator after Appointment from MRCC or by own Decision a) Relay Emergency Communication (PAN) A18.

1. Chapter XI-2 A24 SOLAS. Chapter XI.5. “Preliminary Shipboard User Needs and Priorities”: • Mariners need all safety-related equipment to be provided with familiarization material specific to the model and installation • Identify where familiarization needs to be developed for existing and developing performance standards.22 b) Report Situation of Ship (level of risk) A19. Annex 1.1 Record Voyage Data (e.5 Handle Emergency a) Manage Casualty Situation b) Reduce Impact of Emergency c) Manage Ship’s Progress to Place of Refuge d) Manage Evacuation A20 Support Investigation A20.252(83)). Regulation 9 A23SOLAS. if other measures fail or watch does not react on alarms) a) Release General Alarm b) Stop Engine A19. Chapter XI-2 .3 Support Accident Avoidance A19.g. Support Maritime Security Figure 7 Decomposition of Support Maritime Security Functional decomposition A21 Establish Ship Security Plan To be further elaborated A22 Establish Security Level To be further elaborated A23 Detect Security Threat A24 Submit Security Alert References to existing requirements: A21 SOLAS. Chapter V. by means of VDR) Nav 55/WP.4 Support Automated Actions (e.g.5. A20 SOLAS. Regulation 20 3. • Consider example using INS Performance Standard (MSC.

Section B-VIII/2 SOLAS. speed) d) Acquire ETA Pilot Boarding Point e) Acquire Destination. ship's name. beam. Paragraph 5. Regulation 34. Paragraph 4. STCW.g.2 Acquire Information about Ship A25.6.960.23 3.960 & STCW. STCW Code.2 Acquire Real-time Information on Conditions for the Passage a) Acquire Information on Weather b) Acquire Information on Under Keel Clearance References to existing requirements A25.3 Draft Passage Plan A26 Conduct Pilotage A26.1 Agree with Master on Content of Pilot Card A26.960.4 A25. Section A-VIII. Section B-VIII/2 STCW. Paragraphs 5. Part 2 .960.6 A26 Resolution A.g. Annex 2. Annex 2.2 A25. Paragraph 5. draught.1/5. Resolution A.2 Resolution A. Chapter V. Functions related to pilotage .5/5.g. Section B-VIII/2 Resolution A.960.1 Resolution A.1 Acquire Request for Pilotage a) Acquire Ship Identification (e.2. Paragraphs 5. air draught.Pilot’s responsibilities Figure 8 Decomposition of functions related to pilotage Functional decomposition A25 Prepare Pilotage A25. thruster(s)) c) Acquire Dynamic Ship Characteristics (e. call sign) b) Acquire Static Ships Characteristics (e.3 Resolution A.4. length. Berth f) Acquire ETD from Berth g) Acquire Other Relevant Requirements and Information A25. Annex 2.960.

960.3. Paragraph 7 3.960.4 Acquire Situational Information from Master a) Acquire Information from On-board Systems b) Acquire Information on Machinery Difficulties c) Acquire Information on Navigation Equipment Problems d) Acquire Information on Crew Limitations Affecting Safety of Navigation e) Acquire Information on Rate of Turn at Different Speeds f) Acquire Information on Turning Circles g) Acquire Information on Stopping Distances A26. Paragraph 8 A26.6 Support Safe Navigation A26.5 Agree with Master on Passage Plan A26.7 Resolution A.8 Resolution A. Annex II. Functions related to tug services .3 Exchange Relevant Information with Master A26. Annex II.24 c) Acquire Information on Tidal Current d) Acquire Information on Traffic Situation A26.8 Report Incidents or Accidents to Authorities A26.7 Refuse Pilotage due to Danger to the Safety of Navigation or the Environment A26.

paragraph 3.1 Annex 20 “Strategy for the development and implementation of e-navigation”. Regulation 10 A29 By authority of Designated Authority within Contracting Government .4. Functions carried out on-shore The on-shore e-navigation functions are related to the following overall functions: • Fairway Utilisation Planning (Elaboration of traffic management policy) • Vessel Traffic Management including VTS Figure 9 Decomposition of functions carried out on-shore 3.4. A28 SOLAS Chapter V. Annex: “E-navigation: A coordinated approach to the implementation of IMO’s e-navigation strategy” page 5. Fairway Utilisation Planning The strategic planning of the traffic organisation policy is a part of the e-navigation concept. Figure 10 Decomposition of Fairway Utilisation Planning Functional decomposition A27 Establish VTM Policy Areas A28 A29 Establish Ships’ Routeing Regulations Establish Rules for Mandatory Pilotage References to existing requirements MSC 85/26/Add. MSC 86/23/4.3.25 3.1.

2.1 Annex 20 “Strategy for the development and implementation of e-navigation”. Regulation 19-1.1. Regulation 19-1.4.1. paragraph 8.1. Annex: “E-navigation: A coordinated approach to the implementation of IMO’s e-navigation strategy” page 5. References to existing requirements: • MSC 85/26/Add. Regulation 19-1. • MSC 86/23/4. paragraph 8. Monitor High Seas Figure 12 Decomposition of Monitor High Seas Functional decomposition A30 Identify Flag State Ships A31 Identify Ships Bound for Port State A32 Identify Ships in Coastal Responsibility Area References to existing requirements A30 SOLAS Chapter V.26 3. Vessel Traffic Management Figure 11 Decomposition of VTM The VTM1 concept is decomposed as illustrated in Figure 11.3 . paragraph 8. 3.1 A31 SOLAS Chapter V. The branches are further described in the sub-sections below.2 A32 SOLAS Chapter V. paragraph 3.1.2.3.4.

Chapter V.27 3. Manage Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) Figure 13 Decomposition of Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) Functional decomposition A33 Monitor Traffic Situation References to existing requirements A33.2. various Regulations .2.4.5 SOLAS.1:– A33.

• Consider requirements for alerting for the loss of integrity or system failure. • Fill the gap between the information collected and information required.1 Acquire Information about Conditions A33. A33.1 Provide Navigation Warnings A34. latency etc. updates to nautical publications.2 Provide Navigation Information A34.28 To be able to provide qualified services. • Human centred presentation • Data and system integrity. • Must be capable of establishing effective communication with bridge teams and other shore users. environmental. This pertains to traffic information. Must have confidence in that • The navigation systems being used onboard are operational. securityrelated information.6 Provide Aids To Navigation Information A34. security. • Seek to harmonise policies for the security and use of data. This allows for faster and more informed decisions.1: Acquire information: • Accurate marine domain awareness is essential for the early identification of risk and effective response. • Quality parameters for different pieces of information. storing and sharing data. A33. formats and protocols. • Information received is correct. including accuracy.4 Provide Route Information A34. • Consider how information can have a quality rating • Consider the data that will be required. A34 IALA VTS Manual (2008).7 Provide Meteorological Information A34. met-ocean information etc. the standards to which they work. Take into account AIS and GMDSS standards • Effective and robust communications. reliability.2 Manage Information about Conditions A33. types of data they provide and limitations.3 Provide Traffic Information A34. Use maritime information exchange standards.3 Assess Environmental Conditions a) Assess Metrological Conditions b) Assess Hydrographical Conditions A33. the key data providers. • Automated information exchange. • Consider relevant legislation. to support safety.4 Monitor Traffic a) Monitor Individual Ship b) Identify and Track Ship A33. • Allow the global exchange of ship and other maritime reporting data. 0506 User needs • Provide information to the mariner efficiently and effectively.5 Provide Hydrographical Information A34. • Must have confidence in that that information sent to the ship is correct. situation awareness should be established. Relevant information may be both static and dynamic information including hydrographic. AToN information and known hazards. . MSI.5 Assess Traffic Situation A34 Provide Information Services (INS) A34. A33. • Consider the legal issues pertaining to capturing. • Automated information acquisition functions • All information should be provided electronically in a standardised way.4 Monitor Individual ship. environment protection and efficiency. the data sources required.2: The acquired information must be managed properly • Identify the sources and ownership of information to be managed.8 Provide Meteorological Warnings User needs A33. • Identify harmonisation needs for standards. vessel data.

System faults ashore should be brought to the attention of mariners • Take into account the use of AIS application specific messages.g. allocation of time slots) A36 Provide Navigation Assistance Services (NAS) A36. Regulation 8 User needs • All information should be provided electronically in a standardised way .1 Provide Navigation Advise Services A36.2 Plan Traffic Flow A35.3 Decide on Priority (e.3 Handle Incident a) Provide Incident Warning b) Initiate Emergency Management A35 A36 IALA VTS Manual (2008).2 Provide Navigation Instructions A37 Manage Incident A37. Take into account AIS and GMDSS standards • Effective and robust communications.29 • All information should be provided electronically in a standardised way. • Take into account existing IEC standards / IMO Performance Standards for on board equipment • Consider how information can have a quality rating • Take into account the need for scalability.1 – A36.1 Plan Traffic Organisation Criteria A35.2 Assess Incident A37.2 By authority of Designated Authority within Contracting Government A37 SOLAS. Use maritime information exchange standards.1 Detect and Verify Incident A37. Chapter X-2. 0508 A36. A35 IALA VTS Manual (2008). • Data and system integrity. • Consider a facility to assess the real time status of shore systems and to disseminate this information as appropriate. 0507 By authority of Designated Authority within Contracting Government Provide Traffic Organisation Services (TOS) A35.

.4 3. VTS.4. the identifi improve logistics management. 3.4.4. 3.2.5. paragraph 2. paragraph 3. • Common maritime information/ data exchange standards. Coordination of loading and discharge (safety issues).1 Annex 20 “Strategy for the development and implementation of enavigation”. Regulation 19. locks.5. Manage Tracking Information Tracking information is managed on-shore and may be provided to ships. Regulation 11 User needs • Information exchange between authorities to share maritime in the reporting burden by ship personnel. • MSC 86/23/4. Operate Ship Reporting System Figure 14 Decomposition of Operate Ship Reporting System Functional decomposition A38 Manage Information Transfer to Authorities Single window functionality may facilitate information exchange between stakeholder on shore and between onshore and on-board.4.3. etc. Exchange Information on Emergency 3.3. Exchange Information with Relevant Authorities References to existing requirements: • MSC 85/26/Add.30 3.4.4.2. mooring. References to existing requirements: SOLAS Chapter V. • Identify and/or develop necessary protocols.4. security. • More information exchange to aid safety.2. • Effective and robust communications.3. Annex: “E-navigation: A coordinated approach to the implementation of IMO’s e-navigation strategy” page 5.4. and others entitled to the tracking information. • Consider work done in other relevant industries. Port Operation Support Berthing. • Automated and standardised information exchange functions.5. References to existing requirements A38 SOLAS. • Data and system integrity. formats and data • Global information sharing • Consider legal and regulatory implications • Consider the need for data security and ownership issues. Chapter V.2.3 and 2. • Consider the use of standard data exchange protocols.6.

Emergency Management Figure 15 Decomposition of Emergency Management Functional decomposition A39 Manage Emergency Response A39. Fulfilment of the tasks is part of ensuring safe navigation and protection of marine environment in ports and locks. Chapter V. OPRC) A39.1 Manage Search and Rescue Management (SAR) A39. Regulation 21 (IAMSAR Manual) . Regulation 34-1 and Chapter XI-2.3 Manage Hazardous Goods Emergency References to existing requirements A39 Chapter V. These tasks are about the support to and coordination of the ship’s port operations.31 3.g. Regulation 8 A39.4.1 SOLAS.2 Manage Pollution Response Management (e.4.

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