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Materials and Design 55 (2014) 798804

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Materials and Design


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A novel high manganese austenitic steel with higher work hardening capacity and much lower impact deformation than Hadeld manganese steel
Y.H. Wen a,b,, H.B. Peng a, H.T. Si a, R.L. Xiong a, D. Raabe b
a b

College of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, 610065 Chengdu, PR China Max-Planck Institut fr Eisenforschung, Max-Planck Str. 1, 40237 Dsseldorf, Germany

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
To tackle the problem of poor work hardening capacity and high initial deformation under low load in Hadeld manganese steel, the deformation behavior and microstructures under tensile and impact were investigated in a new high manganese austenitic steel Fe18Mn5Si0.35C (wt.%). The results show that this new steel has higher work hardening capacity at low and high strains than Hadeld manganese steel. Its impact deformation is much lower than that of Hadeld manganese steel. The easy occurrence and rapid increase of the amount of stress-induced e martensitic transformation account for this unique properties in Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel. The results indirectly conrm that the formation of distorted deformation twin leads to the anomalous work hardening in Hadeld manganese steel. 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 22 April 2013 Accepted 25 September 2013 Available online 8 October 2013 Keywords: Hadeld manganese steel Work hardening Twinning Interstitials Martensitic phase transformation

1. Introduction Hadeld manganese steel, here represented by the nominal composition Fe12Mn1.2C (wt.% here and throughout), combines high toughness and ductility with high work hardening capacity and good resistance to wear [1]. These unique properties make it widely used in the elds of steelmaking, mining, railroading, and in the manufacture of cement and clay products. However, its high work hardening properties can be obtained only under heavy stress or high load impact. Under low load impact, its work hardening properties is poor. In addition, its yield strength is low. Consequently, its initial deformation is high in service, and thus it is not well suited for parts that must resist plastic deformation in service [1]. Solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening were used to improve the yield strength of Hadeld manganese steel by additions of Cr, Mo, Ti and V elements [1]. However, the additions of these elements raised cost a lot. Metastable middlemanganese steels, whose Mn contents were reduced to 68 wt.%, were developed to address the low work hardening properties under low load impact [1]. Under low load impact metastable austenite (c) transforms into alpha prime martensite (a0 ). The formation of a0 thus enhances work-hardening properties [2]. Unfortunately,

Corresponding author at: College of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, 610065 Chengdu, PR China. Tel.: +86 28 85405320; fax: +86 28 85460940. E-mail address: wenyh@scu.edu.cn (Y.H. Wen).
0261-3069/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.09.057

the toughness of the middle-manganese steels is much lower than that of Hadeld manganese steel [1]. Currently, it is still of significance to improve the work hardening capacity of Hadeld manganese steel and to decrease its initial deformation under low load impact. There are two dominating opinions responsible for the exceptionally high work hardening in Hadeld manganese steel [35]. One is dynamic strain ageing, and the other is deformation twins and their interactions. The dynamic strain ageing cannot explain higher work hardening at low temperature, where the dynamic strain ageing cannot take place [4]. Recent studies by Karaman and co-workers further argued that the deformation twins and their interactions accounted for high work hardening in Hadeld steel [6]. However, only the formation of deformation twin is not enough to explain the anomalous hardening of Hadeld steel. A Co33Ni alloy shows a lower work hardening capacity than Hadeld manganese steel although it exhibits the same twinning kinetics as Hadeld manganese steel [4]. Adler and co-workers postulated that after the formation of deformation twins, large octahedral interstitial sites originally occupied by carbon are converted to small tetrahedral ones. Unless carbon atoms undergo diffusive motions during the lattice shear process, they will be trapped in tetrahedral sites [4]. A high carbon occupation of the smaller tetrahedral sites must produce a lattice distortion. Therefore, in Hadeld manganese steel the twined region is seriously distorted. The recent studies by Bayraktar and co-workers further conrmed that the hardness of twined regions was higher than

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that of untwined regions in Hadeld manganese steel [7]. On the contrary, the distortion of the twined region in Co33Ni alloy is very small because it contains few carbon atoms. As a result, the deformation twins in Hadeld manganese steel has a higher hardness than those in Co33Ni alloy [4]. The above analyses show that the formation of deformation twins and the distortions in them induced by carbon may be responsible for the anomalous hardening in Hadeld manganese steel.  i twinning process may be Crystallographically, the {1 1 1}h1 1 2  i Shockley partial dislocations h 1 1 regarded as the passage of 1 2 6 along every {1 1 1}c plane and the c ? hcp martensite (e) transformation along every other {1 1 1}c plane. Accordingly, the formation of e also converts the octahedral interstitial sites to the tetrahedral ones. If enough carbon atoms exist, the concomitant carbon-induced distortions will also be produced in e. When the stacking faults energy (SFE) of c is below about 15 mJ/m2, the e can be induced by external stress [8]. In high manganese steels, the addition of silicon element signicantly decreases the SFE, but that of carbon element increases it [911]. Accordingly, increasing the silicon content and decreasing the carbon content can lower their SFE, leading to the occurrence of stress-induced e transformation. In fact, the studies by Tsuzaki and co-workers clearly revealed that the stress-induced e transformation takes place very easily in Fe17Mn6Si0.3C shape memory alloy [12]. However, so far few papers reported the deformation behavior of FeMnSiC steels with lower carbon content and much higher silicon content compared to conventional Hadeld steel although lots of papers reported the deformation behavior of twip/trip FeMnC steels [1321]. Because the start temperature of c ? e transformation of the Fe17Mn6Si0.3C alloy is 323 K, some thermal e phase will exist at room temperature. To avoid the effect of pre-existing thermal e phase on deformation behavior, the carbon content was raised to 0.35. In addition, to guarantee a good ductility, the manganese content was increased to 18, and the silicon content was decreased to 5. Consequently, a new Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel was designed, and its deformation behavior under tensile and impact were studied. The results showed that its work hardening rate was much higher than that of Hadeld manganese steel, and its deformation under low load impact was much lower than that of Hadeld manganese steel. 2. Experimental procedures The experimental FeMnSiC and Hadeld steels were prepared by induction melting under atmospheric environment using pure iron, electrolytic manganese and graphite. The ingots were forged into bars with 15 mm diameter. The bars were solution treated at 1373 K for 40 min, followed by water quenching. The chemical compositions of the tested steels are listed in Table 1. The asquenched bars were machined into different specimens to determine their mechanical properties, impact ductility and work hardening properties. The tensile tests were conducted according to ASTM: E-8M. Two specimens of each steel were cylindrical and button headed, whose gauge diameter and length were 10 mm and 50 mm, respectively. The tensile tests were performed at a strain rate of 6.67 104 s1. Two specimens of each steel for the impact ductility were Charpy-U shape, whose dimensions were

10 10 55 mm3. To determine the work hardening properties under impact, the specimens with 10 mm diameter and 12 mm height were impacted under different energy (50 J/100 J) for different times. Each test point was determined by three samples. The impact deformation amount g was calculated by the following formula:

h0 h1 100% h0

where h0 was the height before impact and h1 the height after impact. The microhardness before and after impact were measured by FM700 (FUTURE-TECH) with 100 g load and 10 s holding time. The constituent phases and their volume fraction were identied by XPert Pro XRD apparatus with a speed of 0.04 degree per second and a Cu  1 , and (1 1 0)a peaks were used to deterKa ray. The (2 0 0)c, 1 0 1 e mine the volume fraction of c, e and a0 phases. The optical color etching method was used to distinguish the phases in the Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel using OLYMPUS CK40M optical microscope. The color etching solution comprised 1.2% K2S2O5 and 0.5% NH4HF2 in water. In the color optical micrographs c appears brown, a0 appears as dark, and e as white except that thin e plate appear as dark lines

1200

FeMnSiC

Hadfield

True-stress (MPa)

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

True-strain
7000

Work hardening rate (MPa)

6000 5000
FeMnSiC

4000
Hadfield

3000 2000 0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

True strain
Fig. 1. (a) True stresstrue strain curves and (b) corresponding work hardening ratetrue strain curves of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C and Hadled steels.

Table 1 Chemical compositions and mechanical properties of experimental alloys. Alloy Element (wt.%) C Hadeld steel Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel 1.0 0.35 Mn 13.30 17.80 Si 0.35 5.21 Fe Bal. Bal. Mechanical properties

r0.2 (MPa)
352 5 246 8

rb (MPa)
869 10 895 6

d (%) 28.8 3 19 3

ak (J/cm2)
>300 176 13

800

Y.H. Wen et al. / Materials and Design 55 (2014) 798804

600

Intensity (count)

500 400 300 200 100 0 600

'

Volume fraction of phase

110
1010

1011

after rupture

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
martensite martensite

1012

Intensity (count)

500 400 300 200 100 0 40 42

111
200

solution treated FeMnSiC steel

1011
44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

Tensile deformation

2 ()
600

Fig. 4. Volume fraction of e and a0 phases as a function of tensile deformation in Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel.

Intensity (count)

500 400 300 200 100 0 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 40

after rupture

3. Results 3.1. Mechanical properties and microstructures after tensile rupture The mechanical properties of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel and Hadeld manganese steel at room temperature are also listed in Table 1. Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel shows much lower 0.2% proof stress r0.2 and lower impact ductility than Hadeld manganese steel. Note that the impact ductility of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel reached 176 J/cm2. This value is high enough for engineering applications although it is much lower than that of Hadeld manganese steel. The true stresstrue strain curves of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C and Hadeld manganese steels are shown in Fig. 1a. Based on the data in Fig. 1a, their corresponding work hardening rate versus true strain curves were calculated, as shown in Fig. 1b (both the elastic sections and the sections close to rupture are remove). The work hardening rate of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel rst rapidly decreased with increasing the strain up to 0.10, and then it almost remained unchanged with further increasing the strain up to 0.13. Over 0.15, it rapidly increased as increasing the strain. The work hardening rate of Hadeld steel gradually decreased with the strain up to 12%, and then it almost remained unchanged with further increasing the strain up to 0.16. Over 0.17, it increased with the further increase of strain. Note that the work hardening rate of

Intensity (count)

111

solution treated hadfiled steel

b
200
42 44 46 48 50

52

54

56

58

60

62

64

2 ()
Fig. 2. XRD patterns of solution treated (a) Fe18Mn5Si0.35C and (b) Hadeld steels before and after tensile to rupture.

[22]. The deformation twins were examined by the optical microscope after the samples were electropolished in a solution of 50 g Na2CrO4 and 105 ml glacial acetic acid.

50 m 100 m
Fig. 3. Color optical micrographs of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel after tensile to rupture.

Y.H. Wen et al. / Materials and Design 55 (2014) 798804

801

340 320

12
Hadfield

300 280 260 240 220 200 180 0 20 40 60 80 100


FeMnSiC Hadfield

10 8 6 4 2 0

Impact deformation amount (%)

14
FeMnSiC

Surface hardness (HV)

Fig. 4 shows the volume fraction of phases as a function of tensile deformation in Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel determined by XRD analysis. The volume fraction of e increased rapidly with increasing the deformation and reached a maximum of about 0.7 at 0.05, but that of a0 was negligible. When the deformation is over 0.05, the volume fraction of e remained almost unchanged, while that of a0 began to increase with the increase of deformation. 3.2. Impact properties and microstructures after impact Fig. 5a shows evolutions of the impact deformation amount g and the surface hardness with the impact times under energy of
900

Impact times
600 550

Intensity (count)

750 600 450 300 150 0 750 600 450 300 150 0 36

a 111
200
after 100 times impact

b
Hadfield FeMnSiC

311

Surface hardness (HV)

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 0 2

Intensity (count)

before impact

40

44

48

52

56

60

64

68

72

76

80

2 ()
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 600 450 300 150

Impact deformation amount (%)


Fig. 5. (a) Effects of impact times on surface hardness and impact deformation amount under energy of 50 J and (b) the relationship between impact deformation amount and surface hardness in Fe18Mn5Si0.35C and Hadled manganese steels.

3.22%

110

'

Intensity (count)

Fe18Mn5Si0.35C was much higher than that of Hadeld steel at lower strain or higher strain. XRD patters show that a few e presented in solution treated Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel (Fig. 2a). After tensile to rupture, lots of e together with some a0 were produced. However, no obvious e or a0 peaks appeared in the Hadeld steel after tensile to rupture (Fig. 2b). Color optical micrographs clearly shows that some a0 were introduced inside e bands (Fig. 3).

0 600 450 300 150 0 600 450 300

110

1.87%
'

1.10%

600 550

Hardness (HV)

500 450 400 350 0 1 2

FeMnSIC hadfield

150 0 750 600 450 300 150 0 38

111 1011 1010


40

0.74%

200
44 46 48 50

1012
54 56 58 60 62 64

42

52

Distance from surface (mm)


Fig. 6. Evolutions of hardness with distance from surface in Fe18Mn6Si0.35C alloy and Hadeld manganese steel after 100 times impact under energy of 100 J.

2 ()
Fig. 7. XRD patterns before and after different impact deformation amount. (a) Hadeld manganese steel before and after 100 times impact under 100 J and (b) Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel after different impact deformation amount.

802

Y.H. Wen et al. / Materials and Design 55 (2014) 798804

50 J. The g of Hadeld manganese steel rapidly increased with impact times, while the g of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel slowly increased and was much lower than that of Hadeld manganese steel. The surface hardness of both Fe18Mn5Si0.35C and Hadeld manganese steels remarkably increased with impact times. Fig. 5b shows a relationship between the surface hardness and the g of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C and Hadeld manganese steels, which were obtained by different combinations of energy and times of impact. At the same g, the surface hardness of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel was much higher than that of Hadeld manganese steel, and their difference increased with increasing the g. This result clearly shows that the Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel has higher work hardening rate and much lower deformation than Hadeld manganese steel under impact. Fig. 6 shows the variations in the surface hardness of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C and Hadeld manganese steels as a function of distance from surface after 100 times impact under energy of 100 J. During the depth of 4 mm, the hardness of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel was always higher than that of Hadeld manganese steel. Fig. 7a shows the XRD patterns of Hadeld manganese steel before and after 100 times impact under energy of 100 J. After impact, no evidence showed the formation of either a0 or e in Hadeld steel, but a obvious broadening of diffraction peaks occurred. However, the stress-induced e was produced after impact in Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel, and its amount increased with the increase of impact deformation amount. In addition, some a0 were produced

after 1.87% deformation. Color optical micrograhps clearly shows that some a0 were introduced inside e bands (Fig. 8a), while only deformation twins were produced in Hadeld steel (Fig. 8b). 4. Discussion As above stated, the addition of silicon element signicantly decreases the SFE in high manganese steels, but the addition of carbon element remarkabled increases it [911]. Because Fe17Mn6Si0.35C steel contains much more silicon and much less carbon than conventional Hadeld steel, its SFE is much lower than that of conventional Hadeld steel. As the result of much lower SFE, the stress-induced c ? e transformation easily takes place before the occurrence of dislocations glide. Accordingly, the r0.2 of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel is the critical stress for stress-induced c ? e transformation, rather than the strength of austenite against slip deformation at room temperature. This is the reason why the r0.2 of Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel is much lower than that of conventional Hadeld steel. Adler and co-workers postulated that at low strain (below 0.05%), Hadeld manganese steel deforms primarily by slip. At higher strain (from 0.06 to 0.22), it deforms by twining, but the occurrence of twining rst results in dynamic softening effect, as the occurrence of stress-induced c ? a0 transformation does in metastable austenite stainless steels [4]. The recent in situ and ex situ strain eld measurements by Efstathiou revealed that


50 m 100 m

100 m
Fig. 8. Color optical micrographs of impacted surface of (a) Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel and (b) Hadeld steel after 100 times impact under energy of 100 J.

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primary and secondary twins may nucleate simultaneously, but the primary twin-system remains predominantly with increased deformation. However, twintwin intersections and second-order twin generation increase with increased deformation [23]. As a result, Hadeld manganese steel exhibits high work hardening capacity only under heavy stress or high load. Our recent result also conrmed this [24]. On the other hand, the intrusion of lots of twins must subdivide the grains. As the result of subdivision, the grains are remarkably rened. This may be the reason of peaks broadening after impact (Fig. 7a). For the Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel, the stress-induced c ? e martensitic transformation takes place at the start of plastic deformation, and its amount rapidly increases with the strain and reached 0.7 only at 0.05 (Fig. 4). However, the amount of twin in Hadeld steel gradually increased to 0.25 as increasing the strain from 0.05 to 0.3 [4]. The studies by Koyama and co-workers showed that the work hardening rate induced by stress-induced e transformation is greater than that by deformation twin [18]. Accordingly, the rapid increase of the amount of stress-induced c ? e and carbon-induced its distorsion may be the reason why Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel shows a much higher work hardening rate than Hadeld manganese steel at low strain (below 0.05%). At higher strain (above 0.13), because lots of stress-induced a0 were produced, its work hardening rate rapidly increases. This result also indirectly conrms that the formation of distorted deformation twin induced by the conversion of interstitial sites leads to the anomalous work hardening in Hadeld manganese steel. During the process of impact, the occurrence of stress-induced c ? e transformation, on the one hand, can absorb the impact energy [25]. On the other hand, the product of e, as a hard second phase, can strength austenite matrix. This explains why the Fe18Mn5Si0.35C alloy exhibits much lower deformation under low load impact than Hadeld manganese steel. On the other hand, Idrissi and co-workers investigated the relationship between the twin internal structure and the work-hardening rate of Fe20Mn1.2C and Fe28Mn3.5Si2.8Al steels [14,15]. Their observations showed that the twins formed in the FeMnC steel are thinner and contain a much larger density of sessile defects than in FeMnSiAl steel. Because the thinner twins full of sessile dislocations are undoubtedly stronger obstacles against dislocations movement, they though that the large difference in the work-hardening rate of common FeMnC and FeMnSiAl TWIP steels can be explained primarily by considering the structure of the created mechanical twins [14,15]. However, they did not give the reason why the thickness of deformation twin was much thinner, and more sessile dislocations existed in the Fe20Mn1.2C steel. We argue that the distortion in deformation twin is much greater in the Fe20Mn1.2C steel than in the Fe28Mn3.5Si 2.8Al steel because it contains much more carbon than the Fe 28Mn3.5Si2.8Al steel. Consequently, it is very difcult for the deformation twins in the Fe20Mn1.2C steel to thicken. At the same time, dislocations are introduced to relax the large distortion inside the deformation twin in the Fe20Mn1.2C. In other words, the large difference in the work-hardening rate between the Fe 20Mn1.2C and Fe28Mn3.5Si2.8Al steels results from the large difference of carbon content, not from the different structure of deformation twin. The different structure of deformation twin is the result of different carbon content.

been rst put forward to explain its anomalous work hardening capacity. Based on the fact that the formation of e also converts the octahedral interstitial sites to the tetrahedral ones, a novel high manganese austenitic steel Fe18Mn5Si0.35C was designed with the aim of promoting stress-induced e transformation under low load by remarkably decreasing its stacking fault energy. The tensile and impact deformation behavior as well as microstructures were investigated, the following conclusions are obtained: (1) Fe18Mn5Si0.35C steel shows much higher work hardening rate at low and high strains than Hadeld steel under tensile deformation. The easy occurrence and rapid increase of the amount of stress-induced e martensite at low strain are responsible for this difference. Under impact, it shows not only much higher work hardening rate but also much lower deformation than Hadeld manganese steel. The reason is that the occurrence of stress-induced e not only can absorb the impact energy but also can strengthen austenite matrix. (2) The results indirectly conrms that the formation of distorted deformation twin induced by the conversion of interstitial sites can account for the anomalous work hardening in Hadeld manganese steel.

Acknowledgements The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 50971095, 51171123 and 51271128) and the Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists of Sichuan Province in China (No. 2010A01-436). Thanks are also due to the Alexander von Humboldt foundation for its support of the stay of Dr. Y.H. Wen at Max-Planck-Institut fr Eisenforschung GmbH. References
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5. Conclusions To tackle the problem of poor work hardening capacity and high initial deformation under low load in Hadeld manganese steel, the carbon-induced distortion in deformation twin resulting from conversion of octahedral interstitial sites to tetrahedral ones had

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