History of India (1200-1800

Beginning 13th Century to 18th Century [IN01] India India Quotes , Extracts, and Subjugated Knowleges I’m keenly aware in History of how subjugated knowledges ass through the a ex of erudite knowledges which a ear as re resentati!e of genealogies that are nothing more than grey areas of truths" # $ichael %ohnathan $c&onald" Interacti e Edward Said claimed that only the English created categories of Hindus for the ur ose of discourse to control '' India by subjugated knowelges" Howe!er, in India at least ())) *+", categories existed as set in stone by the Indians" Some of these categories are as follows, eo le on the hinterlands, jungles, arable tracts, sea" Etc- .he *ritish brought this back into the dialogue of India, but they did not create the dialogic edigree" • Orientalism according to Edaward Said is any judgment with the reface of distinction" E!en a com liment is considered /rientlaism if one distinguishes something from something else"

!efinitiona" contro" is a rocess by which a ruler circulates knowledge, locality of globally for rulershi ur oses"
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$ichael 3oucault 4rgues 5 .hus the logic of strategy cannot in itself entail any necessary coherence whate!er"6 In other words, a history cannot be based on the conce t of strategy6 7 ower0knowledge 898:" .hen 3oucault says 5 ;e should direct our researches <-= towards strategic a aratuses6 7()8:" $ichael 3oucault ty ical contradictions lies in that during his 3rench neo' liberal mo!ements in 3rance he chose to follow a crowed that chose not to use definitions, because they would be held accountable for them later on" .herefore, he argues the same material o!er entire lectures and courses, seemly to ramble incoherently, to sometimes logically, but distaining logic, or contradicting his thoughts all at the same time" #er$s (" %agir a medie!al system of assigning land and its rent as annuity to state functionaries" Jagir is a >ersian term meaning land assigned" 2. &ar$an $ughāl constitutional term meaning an irre!ocable royal decree issued by the em eror" 3. !i'ani ro!incial re!enue administration system under the $ughāls and an early mechanism of the establishment of +om any rule in *engal" .he $ughāl ro!incial administration had two main branches ' nizamat and diwani" *roadly s eaking, nizamat meant ci!il administration and diwani, re!enue administration" ?" India and Indians were central to the rise and demise of *ritain@s global em ire" *ritain and *ritons were central to the emergence and final sha e of the Indian nation'state"

5. (ir ' 3arsi īr, an old manA a founder or chief of a religious grou or sect" B" D" E" Cillages in 8)th century not in (DE)s the !illages were on the mo!e" .erritorially, vatan referred to either a erson’s 5habitual' lace6 ' or originary home 7vatan-i asli:" # /r settling lace" !i'an the connotation of the word diwan has undergone much changes in the history of the $uslim rulers" Fmar, the second khalifah of Islam first introduced the diwan" He made an elaborate system of

granting ension to the $uslims" .he ension roll and the office for this ensionary account was called the diwan" In the sultanate eriod of &elhi, the diwan stood for a de artment of administration, much the same as the resent ministry, for exam le the diwan-i-wazarat 7the de artment of wa2ir:, diwan-iArz 7military de artment in charge of recruitment and ayment of salaries: etc" 7bangla edia: In the /ttomans it was the Im erial council, called divan" In other words it was the de artment of the ruling body, exce t the king always has the ultimate authority in decision makings" &i!an translated as a Gcouch <sofa="’ Sometimes the word means couch in .urkish writings of the /ttoman eriod" 7mjm: 9. In the $ughāl eriod, the term diwan stood for a erson, the head of the re!enue de artment, and the office was known as diwani; the head of the branches of the re!enue de artment was also known as diwan, for exam le, Diwan-i-tan" .he head of the re!enue de artment of the subahs or ro!inces was also known as diwan. &uring the time of 4K*4H the diwan of ro!inces was made inde endent of the subahdar 7head of administration:, still later, the ro!incial go!ernment was di!ided into nizamat 7general administration: and diwani 7re!enue de artment:" In *engal $FHSHI& QFII KH4J was the last great and im ortant diwan a ointed by the last great $ughāl em eror 4FH4JKLE*" $urshid Quli Khan united both the offices of nazim and diwan under him, and this osition continued u to the end of the $uslim rule" <4bdul Karim=" 7bangla edia: 10. )a$indar .he term zamindar 7from the >ersian zamin or land, and dar which is an inflexion of the !erb dashtan, denoting to ha!e, hold or ossess: has assed into the historical !ocabulary of medie!al India to signify the su erior landed interest" Lamindars during the $ugh āl eriod came to denote all rent recei!ers abo!e the actual culti!ators" 7bangla edia: ((" .he L4$IJ&4Hs in whose territories the jagir mahals were located were allowed a ro ortionate reduction of their share of general assessment" .he holders of jagirs were called jagirdars" Socially, jagirdars were su erior to 2amindars with the exce tion of 2amindars of the chakladar cadre" 7bangla edia: 12. *aiyat a nomenclature used customarily and legally for the easantry of *engal during the $ugh āl and *ritish eriods, but in its widest sense, also used for subjects of the state and of the ruling classes" 7bangla edia: (M" Eugene 3" Irschick, a *erkeley >rofessor, stated Jo!ember 8E, 8))9 that India rior to the *ritish ne!er racticed ri!ate ownershi of land" /ne needs to ask the 1uesting did the conce t then e!er enter discourseN (?" 4ccording to much of the shari’ah ownershi belongs only to Kod, and his regent, the ruler on earth" .herefore, e!erything in theory, but hardly racticed in reality, owns nothing" .his is ure communism, and ossible was a art of the western communist hiloso hies that arose in the (D'(Eth century writings" Howe!er, communism and its conce ts are as old as history itself and were argued in the west from the onset of recorded materials" *acon, and $oore had their own !iews in these regards # and many more" (9" Eugene 3" Irschick ultimately that Gdiscourse’ 73oucaultian: controlled and con1uered India" .his ties into their ast according to him, that India was some'how a socialist0caste ideology and that Kandhi’s G solution, from traditional India because he didn’t know, was formulated into a western ers ecti!e of G little re ublics’ with ri!ate ro erty" >robably because ideology of socialism, ex ressed by $arx is that all races get along in this system therefore no need for ri!ate ro erty which is0was ne!er the case in all studies, or in fact worse in many cases" (B" Lamindars ne!er really owned land, but it was hereditary" )a$indars had de!elo ed themsel!es as ractical landlords and the +osition ,eca$e hereditary" (D" In the colonial eriod, the Lamindar@s ro erty rights were conditionalA the colonial state honoured the rights of the Lamindars as long as they aid the re!enue" .hus the actual tillers were ne!er in the scene" .hey were only as the tenants of their masters or otherwise worked for their masters in their land" Soon after the inde endence in most of the areas this land was con!eniently a ro riated by the Lamindars as their ri!ate ro erty" 7Keorge:" (E" In relation to the intellectual ublic domain, the commons a ears to be an idea about democratic rocesses, freedom of s eech, and the free exchange of information" .he term Ocommons,O howe!er, has !arious histories, from ro erty to shared s aces to notions of democratic ideals" It refers to the house of *ritish >arliament re resenting nontitled citi2ens, and agricultural fields in England and

Euro e rior to their enclosure" In the Fnited States, commons refers to ublic s aces such as the Jew England town s1uare, cam us dining halls, and conce ts of the OcommonO good"(B In almost all uses, the term has been contested" In the realm of legal ro erty rights, the ublication of Ancient Law by Henry -u$ner .aine(D in (EB( set off a major debate about the origin of the !ery conce t of ro erty in ancient times"(E &rawing on his own extensi!e research in India and the research of others on early Euro ean communities, $aine argued that joint ownershi by families and grou s of kin 7in other words, common ro erty: was more likely the initial ro erty regime in most arts of the world than the notion of ro erty owned by a single indi!idual"(P .his great debate was not sim ly one between historians o!er whether common ro erty or indi!idual ri!ate ro erty came first" Hather, the debate framed a ers ecti!e on whether landed ro rietors ha!e a s ecial role in society that needed rotection and the legitimacy of enclosing ro erties owned communally" .he debate started long ago and is still not fully resol!ed" 4 major textbook on ro erty law de!otes the entire first cha ter to The Debate over rivate ro!ert" and the second cha ter to The roblem of the #ommons"8) 7 Hess: (P" co$$on-+oo" goods/ therefore, the $arxist and other extreme left grou s, the English and Scottish destroyed India by infecting it with notions of ri!ate ro erty" ;orking hard to ha!e a little iece of your own ri!ate hea!en in hell 7 earth: was a no'no to the extreme leftist" /ne must continue to li!e in hell" .his takes out the conce t of incenti!e, which saw most of the communist states struggle with the notion of eo le not gi!ing or caring about the state, because they worked for only it with no G ho e for future’ betterment" >eo le are in fact ossessi!e, which is not a attribute of communal li!ing" 4lso, some eo le like to be in seclusion for arts of some eriods, and therefore %esus said, my father has many rooms in his mansion6 ' not just one communal li!ing room" 3or those that can understand this, can com rehend the meaning of the com lex indi!idual, whereas extreme leftist lea!e this things out of their conce ts of the erfect state" Jot e!eryone is a social animal as communists like to ass on as a reality" 8)" Hise of the ro erty owners seen in context of Islam’s domination o!er the continent for many centuries" 8(" >ersonal fortunes, an acce ted ca italistic way, was allowed to ha en because of family atronage with the system of an annual o ening of ten 7(): ositions to fill from England or Scotland # this was before 1081" Hasting’s was im eached in England for taking bribes and making money on the side" >ossibly the English understood, which was ha ening, ri!ate fortunes were made an not taxes were accounted for England’s efforts" 88" .rade was de endant on Indian sureties thus the *ritish ne!er really had control" 8M" English rotected ownershi after they installed it" 7I do not belie!e as taught that the Indians or Islam had no notion of ri!ate ro erty and no discourse on this subject with its ractice:" 24. 1023 with the take o!er of the *engal diwan, the *ritish now began land reform, em loying the Indian u er middle classes as scribes, aid them chea ly, changes money system from $ugh āls bankers and money controllers to Indian bankers" 89" 1830 4fter the mutiny took im ortance in *ritish discourse, the English +rown took control of India and abolished the East Indian +om any, and a ointed their own go!ernors with direct accountability back to the thrown" 8B" Helied on chea em loyment of scribes from middle class Indians, which means they ex loited them" 8D" ;estern ;ritters go to +alcutta to learn all the indigenous languages, and forms of re!ious go!ernment system to control them, according to Edward Said" .hus discourse starts from here and the honing in on control is sought through this method" 7 I ersonally do not belie!e all men ha!e e!il hearts as some 4merican F+ system try to dis lay: 8E" Benga"4 .adras 5 Bo$,ay4 Northern India began a western bureaucracy ne!er seen before in India" 8P" 1800 India became a *ritish state, because of the theory of bureaucracy and not of outright claims" M)" 6ser grou+s need the right4 or at "east no interference 'ith their atte$+t4 to organi7e8 .here is a stark difference between resource user grou s such as those in Swit2erland and %a an that ha!e both legal standing as ro erty'owning entities and long'documented histories of community resource management, and indigenous eo les from Kalimantan to Irian %aya to the 4ma2on, and from Laire to India, who ha!e racticed community resource management for decades or e!en centuries but ha!e no

legal rotection" 4s soon as roducts from the resource system become commercially attracti!e, ersons outside of the traditional user community become interested in ac1uiring legal rights to the resource" If the traditional users ha!e those legal rights in the first lace, then they essentially ha!e the commercial o ortunities that their resources create" In >a ua Jew Kuinea, for instance, where traditional community forest rights are legally !alid, ortable sawmills used by !illagers turn out to be more economically efficient o!erall, and to bring more wealth into the !illage, than timbering by multinational cor orations" ;here local communities@ resource claims go unrecogni2ed by national go!ernments, the best they can then ho e for is that higher layers of go!ernment will o!erlook them rather than o ose them" .he farming !illages of 4ndhra >radesh that use an o en'field system to manage lanting, har!esting, gra2ing, and irrigation do so successfully only because and as long as the state and national go!ernments ignore them 7;ade, (PP8:" 7Hess:" M(" !istri,ution of decision-$a9ing rights and use rights to co-o'ners of the co$$ons need not ,e ega"itarian ,ut $ust ,e ie'ed as :fair: (one in 'hich the ratio of indi idua" ,enefit to indi idua" cost fa""s 'ithin a range they see as acce+ta,"e)8 It comes as a sur rise to obser!ers who ha!e romantici2ed the commons that common' ro erty regimes do not always ser!e to e1uali2e income within the user grou " +ommunities !ary enormously in how e1ually or une1ually they distribute the roducts of the commons to eligible users" &ecision'making rights tend to be egalitarian in the formal sense 7one user household, one !ote: although richer households may actually ha!e additional social influence on decisions" Entitlement to roducts of the commons !aries to a sur rising extent" In some communities, es ecially in India, the commons do turn out to be a welfare system for the oor, the wealthy members of the community may be entitled to use the commons but do not bother to exercise that right because of the high o ortunity cost of their labor, lea!ing de facto access to oorer members, those willing to in!est their labor in collecting roducts from the commons 7Hess:" M8" (ri ate +ro+erty is the result of a society based on war, for its genesis is the wall of defense <.homas %efferson conce t=" O;hene!er there is, in any country, unculti!ated lands and unem loyed oor, it is clear that the laws of ro erty ha!e been so extended as to !iolate natural right"O ' %efferson" 7&ill:" MM" *ack to reality and man’s co!etous nature" M?" >re'Sultanic India (8)B'(98B" $ost of these rulers were .urks until close to the end 4fghans" M9" ;+iste$ic con<uest of India" .he ower of the sword can only get one so far" .his is called deliberate use of subjugated knowledges" MB" Hindu heritage or tradition 'as the $ain factory at dis"i9ing the Is"a$ic ru"ers " Islam was monotheistic, and Hindu was olytheistic" .ah$ud of =ha7ni 7PD(#4 ril M), ()M):, also known as Qamin ul'&awlah $ahmud 7in full, >a$in u"!a'"ah ?,d u"-@asi$ .ah$ud I,n -e,A9 #igin: was the ruler of Kha2ni from PPD until his death" $ahmud turned the former ro!incial city of Kha2ni 7in resent'day 4fghanistan: into the wealthy ca ital of an extensi!e em ire which included today@s 4fghanistan, most of modern Iran, and arts of >akistan and northern India 7wiki edia:" (" 8" M" ?" 9" B" D" Ied about (D such ex editions into India" northwestern India and most of Iran Fsed the title Sultan" $ahmud a son of a .urkish sla!e" In PDD became ruler of Kha2na" $ahmud ascended the throne in PPE at the age of 8D" $ahmud marched on India at the head of (9,))) horse troo s" .ried to ri!al the 4bbasid ca ital"

His first cam aigns were against the Hindu Shahi kingdom, which occu ied the >unjab from the Indus east to the Kanges" He had artici ated in his father@s cam aigns against the Shahi king %aya ala in the late PE)s that ca tured the Khyber >ass region as far east as the Indus" $ahmud cam aigned against the Shahis in ())(, and in ())? raided dee into the >unjab, defeated a Shahi army and ca tured *hatia and $ultan" In ())E, he

con1uered most of the >unjab and ca tured the Shahi treasury at Kangra in the >unjab Hill States, which reduced the Shahi kingdom to a sli!er of the eastern >unjab" $ahmud@s cam aigns seem to be moti!ated by both religious 2eal and an interest in wealth and gold" $ahmud followed the injunction to con!ert non'$uslims, whom he had !owed to chastise e!ery year of his life" Hindu tem les were de ositories of !ast 1uantities of wealth, in cash, golden images, and jewelery ' and these made them targets for a non'Hindu searching for wealth in northern India" .he later in!asions of $ahmud were directed to tem le towns, including .hanesar 7()(8:, $athura and Kanauj 7()(E:, and finally Somnath 7()8B:" $ahmud@s armies routinely stri ed the tem les of their wealth and then destroyed themA after $ahmud@s raids on the cities of Caranasi, Fjjain, $aheshwar, %walamukhi, and &warka, not one tem le sur!i!ed intact" .he concentration of wealth at Somnath was renowned, and conse1uently it became an attracti!e target for $ahmud" .he raid in ()8B was his last major cam aign, and took him across the .har &esert, which had re!iously deterred most in!aders" .he tem le and citadel were sacked, and most of its *rahmin defenders massacredA $ahmud ersonally hammered the tem le@s gilded lingam into ieces, and the stone fragments were carted back to Kha2ni, where they were incor orated into the ste s of the city@s new %ami $asjid 73riday mos1ue:" *y the end of his reign, his em ire extended from Kurdistan in the west to Samarkand in the northeast, and from the +as ian Sea to the Qamuna" 4lthough his raids carried his forces across northern and western India, only the >unjab came under his ermanent ruleA Kashmir, the &oab, Hajasthan and Kujarat remained under the control of the local Hindu Haj ut dynasties" .he wealth brought back to Kha2ni was enormous, and contem orary historians 7e"g" 4bolfa2l *eyhaghi, 3erdowsi: gi!e glowing descri tions of the magnificence of the ca ital, as well as of the con1ueror@s munificent su ort of literature" .he Kha2na!id Em ire was ruled by his successors for (9D years, but after $ahmud it ne!er reached anything like the same s lendor and ower" .he ex anding Seljuk .urkish em ire absorbed most of the Kha2na!id west" .he >ersian Khorids ca tured Kha2ni c" ((9), and $uhammad Khori ca tured the last Kha2na!id stronghold at Iahore in ((ED" .he romance of $ahmud and his sla!e boy $alik 4ya2 is art of Islamic legend 7wiki =hur BidsC "i9e =ha7na ids • • • • Kha2na!ids J" &eccan Khur S" Khur king killed in &elhi in (8)B"

(eriodic -u"tanate

$ost all of the rulers are .urks, but 4fghans at the end"

Benga"/ #he #rade *egion of the (re-.odern and e en ?ncient Dor"d8
*u"ed ,y I"yas -hahis 13th-18th Centuries" (" 8" M" >owerful trade in the east" (8)M begins by con1uest" Sufi brought grains and cleared brush in hinterlands making way for wet rice culti!ation" 4lso the ri!ers shifted hel ing make areas nice and wet"

?" 9"

Sufi’s were used to establish different rulers, but after the new ruler was firmly established on his thrown, they were discarded back into society as easants" ;et and marshy with rainfall about E) inches a year and about ((( inches in the foothills, the armies, usually on horses, or the cannon were too difficult to mount sustained cam aigns" So this area was left along for much of the time" $urshid Quli Khan was sent by 4urang2eb to collect taxes that were fixed for a long time and raise the rate to hel off set his war chest"

Eha"Fi - #ur9s • ?"auddin Eha"Fi 7(8PB'(M(B: started a cam aign against the Qada!as of &e!agiri in (8PB and is largely res onsible for establishment of Islamic armies in South India" In the year (8PP, 4lauddin firmly assumed control of ower in &ehli" His military general $alik Kafur raided the owerful Hoysala and >andya ca itals in (M((" .he Khalji dynasty ex anded to much of India 7$arg:" 4lauddin (8PB'(M(B rotected raids from $ongols and was able to kee the $ongols out of India" Had to maintain a large 4rmy" His general .ai"99afur made raids into the &eccan"

• • •

$ughāls 7claimed, $uslim go!ernance' ada ted $ongols: (98B *abur
Ba,ur c"ai$ed he 'as a #i$urid, and a $ongolian and in!ading India he establishes the $ongol rule in India" $ughāl is the transcribed name for the region" .hey form a centrali2ed state with the circumference according to annual radius tra!ersement from Kabul, Hajmahal to Islam uri" *urton Stein calls this the beginning of India’s modern age" .his was a huge centrali2ed state which was ruled by mansabs, which were ro!inces and ruled subordinately by mansabdaris who were hired out to bidders, or a ointed which included armies that collected taxes and tried to kee the eace" Hindus didn’t like this but what could they doN .he horse warfare was an established $ongolian artform' to' warfare erfected that con1uered arts of eastern Euro e and e!en the /ttoman .urks, and ended the 4bassid Em ire" .he $ongols were excellent horsemen and horses were the first 1uick mo!ing battle tanks in history" *lood sweating horses from +entral 4sia, or more s ecifically the .arim basin, were the earth’s most owerful military wea on" .hese horses were described as sweating blood, because of the mos1uito o ulations in the area, when they ran" In addition, the $ongols in!ented the stirru which aloud them to maneu!er with the sword or other wea ons" .his was crucial and called a military ad!ancement" /ff the subject, the Euro eans were introduced to the conce t of the stirru s by the $ongols" Howe!er, the horses were known throughout history and central 4sian discourse became the o eration to harness these owerful military technologies" G.he $ughāl ruling class consisted of $uslims and unorthodox $uslims and Hindus, although many of the subjects of the Em ire were Hindu" ;hen *abur first founded the Em ire, he did not em hasi2e his religion, but rather his $ongol heritage" Fnder 4kbar, the court abolished the ji2ya, the tax on non'$uslims, and abandoned use of the lunar $uslim calendar in fa!or of a solar calendar more useful for agriculture" /ne of 4kbar@s most unusual ideas regarding religion was &in'i'Ilahi 7Kodism in English:, which was an eclectic mix of Hinduism, Islam, and +hristianity" It was roclaimed the state religion until his death" <Howe!er it was not acce ted by all including the $oghāls= .hese actions were later retracted by 4urang2eb, known for his religiosity’ 7 wiki edia:" .he em ire was largely con1uered by Sher Shah during the time of Humayun 7 son of *abur:, but under 4kbar, it grew considerably, and continued to grow until the end of 4urang2eb@s rule" Jote at the time the $ughāls were ruling India the Euro eans had already came and began to local coastal coloni2e for ur oses of trading Gonly’" See what ha ens later" ?urang7e, died in 1000, the e$+ire started a s"o' and steady dec"ine in actua" +o'er, although it maintained all the tra ings of ower in the Indian subcontinent for another (9) years" .hese were >u et rulers ro ed u by 3rench and *ritish +arnatic wars" E!ents of Euro ean foreign owers e!olutionalry role in India is described below"

In (DMP army from >ersia led by Jadir Shah defeated many strong holds" In (D9B an army of 4hmad Shah looted &elhi again" .he *ritish Em ire finally dissol!ed it in (E9D, immediately rior to which it existed only at the sufferance of the *ritish East India +om any" Ended (ED9"

4fter the India $utiny the +rown takes o!er India and declares it their state and rulershi , thus India becomes *ritish +olonial India and Im eriali2ed" English show u during the $ugh āls" .here orders are not to con1uer or start wars by England, but to trade Gonly’" ;ng"ish 12G8 southern eastern coast" (" .he *ritish East India +om any, sometimes referred to as O%ohn +om anyO, was a joint'stock com any of in!estors, which was granted a Hoyal +harter by Eli2abeth I on &ecember M(, (B)), with the intent to fa!our trade ri!ileges in India" .he Hoyal +harter effecti!ely ga!e the newly created Honourable East India +om any a mono oly on all trade in the East Indies" .he +om any transformed from a commercial trading !enture to one which !irtually ruled India as it ac1uired auxiliary go!ernmental and military functions, until the +om any@s dissolution in (E9E" 4s 4dam Smith wrote, O.he difference between the genius of the *ritish constitution which rotects and go!erns Jorth 4merica, and that of the mercantile com any which o resses and domineers in the East Indies, cannot erha s be better illustrated than by the different state of those countries"O .he Indian 4rmy in the time of the *ritish Haj 7(E9D#(P?D: (EP9'(P)8 .he Indian 4rmy was a collecti!e term for the armies of the residenciesA the *engal 4rmy, $adras 4rmy and *ombay 4rmy" (P)M'(P?D .he Indian 4rmy was Othe force recruited locally and ermanently based in India, together with its ex atriate *ritish officers"O<(= .he *ritish 4rmy in India consisted of *ritish 4rmy units osted to India for a tour of duty, and which would then be osted to other arts of the Em ire or back to the FK" .he 4rmy of India consisted of both the Indian 4rmy and the *ritish 4rmy in India"


M" ?" 9" B" D"

.ughā"s !ecentra"i7ed8
4fter Shi!aji hel ed to destroy 4urang2eb in the (BE)s a new grou arouse around India" >eshwa were mostly $arathas" 7mahratra: a sect of *rahmans, South +oast of *ombay and become an ex ansionist state of $aharashtra" >eshwa was a easant mo!ement or a continental mo!ement mostly of she herds and easants in which leaders were not cultured" /ff to ic, but may be a understanding factor of Indian society, It was considered to be a crime to not be affiliated with a !illage" .his means that homelessness, was frowned u on, because e!eryone had to a ear as a roducti!e indi!idual" Howe!er insignificant this re!elation is, this theme er!ades many or most regions of earth and time eriods in history"

1030-10s a Confederacy of .aharatra
• • • • • • *anoda'Koekwar Jag ur'*enske >ume'>eshwa (DB( war called >ani at" 4fghans 7 4ddal: against the easants" 4t this eriod also, &elhi is o en to the *ritish because the $ughāl Em ire is decentrali2ed"

(DD( Jajaf Khan (DDM was com eting for juridical ower like $urshid Quli Khan was in *engal"

British ;ast India Co$+any
1030 *attle of >lassey 7 >ilasi: GIn *engal’ 7 4fter battle *ritish take control of *engal, *ihar and /rrisa:

(DB( .hird battle of >ani at (DB? .he *attle of *uxar 7 *ritish not entirely in control ' Kasim and Jawab of /udh:" 3orced Jawab to ay annually ()),))) ru ees" .his will lead to EI+ beginning the forced uniti!e ayments for an army to rotect their interests" (DB9 Hobert +li!e a ointed Ko!ernor of *engal (DBD &e arture of +li!e 1020-2G 3irst $ysore war (DD8 ;arren Hastings@ a ointed as Ko!ernor (DDM .he Hegulating 4ct (i"asi , .he town of $urshidabad 7then ca ital of the Jawab: in India" It was a battle between the forces of the *ritish East India +om any and of Siraj Fd &aulah, the last inde endent Jawab of *engal" .he significance led to the e!ol!ing business of East Indian +om any’s role as traders to e!entual role as rulers" .he wealth gained allowed the +om any to ay for an army"

("aced on #hrone
$ir %afar .he first a ointment of the *ritish after the *attle of >lassy 7 >ilasi (D9D:" $ir Kasim" He was a ointed but fought against the *ritish control" .his indicated that the *ritish didn’t ha!e definitional control in re'colonial times" 4fter winning the *attle of *uxar 7(DB?:, the *ritish had earned the right to collect land re!enue in *engal, *ihar and /rissa" It a ears certain that this de!elo ment set the foundations of *ritish olitical rule in India" Na'a, of Hudh - Eora and ?""aha,ad 1801-1803 • • Jawab of /udh >re!ious $ughāl kingdom territory" *ritish con1uests with the army now aid by the uniti!e forced ayments" /udh forms the central ortion of the great Kangetic lain"

.he olitical !icissitudes through which this tract of country assed in earlier times are described under IJ&I4, History" It will be sufficient here to trace the ste s by which it assed under *ritish rule" In (DB9, after the battle of *uxar, when the nawab of /udh had been decisi!ely defeated and Shah 4lam, the $ogul em eror, was a su liant in the *ritih cam , Iord +li!e was content to claim no ac1uisition of territory" .he whole of /udh was restored to the Jawab, and Shah 4lam recei!ed as an im erial a anage the ro!ince of 4llahabad and Kora in the lower &oab, with a *ritish garrison in the fort of 4llahabad" ;arren Hastings augmented the territory of /udh by lending the nawab a *ritish army to con1uer Hohilkhand, and by making o!er to him 4llahabad and Kora on the ground that Shah 4lam had laced himself in the ower of the $ahrattas" 4t the same time he recei!ed from /udh the so!ereignty o!er the ro!ince of *enares" Subse1uently no great change took lace until the arri!al of Iord ;eliesley, who ac1uired a !ery large accession of territory in two instalments" In (E)( he obtained from the nawab of /udh the cession of Hohilkhand, the lower &oab, and the Korakh ur di!ision, thus enclosing /udh on all sides exce t the north" In (E)?, as the result of Iord Iakes !ictories in the $ahratta ;ar, the rest of the &oab and art of *undelkhand, together with 4gra and the guardianshi of the old and blind em eror, Shah 4lam, at &elhi, were obtained from Sindia" In (E(9 the Kumaon di!ision was ac1uired after the Kurkha ;ar, and a further ortion of *undelkhand from the cshwa in (E(D" .hese new ac1uisitions, known as the ceded and con1uered ro!inces, continued to be administered by the go!ernor'general as art of *engal" In (EMM an act of arliament was assed to constitute a new residency, with its ca ital at 4gra" *ut this scheme was ne!er fully carried out, and in (EM9 another statute authori2ed the R ointment of a lieutenant'go!ernor for the Jorth';estern >ro!inces, as they were then styled" .hey included the &elhi territory, transferred after the $utiny to the >unjabA and also 7after (E9M: the Saugor and Jerbudda territories, which in (EB( became art of

the +entral >ro!inces" $eanwhile /udh remained under its nawab, who was ermitted to assume the title of king in (E(P" 4ll rotests against gross misgo!ernment during many years ha!ing ro!ed useless, /udh was annexed in (E9B and constituted a se arate chief commissionershi " .hen followed the $utiny, when all signs of *ritish rule were for a time swe t away throughout the greater art of the two ro!inces" .he lieutenantgo!ernor died when shut u in the fort at 4gra, and /udh was only recon1uered after se!eral cam aigns lasting for eighteen months" In (EDD the offices of lieutenant'go!ernor of the Jorth;estern >ro!inces and chief commissioner of /udh were combined in the same ersonA and in (P)8, when the new name of Fnited >ro!inces was introduced, the title of chief commissioner was dro ed, though /udh still retains some marks of its former inde endence"
(" See Ka2elteer of the Fnited >ro!inces 78 !ols", +alcutta, (P)E:A and .heodore $orison, .he Industrial /rgani2ation of an Indian >ro!ince 7(P)B:" 7Fnited >ro!inces of 4gra and /udh:"

Darren Hastings #a9es contro" and had to dea" 'ith a re o"t of raFa of Benares • • *engal, *ihar, and /rrisa Haja +hait Singh of *enares

.he first Ko!ernor'Keneral of India was ;arren Hastings, who occu ied that high osition from (DDM to (DE?" ;hile +li!e was content with creating the im ression that the Jawab of *engal remained so!ereign, subject only in some matters to the dictate of the $ughal Em eror, Hastings mo!ed swiftly to remo!e this fiction" .he Jawab was stri ed of his remaining owers and the annual tribute aid to the $ughal Em eror was withdrawn" Hastings su orted the kingdom of 4wadh </udh= against the de redations of the Hohillas, chieftains of 4fghani descent, and he took measures to contain the $arathas, though they could not be re!ented from ca turing 4gra, $athura, and e!en &elhi, the seat of the $ughal Em ire" Hastings concluded treaties with !arious other Indian rulers and sought alliances against the owerful forces of Haider 4li in the +arnatic" Howe!er, in order to wage these wars, Hastings OborrowedO hea!ily from the *egums of /udh and Haja +hait Singh of *enares 7Ial:" Iand assessment in (DPM, at *engal and *anarias" .he *ritish allowed 7granted: Lamindars the rights to continue land tax'collection" • /udh forms the central ortion of the great Kangetic lain"

6nited (ro inces of ?gra and Hudh .he olitical !icissitudes through which this tract of country assed in earlier times are described under IJ&I4, History" It will be sufficient here to trace the ste s by which it assed under *ritish rule" In (DB9, after the battle of *uxar, when the nawab of /udh had been decisi!ely defeated and Shah 4lam, the $ogul em eror, was a su liant in the *ritih cam , Iord +li!e was content to claim no ac1uisition of territory" .he whole of /udh was restored to the Jawab, and Shah 4lam recei!ed as an im erial a anage the ro!ince of 4llahabad and Kora in the lower &oab, with a *ritish garrison in the fort of 4llahabad" ;arren Hastings augmented the territory of /udh by lending the nawab a *ritish army to con1uer Hohilkhand, and by making o!er to him 4llahabad and Kora on the ground that Shah 4lam had laced himself in the ower of the $ahrattas" 4t the same time he recei!ed from /udh the so!ereignty o!er the ro!ince of *enares" Subse1uently no great change took lace until the arri!al of Iord ;eliesley, who ac1uired a !ery large accession of territory in two instalments" In (E)( he obtained from the nawab of /udh the cession of Hohilkhand, the lower &oab, and the Korakh ur di!ision, thus enclosing /udh on all sides exce t the north" In (E)?, as the result of Iord Iakes !ictories in the $ahratta ;ar, the rest of the &oab and art of *undelkhand, together with 4gra and the guardianshi of the old and blind em eror, Shah 4lam, at &elhi, were obtained from Sindia" In (E(9 the Kumaon di!ision was ac1uired after the Kurkha ;ar, and a further ortion of *undelkhand from the cshwa in (E(D" .hese new ac1uisitions, known as the ceded and con1uered ro!inces, continued to be administered by the go!ernor'general as art of *engal" In (EMM an act of arliament was assed to constitute a new residency, with its ca ital at 4gra" *ut this scheme was ne!er fully carried out, and in (EM9 another statute authori2ed the R ointment of a lieutenant'go!ernor for the Jorth';estern >ro!inces, as they were then styled" .hey included the &elhi territory, transferred after the $utiny to the >unjabA and also 7after (E9M: the Saugor and Jerbudda territories, which in (EB( became art of the +entral >ro!inces" $eanwhile /udh remained under its nawab, who was ermitted to assume the title of

king in (E(P" 4ll rotests against gross misgo!ernment during many years ha!ing ro!ed useless, /udh was annexed in (E9B and constituted a se arate chief commissionershi " .hen followed the $utiny, when all signs of *ritish rule were for a time swe t away throughout the greater art of the two ro!inces" .he lieutenantgo!ernor died when shut u in the fort at 4gra, and /udh was only recon1uered after se!eral cam aigns lasting for eighteen months" • In (EDD the offices of lieutenant'go!ernor of the Jorth;estern >ro!inces and chief commissioner of /udh were combined in the same ersonA and in (P)8, when the new name of Fnited >ro!inces was introduced, the title of chief commissioner was dro ed, though /udh still retains some marks of its former inde endence" See Ka2elteer of the Fnited >ro!inces 78 !ols", +alcutta, (P)E:A and .heodore $orison, .he Industrial /rgani2ation of an Indian >ro!ince 7(P)B:" 7Fnited >ro!inces of 4gra and /udh:" Jajaf Khan >aymaster with tax manager of &iwan 4rmies sei2e control .he de!elo ment of $ilitary fiscalism, as was taking lace in Euro e simultaneously" >unjab (DPP .he %ats brought together" .hey are easants like the $arathas 7local tribe grou s:"

• • • • •

1020-30s *ohi""as
8" M" ?" 9" &efeat of the Haj ut brotherhoods # not easants" *y ;arren Hastings troo s" 4fghans 7 islam: in Ham ur .he Hohillas were 4fghans who had entered India in the (Eth century during the decline of the $ughal" ;ere not su orti!e of the easants" Fsed *anjara herders, central India" 4nd were salt traders that !entured hundreds of miles to trade grains" .his hel ed maintain urban economy, and also maintained a notion of centrali2ation or interconnectedness of India, contrary to many historians" Cast trade 7 see Kandhi for discre ancies of his subjugated knowleges:" Hohillias from the South attack armies Hastings armies from the north out from &elhi" ;arren Hastings was told not to go to war and it was the first thing he lanned when he arri!ed in Inda" He hel ed the Jawab of /udh defeat the Hohillas by lending a brigade of the East India +om any@s troo s" He was called back to Englans and charged in a arliamentary im eachment of Hastings, but >arliament !indicated him" 7(DD?:

B" D"

Dehli 10-18th Century
1. Shiek Kulta (8 major brotherhoods, warbands, and $uslim, $silisA hel ed destroy the $ugh āls" 8" (Pth century +on1uest of India was achie!ed by &iscourse M" ?" 9" B" D" Jominal obedience, QuasbisS tax gathering, military system" .he &ahkait, wandered around and had no direction, but they came out from tribal life and settled to agriculture life" .his is the discourse talked about" .hug, Said is incorrect, .hug is an original Indian word, dating back o!er a thousand years" It means G etty < not a major= criminal"’ .hug comes from Hindi language" &ense language, meaning secreti!e, coerci!e constructi!e knowleges, ideas of criminality, de artments of subjugated knowledges which were enshrined into the de artments of the dissemination of information # ro agating against the decent of seditions" .his was a !ery interacti!e condition"

*ichard ;aton/

E" P"

Eaton argues that for a long eriod of time, the Hindus li!ed side by side with Islam" .his ne!er meant that they li!ed in harmony" .here was no syncretis$ 7No inter$iIing of re"igions:" .here was com etition" /ttomans made foreigner lie is se arate districts" Hindus and Islam ne!er merged"

()" ;ork, Eaton, Hichard $ " .he Hise of Islam and the *engal 3rontier, (8)?'(DB)" Fni!ersity of +alifornia >ress, *erkeley, FS" 11. .he Hise of +hittagong’s Heligious Kentry, *y su orting frontier mos1ues and shrines, $ugh āl authorities in +hittagong established ties with olitical systems that functioned at a !ery local le!el" .his was logical, for it was on the frontier itself, and not in district offices in +hittagong city <-= 4c1uisition by donation generally in!ol!ed a $uslim ioneer with a religious title like 5shaikh6 going into the jungle and, ha!ing secured a document of authori2ation from a local chieftain, building a mos1ue or shrine with local labor" .he document attested that the chieftain had donated a certain ortion of unde!elo ed jungle land to the shaikh" .he latter would then roduce this document to local $ughāl authorities in a formal re1uest for legal recognition of tenurial rights o!er jungle lands that he either ro osed to bring under culti!ation in order to su ort those institutions, or that he had already brought under culti!ation" 4fter in!estigating to !erify the etitioner’s claim, the +hittagong re!enue authorities would issue a sanad in the name of the chief re!enue officer of +hittagong sark ār and bearing the seal of the reigning $ughāl em eror, thereby extending go!ernment recognition of the etitioner’s trusteeshi 7tauliyat: of the institution and the lands su orting it" In this rocess the etitioner mo!ed from de facto to de jure landholdershi , enjoying the rights to the roduce of the land subject to his su ort of the institution s ecified in the sanad"<B)= 4ctually, chieftains who in this way donated ortions of their jungle territory to such shaikhs were adhering to an ancient model of Indian atronage" In *uddhist, %ain, and Hindu contexts laymen had gained religious merit by donating lands to monastic or *rahmanic establishments, a ractice that ser!ed to reinforce the cultural bonds between donating clients and recei!ing atrons"<B(= (8" htt ,00content"cdlib"org0xtf0!iewN docIdSft)BDnPP!PTchunk"idSs("P"?Ttoc"de thS(Ttoc"idSch)PTbrandSeschol (M" Jote U? describes the !akif and Islamic tradition of atronage of a shrine by means of su ort of some ty e with a deed authori2ed for continuance" Eaton calls this a Hindu tradition from ancient times" 14. #he .ughā" -tate and the ?grarian Hrder 15. 3rom the reign of 4kbar onward, the $ughāls sought to integrate Indians into their olitical system at two le!els" 4t the elite le!el they endea!ored to absorb both $uslim and non'$uslim chieftains into the im erial ser!ice, thereby transforming otential state enemies into loyal ser!ants" .hey also sought to ex and the em ire’s agrarian base, and hence its wealth, by transforming forest lands into arable fields and the semi'nomadic forest'dwelling eo les inhabiting those lands into settled farmers" 53rom the time of Shah %ahan <(B8D#9E=,6 records an eighteenth'century re!enue document, htt ,00content"cdlib"org0xtf0!iewN docIdSft)BDnPP!PTchunk"idSs("P"(Ttoc"de thS(Ttoc"idSch)PTbrandSeschol (B" Sufi (D" $igrating .urks also grou ed themsel!es into Islamic mystical fraternities ty ically organi2ed around Sufi leaders who combined the characteristics of the 5heroic figure of old .urkic saga,6 the al , and the re'Islamic .urkish shamanVthat is, a charismatic holy man belie!ed to ossess magical owers and to ha!e intimate contact with the unseen world" 18. .he earliest'known $uslim inscri tion in *engal concerns a grou of such immigrant Sufis" ;ritten on a stone tablet found in *irbhum &istrict and dated %uly 8P, (88(, just se!enteen years after $uhammad *akhtiyar’s con1uest, the inscri tion records the construction of a Sufi lodge 7khāna1āh: by a man described as a fa1īrVthat is, a SufiVand the son of a nati!e of $aragha in northwestern Iran" (P" Since no contem orary e!idence shows that he or any other Sufi in *engal actually indulged in the destruction of tem les, it is robable that as with .urkish Sufis in contem orary 4natolia <-= 20. It is true that the notion of two 5stri!ings6 7jihād:Vone against the unbelie!er and the other against one’s lower soulVhad been current in the >erso'Islamic world for se!eral centuries before Shah %alal’s lifetime"<()= *ut a fuller reading of the text suggests other moti!es for the shaikh’s journey to *engal"

4fter reaching the Indian subcontinent, he and his band of followers are said to ha!e drifted to Sylhet, on the easternmost edge of the *engal delta" 5In these far'flung cam aigns,6 the narrati!e continued, 5they had no means of subsistence, exce t the booty, but they li!ed in s lendour" ;hene!er any !alley or cattle were ac1uired, they were charged with the res onsibility of ro agation and teaching of Islam" In short, <Shah %alal= reached Sirhat 7Sylhet:, one of the areas of the ro!ince of *engal, with M(M ersons" <4fter defeating the ruler of the area= all the region fell into the hands of the con1uerors of the s iritual and the material worlds" Shaikh <%alal= $ujarrad, making a ortion for e!erybody, made it their allowance and ermitted them to get married"6<((= 8(" ;ritten so long after the e!ents it describes, this account has a certain aradigmatic 1uality" Iike Shaikh %alal al'&in .abri2i, Shah %alal is resented as ha!ing brought about a break between *engal’s Hindu ast and its $uslim future, and to this end a arallel is drawn between the career of the saint and that of the >ro het of Islam, $uhammad" .he number of com anions said to ha!e accom anied Shah %alal to *engal, M(M, corres onds recisely to the number of com anions who are thought to ha!e accom anied the >ro het $uhammad at the *attle of *adr in 4"&" B8?, the first major battle in $uhammad’s career and a crucial e!ent in launching Islam as a world religion" .he story thus has an ob!ious ideological dri!e to it" 22. *ut other as ects of the narrati!e are more suggesti!e of *engal’s social atmos here at the time of the con1uest" Heferences to 5far'flung cam aigns6 where Shah %alal’s warrior'disci les 5had no means of subsistence, exce t the booty6 suggest the truly nomadic base of these .urkish freebooters, and, incidentally, refute the claim 7made in the same narrati!e: that Shah %alal’s rinci al moti!e for coming to *engal was religious in nature" In fact, reference to his ha!ing made 5a ortion for e!erybody6 suggests the sort of beha!ior befitting a tribal chieftain !is'W'!is his astoral retainers, while the reference to his ermitting them to marry suggests a rocess by which mobile bands of unmarried nomadsVShah %alal’s own title mujarrad means 5bachelor6Vsettled down as ro ertied grou s rooted in local society" $oreo!er, the >ersian text records that Shah %alal had ordered his followers to become kadkhudā, a word that can mean either 5householder6 or 5landlord"6<(8= Jot ha!ing brought wi!es and families with them, his com anions e!idently married local women and, settling on the land, gradually became integrated with local society" 4ll of this aralleled the early /ttoman ex erience" 4t the same time that Shah %alal’s nomadic followers were settling down in eastern *engal, com anions of /sman 7d" (M8B:, the founder of the /ttoman dynasty, were also assing from a astoral to a sedentary life in northwestern 4natolia"<(M= 23. In sum, the more contem orary e!idence of Sufis on *engal’s olitical frontier ortrays men who had entered the delta not as holy warriors but as ious mystics or freebooting settlers o erating under the authority of charismatic leaders" Jo contem orary source endows them with the ideology of holy warA nor is there contem orary e!idence that they slew non'$uslims or destroyed non'$uslim monuments" Jo Sufi of *engalVand for that matter no *engali sultan, whether in inscri tions or on coinsVis known to ha!e styled himself ghā2ī" Such ideas only a ear in hagiogra hical accounts written se!eral centuries after the con1uest" In articular, it seems that biogra hers and hagiogra hers of the sixteenth century consciously 7or erha s unconsciously: rojected backward in time an ideology of con1uest and con!ersion that had become re!alent in their own day" 4s art of that rocess, they refashioned the careers of holy men of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries so as to fit within the framework of that ideology" 8?" *engali Sufis and Hindu .hought 25. 3rom the beginning of the Indo'.urkish encounter with *engal, one section of $uslims sought to integrate into their religious li!es elements of the esoteric ractices of local yogis, together with the cosmologies that under inned those ractices" +ontem orary $uslims ercei!ed northern *engal generally, and es ecially Kamru , lying between the *rahma utra Hi!er and the hills of *hutan, as a fabulous and mysterious lace inhabited by ex ert ractitioners of the occult, of yoga, and of magic" &uring his !isit to Sylhet, Ibn *attuta noted that 5the inhabitants of these mountains " are noted for their de!otion to and ractice of magic and witchcraft"6<(E= 4round (9P9 the great $ughal administrati!e manual ā’īn'i 4kbarī described the inhabitants of Kamru as 5addicted to the ractice of magic <jādūgarī="6<(P= Some twenty'fi!e years later a $ughal officer ser!ing in northern *engal described the Khuntaghat region, in western Kamru , as 5notorious for magic and sorcery"6<8)= 4nd in (BB8#BM another $ughal chronicler, referring to the entire 4ssam region, of which Kamru is the western art, remarked that 5the eo le of India ha!e come to look u on the 4ssamese as sorcerers, and use the word G4ssam’ in such formulas as dis el witchcraft"6<8(=

8B" Sufis of the +a ital 8D" .he rinci al carriers of the Islamic literary and intellectual tradition in the *engal sultanate were grou s of distinguished and influential Sufis who resided in the successi!e ca ital cities of Iakhnauti 7from (8)?:, >andua 7from ca" (M?8:, and Kaur 7from ca" (?M8:" $ost of these men belonged to organi2ed Sufi brotherhoodsVes ecially the Suhrawardi, the 3irdausi, and the +hishti ordersVand what we know of them can be ascertained mainly from their extant letters and biogra hical accounts" .he urban Sufis about whom we ha!e the most information are clustered in the early sultanate eriod, from the founding of the inde endent Ilyas Shahi dynasty at >andua in (M?8 to the end of the Haja Kanesh re!olution in (?(9" 28. *ut were these men themsel!es tem le'destroying iconoclastsN +an we think of them as gh ā2īsVthat is, men who waged religious war against non'$uslimsN Such, indeed, is the ers ecti!e of much /rientalist scholarshi " In the (PM)s the Kerman /rientalist >aul ;ittek ro ounded the thesis that the .urkish dri!e westward across 4natolia at the ex ense of *y2antine Kreek ci!ili2ation had been ro elled by an ethos of Islamic holy war, or jihād, against infidels" 4lthough this thesis subse1uently became established in $iddle Eastern historiogra hy, recent scholarshi has shown that it suffers from lack of contem orary e!idence"<?= Instead, as Hudi Iindner has argued, the association of a holy war ethic with the early rise of /ttoman ower was the work of ideologues writing se!eral centuries after the e!ents they described" ;hat they wrote, according to Iindner, amounted to an 5ex ost facto urification of early /ttoman deeds, <s eaking= more of later ro aganda than of early history"6 29. Jote gha2i is a well established identity in /ttoman history and engra!ings on monuments from early eriod reside in *ursa, I2nik and Istanbul" 4s well, E!ilya Xelebi, one of the first autobiogra hical accounts of life in the /ttoman Em ire, of whom he was a atron of many >ashas’ writes extensi!ely of the Kha2i frontier warriors during the (Bth +entury, by name of Kha2i Gthis erson and that erson"’" 7 See, >ashas’ $elek, I şir, KY rZlZ and a ointments at Can:" Howe!er, this doesn’t 1ualify that *engal saw the same roductions of con1uest at all 7mjm:" 30. It was also in the se!enteenth century that traditions concerning *engal’s most famous $uslim saint, Shah %alal $ujarrad 7d" (M?B: of Sylhet, became transformed in ways a roximating resent'day oral accounts" ;e ha!e seen in +ha ter M that the earliest written record of Shah %alal’s life, com osed in the mid (9))s, identified the saint as a .urk sent to India by a +entral 4sian īr for the ur ose of waging war against the infidel" Iater hagiogra hical traditions, howe!er, substantially reinter reted his career" .he Suhail'i Qaman, a biogra hy com iled in the mid nineteenth century, but based on manuscri ts dating to the se!enteenth century,<B)= identifies the saint not as a .urk from .urkestan sent to India by a +entral 4sian Sufi but as an 4rab from Qemen sent to India by a Sufi master in $ecca"<B(= Ki!ing him a clum of soil, the master instructed Shah %alal to wander through the world until he found a lace whose soil exactly corres onded to it" /nly after he had reached *engal and assisted in the defeat of the raja of Sylhet did he disco!er that the soil there exactly matched his clum " He therefore selected the mound of earth he had tested as the site of his khāna1āh, or Sufi hos ice"<B8= 4n almost identical !ersion of this story is found in oral traditions recounted in the (PD)s by !illagers of >abna &istrict, nearly two hundred miles west of Sylhet in the central delta" ;hen asked about the Islami2ation of *engal, they res onded with the story of Shah %alal and his clum of soil, maintaining that one of the reasons Islam had flourished in the delta was that the soil had been right for Shah %alal’s message"<BM= .hus, if sixteenth'century biogra hers de icted Shah %alal as a holy warrior, and used his career as a !ehicle for ex laining the olitical transition from Hindu *engal to $uslim *engal, traditions dating from the se!enteenth century saw Shah %alal through the rism of agrarian iety, and !iewed the saint as re resenting *engal’s transition not only from re'Islam to Islam, but from a re' agrarian to an agrarian economy" M(" Jon' Syncretic" M8" Hindus, shakti, Qoga, s iritual goddesses, s irits" MM" Islam0 4llah and no idolatry" M?" >ower descends form the to " So!ereignty is from the to " M9" Islamic rulers looked toward the west # the +ali hs in the re'medie!al times for legitimacy and ways to rule and the /ttomans sultanate in the $edie!al times during (9th +entury onward" MB" Eaton ne!er talked about shakti"

MD" Sufi in the hinterlands 7 eastern hills of *engal: wet'rice culti!ation" Ii!ed besides the s iritual Indian tribes and not in the !alley lains where Islamic and Hindus had com etition and li!ed side'by'side but ne!er crossed o!er intermixing their faiths" 38. 5It would seem, then, that Sufism, or more recisely the style of iety informed by institutionali2ed world'rejection and the cult of saints, was !ery much built into the ethos of $ugh āl ser!ice in *engal6 7Eaton , .he >lace of Islam in $ughāl +ulture 8"D: 39. Secondly, the ruling class in *engal maintained a clear se aration between matters of religion and matters of state" *y contrast, the ancient ca itals of >andua and Kaur were denied any olitical significance under the $ughāls and emerged instead as Islamic sacred centers" 40. ;hen making !ows or swearing oaths, moreo!er, members of the im erial cor s a ealed to different deities according to the officers’ articular religious identities" /n one occasion, a co y of the Qur’an and a black geode re resenting a form of Cishnu 7sālagrām: were brought to a mixed grou of $ughāl officers who had resol!ed to swear an oath among themsel!es" 41. ;hen making !ows or swearing oaths, moreo!er, members of the im erial cor s a ealed to different deities according to the officers’ articular religious identities" /n one occasion, a co y of the Qur’an and a black geode re resenting a form of Cishnu 7sālagrām: were brought to a mixed grou of $ughāl officers who had resol!ed to swear an oath among themsel!es" ?8" htt ,00content"cdlib"org0xtf0!iewN docIdSft)BDnPP!PTdoc"!iewScontentTchunk"idSs("D"MTtoc"de thS(Tanchor"idS)TbrandSeschol 43. East *engal, where high'caste Hindus, ty ically absentee 2amīndārs, emerged at the u tenure chain, and $uslim culti!ators at the lower end" er end of the

44. In a second attern of land de!elo ment, $uslim īrs or 1ā2[īs went directly into unculti!ated regions, organi2ed the local o ulation for clearing the jungles, and only later, after ha!ing established themsel!es as local men of influence, entered into relations with the $ugh āl authorities" 45. Ha2rat &aner $au’s transition from holy man to landholder was thus linked to the inter!ention of state ower" ;ith its hearty a etite for land re!enue, the go!ernment sought to ca ture and transform into re!enue' aying officials whate!er local notables a eared on the hori2on" In the abo!e'cited case, the go!ernment ex loited the refusal by some !illagers to ay a charitable fee by establishing a fixed !illagewide figure to be owed the īrA it then redefined that fee as land tax, and the īr as the re!enue' aying landholder" 46. ;here īrs themsel!es did not become defined as 2amīndārs, their sons and descendants often did, as was the case with the sons of >ir GFmar Shah of Joakhali, discussed abo!e"<PB= *ut the relationshi between the religious gentry and $ughāl authorities was not always ha y, since a īr’s natural ties of authority and atronage generally lay with the masses of easants beneath him and not with the go!ernors and bureaucrats in distant &haka or, after (D)?, $urshidabad" 47. 3or exam le, in remote %halakati .hana in the *akarganj Sundarbans, an eighteenth'century īr named Saiyid 3a1ir wielded enormous influence with the culti!ators of the all'$uslim !illage of Saiyid ur, named after the īr" *ut a difficulty arose, noted a (P)B !illage sur!ey, because 5the eo le of this art looked u on the 3akir as their guide and did not ay rent to the Jawab"6 In this situation, one Iala +het Singh, a ca tain in the em loy of the go!ernor, 5succeeded in ersuading the 3akir to lea!e the country"6 .hough we do not know how the officer managed to dislodge the īr from the !illage, he was e!idently successful, since the authorities in $urshidabad rewarded him for his efforts by gi!ing him the right to collect the argana’s re!enue"<PD= .his suggests that on the olitically fluid *engal frontier, the easants’ loyalty did not necessarily extend beyond their local holy man" 3rom the go!ernment’s ers ecti!e, while it was always referable when ossible to coo t influential holy men, the $ugh āls did not hesitate, when necessary, to im ose their own re!enue machinery on rural settlements" 48. In the early twentieth century, the $uslim culti!ators of eastern *engal were described as an industrious, unruly, and socially unstratified o ulation, with few loyalties beyond those gi!en their īrs" .he o ulation of one settlement in *akarganj’s Swaru kati .hana, we read, consisted entirely of $uslims, who were 5rather fierce" .hey layed a cons icuous role in the history of the argana" .hey were the first men who rallied around-<illegible=-when he created the taluk after the transfer of his

2amindari"6<PE= +oncerning a settlement in *akarganj’s %halakati .hana, we find the following account, recorded in (P)B, ?P" .he !illage is now inhabited by $ohammedans" 3ormerly there were se!eral families of Jama Sudras in the !illage, but for the o ression of the $ahommedans they were com elled to lea!e the !illage" .heir lands and homesteads are now in ossession of the $ahommedans" .he eo le of the !illage are all !ery refractory and riotous" /n slight ro!ocation they can easily take the life of another" +riminal breach of eace is a daily occurrence here" .he eo le are so irreligious that to take re!enge from a man they ne!er hesitate to bring false criminal case against a man" .he ri!er dacoits <bandits= of *ish Khali ri!er are none others than the inhabitants of this !illage and of neighboring other !illages, too" <PP= 9)" .his Iead to Sunni in *engal in the 8)th +enturyN JoN 9(" See also how Eaton looks u on the ers ecti!e of both sides of the issue" 98" Hefractory or unruly as they may ha!e a eared to law'and'order'minded *ritish officials, these men Vor, more correctly, their ancestorsVwere in fact the rimary agents of the extension of agriculture in much of eastern *engal" 4s one officer remarked in (P)8 concerning another *akarganj !illage, 5.he o ulation are almost all $ohammedans, who ha!e been trying their best to bring the waste lands into culti!ation" In fact, the jungles ha!e now been mainly cleared"6<())= /r again, 5.here are a good many etty tenures in this mau2a <settlement=, all of which ha!e been created for bringing the lands under culti!ation" .he o ulation are $uhammadan"6<()(= 9M" htt ,00content"cdlib"org0xtf0!iewN docIdSft)BDnPP!PTdoc"!iewScontentTchunk"idSch)ETtoc"de thS(Tanchor"idS)TbrandSeschol 54. &uring $ughāls *engal 99" Sufi’s followers claimed rights to the land on the grounds that their ancestors had originally cleared the jungle


land transfers originally made by local zamīndārs"

8" In the eastern delta, where settled agrarian life was far less ad!anced than in the west in the se!enteenth and eighteenth centuries, Islam more than other culture systems became identified with a de!elo ing agrarian social order" M" Krants called chirāghī were intended to su ort the shrines of $uslim saints" 7 endowments"

?" It is known that in (BD8#DM the conser!ati!e em eror 4urang2eb ordered that all madad-i ma$āsh granted to Hindus be re ossessed" with future such grants reser!ed for $uslims only" < Interesting = In Sylhet, different" Hindus got the goods" 9" Stories still circulate of how in $ughāl times men came from the $iddle East to the Habiganj region, where they organi2ed the local o ulation into grou s to cut the jungle and culti!ate rice" 4s such communities ac1uired an Islamic identity, they conferred on their leaders a sanctified identity a ro riate to Islamic ci!ili2ation, and es ecially to the culture of institutional Sufism, as witnessed by the growth of shrines o!er the gra!es of holy men throughout the *engal frontier" B" In such cases the !ocabulary of o ular Sufism stabili2ed in o ular memory those ersons who had been instrumental in building new communities" .here is no e!idence that either Khan %ahan or Shaikh $anik, both of them ioneers and de!elo ers, had any ac1uaintance with, far less mastery of, the intricacies of Islamic mysticism" Jor will their names be found in any of the great an'Indian hagiogra hies" Qet from the culture of institutional Sufism came the asymmetric categories of !īr and murīd, or shaikh and disci le, which rendered Sufism a suitable model for channeling authority, distributing atronage, and maintaining disci lineV the !ery re1uirements a ro riate to the business of organi2ing and mobili2ing labor in regions along the cutting edge of state ower" It is little wonder that Sufis a eared along East *engal’s forested frontier"6 Eaton

D" -tates, 5In the middle of the eighth century, large, regionally based im erial systems emerged in *engal" .he first and most durable of these was the owerful >ala Em ire 7ca" D9)#((B(: <-= the early kings of this dynasty extended their sway far u the Kangetic >lain, e!en reaching Kanauj under their greatest dynast, &harma ala 7DD9#E(8:6 7 Eton +h"("( 3oot 8P:" E" He!iew, OIn all of the South 4sian subcontinent, *engal was the region most rece ti!e to the Islamic faith" .his area today is home to the world@s second'largest $uslim ethnic o ulation" How and why did such a large $uslim o ulation emerge thereN 4nd how does such a religious con!ersion take laceN Hichard Eaton uses archaeological e!idence, monuments, narrati!e histories, oetry, and $ugh āl administrati!e documents to trace the long historical encounter between Islamic and Indic ci!ili2ations" $o!ing from the year (8)?, when >ersiani2ed .urks from Jorth India annexed the former Hindu states of the lower Kanges delta, to (DB), when the *ritish East India +om any rose to olitical dominance there, Eaton ex lores these mo!ing frontiers, focusing es ecially on agrarian growth and religious change"O Eaton htt ,00www"uc ress"edu0books0 ages0B()E"html P" O4 con!incing and thoroughly well'worked'out argument which is judiciously and lucidly ex ounded" It rests on sources in >ersian, 4rabic, *engali, Sanskrit, and Euro ean languages, as well as some notably fruitful research in the >ersian records of the Sylhet and +hittagong collectorates" $ost of all, howe!er, it rests on years of thought on the issues in!ol!ed"O''%ournal of Islamic Studies" htt ,00atheism"about"com0od0religiousauthority0a0whatisauthority"htm ()" ())" %alal'ud'din, the son of Haja Kanesh con!erted to Islam under the ressure of the nobles

((" ()(" It was %alal'ud'din 7(?(E'(?MM:, the son of Haja Kanesh con!erted to Islam, who used the kalima for the first time in *engal on his coinsA this was inter reted as a symbolic gesture directed towards the $uslims to gain their su ort"?D (8" 3or .urks, moreo!er, -ufi $ode"s of authority 'ere es+ecia""y i id, since +entral 4sian Sufis had been instrumental in con!erting .urkish tribes to Islam shortly before their migrations from +entral 4sia into Khurasan, 4fghanistan, and India"6 # India (M" 5Ha!ing dislodged a Hindu dynasty in *engal, the earliest $uslim rulers made no attem t on their coins to assert legitimate authority o!er their con1uered subjects, dis laying instead a show of coerci!e ower"6 Eaton" (?" Sidelines, ortuguese merchants intruded themselves into the %a" of %engal, establishing trading stations in both #hittagong and &atgaon in the mid '()*s. (9" %ut in %engal during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries + ,e-ico &ilver. , the welldocumented influ- of silver had no such inflationar" effect on consumer !rices. (B" (īr, Instead of resenting the shaikh as a holy warriorVat no oint in the narrati!e does he engage the Hindus of >andua in armed combatVthe text seeks to connect the diffusion of Islam with the diffusion of agrarian society" In this res ect, se!eral elements in the story are crucial, 7(: the shaikh’s charismatic authority and organi2ational ability, 78: the construction of the mos1ue, 7M: state su ort of the institution, 7?: the shaikh’s initiati!e in settling forested lands transferred to the institution, and 79: the transformation of formerly forested lands into wealth' roducing agrarian communities that would continue to su ort the mos1ue" In this way, the oem sketches a model of atronageVa mos1ue linked economically with the hinterland and olitically with the stateVthat was fundamental to the ex ansion of $uslim agrarian ci!ili2ation throughout the delta" 7Eaton:" (D" +ite, Looking at %engal/s 0indu societ" as a whole, it seems likel" that the caste s"stem1far from being the ancient and unchanging essence of 2ndian civilization as su!!osed b" generations of 3rientalists 1emerged into something resembling its modern form onl" in the !eriod '4**5'(**. #entral to this !rocess, as 6onald 2nden has argued, was the colla!se of 0indu kingshi!. %efore the Turkish con7uest, the &ena king had maintained order b" distributing wealth and b" 8udging between sociall" high and low in the conte-t of his court and its rituals. 9ith the dissolution of 0indu kingshi! that followed the Turkish con7uest, however, these functions a!!ear to have been dis!laced onto societ" at large. 0indu social order was now maintained b" the

enforcing of grou! endogam", the regulation of marriage b" :caste; councils, and the kee!ing of genealogies b" s!ecialists.< (E" 5Fltimately, this arose from the long'term eastward mo!ement of *engal’s major ri!er systems, which de osited the rich silt that made the culti!ation of wet rice ossible"6 (P" 4s the delta’s acti!e ortion gra!itated eastward, the regions in the west, which recei!ed diminishing le!els of fresh water and silt, gradually become moribund" +ities and habitations along the banks of abandoned channels declined as diseases associated with stagnant waters took hold of local communities" .hus the delta as a whole ex erienced a gradual eastward mo!ement of ci!ili2ation as ioneers in the more ecologically acti!e regions cut !irgin forests, thereby throwing o en a widening 2one for field agriculture" 3rom the fifteenth century on, writes the geogra her H" K" $ukerjee, 5man has carried on the work of reclamation here, fighting with the jungle, the tiger, the wild buffalo, the ig, and the crocodile, until at the resent day nearly half of what was formerly an im enetrable forest has been con!erted into gardens of graceful alm and fields of wa!ing rice"7eaton:6[3] 8)" $oreo!er, these grou s constituted the earliest'known class of *engali $uslims" 3ully fi!e of themVthe wea!ers, loom makers, tailors, wea!ers of thick ribbon, and dyersVwere linked to the growing textile industry, and were robably recruited from amongst existing Hindu castes already engaged in these trades" 7eaton:" 8(" 9rote the ortuguese di!lomat 8ust cited= I saw one hundred and fifty cartloads of cooked rice, large 1uantities of bread, ra e, onions, bananas and other fruits of the earth" .here were fifty other carts filled with boiled and roasted cows and shee as well as lenty of cooked fish" 4ll this was to be gi!en to the oor" 4fter the food had been distributed, money was gi!en out, the whole to the !alue of six hundred thousand of our tangas"-<i"e" K/I&=" I was totally ama2edA it had to be seen to be belie!ed" .he money was thrown from the to of a latform into a crowd of about four or fi!e thousand eo le"[G8] ;hile a foreign dignitary was ermitted to see a >ersiani2ed court with gilded ceilings and sandalwood osts, the common eo le saw cartloads of cooked rice 5and other fruits of the earth"6 It was in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, too, that state's onsored mos1ues built in nati!e styles roliferated throughout the delta" .he court also lent !igorous su ort to *engali language and literature" 4lready in the early fifteenth century, the +hinese tra!eler $a Huan obser!ed that *engali was 5the language in uni!ersal use" 88" 5.his ideology of monarchal absolutism was not, howe!er, the only !ision of worldly authority inherited by $uhammad *akhtiyar and his $uslim contem oraries" *y the thirteenth century there had also a eared in >erso'Islamic culture an enormous lore, written and oral, that focused on the s iritual and worldly authority of Sufis, or $uslim holy men" .heir authority sometimes aralleled, and sometimes o osed, that of the courts of kings" 3or .urks, moreo!er, Sufi models of authority were es ecially !i!id, since +entral 4sian Sufis had been instrumental in con!erting .urkish tribes to Islam shortly before their migrations from +entral 4sia into Khurasan, 4fghanistan, and India"6 # India 8M" 5Ha!ing dislodged a Hindu dynasty in *engal, the earliest $uslim rulers made no attem t on their coins to assert legitimate authority o!er their con1uered subjects, dis laying instead a show of coerci!e ower"6 Eaton"

Eate Britt"eBan9/
(" Hindu and Is"a$ 'ere -yncretic" 7Heconciliation or fusion of differing systems of belief, as in hiloso hy or religion, es ecially when success is artial or the result is heterogeneous": 8" .i u was not an Islamic Huler, but a Hindu ruler" She ties in sufi warrior ir in which Eaton ne!er said anything of the sort is connected to Islam but really an institutionali2ed Sufism" M" +osmology and s irits of Hindu was the same as Islam # not correct" ?" /reintalism in this book, if E" Said would judge it" 9" In India south region, 5 syncretic, being influenced by Sufism and goddess worshi 6 Jot correct" She uses Susan *ayly’s ideas of connecting Islam with Hinduism" 5 ;hile *ayly was writing about the .amil country, there was not doubt that these figures were 7 and still are: 3ound in the $ysore dominions6 7*rittlebank MD:" .herefore, *ayly’s conce tion of the relationshi between information on Islam was incorrect

leading to the incorrect obser!ations from these writings of *rittlebank that .i u’s olitical control relied on syncratic relationshi s between Islam and Hindus" < great $ichael:" B" Do$en were mechanisms that ke t the Indian kingdoms together" .hey 7 had monetary and olitical worth # objects of ossession and not human beings: were traded, ut in harems, sold for animals" 7 /ther who agree are Buc9"er:" D" Bri,ery, If .i u ga!e a tribute to +ornwallis, who didn’t acce t it, because this was seen as in modern day cam ing gifts, or bribes, and would ha!e tied him olitical with .i u" +lose ties to subject and ruler # robes of honour" Kilhats, the !ow" E" She seeks legitimacy of her eers, but uses them instead of her own studies" P" .i u sent emissaries to /ttoman Sultan to ascertain ermission of Sunni orthodox" ()" .i u tried to get away from Hindu culture and *ritlebank confuses Islamic with idolatry by saying that 5 his gold and sil!er coins he named which was included cali hs, saints and Imams" .his showed .i u had no resonance with local knowledge, he mo!ed away from Hindu sysmbols and not a syncretic continuum of hindu0Islam" 7 K* BD:" ((" H/., 7*"8"M: *rittlebank’s di!ulgence of .i u’s wakils 7 !akifs 4rabic <shariah endowments= : to King Iouis \CI, a christen King, of !arious botanicalsA .i u’s use of Hindu rituals, immersion, symbols, insignias and religious motifs and the Sufi īr, Indian direct sacred ower of the king through śakti, 7things to look Hindu: 7 ((E: , all re udiate the !ery strict Islamic statutes im lemented by .i u’s execution to ascertain Sultan 4bdul Hamid I’s 7 8Dth Sultan of the /ttoman em ire: blessings for the use of the sacred Islamic title +ali h and ordering the com osition of a Islamic Gilm 7 knowledge: for im lementing %ihad 5 a treaties of the duties of $uslims6 by Lein ul'4bidin Shastari, of the $u’ayyid ul $ujahidin" She reflects .i u merging the two religions and at the same time going in two different directions" 7*rittlebank M9, MB, ?), 98 ((E, :" (8" In (DPM he ordered the com osition, by one of his leading courtiers, Lein ul'4bidin Shastari, of the ,u/a""id ul ,u8ahidin, a collection of Khutbas in !erse dealing with the benefits of %ihad, Gilm 7 knowledge: and rayer, and the Lad ul'$ujahidin, a treaties of the duties of $uslims, again with s ecial references to holy war against infidels, the author of the latter work being the Qa2i of Seringa anan, Khulam 4hmad" (M" See scientific knowledge K* 9M (?" +onsecuti!eness 7 syncretic: with the cosmos were all ractitioners as scientific" $inerals, exhalations, !a or inhalations, the aus ices of the stars all seen as scientific knowledges in India" K* (9" 5Ex ression of .i u rule was e istemology, cosmology and religious issues6 7 *rittlebank P:" (B" .i u attitude was ragmatic toward other religions, but later says that-" (D" Haidar@s son, .i u, was born on 8) Jo!ember (D9) at &e!anhalli 3ather and son were both $uslims of the Sufi tradition, but both were also $ysoreans, and this may artly ex lain the fact that, when they rose to ower, they did not exterminate the ruling Hindu dynasty of the ;odeyars" Indeed, .i u a ointed a number of Hindus to senior ositions at his court, including >urniya, his &iwan or +hief $inister" *etween (DBD and (E)), Haidar 4li and .i u Sultan would challenge the *ritish to four $ysore ;ars" 7htt ,00www"nationalgalleries"org"uk0ti u0ti uM8"htm : (E" 5 .he most significant item in the incor orati!e act of gi!ing was the khil’at 7 >ersian saru a: or robe of honour"6 (P" .he 4rabic word for kil’at means a Ggarment cast off,’ being deri!ed fro khal’aa, G he took off"’ *ucker is also identified a link with the word khilafat, with which the Hebrew and 4ramaix words for such a garment are cognateA thus the gift of a robe of honour also carried the idea of succession"6 8)" Fnder the $ughāls the Khil’ats were three ranks, according to the reci ient’s of mansab" .he lowest le!el consisted of a turban, an o!ercoat and sash 7kamarband:A the next le!el was characteri2ed by the addition of a jeweled ornament for the turban 7sar ech: and a beltA which the final le!el was distinguished by an additional half'slee!ed coat" 4bo!e these, and the most ri2ed of all, were the khil’ats reser!ed for the em eror’s closet intimates, being robes which the ruler himself had worn and thus G cast off"’ So significant was the recei t of such a khil’at, that it was fre1uently underlined in chronicles" 8(" Early in the (PP)s, in *ombay, the *haratiya %anata >arty 7*%>: south a court injunction to re!ent the screening in India of a tele!ision serial entitled 5.he Sword of .i u Sultan"6 *ased u on a no!el ublished in the mid'se!enties, the rogramme contained material which, in the !olatile and deteriorating climate of communal relations on the subcontinent, raised the ire of certain orthodox Hindues" .he com laints argued that the series resented its central character # .i u Sultan of $ysore # sym athetically, as a G secular’ ruler, rather than the fanatical $uslim ersecutor of Hindues they new him to be" .he case itself both generated contro!ersy 7 knowledges: and debate and was sym tomatic of a growing school of thought within India which no longer regarded .i u as the great hero he had once been" 88" .i u came to ower in the south Indian kingdom of $ysore in (DE8, following the death of his father Haidar G4li, who him self had sei2ed ower form the ruling Hindu ;odeyer &ynasty in the late (D9)s"

His heroic status was the conse1uence of both his and his father’s !igorous o osition to the *ritish resence in the region, with the antagonism between the two sides resulting in four 4nglo'$ysore wars" .he final war in (DPP, which was only a few months’ duration, ended with .u u’s death in $ay of that year as he fought to defend his ca ital Seringa atam" 8M" .o the majority of the *ritish, the main rotagonist in his demise, .i u Sultan was tyrant and a usur er, an Islamic bigot who was well rid of, someone who for o!er sixteen years had been a thorn in their side and constantly ercei!ed threat to their foothold in India, and who had ultimately reci itated his own destruction by his im ortunate intriguing against them with the 3rench" .o the $uslims, u on his death he immediately became a martyr 7 shahīd:, who had fallen while resisting the infidels" Iater this !iew became mingled with nationalism and .i u took on the mantle of martyr to that cause as well, so that in >akistan, for exam le, he is articularly re!ered" 8?" *urton Stein concentration of mainly state formation, all 7 others: been original attem ts at re' e!aluation of $ysore and its $uslim rulers, howe!er only stein em hasi2es the im ortance of context" .he most notable feature of all these abo!e works is the absence of any detailed discussion of issues relating to kingshi and ower and its matters such as these that the following analysis addresses" 89" .i u claims to legitimacy were seen by some to be 1uestionableA in addition, he was the $uslim ruler of a redominantly Hindu region and the ex ression of his rule reflected this fact" 8B" In short the ruler had been seen to be ca able of ro!iding both eace and rotection in the realmA he or she had to ha!e a regal aura of resence" 8D" Iegitimacy, 5Susan *ayly has examined in detail the de!elo ment and interaction of religious traditions # Hindu, $uslim, +hristianVby drawing u on both written and oral texts" *oth works underline the close relationshi between royal and sacred ritual as well as analy2ing strategies of subordination with the cultural en!ironment" 8E" Hitual and symbolic rocesses in!ol!ed in the establishment assertion of legitimacy" 8P" *uckler age D'E" M)" How do rulers connect to the eo leN M(" #i+u -u"tanCs Jife M8" &oundation -tone8 MM" $other, 3atima *egum, second wife of Haider" M?" Na$ed .i u after Sufi saint .i u $astan 4uliya # whose tomb in 4rcot the ros ecti!e arents had !isited to ray for the birth of a son":6 M9" MB" $ysorean !iews of taking control # not usur ation, Islam must rule" Cery sim le" *ritish and Hindu !iews, Fsur ation" >ossibly there were mixed feeling from both cam s as this is just life in general # eo le come to rule with their constructed birth ideologies 7 religious and faiths: confessing to this or that but ragmatically the rule is a sign ost to glory, fame and self im ortance 7 soul’s stri!ing # inner feelings:" 5 I can establish this or that-"it will be good for us and them-"7$%$:" (" 1032 death of Krishna raja ;odeyar I" Jo adult a arent a" #i+u -u"tan4 the eldest son of Haider ?"i, was born on &ecember (), (D9) at &e!anhalli" b" 4 writer of (DE)s described Haider’s military genius as com aring him o Khingi2 Khan, .imur and Jadir Shah" His battle worthiness brought him recognition and to the attention of NanFaraFa" He made Haider a 3aujdār of &indigul, res onsible fro acifying the refectory oligars 7 chieftains res onsible for law and order and re!enue collection: of the region" c" His first days as a new small time chieftain saw his son, .i u, and family hold u as risoners at -eringa+ata$" *y %uly (DB( he regain custody of his family and land" d" Katar told Haider, 5 Ki!e me my own lands for my own subsistence rated at two lakhs of agodas 7 er annum: and you are welcome to the rest"6 So Haider ga!e him his re1uest most ossibly to get his family out of danger" .he $ysore Kater had total control o!er the noble family line of rulers the ;odeyar, which determined the line of succession" e" Significant in the consolidation of Haider’s ower was his ca ture in early (DBM of *enur, which had been the seat of the Ikkeri rulers since (BMP" .his wealthy city had benefited from its location at the con!ergence of the many trade routs assing from $angalore to the ghats" f" Hight from his early years he was trained in the art of warfare and at the age of (9 he used to accom any his father Haider 4li, the ruler of $ysore, to different military cam aigns" g" Haider issued coins, always a symbol of so!ereignty by way of disbursing knowledges" His father also set about raising his son to become a good leader and an intelligent man" 5 a ointing a suitable hand of attendants to wait u on him and em loying learning tutor to carry on his education"6

h" Haider said about his future son’s osition, 5 if the wheel of fortune should turn about, and he should ha!e owers against him, with whom he could not contend in the field"6 i" Education is just an im ortant as a military training to his father" j" /ne *ritish clerk from the East Indian +om any in $adras 7 $r" Stuart: wandered into Ji2am, taken risoner and forced to lead a $ysore army, but esca ed by subterfuge a few months later" Haider was cited as saying 5 ne!er doubted the soldiershi of a man who wore a Hatt"6 Haiders faith in *ritish and 3rench militaryshi came from obser!ations of cam aigns in the +arnatic" He was said to ha!e em loyed 3rench engineers as early as (D99 to assist in the organi2ation of his artillery and arsenal" k" Haider died in his sixties 7 some say at B): from a carbuncle, during the second 4nglo'$ysore war" His father maintained tight control of his domains and ne!er allowed a *ritish resident to be maintained at his court 7 no ambassadors:" He was sus icious of foreigners, both Euro ean and Indian 7 ossibly because of s ies:" l" (DB)s Haider engaged the $arathas and *ritish" It was during the first 4nglo' $ysore war in (DBD, at the age of se!enteen, that #i+u was gi!en his first command, nder his eye of his military instructor Kha2i Khan" m" .i u became an able military fighter with successful cam aigns against the $arathas in (DDM'? and achi!ed notable !ictories o!er the *ritish during the second 4nglo'$ysorean war, both at >ollilur near +onjee!eram in (DE) and at Kumbakonam in .anjore in (DE8" n" .he *ritish saw Haider as a usur er, and his sons succession as smooth" .his is in art the feelings of the Hindus who didn’t like the exclusi!e olitics of the Islamic o!erlord olicies" .his was a !iew of state affairs and not what was going on from the ers ecti!e of the $ysorean Islamic mo!ement" .hey saw this as natural to the rule of 4llah" $uslims must rule the world" It is that sim le" o" .o form legitimacy olitical marriage of .i u bound by two dis uted marriages, ending u marrying both and on the same night" &id this ha en in +hristianityN $uslims are allowed u to four wi!es and many concubines, i"e" sla!es" " .he urchase of sla!es continued in Istanbul and Keorgia, within the /ttoman 3ramework 7 they ruled as the second wa!e in history of the large encom assing Islamic states # the first Fmayyad c"D9) and 4bbasid c" (89) as seen as the entire first wa!e:" 1" Haider maintained a 2anāna, in /ttoman the more o ular term a harem 7full of women for leasure:" .hese were high'caste Hindus, but some were women from the sla!e urchases from the /ttoman Em ire, as well as daughters of $uslim olitical as irates" Ki!ing a gift of a daughter was seen as a symbol of a $uslim rulers legitimacy" .hese were $uslim girls from 4rcot, .anjore, Hyderabad, Kurramkonda and other laces" r" (DE?, .i u Sultan is enthroned as the ruler of $ysore in a sim le ceremony at *ednur on ?th $ay" s" His rule is said to ha!e two hases" 3irst was the signing in $arch (DE? the .reaty of $angalore" t" (DP8, Signing of the $angalore .reaty" 7 Ja oleon in the 4rmy Euro e:" u" .i u fought battles with other chieftains and accused them of cons iracy most ossibly as an excuse to secure his lands" $ost of the time, .i u s ent time naming his lands, and reconfiguring the Hindu realms under his control to Islamic !ibes" .his was his constituency, who ha!e 9no'"edges fa$i"iar to Is"a$ in 'hich to fee" co$forta,"e in the ,ody" #i+u changes socia" and +hysica" infrastructure to Is"a$ic traditions " 7(: Introduction of new calendar, by .i u, the Islamic calendar which creates new knowledges affecting the *ody as holidays affect the body in rituals of the *ody in Islam such as fasting and eating" /ne can feel the im act on the Hindus who didn’t follow the body rituals of Islam" 78: 3ounded mints, under took new building rojects 7 Islamic ones: and became in!ol!ed in commercial affairs of India" 7M: In 1021, the &utch sold the Haja’s two key fortresses of 4yicotta and +ranganur" /n to of this, Hama Carma, of the raja of .ra!ancore, ordered military defenses on dis uted lines between $ysore and .ra!ancore # both claiming they were gi!en these areas" .his caused tension" Hama challenged .i u, of whom Hama was an ally of the *ritish" .he .ra!ancore had sought to ally themsel!es with the *ritish against the Islamist ruler" .hey hid them at +hirakkal, +alicut and Kadattanad" .i u wished that these laces too would be gi!en to him 7 returned because of original usur ationN : " 7?: .i u fights $arathas in the Jorthern bords and defeates them late (EDB to (DED" He then dis atches embassies internationally to the /ttomans, his friends, and to the 3rench who are com eting for trade in India" He dis atches embassies to Sultan 4bdul Hamid I in Istanbul and Iouis \CI of 3rance" He recei!ed the /ttoman blessing with allowance to use the title of +ali h 7 %anuary (DP):"

79: .he .ra!ancore lines in &ecember (DEP began to see .i u’s forces arri!ing in which at the end of the month skirmishes broke out and .i u’s forces suffered casualties" 3rom then until 4 ril the next year .i u attem ted in !ain to negotiate with the Haja, the *ritish acting as mediators" ;e can almost hear the discussions, about Islam differences in faiths, beliefs and knowledges of the body com ared to Islam" .he land was not in dis ute, but the body was # how was the body incor orated into the geogra hy, controlled by juridical ower and disci linary knowledges" 7B: 4fter Jegotiations broke down, .i u launched a cannonade at the lines and the raja’s fled, which enacted *ritish Ko!ernor'Keneral, Iord +ornwallis who reacted in beginning a third 4nglo'$ysore war" .i u ambitions for a Islamic G growing’ state demonstrated the hold onto the as ects of how the body must ros er on the hysical earth" 7D: Iater that year +ornwallis signed treaties, for consolidation with >eshwa, the Ji2am, the *ib of +annanore, the Haja’s of +oorg and +ochin, and se!eral other $alabar chiefs" .he negotiations rested on the consolidation of the Hani Iakshmi 4mmanni , seen by the *ritish as the restoration form the usur ing Haider" 7E: .hese wars are e!idence that Islamic o!erlordshi did not fit the rece ts of the body" Hidus ha!e different rituals then $uslims and a different understanding of how the body works in society" .hese wars show that this was the main cause and not for land or trade re!enue" .he argument escalated to the foreigners who came into India initially looking for ways to better their bodies" S ices was one way the Henaissance ha ened" >eo le li!ed longer because food storage life and and reser!ati!es in the s ices hel condition the body to li!e longer" .hus the state became in!ol!ed in trader initially to make the body last longer" .his also meant warring o!er other knowledges as to how the body gets its ur ose" 7P: In Jo!ember .i u in!aded +arnic and achie!ed se!eral !ictories but his forces suffered defeats in $alabar which established *ritish su remacy in that area" .his re!ersal of fortunes continued into the following year, In 3ebruary +onrnwallis entered $y sore and in $arch ca tured the fort of Jabgalor, in 4 ril the fort of &harwar surrendered to the $arathas after se!eral months’ siege, and by $ay the Ko!ernor'Keneral was within a few miles of Seringa atam" *y this time his army was in oor condition, as the result of the weather, lack of food and an outbreak of small ox, and unsure of the whereabouts of his allies, he decided to return to *angalore" In 3ebruary (DP8, after the ca ture of se!eral $ysore forts, the allies returned and launched an attack on the ca ital" /n the twenty'fourth of that month, with the enemy at the walls of the fort and facing o!erwhelming odds, .i u entered into negotiations for eace" .here negotiations culminated in the signing of the treaty of -eringa+ata$ on (E $arch" 7(): .he treaty for .i u was humiliating and caused him to cede half territory of his kingdom" .he *rtish were rewarded the districts of *aramahal and dindigal, the whole of +oorg and a large art of $alabar coast, including orts of +alicut and +annanore" $aratha territory now extended to the ri!er Krishna and the Ji2am a1uired +umbum, +udda ah, ganjikota and the area between the lower tungabhadra ri!er and the Krishna" .i u also had to ay an indemnity" 4lso, the hardest of the clauses of the treaty were the hando!ers of two young sons" 4bdul Khali1, age eight, and $ui2uddin, age fi!e" 4ccom anied by their father’s negotiators the boys were deli!ered u to +ornwallis" It would be two years until they returned" 7((: .he whole saga had a significant affect on .i u" 4ccording to Kirmani, he abandoned his bed, slee ing only on khadi, as some kind of !ow or enance" ;hether this is true or not it is ex ressi!e of the state of mind which seems to ha!e o!ercome him" 4s a $uslim he would ha!e seen the hand of Kod at work in his defeat and it must ha!e occurred to him that his misfortunes may in fact ha!e been some form of di!ine retribution" 7(8: He began to refer to his domains as Sarkar'I Khudādādī, or Kod'gi!en realm, and his thoughts turned to %ihad" In (DPM he ordered the com osition, by one of his leading courtiers, Lein ul'4bidin Shastari, of the ,u/a""id ul ,u8ahidin, a collection of Khutbas in !erse dealing with the benefits of %ihad, Gilm 7 knowledge: and rayer, and the Lad ul'$ujahidin, a treaties of the duties of $uslims, again with s ecial references to holy war against infidels, the author of the latter work being the Qa2i of Seringa anan, Khulam 4hmad"

%os =o$$ans
•K If they granted $ansa,dars the ;$+ire 'ou"d ha e fa""en $uch ear"ier8L (=o$$ans 22)8 • K(easant re o"ts in "ate 10th and ear"y 18th century ,ecause of the asserti eness of 7a$indars ,eca$e "ess concerned 'ith $eritocratic and i$+eria" ser iceL M didnCt ,ode 'e""8 (" %amindar, Kommans a" 5Lamindars were strongly rooted in local Indian society"6 5Hence, his readiness for distant im erial ser!ice was much more limited"6 b" House hold were a major building blocks of the military" 4 art from military retainers, ones extended family consisted of numerous ersonal and ser!ants and friends, either near home of s read out all o!er the country"

.hese were networks of atronage, and the key significance to how the Indian society worked with all religions in!ol!ed" c" E!en the military retainers were loyal to some household' to the one 5 whose salt they ate"6 8" $ughāl’s ho ed that 2amindars would become mansabdars" a" )a$indars re!olts became more fre1uent in the northern regions during the (Dth century" b" 5;itness a growing asserti!eness on art of the Lamindars"6 c" &issatisfaction with demands on the agrarian resources by the im erial forces" d" $urshid Quili Khan and other Lamindars that consolidated ower made it harder for the im erial mansabdaris to enforce tax re!enue from their land" .hey armed their easants as discussed" e" .he collections could not be assessed correctly, .his lead to war" f" (Dth century was a watershed eriod of the shifting ower from the mansabdar dominance to the Lamindar dominance" g" Hand guns make their resence now" h" 4bul 3a2l states that what is needed is a 5 rinci le of harmony"6 M" Ho' to turn s$a"" 'ar ,ands that con<uered into a "arge i$+eria" ar$y N a" I<ta syste$ is in India and the Safa!īd system" b" E!ery holder of an i1ta had a right to collect re!enue from the assigned iece of land in exchange for military or administration ser!ices" .hese were conditional and tem orary rights to accurately asses re!enue roceeds" .his meant that rulers had some ty e of control, by deciding who has an i1ta right" c" Inaccurate, 5.he /ttoman 4rmy, for exam le, consisted mainly of tribal elements su orted by timar land grants, the /ttoman !ersion of i1ta"6 Jote" .he /ttoman army, the janissaries, was always aid directly from the nishanji at the im erial treasury and ne!er was su orted by local timars" Kommans is mixed u with a land grant 7fief: to ro!incial si ahi, the ca!alry, or the ayans that arose in timars the later arts of the em ire" .he army was ne!er Gsu orted’ by the timar 7fiefs:" .he Si ahi, the ca!alry, managed them, a ointed by the center, and collected the re!enue, and took his share" 4ll ro erty of the /ttoman 4rmy, the janissaries, belonged to the Sutlan, and was art of the kul system" d"Kommans source is from Der 2slam 7 footnote ?? +h" M: K" HYhnborn, G Hegierung and Cerwaltung Irans unter den Safawiden’, in *" S uler 7ed:" (P9P" See T,A I" Iockhart, .he >ersian 4rmy in the Safa!i eriod"’ e" Kommans also mixes u the janissaries as being the army of the $amluks" f" Kommans argues of a dual'structure whereas adhoc' military recruits fights alongside the im erial army which is the case only in the /ttoman em ire during the mid'sixteenth century onward and it was not a common ractice" ?"4kbar or the $ughāls didn’t run a kul system" a">asha households in the /ttoman em ire is rele!ant but not brought u in Kommans because he didn’t use the correct sources" b" Households are used in India, but they do not consist of im erial kuls as they were in the /ttoman em ire" c" 5Strikingly missing in the household segments of the $ughāl army was a substantial number of military sla!es" $ilitary sla!es had been an im ortant element in the &elhi sultanate, but began to disa ear again during the fourteenth century"6 d" Incorrect, $amluks ne!er had janissaries 7 Kommans EM:" e" So final argument is no free military ser!ice" f" =o$$ans tried to for$ the issue of s"a e $i"itary in India 'hen there 'as none " g" $ughāl army under about a few hundred great military retainers, and about ()),))) to 8)),))) mounted retainers" h" >artly financed by cash thought the im erial treasury, but mainly by assignments of jagirs" .he Indian !ersion of i1ta" i" 5$ansabdars re resented not only the military elite but also re resented the ruling class of the em ire at large"6 j".hey re1uired military ex ertise, administrati!e and economic ex ertise" k" $ansabdar needed an extended network of atronage and court connections" l" .ar9et co$+etition "ed the 'ay for a++oint$ents8 ;ho would take the least money and manage the largest land assessment" m" If this was the /ttoman system, then none of this a lies, because it was a sla!e military system and ne!er a bidding system" n" $oney was the entire $ughāls system" .he $ore money the more mansabdars and larger the armies em loyed" ;hen the Lamadars consolidated they then had new monetary le!erage against the mansabdars" .his seems to be the entire case" 4 military for hire, and a way to make a good li!ing" o" $ilitary marketing" 9" ?urnag7e,Cs +eriod sa' atan-Fagirs for$, and mansabdars mold into a ty e of Lamindar" a" .herefore the entire fight hinged u on this shift"

b" .he effects and significance was who could be the to 2amindar ower" c" .his then led to the chiefdoms and the decentrali2ation thought the many wars" B" *ritish used first $ughāls knowledge as C8?8 Bay"y states then mo!ed away when they found out that this knowledge didn’t work and that 2amindars were leading the o ular knowledge of what worked best" a" Lamindars contributed to higher rates of loyalty and steadfastness, im licated by the higher rices aid and the dwindling of resources for aying the $ansabdars" b";e see an inflation of the mansabdars in relation to the 2amiondars as gommans oints out" c"5 the Mughāls were adverse to granting them long term service"6 d" Here, Kommans uses 53rancios *ernier, modern historians ha!e ointed out that the short'term commitment of the mansabdar to his jagir stimulated rack'renting and the abuse of the easant o ulation of the jagirs"6 Jote this was not the roblem in general to the /ttomans who were not reliant on ay from the timars, as Kommans wrongly cited 7see abo!e:" e"5 *ut are the $ughāls to be blamedN If they had granted the mansabdars more ermanent rights in their jagirs, the em ire would ha!e fallen a art much earlier6 7Kommans P8:" f" Hemember the abo!e statement doesn’t a ly to the ottomans as their system was a sla!e based system and the $ughāls didn’t use a sla!e based system" E" .he $ughāl’s attem ted to co'o t the 2amindars into the mansabdari systems" P" $ughāl system was to ado t all religious affiliations into the military system, exce t 4urang2eb" ()" .i"itary a" $ore exciting to join the military then in central 4sia" b";hyN $ore monetary incenti!es" c" .he difference was only the degree" d" >olitical rank ne!er colla ses on one another, indicating no racism and e!eryone got along" E!erything was monetary in!ol!ed" 4ccording to Kommans this e!en crossed the line of atronage households" e" $ughāls didn’t recruit all the different religious or ethnicities into the military to show management of di!ide and con1uer, but their willingness to kee em loyment in the Indian country instead of relying on em loyment form outside India, and claiming that Indian military is far su erior as well" f" .i"itary $ar9et was di!erse 5com rising of ethnic and caste grou s of which the .uranis, Iranis, 4fghans, Haj uts and $arathas were the most significant"6 g" )a$indars were well armed had lots of monetary a!enues to build military careers for their rotection" 5 4lmost e!ery Indian 7including all easants, and middle class: had some kind of ex erience with arms and combat"6 h" 4ccording to 4bul 3a2l, there were more than ?"? million 1ualified military man in the $ugh āls state8 .hese figures are su osed to re resent local militia and not military troo s" i" 5/b!iously, the $ughāl’s couldn’t come anywhere near to engaging, weather directly or indirectly, such masses of armed eo le6" ((" ?urang7e, a" 54urang2eb himself considered the .uranis su erior to the Haj uts"6 b" .uranis disci line com ared to raj ut bra!ery" c" Haj uts fought to the death e!en in a losing battle, and 4kbar noted that he wants to sa!e his men" So if the army is losing just retreat knowing that there will be another day to fight" It is ossible that 4kbar icked u this olicy after recei!ing knowledges from Iran of .amas I successful tactics against SZleyman 5the $agnificent"6 .his was a successful lan that also sa!ed many men on both sides of the battlefield" d" 5Shah .amas of Iran had ad!ised Humayun to recruit Haj uts instead of 4fghan because he would ne!er be able to win the latter’s friendshi "6 7 Jote, Sunni and Shi’i differences in these relationshi s: (8" Interested in war bands, geogra hy and economy" He is not interested in the religious as ects as much in his writings" (M" ;ork, Kommans, %os Mughul Warfare, ;arfare and History" India 3rontiers and High roads to Em ire (9))'(D))" Houtledge 8P west M9th Street, Jew Qork" JQ ()))(" 8))8" (?" 4ccording to %os Kossmans, ;hat was the downfall of the $ughālsN , Subject is $ansabdars !s" Lamindars" Lamin0land dar0 holders # >ersian" (9" Iran a"+onfronted the $ughāls although they fount on babur and Humayuan’s side again the F2bek and 4fghan 7Sunni: wars" (B" .arathas4 or desh$u9hs8 a" &ry sa!annah of the deccan lateau (D" *ecruit$ent of the !eccan

a" 3irst $ughāl 5success hinged u on their ca acity to entice the &eccani warlaords away from their 4dilshahi 7*ija ur: and Qutbshahi 7Kolkonda: atrons6 b" Entice byu cash and jagirs 7 jadindars:" c" &utch East Indian +om any introduced Kerman order and disci line" d" B) $uslim &eccan warlords, and about ()) $aratha chiefs, who were the core of the *ija uri forces, mainly in the lower ranks of the mansabdari system" (E" *ritish find >adshah, adishad 7 i indicting followers of:" .he ruler < stabili2er= of the world" (P" Shahansshahi the Islamic counter art in the almost e1ually uni!ersal +ali hate 7 *y now the +ali h title was loosely used by $uslim rulers of different ethnicities:" 8)" 5Sultanates of the &eccan, time and again, turned o enly towards Shi’ism and acknowledged Safa!id su2erainty 7 %K 8(:" .his included the $oghūls" 8(" Nuc"ear (+o"itico-socio-eco) 7ones8 88" (9(B $ughāls started their raids into Hindustan 7 *engal is in this area:" 8M" $ughla legitimacy ranged form controlling the inner and outer 2ones of ower" 8?" #hey contro""ed siI $aFor centra"i7ing 7ones" 89" 3rom Kubal to Hajmahal, the &eccan, $awla in the south < eastern and western Khats=" +ontrolled the trade crossroads" 8B" &eccan tended to go towards the southeast" 4rmy bulk congregated here" 8D" &elhi'4gra region is a crossroads" 8E" I$+ortant +orts were Hajmahal and *engali" Jortheastern was gi!en freer reign or autonomy because military could not li!e and function there" 8P" Eastern mo!ement of main *engal ri!es hel ed the $ughāls to get closer to *engal" .hey had interest in grain industries to feed army and make money" $o!ed ca ital to &haka in (B()" Hajmahal resting lace for army" M)" Hrienta"is$/ M(" .he $ughāls tragicall" failed <a strong word, whyO some leaders had success, while other leaders sought other binding olicies, so com lex and not sim le as general stereoty e= 73rom whose ers ecti!eN: 7%K MM:" Kommans lo!ed the East Indian com any" 5 the em ire was falling a art at the height of its ex ansion6 7%K MM:" M8" D?* B?N!MM" *abur took the title of Kha2i" He did this to s read Islam" M?" Social cohesion, 3ringe grou s 7 band of Kha2is were not like modern day fundamentalists, but consisted of o en status grou s: not based on orthodoxy of religions" 5Kha2i itself doesn’t refer to some kind of holy war at all, but merely to the more o ortunistic ra22ia, or raid <-=6 7%KMP:" M9" Kha2i is an o ortunist ra22i" MB" 5.he $ughāls built their em ire on ex loitation of the inner frontier6 7%KMP: MD" 5Sufi saints could also be a art of the gha2i band67%K?9: ME" 5;hat we see is a dual society based u on two different economic systems, but also on two different social structures and two different cultures6 7%KMP:" MP" &isci les !enerating their commanders as >īr’s ' armed de!otees of the would'be messiah 7%K ?9:" 5.hese chiliastic connections ser!ed continued to ser!e as major recruiting networks for the $ugh āl army6 7 %K?9:" ?)" Social distinctions of sufi'warriors <-= the o en air of the military cam <-= between sufi and warrior were orous6 ?(" chi"iastic, .he doctrine stating that %esus will reign on earth for (,))) years" ?8" ;hile the henomenon of the Kha2i war'bands is clouded by re!ailing image of Islamic %ihad, its Hindu counter art is often misre resented as a result of resent'day tendencies to ideali2e the conce t of ahimsa, or non'!iolence" Jotwithstanding its o ular image, mostly informed by $ahatma Kandhi and ro agandists of neo'Hinduism, it a ears that classical Hinduism e!en misses a tradition of anti'militarism" 7 34+. Indians were mean fighters like e!eryone else: .his is also the general descri tion of the Sanskrit texts and inscri tions that refer to the earliest confrontations with Islam 7 %K?D:" ?M" Kha2i, ;e find instances of irreconcilable hostility and religious toleration next to each other <-= de ending u on changing olitical and socio'economic circumstances 7%K ?D:" ??" British sur ey, ?9" *engal is one extremity of Hindustan and to roceed to Labulistan and I ho e that .uran and Iran and other countries may be added 7 this was ambitious:" ?B" /ctober began military season for easants in the arid 2one" $ilitary labor tended to be different in both 2ones" 4rid tracts for irregulars, and more rofessional full timers for monsoon areasA where less eo le because more of them attended the growing of food for India and commerce" .his ha ened to be the olicy for the East Indian +om any" .hey recruited wel drilled rofessionals from the 5fertile eastern tracts of Hindustan6 7%K (8:"

?D"Ideali2ed and analy2ed old Sanskrit texts, for instant analy2ed by 3rancis Limmermann ha!e /rientalist characters of geogra hy of indigenous eo le li!ing in India in which made a subjugated knowledge from the normati!e treaties that drew clear cult distinctions between marshy eastern lands and western arid lands" 5.he eastern ones being fat, round and susce tible to disorders of the hlegm, the western ones being thin, dry and of a bilious tem erament6 7 %K(M:" In a way these descri tions seem not that much difference from the later, racist descri tions of the *ritish sur!eyors selecting the so'called martial tribes of India 7 3or the military:" ?E" 4lexander !on Humboldt, certain egotism of self'culture" Sent out by the &utch East India +om any to find the Jortheast >assage" ?P" Jote that the 2amandiris became owerful and the $ughuls e!entually lost control of them as they begin to back the $arathas, which begin to start winning wars against the $ugh āls 7mjm:" 9)" End of (Dth century the $arathas begin to start winning wars against the $ughuls" 9(" .ansa,s/ .ansa,ars, 98" book rinci le is laid out in dichotomy" 9M" .hesis of first cha ter is warfare cannot be studied without understanding the geogra hy of India" 9?" ?rid 7ones take recedence o!er $onsoon 7 non'arid: 2onesA east west dichotomy in India’s monsoon climate #west a roximately B) in" er year # east a roximately E) in er year and u to (8) inches in the foothills and mountains" 99" .i"itary "a,or $ar9et em loys thousands of farmer0 easant soldiers each year and is one of the most salient features of military life in northern India and should be closely linked to s ecific conditions of India’s dry land" .he crucial oint in that the organi2ation of military labor tended to be different in both 2ones" In the non'4rid regions, the military recruits were more hard to control, but had more ex ertise and s ecial talents of warfare tactics, as com ared to the 4rid 2ones" In the arid 2ones military tended to be seasonal, or art time and thus less s eciali2ed" .he arid tracts were ideal areas for irregulars, as easily gathered and dissol!ed 7 Jot yearly ayments adjustments:" *y contrast in areas that military ser!ice tended to be year round 7 full time: the easants tended to be rofessional warriors" 9B"*ritish made /rientalist commentary toward the differentiations of both 2ones eo le, calling them so'called martial tribes of India" 9D".hesis in ch" (, It is my contention that this conce t, of lateral lines of communications radiating outwards, is also rele!ant for understanding the rocess of im erial ex ansion under the $ughuls" Es ecially during the early years when the $ughuls came down to road building" 9E" .he more central administration in!ests in the area, for exam le for defense or control, the more its liability to become to 'hea!y, to break away and to start a new center of its own" 9P" 4ccording to early Indian texts, more of less confirmed by contem orary accounts of +hinese ilgrims, the sub'continent consisted of fi!e regions, $adhyadesha or the $iddle +ountry, Fttara atha or Jorthern India, >racya or eastern India or Eastern India, &aksina atha or Sourthern India and 4 aranta or ;estern India" Here we ha!e the unusual number of fi!e relating to four wind directions emanating from a center" Interestingly, two of these Sanskrit names literally refer to the meaning of road or atha, hence Fttara atha becomes northern road and &akshina atha becomes southern road" B)" 4s a result the rocess of state formation in India in!ol!ed the command o!er both the inner frontier and the limits" In more ractical terms, for the $ughuls this im erati!e came down to the control of fi!e or six nuclear 2ones of ower which e itomi2es this combination of agrarian sur lus, extensi!e marchland and long'distant trade routs" B(" +ontrol the corn routs 7 all grains in this context of India: " .he !ital east'west connections 7 roads: created commercial and astoralist crossroads, which the $ughāls, like any olitical ower of the interior, needed to control" B8" BM" It was this east'west connections that the $arathas emerged as the rime ri!al of $ughāl ower in the region" B?" Strong warhorses which made the control of Kabul so crucial to the $oghuls" Kabul ser!ed as the hub of India’s trade with +entral 4sia and , to a lesser extent, with Iran as well" B9" *engal was hard to kee under control because of the extensi!e tributaries and the climate was injurious to horses" 4kbar e!en doubled the allowances of the nobles stationed in *engal" BB" $ughāls succeeded artly because the main ri!er courses had gradually shifted eastward, which enabled them to remo!e their ca ital from Hajmahal to &haka in (B()" BD" $ughāls begin to lose to the $arakas about the end of the (Dth +entury 7(BP)s:" BE" $ughāls didn’t a ease the Lamindaris and they became rich and ower full, when in *engal after $urshid Quli showed u at the behest of 4urang2ab" BP" *aF+uts were not likened because they would fight to the death e!en in losing battles and the $ugh āls didn’t like losing their men in battle 'e!en when they knew they would lose" .he $ugh āls wanted retreaters

instead of martyrs" # it would be more ermissible for the Haj uts, according to the $ughuls if they would return and retreat in case things became hard on the battlefield and it a eared they would start to lose" D)" $ughāls were com osed of a whole bunch of ahsham, all sorts of rag'tag foot' retainers 7 iyadagan: <soldiers=, com rising of clerks, runners, gate kee ers, alace guards, couriers, swordsmen, wrestlers, sla!es and alan1uin bearers" .hese infantry consisted of a few thousand musketeers 7 bandu1chis: commanded by a Gca tains of ten’ 7mir'dahs:" D("*aF+uts, 7r]j^ oots: <Sanskrit,Sson of a king=, dominant eo le of Haj utana , an historic region now almost coextensi!e with the state of Hajasthan, J; India" .he Haj uts are mainly Hindus 7although there are some $uslim Haj uts: of the warrior caste" traditionally they ha!e ut great !alue on eti1uette and the military !irtues and take great ride in their ancestry" /f these exogamous clans, the major ones were Hathor, Kachchwaha, +hauhan, and Sisodiya" .heir ower in Haj utana grew in the Dth cent", but by (B(B all the major clans had submitted to the $ughāls " ;ith the decline of $ughāl ower in the early (Eth cent", the Haj uts ex anded through most of the lains of central India, but by the early (Pth cent" they had been dri!en back by the $arathas, Sikhs, and *ritish" Fnder the *ritish, many of the Haj ut rinces maintained inde endent states within Haj utana, but they were gradually de ri!ed of ower after India attained inde endence in (P?D" 7htt ,00www"encyclo edia"com0html0r0raj uts"as :

(au" =oa"en ( $us"i$sN.ughā"s 'ere 'hat destroyed India4 not the British[ I$+eria"ists and
contro""ers] (" ? 1GG0s ,oo9s 7 three: aimed at the teaching for eighth #graders" 8" >aul Koalen, Head of History Homerton +ollege, +ambridge" 5India, 3rom $ugh āl em ire to *ritish Haj6" M" 4bul 3a2l, who wrote the story of 4kbar’s life" ?" 54fter *arbur’s death in (9M), his soun Humayun became Em eror" Humayun ruled until he died in a fall down his library stairs in (99B" His son 4kbar became the Jew $ughāl em eror, aged only (M"6 5 ;hat sort of erson was the young 4kbarN6 9" 4 Cictory tower made out of the enemies’ heads"6 >ainted in about (9P)" this was a custom of the earlier $ughāl em erors" ;hat effect do you think a tower life this would ha!e on eo leN B" 5Hemu’s < Hindi general= body was brought before 4kbar and was beheaded" His head was sent to Kabul and his body was sent to &elhi to be laced on a gibbet as a warning to others" .hose who had su orted Hemu were killed and thjeir heads were made into a !ictory tower"6 D" 54kbar ne!er learned to read or write<-=6 4kbar killed the regent, and 5 4nother threat to yong 4kbar’s ower was his cruel and ambitious foster'brother 4dham Khan" In (9B8 4kbar had 4dham Khan thrown to his death from the alace walls as unishment for murdering one of 4kbar’s ministers"6 5 ;hy do you think 4kbar ne!er learned to readN6 E" Koalen resents 4kbar as a tyrant who was a brutal thug, and formulated this o inion because he didn’t come from a traditional family 7 actually he describes like a dysfunctional family: and also because he was illiterate" .herefore, anyone ha!ing these characteristics or life circumstances is as the ortrayal of 4kbar’s character" P" 5 ;hilst the $ughāl s ruled India in luxury, most of their subjects li!ed in !illages, and many of them were !ery oor"6 ()" >oor easants ate once a day, had no clothes but corse garments, had no furniture, owned no ro erty other than a straw mat in which somehtins was shared by the whole family li!ing in one room" .hey would sell their good food and eat corse food to sur!ice" ((" In contrast, $ughāl s li!ed in o ulent wealth, s ending fortunes on ersonal comforts and e!en su orting ex ensi!e animal u kee s" 3or exam le, 4kbar had o!er ())) suits, and this is com ared to no suits for the Indian easants" $ughāl s had jewels and money and easants had nothing" 3eeding animals cost 9),))) ru ees a day" (8" 5 Em eror Shahjahan is belie!ed to ha!e s ent M),))) ru ees 7_ M,D9): each day on his harem 7 the women and their li!ing 1uarters:" Each noble had three to four wi!es and each wife had (),8), or ()) sla!es according to her wealth" .he nobles robably s ent most of their money on their harems"6 (M" -ignificance, Koalen aints a icture that it was good that the *ritish came into India to dis ose the e!il $ughāl s" .herefore, justifying their ex loitation" (?" Burton -teinCs o+ening argu$ent is Is"a$ ca$e into India ,ecause India "i ed in decadence and 'aste4 so thus4 .ughā" s are the same" (9" 3amines in India because they had no backu water system, meant that Indian saw their eo le’s li!es as chea " (B" $ansabdars used !iolence and force and did it 1uickly" 5>easants are first beaten without mercy and maltreated and then sold in the ublic market lace as sla!es" .hey are carried off, attached to hea!y iron chains,

to !arious markets and fairs, which their oor unha y wi!es behind them carrying their small children in their arms, all crying and lamenting their e!il light"6 (D" In this icture Koalan resents Indians as weak and submissi!e who took beatings and were sla!es" 5 these oor eo le < Indians = ha!e their sur lus < s are money and cro s= confiscated and their children carried away as sla!es" <-= sometimes they run away to territories outside the $ugh āl Em ier"6 (E" Kolans tells us that if the Indians cannot ay the $ughāls then their children are taken from them and sold into sla!ery"

.ichae" &oucau"t,
• Eno'"edge co$es fro$ the +ersons- +eo+"e 'ho ho"d u"ti$ate +o'er -- they create the ,oo9s4 the ter$s4 the identifications that define the cu"tures they ru"e or contro"8

(" 5>ower comes from below6 Sexuality" Intellects are not as sexual, therefore hte bottom u henomena is dri!en by sexuality'' ossibly the frustrations of sexuality to rule so they can ha!e better artner o ortunities" 8"Juridical !ower is laws that are dictated by the state that ha!e disci linary conse1uences connected to them" O&isci linary knowledgesO on the other hand are realities we follow based u on our obser!ance by natural conditioning to knowledges we learn by what is right or wrong in regards to how it effects our e!eryday constraints 7 li!es:" M" 5 the moment where it became understood that it was more efficient and rofitable in terms of the economy of ower to lace eo le under sur!eillance then to subject them to some exem lary ower6 7 3oucault >ower0know ME:" ?" 5If I o en a book and see that the author is accusing an ad!ersary of 5infantile leftism6 I shut it again right away6" 7.his inter!iew took lace in order for 3oucault to answer 1uestions fre1uently asked by 4merican audiences" It was conducted by >aul Habinow in $ay (PE?, just before 3oucault’s death" It was translated by Iydia &a!is and ublished in !olume ( 5Ethics6 of 5Essential ;orks of 3oucault6, .he Jew >ress (PPD" +o yright >aul Habinow" `htt ,00foucault"info0foucault0inter!iew"htmla8))9 :

?ndre Din9
(" Be"ie es $u"ti so ereignty is +ossi,"e8 8" Oa9if4 ,ig issue 'ith hi$8 M" Power/sovereignty is by fitna ( sedition). “Management through conflict”. ?"They are not strong on their own, but co shares of the realm ! this goes with "tein and #rittleban$s of a ty%e of syncretic relationshi%. &aton says the 'indus and Muslims lived side by side but never mi(ed their faiths, but were always in com%etition. 9" “ ambition is to become stronger by encroaching u%on each other ( )in$ *+,)” meaning a syncretic inter consecutiveness. B" -on.uest almost always %assed /01 always through a dual government. D" "overeignty was de%endant u%on fitna” (2) *,+). E" 5It was always incor oration of disorder <-= which made ossible the establishment of so!ereignty, 6 and 5<-= extremes of this continuum the fundamental rinci le of so!ereignty remained that of management through conflict" So!ereignty was de endant on the measure that fitna could be institutionali2ed6 7 ;ink (P)'(P?:" P" 5 It was always incor oration of disorder <-= which made ossible the establishment of so!ereignty" 6 7 ;ink (P?:" ()" ;ork, ;ink, 4ndrb" Iand and So!ereignty in India, 4grarian Society and >olitics under the Eighteenth'century $aratha S!arRjya" Fni!ersity of Ieiden" (("#he Co--harered of the rea"$8 Ca$,ridge 6ni ersity (ress (8"$ulti'So!ereignty is ossible" < ,ulticulturalism governance= (M".he old notion of Gdes otism’ or unmitigated so!ereignty is of no !alue to understanding the mechanics of $ughul olicies" (?" ;ink’s India is So!ereignty, S seditioncc fitna # an act of conduct or language of rebellion against authority or the stateA insurrectionA rebellion"

(9" &ifferent !iew from +alkin in that, 4 so!ereign, of a otential so!ereign, to be successful in con1uests, first had to entrench himself within the structure of 2amindari and other hereditary rights such as are called !atan in the &eccan" (B" In differentiation, the argument of +alkin is that one needs to torture or beaten into submission the 2amindars to force them to com ly, whereas ;ink belie!es that the coo eration of the gentry was needed along with 3itna by inter!ention in the conflicti!e structure of !ested rights essential in state'ex ansion to access the agrarian resource base without which no state could sur!i!e" ;ithout it not e!en an army could maintain itself" .hus 3itna and generali2ed taxation were the conditions of so!ereignty in India, and the two are related in such a way that urely technical arameters in!ol!ed in a land're!enue settlement cannot account for the working of the fiscal system" .his is because the fiscal system is intimately bound u with the !ested rights of the 2amindars" .his is a tough conce t to understand, howe!er, this is where scholarshi , as ;ink oints out, is difficult to recogni2e if we limit oursel!es" (D" .hus the (Pth +entury *ritish re orts suffer from a centralist oint of !iew in all as ects co!ered, indicating that they could not get to the real understanding of the system # thus generating artificial !iews # like in reality con1uest is G drawing’ 2amindars" 4s it is ut by the djnR atra 7MM'/din:, the $artha treaties on olitics which was written in the wake of the $ughul in!asions" .he story is that hereditary rights caused massi!e dis utes and unstablility, and was in o osition western understanding of ri!ate ro erty that created this confusion" (: =o ern$ent a:Lamindars, !atan in the deccan" 7Carious names: i: Inheritance of joint family asset" $ale members had birthright to ro erty" ii: Catans, 2amindars, and chiefdoms of the co'shares of the realm were held by !ested right and descended in atrilineal inheritance6" <!atrilineal Helating to, based on, or tracing ancestral descent through the aternal line= b: .ansa,dar i: Jo ownershi at all" .his is a $uslim sur!eillance system where the king is allowed (0M roceeds of annual economic out ut, and collection of re!enue is accom lished either by tax farming or direct ayment annually" c:.he interest of the !atandars do not Gcoincide’’ with that of the so!ereign6 +f" .hom son, 2ndian rinces" d: Hereditary rights in Islam was only for the Sultan as defined in the shari’ah,and the only ro erty ri!ately allowed to exists according to the shari’ah was endowments, as art of the six illars of Islam, or things a $uslim must com lete in his life on earth" .his was of utmost im ortance" .he Hindu traditions of common' community bloodline hereditary rights conflicted with these notions" e:Lamindars are either loyal subjects to the king and loyal co'shares of the real or they culti!ate an o osition to the ruler" f: 5Sto ing the !atandars can be dangerousA at the same time, allowing them com lete freedom of mo!ement will make manifest their eculiar nature6 5 these two extremes the king has to a!oid"6 5 the right way to assure their loyalty is to kee them ositi!ely G in between friendshi and su ression"’6 g: $ughāls could ask for tribute or a land'assessment" +ustomary ractice was allowed by the $ugh āls sometimes" 8: Con<uest i: 3ollowed by land assessment and taxation ii: .he gentry were needed to stir u conflict so that the army could mo!e in and take o!er" iii: ;ithout this 5 no state could sur!i!e"6 i!:5 this is because the fiscal system is intimately bound u with the !ested rights of the 2amindars"6 7 as concei!ed by $ain: ;ink tells us" !: ;e also ha!e 3ink citing the $aratha text for these oints of con1uest and so!ereignty" 3ink then concludes that 5 5Sedition was the means of establishing so!ereignty6 !i: &ifferent !iew then +alkin, who states" !ii: 5 4 con1uering ower needed local knowledge to be able to wedge itself into the conflictuous <sic= structure of !ested rights, while for the holders of these rights, the 2amindars or !atandars, it was a roblem of measuring or estimating the chances of success of the con1uering ower against those of the established so!ereign"6 !iii: 5.ransitory stage of dual go!ernment6 5 Gcon1uest’ or the establishment of so!ereignty' artial or com lete # which is immediately followed u by a land're!enue settlement6 7 concei!ed by main:" ix: +on1uest, issuances of kauls and G roculmations of safty’ and sanads or other documents confirming as we as delaminating their rights against those of local ri!als" x: .here is the king’s share’ were made by $urshid Quli Khan and some made in the deccan and other made by Shi!aji after he returned from 4gra" xi: 3itna was used by com eting, or in!ading ri!alries to saw them to their side" .his was done because of the finances in!ol!ed" It is always about money"

xii: /ther times easants formed unions with the leader of the !atandars, mansabdar or 2amindar and left the loyalty of the central ower, as was the case with the $arathas and Shi!aji lans" .his bought on 4rung2eb’s discontinuance to make annual sur!eys of India and concentrate on battling the deserters" xiii: Hayats 7 easants or eo le li!ing in a district: M: a: b: Chiefdo$s *reakdown of system &ecentrali2ation and com etition in which war breaks out that creates confusion and fragmentation"

?: In India4 a ho"der or occu+ier (dar) on "and ()a$in)8 .he roots were >ersian, and the resulting name was widely used where!er >ersian Influence was s read by the $ughāls or other Indian $uslim dynasties" .he $eaning attached to it were !arious" In *engal the word denoted a hereditary tax collector who could retain () ercent of the re!enue he collected" .he $ughāls used the mansabdar system to generate land re!enue" .he em eror would grant re!enue rights to a mansabdar in exchange for romises of soldiers in war'time" .he greater the si2e of the land the em eror granted, the greater number of soldiers the mansabdar had to romise" .he mansab was both re!ocable and nonhereditary" &id the mansabars begin to control themsel!es, and if so whenN )a$indars bloodline, and hereditary, according to subjected romotion disimilar in time and eriod" .hey control the easant army, and had funds to arm them" .his was key in *engal as the tributaries, and seasons and climate made it hard for the $ughāls to kee a mandanar or the im erial army entrenched with control in the area" 5 In reality con1uest in drawing 2amindars6" 53itna and generali2ed taxation were the foundations of so!ereignty in India, and the two are related in such a way that urely technical arameters in!ol!ed in a land're!enue settlement cannot account for the working of the fiscal system"6 >eo le fount against the mansabaris when they cam to collect the taxes and Lamindars called !atan in the deccan" Lamindars in *engal were E istemic 7adj: con1uest" /f, relating to, or in!ol!ing knowledgeA cogniti!e" Helying on or deri!ed from obser!ation or ex eriment" being conscious intellectual acti!ity 7as thinking, reasoning, remembering, imagining, or learning words:"

(hi"i+ B8 Ca"9in
(" Murshid Quili Khan 1700 d. 1727 sent by Aurangzeb to garner funds for wars with collecting taxes in Bengal. 8" 5.he cou of (DMP was brought about because the interests of the principal landholders, bankers, and many military men coincided"6 7>hili *" +alkin, Huling grou in *engal:" M" ;ork, +alkins, >hili *" .he 3ormation of a Hegionally /riented Huling grou in *engal, (D))'(D?)" ?" Marathas and later a!uts" #hi$s. 9" Q. Khan enforces torture if the za%andars do not &ay u& or lie about re'enue. (hen tries to ta$e o'er as Muhgals lose &ower by se&arate legal syste%" %oneylenders" ban$s" lenders consolidation of za%indars into his &oc$et. (hen later a cou& and all ca%e together as so'ereigns ) until the British began to destroy the syste% *+0,-.. B" $urshid Quli showed u at the behest of 4urang2ab to enforce a new tax u on *engal to hel offset the $ughul war chest needs" .ax issues were a major issue in regards to holding so!ereignty 7mjm:" D" E" But when /a%indars were not changing hands accounting beca%e difficult and this %eant less $nowledges. P" #u%%ery of his0 )1ro'incial syste% * Bengal- did not bring chaos" decadence" or e'en" &erha&s" a decline in ad%inistrati'e efficiency. * +0,-.

()" 4urang2ab’s oint of !iew was that taxes needed tobe raised" .hen the $arathas came and a need for taxes for an army to confront the $arathas led to him sending -" .o *engal" *engal was an area that had great agriculture re!enue, that was left unnoticed by other rulers, and 4urang2ab thusly ex loited it" (("5 4s the im erial go!ernment at the center of the em ire weakened during the eighteenth century, the administration system of *engal was ada ted 7 large commercial and financial interests: , with reasonable success, to account for the changing ower relationshi s6" (8"4urang2ab sent $urshid Quli to *engal around (D)), and from the date of his arri!al until his death in (D8D, with the exce tion of a eriod of two years, he was the most im ortant administrator in *engal" (M" $urshid Quli inhanced re!enue demand, sometimes with tourter, and gi!ing away land from one 2amindar to another for unishment" *y the time of his death in (D8D, fifteen largest amanindaris were res onsible for almost half of the re!enue of the ro!ince" $ost 2amindar holders who couldn’t ay'off the ele!ated tax lost their rights to other 2amindar that could ay'off that ersons tax ayments" .his meant that originally when Quli a eared, many held landed rights, and much more di!ersified e1ual economy was in rogress # as he consolidated most of the landed rights by his olicies, the accountability suffered in that less information was correctly gathered by the tax collectors, and lost re!enue was actually the o osite of what was the desired result of his olicies" .hus, by the time of his death the 2amindars held a ower olitical force throughout *engal" .his was cou led by money lenders whose schemes of lending significant amounts of money to landholders in effort for them to default on the loans so that they could gain some sort of control and e!entual gain ermanent control of a 2amindaris" .his olicy was a eased by the new banking system connected to the moneylenders" $urshid Quli was in on this too as he ut ressure on the Lamindaris to ay their re!enue in full" /ther grou s s rang u as the %agat Seths built an industry on collecting interest on loans which they made to 2amindars" (?" 4urang2ab noticed that olitically things were changing and the central control was weakening gi!ing him more flexibility in *engal" He thus allied with the 2amindars he consolidated with making his osition strong in *engal" It was ob!ious that his intentions were to stay in *engal" (9" 5 Key, 4s long as land was changing hands, the go!ernment was likely to ac1uire information concerning its ca acity to ay re!enueA but once the argana became art of the large 2amindari, it was unlikely that the go!ernment would obtain much new information about it 7.hus taxes and real re!enue was hard to ascertain for the states tax collecting ur oses:"

&8D8 Buc9"er
("1ower #o'ereignty ca%e fro% sy%bols and gifts. 8"(ried to show that Mugh2ls were not des&ots. By describing the sy%bols and gifts3 Kihalts" robes of honor" turbans. M" )4riendshi& and 'asselhood.. ?" 5azr really %eans 6 'ow7 and not tribute. 9" 8ence the &olitical inde&endence of the 9eccan is a fiction. * 8aiderbhad 172: ; because it was a 'ow and not a tribute that has not ties but is &aid often whereas a 'ow is sy%bolically binding-. B" 8owe'er 8aider wanted to brea$ off and start his own state and Mugh2ls didn7t want it. D" )<n the Mugh2l =%&ire" in short" the #unni creed stood for inde&endence" the shi7< tenants for 1ersian suzerainty. * Buc$ler >1E" )usur&ation of the ?o%&any. P" Author wants us to get rid of the Mugh2l label of 9es&ot. * =aton says the sa%e thing @ chec$ thisA-. $istranslation of the word nazr as Gtribute’A the word means G a !ow’ in 4rabic" 4rabic words do not necessarily translate into English in the same context" .his can be !iew similarly as the 3rench language" .hus the argument is that ' >olitical inde endence of the &eccan is a fiction, as was the *engal a few years later"thus, , 5 4s with any other !assal or subject, then a double link of acknowledgment bound the +om any in its allegiance to the $ughul Em eror, down to the year (E?M # namely the offering of na2r and the acce tance of the Khil’at" *oth instances a ear to be religious significance" Hence it would seem that the source of so!ereignty, too, was religious, and the nature of $ughul so!ereignty a ears to confirm this !iew6" ()" 5.he +ounter art of na2r, the !ow, was the bestowal of the robe of honour, called in >ersian, the sarR R 7ca 'W' ie: form the manner in which it was worn, and in 4rabic, Khil’at, for its nature' that it had been worn by the donor" Hobes of honour were gi!en by the $ughul Em eror and his de uties to subjects only, in recognition of allegiance 7na2r: or some art of merit, of authority conferred, of the return to allegiance or of entry into the $ughul State6"

((" *uckler wants to get rid of the $ughul label of des ot, as does Eaton"

Burton -tein
(" Britentis%: 8" What was the pre-conquest? ( Stein 214). M"British not a dirty deed ( need to find cite). ?" British used sla'es and it was already established syste% in <ndia. 9" *urton Stein’s o ening argument is Islam came into India because India li!ed in decadence and waste, so thus, $ughāl s are the same" B"A'erage age of life in 1C21 was late :0s to the D0s. D"1er&etuate landowners and sla'ery institutions. *#tein 211-. E" Musli%s li$e sla'es * #tein 217-. P" 1ersonal fortunes co%e fro% &ri'ately owned land and o&erations. ()"<ndians did the dirty deed by co%&liance * 5eed cite-. (("&ositi'e that British ca%e in *#tein 207-. (8" 1roble%s was the rise of ownershi& in <ndia &er&etrated by the British" according to <rschic$7s 'iews. (M" #tein7s belief is that British brought =uro&ean syste%s of %odern %ilitary" %ercantilis%" and western &ro&erty rights E (?" Mugh2l absence of %ind let British ta$e o'er. * < do not beli'e this-. s. (9"*ombay, $adras, Jorthern India, and *engal land reform to ri!ate ro erty and new tax structures wich money changing hands from $ughāl bankers to Indian and *ritish banker" (B" Stein generali2es the early $iddle 4ge of India as <-= defined less by administration than by languages, sectarian affiliations and tem les6 7Stein (8(:" (D" ;ork, Stein, *urton G4 history of India’ *lackwell >ublishing Itd" (PEE" (E" +ontradictions, &ichotomyA >oorly laid out cha ters" /ne cha ter may lea!e out ertinent articulation that will show u in another cha ter" *ut, since the readers is not reading both cha ters at once will take what is said, im lied or left out 7a earing in another cha ter: and strike a disagreement with Stein" $any belie!e that Stein didn’t like $uslims" $uch of this is due to his oorly laid out cha ters" (P" /ne of his arguments is that culture is more im ortant than olitics" 8)" In fact olitics glued the kingdoms together" 8(" D(( kingdoms !ery small, but had interconnectedness" 88" Indian medie!al is defined according to Stein as consolidation of regional societies, in which the rocess olitical forms were more im ortant elements than hard territorial boundaries 7Stein (8(:" 8M" His main thesis is !iolence was the call of the medie!al times in India" 8?" Stein argues that with the coming of Islam also came wealth and generali2ed de!elo ment, including a cultured society, and commodity roduction, of which contributed to India’s re utation for fabulous wealth and elegance 7 Stein (8(:" 89" 3act, India had a ad!anced culture and was wealthy and this was the number one reason that Islam sought out the region in history" .his is Eaton’s !iew and more ragmatically ex lanation" Stein on the other hand, belie!es Islamic jihading 7 Kha2is: was the reason that Islam initially came to India" Stein also admits that the .ang as well as Islam sought roducts form trade routs of the India ex anding orders" .his lays weight to Eaton’s claims that Islam sought out India for its wealth, whereas, Stein contradicts himself, by admitting it was Islam that brings in the wealth to India, and also it is Islam that sought out India’s wealth in the beginning by co!eting the 5 fabulous wealth and elegance6 that were obser!ed by Islamic 4rabia and the .ang of the intercontinental trade" It is a fact that India attracted the *ritish and >ortugal to their shores during the age of ex loration" 8B" Hegional owers were well established # and it was the medie!al system that there was no single im erial ruler" Each kingdom in the se!enth +entury were loosely structured olitical systems with many contenders stri!ing for control o!er a small art of what they claimed" 8D" +ontradictions, $edie!al eriod olitics resented an ambiguity of ers ecti!e that became stronger o!er time" .hat is, !iewed from the royal center 7 ;hatN:, all local authority was regarded as de!elo ed from itselfA re!iously 7 and still: autonomous magnates were ercei!ed by central authorities as its officials, who were often gi!en documents of a ointment signifying their affiliation 7(9E:" 8E" +ontrast, $edie!al age in India was a scaled back !ersion of olitics and the gradual de!elo ment of regional cultures and economics 7Stein, ara hrase (MM: Eaton, 5>ala Em ire 7ca" D9)#((B(:<-= , the early

kings of this dynasty extended their sway far u the Kangetic >lain, e!en reaching Kanauj under their greatest dynast, &harma ala 7DD9#E(8: <-= 5 Eaton" +omment, extending their sway is indicati!e of ad!anced institutions and including ad!anced forms of olitical olices" /ne need to take into account that Stein acknowledges the Indian ad!anced trading industry, as well he should or be totally discredited, and that this industry was ad!anced and com rised a distant outreach rogram to such destinations of 4rabia, and .ang, +hinaA one needs to admit these institutions and interconnected administration are a highly raised form of olitics, as noted by Eaton" 8P" -tein contradicts hi$se"f 'hen he states that the $edie a" era sa' "ess ad$inistration 7 Stein, (8( Heorgani2ation gra gh (: and more language and sectarian affiliations, Howe!er, Eaton says im erial systems of the >ala Em ire extend their sway far u the Kangetic >lain" .his in!ol!es hea!y administrati!e organi2ation" 4lso, Stein says that medie!al Indian age was only consolidating of regional societies, but Eaton claims that the >ala Em ire extended its say far u the genetic lain, indicating highly structural administrations, organi2ations, and inter'regional coo eration" M)" &uring the later medie!al age, as states achie!ed increased owers to centrali2e # that is, to enetrate re!iously autonomous 2ones in their domains' this ambiguity ersisted" .he balance between magnates and kings shifted according to the strength of the royal center, but tensions remained and, with it, mutual antagonism6 7 Stein (9E:" M(" 7 See Stein Sultan (Bth +entury roots in India " (9E:" M8" States and +ommunities, (99 5.he brief moment of centrali2ed authority achie!ed by Krishnade!araya draws attention to the changing relationshi between states and communities during the re'$oghul ear of the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries" G +entrali2ation’ ertains to closing the distance between states and communities, by reducing autonomy and be insinuating monarchial domination o!er subjected ci!il societies"6 5 3rom the medie!al times # in what was, indeed, a defining characteristic of that era # olitics was constituted as relations organi2ed as communities strongly identified with articular laces and with uni1ue histories"6 MM" 5<-= >ost'Ku ta were not 3eudal states6" 5<-= this was a dynamic age, in which easant agriculture and large , agrarian communities came into being and laid the foundations for new kingdoms 7 Stein 6" > ((8 "M:"6 ;d'ard -iad8 >ower is from sei2ure" 7 not clear, one must add to this thought to understand him:

C8D8 Bay"y
He hates the Mughāls.

(" ?.F. Bayly. Knowing the ?ountry0 =%&ire and <nfor%ation in <ndia. Gni'ersity of ?a%bridge. 1CC: 8" #ir Hohn Kaye7s great history of the <ndian Mutiny and rebellion of 1+>7;>C M" ) (he &a&er suggests that to 'iew south Asian society and its states fro% the &ers&ecti'e of the accu%ulation and trans%ission of infor%ation %ight bring significant benefits. *?FB>-. ?" (he culture" linguistic and religious heterogeneity @+onsisting of dissimilar elements or arts A of the country &ut a &re%iu% on accurate intelligence. 9" )<ndia was a densely;$nit society" ne'er a subsistent @barely sufficient to maintain life= econo%y" for at least two %illennia.. B" #yste%s which historians ha'e tended to classify as 6 ad%inistration7 and 6 &olice7 are better seen as agencies of sur'eillance and &ersuasion" and both exhortation and infor%ation;collection were eIually i%&ortant. *?FB12-. D")(he use of all these social %ar$ers %ade it &ossible for an official or a resident body to con'ey to the ruler 'ery &recise social infor%ation J the feel of the 'illage of a local conflict. *?FB1>E" )#ufi orders" those %ystical ade&ts of <sla%ic $nowledge" &layed an i%&ortant &art in %edicine. (hey ga'e council to the barren" disturbed and %entally ill" but had their finger on the &ulse of the whole social body . *?FB1>P" @EA the role of intelligence;gathering in &re;colonial &olitics do see% to e%erge.. <ntelligence was designed to alert the ruler to infractions of %oral law and true

obedience rather than si%&ly to &unish 6 cri%e.7 (he Agents of intelligence were also the agents of &ersuasion and co%&ro%ise" the %en who sought to reassure the &o&ulous of the o%niscience @Ha!ing total knowledgeA knowing e!erything= of the e%&eror7s gaze. *?FB1D()" Wo en were in !enera" are a critica" source of inte""i!ence# not si p"y carriers of wea"th or po"itica" a""iance$ *KFB1,-. (("1,70s (he Marathas" a fighting &easant ar%y" were rich in local $nowledge" were able to interce&t the i%&erial %essengers" suborn the %erchant fir%s and their &ostal syste%s and dis&lace the newswriters and i%&erial agents for% the networ$s of s%all towns. *?FB 1+-. 9es&ite the large a%ount of sur'eillance agencies. (8" 1ower fro% below J 4oucault0 )<n Maratha;s&ea$ing territories the Marathas were able to build their state fro% the botto% u&" as it were )*?FB 2D-. (M" 8owe'er" as incidents such as the war with Auranzeb and the #ur%an e%bassy to the Mugh2l =%&eror re'ealed" the British $now little and understood less about the great states of the interior. (his lac$ was &rogressi'ely re%edied between 17>7 and 1+20 as the ?o%&any drew into its orbit the %ain <ndian intelligence syste%s and critical clusters of nati'e infor%ants. * ?FB 2>-. *MHM-(his showed that a colonial !uridical &ower sought to achie'e !uridical and definitional control in <ndia by the ) effecti'eness of the British in &enetrating <ndian infor%ation syste%s at a &rag%atic &olitical and econo%ical le'el. which ex&lained their )effecti'eness of conIuest . *?F Bayly 2>-. (?" British built u& an efficient syste% of newswriters and intelligence agene around e'ery one of their %a!or residences at <ndian courts * ?FB 2,-. (9" British inherited the legiti%acy of the Mugh2ls by their control of the diwan of Bengal which allowed the% to %ani&ulate the $nowledges of the i%&erial syste% of sur'eillance and infor%ation gathering. 1,70s (he Marathas" a fighting &easant ar%y" were rich in local $nowledge" were able to interce&t the i%&erial %essengers" suborn the %erchant fir%s and their &ostal syste%s and dis&lace the newswriters and i%&erial agents for% the networ$s of s%all towns. *?FB 1+" 2,-. Manipu"ation of infor ation for the Marrthas hel&ed achie'ed &re;colonial !uridical &ower in their regions" and for the British this showed that a colonial !uridical &ower sought to achie'e !uridical and definitional control in <ndia by the ) effecti'eness of the British in &enetrating <ndian infor%ation syste%s at a &rag%atic &olitical and econo%ical le'el. which ex&lained their )effecti'eness of conIuest . *?F Bayly 2>-. ?ontrolling the flow of infor%ation which leads to discursi'e $nowledges and then can &ass through erudite $nowledges is what &ower is all about to =dward #iad and is the &roducti'e &rocess in which Michael 4oucault ex&lains how &ower circulates.

His ie's4 ca$e fro$ the British4 'hich $ean $any +rogra$s in IndiaPs historiogra+hy8 -ad"y4 =andhi 9ne' "itt"e a,out IndiaPs +ast reading British P Indian constructed teIts8P ( see $y essay on India)

(erci a" -+ear
Twilight of the ,ughāls. (" #&ear got his info fro% the 1C20 authors in which he belie'es the 'illages were autono%ous strong holds against state su&&ression and this led to Kanhndi7s assu%&tion that 'illages could run the country as %ini;states and no central authority was needed. 8" #&ear begins by co%&aring Kreece autono%ous states to that of <ndian 'illages. 8e categorizes <ndia into little Briental de&art%ents %a$ing the reader thin$ <ndians" Musli%s in general were a bunch of barbaric entities not li$e the =uro&ean in the sa%e &eriods. M" 8e belie'ed as #tein did that their was no centralizing ca&acity for% the historical 'iew&oint in <ndia7s history in 1re;%odern to colonial ti%es until the British too$ o'er"

%a$ing one thin$ that =uro&eans $new %ore about ci'ilization than the barbaric unci'ilized <ndia. ?" Kandhi%s state ents of the & 'i""a!es as dun! heaps$ was the sa e infor ation that Spear too( his infor ation fro . (he Lillages needed to sur'i'e dishonestly in face of a dishonest rulers. obbers for% both the rulers" 'illages and wanderers %ade u& <ndia7s infrastructure. 9" Brientalis% &lagues the text in rash assu%&tions and dehu%anizing de&art%entalizations. <ndia ran a $inshi& for %uch of its history but the Brientalis% used fro% &re'ious sources %ade out a different &icture of 'illager forces sur'i'ing by ar%y the%sel'es and dying but re&lenishing the 'illages in lieu of aggressors wandering and des&otis%. B" c.1770s D" (he next few years therefore saw a series of atte%&ts by the 'arious chiefs to seize the su&re%e &ower and exercise it in the #hah Ala%7s na%e *#&ear 22-. E" =ach one" in the effect to retain his &ower" loo$ed outside for hel&.. *#&ear 2:-. P" (he loo$ed to the =nglish ?o%&any for legiti%acy. Because the =nglish were beating the Marathas in 8industan and (i&u in Mysore. ()"Madho ao #india" the Maratha chief who was now ra&idly de'elo&ing his &ower in ?entral <ndia and loo$ing northwards to 8industan. (("?hiefs Iuarreled" %ade fruitless ad'ances to the British7s &ower in ?alcutta" then called in #india and finally &assed under his control. (hey can be followed in secret Bengal consultations &reser'ed in the ?o%%onwealth eligions Bffice" and the &ublished &a&ers of the 1oona residency corres&ondence. *# 2:- 8is dis&atch was out of go'ern%ent fear for the #india7s encroach%ents because of the death of Mirza 5a!af Khan and the unsettled state of affairs at 9elhi. (8" Afrasiab Khan0 Autu%n of 17+2 ousted by Mirza #hafi" who siezed 9elhi with the A&&ro'al of #hah Ala%. Mirza #hafi assisinated after one year by Muha%%ad Beg 8a%dani and his ne&hew Agha <s%ail. (M" Shah 4lam consulted an astrologer who said 5 the English would come into the >ro!ince erfectly obedient to his authority and beha!e well, but that some contention would be the result"6 7S ears 8M:" *;B;J DH.;N (" .housands of men and women, ins ired by Kandhi@s olitics of satyagraha, joined the assi!e resistance cam aigns in the (P8)s and the (PM)s" *ut at the same time there were some Indians who were con!inced that non'!iolent methods alone would not free India" He!olutionary acti!ity surfaced in *engal, the >unjab, the Fnited >ro!inces and *ihar" 4mong these re!olutionaries were a minority of women, the most well'known of whom were in *engal" 8" O.he fight against the *ritish took this form of terrorism in *engal because there were a !ery large number of highly educated young eo le who were !ery frustrated because there were absolutely no job o ortunities for them" .he only thing for an educated young man in those days was to go into the olice, the I+S <Indian +i!il Ser!ice= or the law" .here was ractically no other outlet" So there was a great deal of frustration among educated young men and women who felt that it was only when we were inde endent that they would be able to ha!e a life and that the only way to do it was by terrorism"O M" Lareer $asani, Indian .ales of the Haj, (PED ?" $any young women in *engal, between the ages of (B and M), came under the influence of the re!olutionary mo!ement" .hey joined hysical culture clubs and atriotic societies like &ee ali Sangha 7Enlightened .orch'bearers@ 4ssociation: in &acca and +hattri Sangha in +alcutta" .hey recei!ed training in hysical fitness, and instruction in shooting, lathi and sword fighting" ;omen who joined these re!olutionary societies were gi!en the same training 9" as men" .hey carried out similar missions, smuggling banned literature and acting as messengers" .hey hel ed to manufacture bombs and they smuggled wea ons" .hey sheltered fellow re!olutionaries on the run, they carried out assassinations, and they organised and led attacks on *ritish officials and buildings" B" htt ,00lists"econ"utah"edu0 i ermail0margins'to'centre08))9'Se tember0)))9PD"html Keneral Mu!h)"s:

1,th;1+th ?entury Mugh2l 9ynasty Kun&owder =%&ire Ba*ur * 1D+:;1>:0?a&tures 9elhi in 1>2, and thus controls the northern &lains. +u ayun *1>:0;1>>,,(*ar *1>>,;1,0>- atte%&ted social toleration" as co%&ared to AuranzebMs &olitical &olicies. 1. <ndo;Musli% ?i'ilization 2. ) Kun&owder e%&ire :. eligious tolerance * Before Aurangzeb J howe'er %any factorsD. 9in;i;ilahi * 9e'ine 4aith>. Ad%inistration ,. Negal #yste% 7. Musli% sub!ect to <sla%ic Naw and 8indues sub!ect to 8indu law. Shah -ahan * 1,2+;1,>7(a! Mahal ,uran.e* * 1,>+;1707• efor%s • eligious intolerance • ebellions 1. eason for colla&se 2. 9raining of the <%&erial treasury :. 9ecline in the co%&etence of Mugh2l ulers D. Gnwillingness of the wealthy to acce&t authority and financial de%ands of 9ehli. >. B" 5It was the Kha2na!ids, too, who first carried >erso'Islamic ci!ili2ation to India6 Hichard Eaton tells us in his book .he Hise of Islam and the *engal 3rontier 7 ch"8 Eaton:" ;hen historian Shams'I Sirajj G4fif referred to Shams al'&in illyas Shah 7 (M?8'9D: as the 5 sultan of the *engalis6 and King of *engal6 we learn that *engal had a highly institutional olitical infrastructure with minted coins and building of new mos1ues, which 5indicated a strategy of olitical legitimi2ation fundamentally different from their redecessors6 7Eaton ch" 8" fMP: " '>th #entur" !olitical authorit" in erso-2slamic terms" D" Hegime change in +hina, for exam le, saw their agrarian societies needed < lacating= winning o!er to make a case for their legitimacy" E" /ne, for exam le, ha ened during the .he Sui dynasty eriod" .he new administrations understood the number one roblem in +hina, at that time, was the hea!y taxation on the agrarian society that had caused, im art, some of the leading difficulties of the mini'dark ageA therefore, one must lower the tax base in order to win su ort of its citi2enry or eo les" /ne also saw that 4kbar taxed the wealthy and nobility to show that ri!ileged were not exem t from showing atronage to the state" .he issues of fair lay and the a earance of e1ual re resentation at all le!els of society is a major theme in world olitical legitimacy, and as was the case in India during the middle ages" .his hel ed bind the easants to the ruler, by showing that the rich didn’t get off Scot'free without aying for their share" P" Iife and .imes 7Section below needs cite: ()" In (99B the father of 4kbar, Humayun, died and 4kbar became the next adshah or leader of the em ire at the age of (M" He was under the guidance of *airam Khan" 3our years later *airam Khan fell out of ower and 4kbar continued con1uering arts of India and 4fghanistan " *y the time of his death in (B)9 he all the way east into almost all of Jorthern India " ((" 4ccom lishments (8" 4kbar created one of the world@s most efficient and well formed go!ernment systems" His em ire like many others was s lit u into smaller sections that were lead by a military go!ernor called a $ansabar which can be com ared to the /ttoman Ka2is" (M" 4kbar also had a land tax that re1uired (0M of cro s" .he differences between $ughāl taxes and the other tax systems of the three major em ires of the time eriod were the fact that 4kbar also taxed nobles and higher olitical figures" 4kbar also emliminated the non'$uslim tax 7ji2ya: so foreigners didn@t need to ay extra" (?" 4kbar had nothing against other religious grou s" His fa!orite wife 7out of o!er fi!e thousand: was a Hindu woman and she had 4kbars son %ahangir who became his successor" *y the time of 4kbar@s death almost (0M of 4kbar@s im erial bureaucracy was made u of Hindus" 4kbar also allowed Hindus who wished to stay under their own law system 7&harmashastra: to do so"

(9" 4kbar belie!ed that he was the s iritual leader of his eo le" He started a new religion, &in'I'Ilahi, which is a belief which incor orates %ainism 7lo!e for all things:, Loroastrianism 7sun worshi : and other ideas from Hinduism" .he forming of that religion was s arked by the central theorist 4bu@l 3a2l" Dor9 Cited/
*angla edia".erms Source, htt ,00bangla edia"search"com"bd0H.0&e)89E"H.$ htt ,00bangla edia"search"com"bd0H.0%e))(9"H.$ &iscussions, +alkins, >hili *" The ?ormation of a 6egionall" 3riented 6uling grou! in %engal, (D))'(D?)" &ill, %S" ;ashita" tolatsga"org" ` htt ,00www"tolatsga"org0was!o(e"html a 8))9 Keorge, Koldy $" .he >olitics /f Iand 4nd .he *esieged Iot" www"countercurrents"org" 8E &ecember, 8))M"` htt ,00www"countercurrents"org0hr'george8E(8)M"htm a 8))9" HESS , +H4HI/..E 4J& EIIJ/H /S.H/$" 2D@A&, A6T2?A#T&, AAD ?A#2L2T2@&= 2A?36,AT23A A& A #3,,3A- 33L 6@&3B6#@. &!ring 4**). ` htt ,00www"law"duke"edu0journals0lc 0articles0lc BBd;interS ring8))M ((("htma 8))9 Ial, Cinay Hastings, ;arren" F+I4" 8))8" `htt ,00www"sscnet"ucla"edu0southasia0History0*ritish0Hastings"htmla8))9" $arg "Islamic Heritage of &eccan, $arg >ublications:" ;ink, 4ndrb" Iand and So!ereignty in India, 4grarian Society and >olitics under the Njya" Fni!ersity of Ieiden"REighteenth'century $aratha S!ar 3oot section U8 ?oots, 9ork #ited *ayly, +" 4" Knowing the +ountry, Em ire 4nd Information In India" Fni!ersity of +ambirdge" (PPM" *rittelbank, Kate" .i u Sultan’s Search for Iegitimacy Islam and Kingshi ina Hindu &omain" /xford >ress (PPD" PP rasad # food offered to deities" Shows non'muslim theme" 7+ornwallis: M9,MB, Sufi īr, Indian direct sacred ower of the king through śakti, (() f(?B" 3itna" Kandhi" /din reader" $y icture of Inde endence /din ((? Kommans, %os $ughāl ;arfare" Indian 3rontiers and High road to Em ire, (9))'(D))" Houtledge" 8P ;est M9th Street, Jew Qork JQ ()))(" 8))8" Huxley, 4ldous Ieonard .he *ra!e Jew ;orld"’ +ha ter M, g" M? Har er >erennial 7Jew Qork:" (PM8" Eaton, $" Hichard" Hise /f Islam 4nd .he *engal 3rontier, (8)?'(DB)" Fni!ersity >resses of +alifornia, +olumbia and >rinceton" (PPB" +h" Eaton four theories on Islami2ation in *engal 3ootnote (( 3oucault, $ichael" .he History of Sexuality" Colume I, 4n Introduction" Cintage *ooks" Handom House Inc" Jew Qork" (PP)" 3oucault, $ichael .he Essential 3oucault" Edited by Habino!, >aul T Jikolas Hose" .he re!" ed of, .he essential ;orks of 3oucault"(P9?'E?" c(PDD'c8)))" Jew >ress" Jew Qork" 8))M" Jiet2sche, Kenecology, History M9('MBP" 7M9M:" 3oucault, $ichael" >ower0Knowledge, Selected Inter!iews T /ther writings (PD8'(PDD" edited by +olin Kordon" .he Har!ester House >ress" (PE)" S ear , >erci!al .he twilight of the $ugh āls! South 4sia *ooks" (PP( Said, Edward ;" /rientalism" Handom House" Cintage *ooks Edition (PDP Stein, *urton" 4 History of India *lackwell >ublishing Itd" ()E +owley Hoad, /xford /\? (%3, FK" (PPE"

4ndre ;ink" .he +o'Shares of the Healm" 4grarian Society and >olitics under the Eighteenth'century $aratha Sa!arajya" Fni!ercity of Ieiden" +ambridge Fni!ersity >ress" (9D" used" *K 3itna ED, (() 7 rulers constantly mani ulate local rulers so they will fight against eachother: ;ink" 5 management through conflict (EM" (B(" fitna 7 ci!il war, &i!ision within Islam, drawing away from Kod: management through conflict <!atan regulation like Sa ahi= $ysticism, Islamic" *ibliogra hy" (PMP" *erkeley Header History ((?4 8))9" OFJI.E& >H/CIJ+ES /3 4KH4 4J& /F&H"O Io!e.oKnow (P(( /nline Encyclo edia" f 8))M, 8))? Io!e.oKnow" `htt ,00?E"(P((encyclo edia"org0F0FJ0FJI.E&e>H/CIJ+ESe/3e4KH4e4J&e/F&H"htma 8))9"
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