SUPPLEMENT FOR SIP REPORT
Literature Review on Job Satisfaction
SEPTEMBER 1, 2013
MOHAMMAD SALIM Roll #: 11294
Definitions: Job satisfaction refers to how well a job provides fulfillment of a need or want, or how well it serves as a source or means of enjoyment. Job satisfaction is the degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs. Job satisfaction is in regard to one’s feelings or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their work. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors, eg, the quality of one’s relationship with their supervisor, the quality of the physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc. “Job satisfaction does not seem to reduce absence, turnover and perhaps accident rates”. Robert L. Kahn “Job satisfaction is a general attitude towards one’s job: the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive.” P. Robbins Job satisfaction defines as “The amount of over all positive affect (or feeling) that individuals have toward their jobs.” Hugh J. Arnold and Daniel C. “Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job. If you like your job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction. If you dislike your job intensely, you will experience job dissatisfaction.” Feldman
Employee satisfaction: Employee satisfaction has always been an important issue for physicians. After all, high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover can affect your bottom line, as temps, recruitment and retraining take their toll. But few practices ( in fact, few organizations) have made job satisfaction a top priority, perhaps because they have failed to understand the significant opportunity that lies in front of them. Satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative and committed to their employers, and recent studies have shown a direct correlation between staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction, Family physicians who can create work environment that demands quality and cost efficiency. What’s more, physicians, may even discover that by creating a positive workplace f or their employees, they’ve increased their own job satisfaction as well.
economics and management sciences. then that individual will be happy. and how hard to work are all likely to depend in part upon the worker’s subjective evaluation of their work. job satisfaction is also important in everyday life.
. and this (simple) taxonomy [of a good job] allows a start to be made on such questions as ‘In what respects are older workers’ jobs better than those of younger workers?’ (and vice versa). 2005). Moreover. sociology. Organisations have significant effects on the people who work for them and some of those effects are reflected in how people feel about their work (Spector. 2003a). ‘Who has the good jobs?’ and ‘Are good jobs being replaced by bad jobs?’. 2002). what kind of job to accept or stay in. 1997) Experience has shown that there are basic and universal human needs. employers benefit from satisfied employees as they are more likely to profit from lower staff turnover and higher productivity if their employees experience a high level of job satisfaction. work effort.Importance of job satisfaction Investigated by several disciplines such as psychology. if an individual’s needs are fulfilled in their current situation. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs. Workers’ decisions about whether to work or not. measures of job quality seem to be useful predictors of future labour market behaviour. 1998) Concept of job satisfaction Job satisfaction has been defined in several different ways and a definitive designation for the term is unlikely to materialise. Taylor and Bradley. (Spector. job satisfaction is a frequently studied subject in work and organisational literature. However. Beyond the research literature and studies. This is mainly due to the fact that many experts believe that job satisfaction trends can affect labour market behaviour and influence work productivity. in other words on their job satisfaction. given the amount of time they have to devote to it throughout their working lives’ (Nguyen. A simple or general way to define it therefore is as an attitudinal variable: Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. As many studies suggest. employee absenteeism and staff turnover. as well as a good predictor of intentions or decisions of employees to leave a job (Gazioglu and Tansel. employees should also ‘be happy in their work. job satisfaction is considered a strong predictor of overall individual well-being (Diaz-Serrano and Cabral Vieira. and that. In addition. (Clark. 1997). Job satisfaction is important in its own right as a part of social welfare. This makes job satisfaction an issue of substantial importance for both employers and employees.
as equally as possible. these are financial and other material rewards or advantages of a job. in a composite measure of overall job satisfaction. promotion. Rose. such as the ability to use initiative. Both extrinsic and intrinsic job facets should be represented. Other theorists (e. or the work that the person actually performs. If work-role outputs (‘pleasures’) increase relative to work -role inputs (‘pains’).This framework postulates that job satisfaction depends on the balance between work-role inputs .
.and work-role outputs . relations with supervisors. effort .
Motivation is described as one of the most pivotal concerns of modern organizational research. working time. motivation influences many other important issues within an organization: employee performances. such as pay. 2000). 2001) have viewed job satisfaction as a bi-dimensional concept consisting of intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction dimensions. intrinsic aspects of the job. Intrinsic sources of satisfaction depend on the individual characteristics of the person. fringe benefits. these are symbolic or qualitative facets of the job. Just like anything that is considered pivotal. employee retention. then job satisfaction wil l increase (Sousa-Poza and Sousa-Poza. or job security. creativyt and problem solving and other actions if we combine motivation with other measures such as commitment.wages. No wonder. motivational studies are the most reasearched topics. status. Managers need to understand and create gourp motivation and design work context that create and maintain motivation which in turn lead to job satisfaction.g. Extrinsic sources of satisfaction are situational and depend on the environment. working conditions. productivity and profitability.such as education.
2. Variance theory is based on a simple subjective idea: if you want x from your work then you are satisfied to the extent that it provides you with x. 2. if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy. To illustrate.
Other Theories of job satisfaction
Affect Theory Edwin A.
. 3. When a person values a particular facet of a job. Hackman and Oldham (1975) suggested that jobs differ in the extent to which they involve five core dimensions: 1. variance theory and the model of job characteristics. Task identity. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. Task feedback.Theories of job satisfaction
The chapter presents two theories of job satisfaction. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. when these critical psychological states are experienced. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e. Skill variety. 3. The major problem with this theory is defining what people want from their work. work motivation and job satisfaction will be high. They suggest that if jobs are designed in a way that increases the presence of these core characteristics three critical psychological states can occur in employees: 1. The job characteristic model suggests the causes of job satisfaction are objective characteristics. Autonomy. Knowledge of results of work activities. According to Hackman and Oldham. compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. Further.g. his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met). Experienced responsibility for work outcomes. Task significance. 5. Experienced meaningfulness of work. 4.
However. there have also been attempts to establish whether specific variables such as gender. There is growing evidence that there is a relationship between age and job satisfaction but not linear one. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Selfevaluations Model. research has failed to establish a strong direct link between job satisfaction and workplace behaviour.Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. locus of control. Age itself rather than the variables associated with it have a direct impact on job satisfaction. general self-efficacy. and neuroticism. proposed by Timothy A. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. regardless of one’s job. This is explained firstly that in many jobs variations in satisfaction cannot lead to variations in productivity (machine work) and secondly where correlations do occur they may be spurious in that both may be associated with other factors. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Job satisfaction and performance are relatively independent of each other. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction. However.
Correlates of job satisfaction
As well as the theories above. women report similar levels of job satisfaction to men. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life. Finally.
. there is evidence that job characteristics have a different impact on men and women. as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction.
Behavioural correlates of job satisfaction
The behavioural correlates of job satisfaction should be higher work performance. Variables such as socio – economic status may also cause different groups of workers to construct different meanings as to what constitutes a satisfactory job. Despite the findings presented in chapter 18 regarding gender and employment. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self esteem. Judge in 1998. lower absenteeism and lower staff turnover. research has failed to However. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. age. personality or occupational status are predictive of job satisfaction.
During the 1950s. Johns made some comments on this issue that come to clarify this phenomenon: "job satisfaction refers to a collection of the workers attitudes towards their work.) and “overall satisfaction ". over time. colleagues.Connection job motivation. it is a subjective state of pleasure. They have shown that there are between five and twenty facets of job satisfaction and subsequently. Human relations movement generalize inverse relationship from satisfaction to motivation. given the complexity of the phenomena being studied. their number was limited to five: the work itself. recognition. different views on satisfaction and its role in obtaining job performance.Motivation and satisfaction appear in a double capacity: cause and effect which means that motivation leads to satisfaction and vice versa. In the literature of our country. which is considered as an effect of motivation. it is only one of its possible causes. . co-workers. considering satisfaction as the direct cause of motivation. promotion. but not the satisfaction. is considered that satisfaction is the direct and immediate cause of the job performance. Over time. There have been. representing the impulse in this respect. researchers have questioned their count.job satisfaction
The issue of job satisfaction and the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance and between job motivation and job performance has been a constant concern for researchers but also for practitioners. working conditions. supervision. organizational politics. Determining the relationship between motivation and satisfaction and between satisfaction and performance is still not a complete agreement among experts. making numerous studies in this regard.job performance. etc.an average or a total attitudes that individuals have toward different facets of their work. G. pay. which is presented unilaterally. Once accepted that satisfaction has several facets. the relationship between motivation and satisfaction was addressed by organizational managerial psychology from multiple perspectives.the tendency of an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets of his work (the work itself. salary. the satisfaction obtained as a result of the participation of individuals in organizational life is not only an individual problem but also one of their
.The Status of satisfaction or dissatisfaction is an indicator of motivation. It is thus inferred that only motivation affects work performance. Each of the three perspectives emphasizes one aspect of the phenomena analyzed without explaining the interaction between them and without regard to their unit. The first belongs to authors considered that only motivation leads to behaviour change. while satisfaction no involves such change.." showing two related concepts: “satisfaction facets” . Research has shown a clear link between satisfaction and productive behaviour. it is considered that although satisfaction is related to performance.Both motivation and satisfaction relate to job performance and they can influence it either positively or negatively. a clear approach to the problem of interaction between motivation and satisfaction is given by Professor Mielu Zlate witch shows that: . . Other authors insist on the relationship between motivation and satisfaction. Today. thanks to the evolution of society and science. only from the motivation to satisfaction.
Therefore. coupled with the results obtained. there are some researchers who claim that there is a negative.” Thus. c) rewards are involved between satisfaction and performance. which means that in some circumstances the two factors are actually divergent while in the others circumstances they are converging. causes satisfaction. Between the two variables there is a divergent relationship. which can be explained as follows: increased productivity (that is. over time. at least three points of view which held that: a) satisfaction causes performance. they actually demonstrating that satisfied workers are not more productive than dissatisfied. The first and second terms have not been confirmed by empirical research. The conclusion reached by researchers is that "job satisfaction and job performance are virtually unrelated. to obtain new achievements. Thus. the rewards perceived as fair. The implication of this conclusion is very important for the organization management and it is about ensuring a rigorous results assessment and rewards based on fairness. conducted in a socio-cultural environment in which the people and the quality of human life have a lower value and in the organizations that use predominantly extrinsic and negative forms of motivation. b) performance causes satisfaction. divergent relationship between the two variables. leading to fair rewards for employees."We believe that this view is quite real and can be verified by each of us. openness.
. is not a matter of principle. the influence of motivation and satisfaction on job performance is essential for managers to pay particular attention of these elements. high performance) can be achieved only by increasing human strain over the accepted level for a human being. social and psychological conditions in the organization. The research reached the following conclusion: “divergence or convergence of two factors. employees’ performances lead to extrinsic or intrinsic rewards. the thesis of divergence between job satisfaction and job performance is valid in exploited labour conditions. Experts have questioned the type of relationship existing between job satisfaction and job performance. transparency. This led to the hypothesis that the performance when it is followed by rewards. increased job satisfaction could be obtained by decreasing productivity and thus. The rewards themselves do not lead to the emergence of satisfaction. This means that obtaining performance would result in lower satisfaction. In connection with this relationship existed in the literature. or a convergent relationship? Thus.organizational repercussions on its. economic profitability. Porter and Lawler showed that satisfaction does not lead to job performance and job performance not lead to satisfaction unless certain conditions are met. but depends on the methods of work organization. but only if they are perceived as fair in relation to the effort and to the rewards of others. job satisfaction and job performance. The issue of the relationship between satisfaction and performance is also at least as controversial as the issues discussed above with respect to these phenomena. a significant relationship only emerges when considering the role of rewards and the circumstances in which they are granted. resulting in drivers of employee satisfaction to make a new effort. In this respect.
Status 16. and in terms of management. Salary 12. Achievement 2. Security
. Relationship of convergence between job satisfaction and job performance is much higher if the work is complex. Work conditions 11. job satisfaction and job performance is not a linear connection or a constant connection and must be interpreted nuanced. depending on the conditions under which it manifests itself. Personal growth 7. Work itself 4. Relationship with subordinates 15. the need to develop an organizational culture that promotes values. Recognition 3. The issues presented in this section lead us to conclude that the connection between job motivation. cooperation and use complex and varied forms of motivation. and on this basis we will try to outline a motivational system adapted to trade specific business.The thesis of convergence is valid in organizations that promote employees’ p articipation. Relationship with supervisor 10. aimed to obtain both the organizational performance and employee satisfaction. Personal life 14. Responsibility 5. These conclusions are verified with a survey conducted among trade enterprises in the Romanian Western Region. This indicates the importance of work environment in increase both performance and satisfaction. involving a high degree of responsibility. Relationship with peers 13.
Factors affecting employee satisfaction: 1. Company policy and administration 8. unless simple work. fairness and justice. repetitive. Supervision 9. creativity. Advancement 6. poorly qualified.
There are many probable influences that affect how favorably an individual appraises his or her job: specifically. Through years of extensive research. 2002). Job Characteristics In relation to the job characteristics approach. and performance. an individual’s attitude toward his or her job. and dispositional (worker characteristics) (Glisson & Durick. as well as the organization in which they work (Jex. 2002). researchers have taken three common approaches: job characteristics. social information processing (organizational characteristics). To explain the development of job satisfaction. research has revealed that the nature of an individual’s job or the characteristics of the organization that the individual works for predominantly determines job satisfaction (Jex. Furthermore. Jex. satisfaction. Hackman and
. 2002). 1988. According to Hackman and Oldham (1980) a job characteristic is an aspect of a job that generates ideal conditions for high levels of motivation. they look at their work experiences in terms of liking or disliking and develop feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction regarding their job. 1988).Components of job satisfaction
Causes of Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction
Since people tend to be evaluative. I/O psychologists have identified numerous variables that seem to contribute to either job satisfaction or organizational commitment (Glisson & Durick.
pay.000 and believes that he or she should be receiving a salary of $43. According to Locke (1976). (Jex. Conversely. Kendall. To explain the effects of these differences. his or her level of pay would minimally impact the job satisfaction of an employee who places little importance on pay. and work effectiveness. promotional opportunities.000. promotional opportunities. Consequently. task significance. and co-worker relations (Smith.
. etc.000. general satisfaction. if an employee is receiving an annual salary of $45. supervision. autonomy. seniority.Oldham (1980) proposed five core job characteristics that all jobs should contain: skill variety. This comparison would apply to each job facet including: skill level. growth satisfaction. task identity. supervision. For example. A common premise in research of the effects of job circumstances on job satisfaction is that individuals determine job satisfaction by comparing what they are currently receiving from the job and what they would like to or believe that they should receive (Jex. this leads to an individual measure of satisfaction or dissatisfaction when expectations are or are not met. then he or she will feel dissatisfaction. one employee may feel that pay rate is extremely important while another may feel that social relationships are more important. this process becomes complex since the importance of work facets differs for each individual. & Hulin. These characteristics have been added to the more popular dimensions of job satisfaction assessment: the work itself. 1969). 2002). Hackman and Oldham (1980) also defined four personal and work outcomes: internal work motivation. 1976). if the employee believes that he or she should be receiving $53. however. Locke (1976) put forward the ideas of the range of affect theory. 2002). and feedback. The hypothesis of this theory is that employees weigh facets differently when assessing job satisfaction (Locke. For example. the job satisfaction of an employee who places extreme importance on pay would be positively impacted if he or she receives a salary within expectation. For example. then he or she will experience satisfaction.
In other words. 2009). Although laboratory studies have found that social-information has a prevailing impact on job satisfaction and characteristic perceptions. if employees see that their co-workers are positive and satisfied then they will most likely be satisfied. Accordingly. Jex (2002) explains that during social information processing. The subjects who viewed the video were then given the opportunity to perform the job. 1989).
. organizations are counseled that new hires can become “tainted” during the socialization process if they are placed around employees who are dissatisfied (Jex. employees look to coworkers to make sense of and develop attitudes about their work environment. Weiss and Shaw conducted a study where the subjects viewed a training video where assembly line workers either made positive or negative comments about their jobs. organizational tests have been less supportive (Jex & Spector. if their co-workers are negative and dissatisfied then the employee will most likely become dissatisfied as well. however. The study found that the subjects who were shown the positive video enjoyed performing the job tasks more than the subjects who viewed the negative tape (Aamondt.Job Satisfaction Model Social information processing (organizational characteristics) Based mainly on Festinger’s (1954) Social Comparison Theory. 2002).
“the research on social information processing theory supports the idea that social environment does have an effect on employees’ attitudes and behaviors” (Aamondt. Netzwerk. 1988). an IT company in Germany. Additionally. Clark. a study of twins who were reared apart (same genetic characteristics but different experiences) found that 30 percent of inconsistency in satisfaction was accredited to genetic factors (Arvey. this approach assumes that an employee’s attitude about his or her job originates from an internal (mental) state. to some extent. Dispositional (worker characteristics) Internal disposition is the basis of the latest method to explaining job satisfaction and hints that some people are inclined to be satisfied or dissatisfied with their work no matter the nature of the job or the organizational environment (Jex. Henderson and Hills (1998) also conducted a similar study. This further supports social information processing theory (Aamondt. Dis-positional affect is the predisposition to experience related emotional moods over time (Judge & Kammeyer-Mueller. 1989).Mirolli. the subjects performed a task with two experimenters who were pretending to be other subjects (the study referred to them as confederates). Bouchard. Positive
. 2008). In the second condition. although individuals change jobs and employers. As an application of social information processing theory. In the control condition. For instance. the confederates made negative comments about the job and how much they disliked it. & Abraham. Accordingly. & Carey. positive comments were made by the confederates about the job and how much they enjoyed it. p. 2002). Bell. 2009).2009). Staw. Generally.374). More simply. Employees who work at this company must sign a contract agreeing not to whine or complain. 2009. The actual subjects exposed to the confederates who made positive comments rate the job tasks as more enjoyable than the subjects exposed to the negative comments by the confederates. Furthermore. Segal. individual disposition has been shown to be consistent by the use of survey results on job satisfaction (Staw & Ross. whereas negative affect is a predisposition to experience a wide array of negative emotions (Watson. some people are genetically positive in disposition (the glass half full). is based on disposition (Judge & Larsen. Positive affect is a predisposition favorable to positive emotional experience. whereas others are innately negative in disposition (the glass half empty). In this study. Many years of research has been conducted on the dis-positional source of job satisfaction and has presented strong evidence that job satisfaction. and Clausen (1986) also found that adolescent evaluations of affective disposition were correlated with adult job satisfaction for as many as forty years later. In one condition. 1985). They have even fired employees for excessive whining (Aamondt. 2001). no positive or negative comments were made regarding the job. implemented rules in their contracts.
All three of the above-mentioned causes have been found to contribute to job satisfaction. Causation through disposition indicates that job satisfaction can be determined by an individual's general overall outlook. In addition. For this reason. Also. self-efficacy. however. Job characteristics have been shown to impact job satisfaction (Baker. ambition can negatively influence job satisfaction. alert. However. Bubholtz. 1987) resulting from irrational and dysfunctional thinking perpetuate emotions of depression and unhappiness in individuals. contempt. They discuss cognitive processes like perfectionism. theoretically. & Tellegen. Clark. They mention self-esteem. disgust. happy individuals tend to store and evaluate job information differently than unhappy individuals do. Cognitive Theory of Depression states that individual’s thought processes and perceptions can be a source of unhappiness. and ambition as well. and nervousness (Watson. 1988). negative affective people feel anger. 2004). Padgett. They claim that subjective well-being resulting from an affective disposition leads to individuals experiencing information recall regarding their job. This would indicate that a high level of ambition resulting from high standards can point to a lower satisfaction as an end result. it is oftentimes the case that unsatisfied workers are highly ambitious but unhappy as a result of their inability to be promoted within an organization. and Baldwin (1989) performed a meta-analytic review discovering an average correlation between job and life satisfaction to be . Bandura (1986) states that individual's aspirations become their standards of self-satisfaction indicating that those with high goals. and dependence on others as causation for depression leading to unhappiness. 1988). Clark. should be harder to satisfy than people with low goals. which supports the theory of a dispositional effect on job satisfaction. & Tellegen. Job characteristics have been favored in research (Thomas. and optimistic (Watson. For instance. In addition. researchers have not conducted simultaneous comparison of all three of these approaches (Baker. the automated thoughts and processes (Beck. Howard and Bray (1988) determined through a study they performed on AT&T managers that motives such as ambition and desire to get ahead serve as some of the strongest predictors for advancement. In short. Judge and Locke (1992) examine these concepts in detail.affective people feel enthusiastic. overgeneralization. On the contrary. active. Judge and Locke caution that dysfunctional thinking is not singularly responsible for dispositional factors affecting job satisfaction. fear. In psychology. intelligence. locus of control. &
. 2004). which in turn influences job satisfaction. Tait.44. Weiss and Cropanzano (1996) advocate that emotionally significant procedures at work may be influenced by disposition. Various research findings have indicated that a relationship between disposition and job satisfaction does in fact exist. This type of recollection indicates that job satisfaction can be influenced by subjective well-being. Further. Recent studies on social informational processing have found that leadership actions influence job satisfaction (Baker. There is also strong evidence supporting disposition causing job satisfaction from a Social Cognitive aspect as well. guilt. 2004).
it is beneficial to explore potential relationships between these two factors themselves rather
. 2004). 1969).
Facets of job satisfaction (Hackman & Oldham. however. Smith. 1980.Winklespecht. & Hulin. Life Satisfaction Life satisfaction is often considered separately from job satisfaction with regard to productivity in the workplace. but as the majority of this research is correlational. since it is fairly new (Coutts & Gruman. less research has been conducted on the dis-positional approach. Kendall. 2005).
Other Factors It is difficult to establish all the antecedents leading towards job satisfaction. The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. with a correlation of . an additional construct that suggests a positive correlation to job satisfaction not yet discussed is engagement. In a meta-analysis. Research suggests there is in fact a significant relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction. coworkers. It measures one’s satisfaction in five facets: pay. Kendall. & Hulin (1969). & Hayes. participants answer either ye s. Whichever the case may be. 2006). 1993)... Schmidt. Therefore. The MSQ measures job
. It is an improvement to the Job Descriptive Index because the JDI focuses too much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general.811). it cannot be ignored that there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction based on correlational research (Jones. or can’t decide (indicated by ‘?’) in response to whether given statements accurately describe one’s job. life satisfaction may positively influence job satisfaction. supervision. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI). This data is typically collected using an Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) system.
Measuring Job Satisfaction
There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. 2002). no. The scale is simple. the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert). and job satisfaction will also positively influence life satisfaction. 1993) In other words. some research suggests that life satisfaction often precedes and is a good predictor of job satisfaction-some directionality (Judge et al. causation cannot be determined.than strictly with regard to performance. it is vital to continue to cultivate job satisfaction among these highly productive individuals. and forced choice answers. Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions. True/False questions. and the Faces Scale.44 (based on a meta analysis of 34 studies with a combined sample size of 19. Conversely.22 (Harter. (Judge et al. point systems. However. created by Smith. promotions and promotion opportunities. and the work itself. though it is suggested that the nature of the relationship is reciprocal or bi-directional. By far. Stirling (2008) notes that 20 percent of engaged individuals do 80 percent of the work. is a specific questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. 1989) With this relationship being correlational. the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS). the correlation between job satisfaction and engagement is .. Other job satisfaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). checklists. (Tait et al.
while emotions are often more intense. Taking the social interaction perspective. Emotion regulation includes all of the conscious and unconscious efforts to increase. Frequency of experiencing net positive emotion will be a better predictor of overall job satisfaction than will intensity of positive emotion when it is experienced. low organizational commitment. Emotional dissonance. workers’ emotion regulation might beget responses from others during interpersonal encounters that subsequently impact their own job satisfaction. 2. The understanding of how emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction concerns two models:
1. the Faces Scale of job satisfaction. Positive and negative emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of favorable responses to displays of pleasant emotions might positively affect job satisfaction performance of emotional labor that produces desired outcomes could increase job satisfaction. Emotion regulation and emotion labor are also related to job satisfaction. Emotional dissonance is associated with high emotional exhaustion. or decrease one or more components of an emotion. Emotion work (or emotion management) refers to various efforts to manage emotional states and displays. short-lived and have a clear object or cause.
. that often follows the process of emotion regulation. maintain. Social interaction model. There is some evidence in the literature that state moods are related to overall job satisfaction. studies of workers in a variety of occupations suggest that the consequences of emotional labor are not uniformly negative. one of the first scales used widely. and low job satisfaction. Finally. Emotional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public displays of emotions and internal experiences of emotions. measured overall job satisfaction with just one item which participants respond to by choosing a face.satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long form with 100 questions (five items from each facet) and a short form with 20 questions (one item from each facet). It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decreases job satisfaction and the amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction. The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. Although early studies of the consequences of emotional labor emphasized its harmful effects on workers.
Job satisfaction and emotions Mood and emotions while working are the raw materials which cumulate to form the affective element of job satisfaction. Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin.
some research has found that job satisfaction is not significantly related to life satisfaction when other variables such as non-work satisfaction and core self-evaluations are taken into account. instead. and turnover. This correlation is reciprocal.
. meaning people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied with their job and people who are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with life. absenteeism. job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behaviors. Further. With regard to job performance.Relationships and practical implications Job Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a predictor of work behaviours such as organizational citizenship. both satisfaction and performance are the result of personality. However. employee personality may be more important than job satisfaction. The link between job satisfaction and performance is thought to be a spurious relationship. One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction.
Everyone's job is different but here are 10 factors that psychologists regularly find are important in how satisfied people are with their jobs.Psychological Keys to Job Satisfaction
Do you get a pleasant satisfied feeling after a hard day at work?
If some job satisfaction surveys are to be believed then as many as a third of us are considering a change of job. the rest of their life soon follows. thinking we've got bigger fish to fry. Little hassles If you ask doctors what is the worst part of their jobs. what do you think they say? Carrying out difficult. We tend to downplay day-to-day irritations. It might not
. Clearly many are finding it hard to get that feeling of satisfaction from work. But actually people's job satisfaction is surprisingly sensitive to daily hassles. Many people spend so much time at work that when it becomes dissatisfying. Job satisfaction is important not just because it boosts work performance but also because it increases our quality of life. it's something that might seem much less stressful: administration. painful procedures? Telling people they've only got months to live? No. 1.
. This category is one of the easiest wins for boosting employee satisfaction. In some jobs achievements are obvious. perhaps because it pushes them more. As smaller cogs in larger machines it may be difficult to tell what we're contributing. the less satisfied you'll be. When it comes to job satisfaction. 3. Feedback There's nothing worse than not knowing whether or not you're doing a good job. Achievement People feel more satisfied with their job if they've achieved something. The important point here is it's all about perception. Too easy and people get bored. That's why the next factor can be so important. Perception of fair pay Whatever your job. Complexity and variety People generally find jobs more satisfying if they are more complex and offer more variety. The bigger the difference between what you think you should earn and what you do earn. On the other hand positive feedback can make all the difference to how satisfied people feel. but for others they're not. Getting negative feedback can be painful but at least it tells you where improvements can be made. It sounds easy when put like that but many jobs offer neither complexity nor variety. 2. To be satisfied people need to be challenged a little and they need some variety in the tasks they carry out.seem like much but when it happens almost every day and it's beyond our control. for you to be satisfied the pay should be fair. no news is bad news. it hits job satisfaction hard. Managers should find out about those little daily hassles and address them—your employees will love you for it. 4.
. 5. If you perceive that other people doing a similar job get paid about the same as you then you're more likely to be satisfied with your job than if you think they're getting more than you. People seem to like complex (but not impossible) jobs..
2010). People experience honeymoon periods after a month or two in a new job when their satisfaction shoots up. 9.. Organisational support Workers want to know their organisation cares about them: that they are getting something back for what they are putting in. stealing small amounts or finding other ways to undermine the system. Psychologists have found that people who work in jobs where they have little latitude —at every level— find their work very stressful and consequently unsatisfying. suggests that trouble at the office is more likely to spill over into the family domain compared with the other way around (Ford et al. Trouble at home breeds trouble at the office. Honeymoons and hangovers Job honeymoons and hangovers are often forgotten by psychologists but well-known to employees. though. the kinds of fringe benefits we get and other subtle messages. they will attempt to retake it by cutting corners. If people perceive more organisational support. the more satisfaction they experience. it's whether it appears that way. sometimes it's down to home-life. The point being that appearances are really important here. but how you do them should be up to you. 2009). If people aren't given some control. The honeymoon period at the start of a new job tends to be stronger when people were particularly dissatisfied with their previous job (Boswell et al. So hangovers from the last job tend to produce more intense honeymoons in the next job. But then it normally begins to tail off after six months or so. 2007). 8. This is primarily communicated through things like how bosses treat us. The more control people perceive in how they carry out their job. Some research. Control You may have certain tasks you have to do.. If people don't perceive it. That's why great managers need a politician's touch.. Either way finding ways of distancing yourself from work while at home are likely to protect you against job stressors (Sonnentag et al. Remember: it's not just whether the organisation is actually being supportive.
. Work-home overflow Low job satisfaction isn't only the boss' or organisation's fault. then for them it might as well not exist. they experience higher job satisfaction.6. 7.
is that people get more satisfied with their jobs as they get older. A lot of work has been done on person-environment fit but because jobs vary so much it's difficult to summarise. There's little evidence for this but I'd certainly like to think it was true.10. I tend to think it's because young people have sky-high expectations (which are soon dashed) and older people have learned to live with their lot. though. Easily pleased? Some of us are more easily satisfied (or dissatisfied) than others. some jobs do seem better suited to certain types of people. Still. Perhaps this is because the older people are. however uninspiring it is. the more likely they are to have found the right work for them. though. no matter how good (or bad) the job is.
. To misquote a famous cliché: You can't satisfy all the people all the time. One generalisation we can make. On my darker days.
Your job satisfaction improves because you are giving yourself a chance to relieve stress as opposed to constantly feeling the need to work. Learn to get your employees involved in making daily decisions by empowering employees to develop their own work methods.
. and you will have reduced your stress and gained the satisfaction of improving employee development. For example. Managers should also make goals designed to bring personal and professional satisfaction. A manager can also set a goal to increase departmental production to get the executive team to allow for necessary upgrades and changes to departmental equipment. Industry training and advancing your educational background can help you to contribute more to your team. then set a goal to exceed those numbers and claim a larger bonus. Your employees will feel a sense of involvement in the success of the department. Take Breaks The stress of being a manager can drain some of the sense of satisfaction you get from departmental and personal accomplishments. Training To get more out of yourself as a manager. Get Subordinates Involved Managers who feel the need to perform all of the administrative and managerial tasks for their departments on their own are adding to their own stress and alienating their staff. Have a weekly staff meeting where the employees give input on solving departmental issues. and they find pride in achieving or exceeding their goals. you need to continue your educational and professional development. You can also improve your own career path by maintaining your own personal development. if as a sales manager you get a quarterly bonus based on revenue numbers.Managers can enhance job satisfaction:
Goal Employees are motivated by performance goals. Taking breaks throughout the day is a simple but effective way to avoid overworking yourself and allow yourself time to collect your thoughts.
learn different skills and acquire different experiences. In enriched jobs. which can make the work seem more meaningful and important. and perform different kinds of work. This can significantly increase "task identity" because people see a job through from start to finish. so that they can assess and correct their own performance. and responsibility. Task Significance – Providing work that has a direct impact on the organization or its stakeholders.
. and communicate the results of people's work. Job Enrichment Options The central focus of job enrichment is giving people more control over their work (lack of control is a key cause of stress. Move your workers through a variety of jobs that allow them to see different parts of the organization.
Job enrichment addresses these factors by enhancing the job's core dimensions and increasing people's sense of fulfillment. and evaluating the jobs they do. This can be very motivating.Other methods of enhancing job Satisfaction:
Designing Jobs that Motivate Hackman and Oldham identified five factors of job design that typically contribute to people's enjoyment of a job:
• • • • •
Skill Variety – Increasing the number of skills that individuals use while performing work. executing. This allows workers to use a wide variety of skills.) Where possible. Here are some strategies you can use to enrich jobs in your workplace:
Rotate Jobs – Give people the opportunity to use a variety of skills. The most common way to do this is through job rotation. especially for people in jobs that are very repetitive or that focus on only one or two skills. people complete activities with increased freedom. independence. Task Identity – Enabling people to perform a job from start to finish. allow them to take on tasks that are typically done by supervisors. Combine Tasks – Combine work activities to provide a more challenging and complex work assignment. This means that they have more influence over planning. Autonomy – Increasing the degree of decision making. They also receive plenty of feedback. and therefore of unhappiness. Feedback – Increasing the amount of recognition for doing a job well. and the freedom to choose how and when work is done.
you'll significantly cut back on supervisory positions. and performance. Set a goal for a team. with supervisors directing who works on which project. Redistribute Power and Authority – Redistribute control and grant more authority to workers for making job-related decisions. You must carefully weigh the benefits against the costs. efficiency. Allowing employees to build client relationships is an excellent way to increase autonomy. and people will gain leadership and management skills. The more control you can give them for evaluating and monitoring their own performance. rather than having all of your marketing people in one department. This is an excellent way to communicate to members of your team that their input is important.
These forms of job enrichment can be tricky because they may provide increased motivation at the expense of decreased productivity. accountability. task identity. in which each person does one task. team members' autonomy.For example. Increase Employee-Directed Feedback – Make sure that people know how well. and the like. evaluation parameters. into a process in which one person assembles a whole unit. you may have to deal with issues of training. they'll likely be motivated. they're performing their jobs. As supervisors delegate more authority and responsibility. When people realize that what they say is valued and makes a difference. and feedback. or poorly. copywriters. For example. rest breaks. and task identity will increase. When you have new people performing tasks. to a large company with a huge hierarchy. You may even give them influence over choosing their own team members. you can convert an assembly line process. and designers could all work together for one client or one campaign. It can work in any organization – from a very small company. and make team members free to determine work assignments. Implement Participative Management – Allow team members to participate in decision making and get involved in strategic planning. You can apply this model wherever you have people or groups that typically perform only one part of an overall process. or for a bigger part of that process. with an owner/boss who's used to dictating everything. Rather than have your quality control department go around and point out
. schedules. Create Autonomous Work Teams – This is job enrichment at the group level.
Identify Project-Focused Work Units – Break your typical functional lines and form project-focused units. the more enriched their jobs will be. Consider expanding their roles to give them responsibility for the entire process. you could split the department into specialized project units – specific storyboard creators. With this method.
. You'll give them lots of opportunity to participate in how their work gets done. and make decisions.mistakes. Workers will receive immediate feedback. Job enrichment provides many opportunities for people's development. and they'll learn to solve problems. consider giving each team responsibility for their own quality control. take initiative. and they'll most-likely enjoy an increased sense of personal responsibility for their tasks.
D-78457 Konstanz. University of Konstanz. 1998 4. G. R. Kendall. Central Michigan University. 2002 8. Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach.S. Edwin A. University of California Santa Cruz. 2010
. 1969 9... The Job Descriptive Index (JDI).References
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